Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.
Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
The treatment of immune system diseases by deliberate infestation with helminths. This therapy is partly based on the HYGIENE HYPOTHESIS which states that the absence of parasites increases immune dysregulation because of the lack of stimulation of REGULATORY T-CELLS.
Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.
A genus of nematode worms comprising the whipworms.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
A superfamily of nematode parasitic hookworms consisting of four genera: ANCYLOSTOMA; NECATOR; Bunostomum; and Uncinaria. ANCYLOSTOMA and NECATOR occur in humans and other mammals. Bunostomum is common in ruminants and Uncinaria in wolves, foxes, and dogs.
Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.
A species of intestinal nematode parasites which occur most commonly in mice. Infection is by ingesting larvae. This particular species is used extensively in immunological research.
Infections with nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA.
Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.
A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.
Determination of parasite eggs in feces.
A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)
A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder SPIRURINA. Its organisms possess a filiform body and a mouth surrounded by papillae.
A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.
Infections with true tapeworms of the helminth subclass CESTODA.
Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.
A genus of intestinal nematode parasites belonging to the superfamily HELIGMOSOMATOIDEA, which commonly occurs in rats but has been experimentally transmitted to other rodents and rabbits. Infection is usually through the skin.
Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.
Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni. It is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, South America, and the Caribbean and affects mainly the bowel, spleen, and liver.
Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.
A species of helminth commonly called the sheep liver fluke. It occurs in the biliary passages, liver, and gallbladder during various stages of development. Snails and aquatic vegetation are the intermediate hosts. Occasionally seen in man, it is most common in sheep and cattle.
Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.
A common parasite of humans in the moist tropics and subtropics. These organisms attach to villi in the small intestine and suck blood causing diarrhea, anorexia, and anemia.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
A parasite of carnivorous mammals that causes TRICHINELLOSIS. It is especially common in rats and in swine fed uncooked garbage. Human infection is initiated by the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked pork or other meat containing the encysted larvae.
A species of parasitic nematode widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. The females and their larvae inhabit the mucosa of the intestinal tract, where they cause ulceration and diarrhea.
Infection with tapeworms of the genus Hymenolepis.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
A genus of large tapeworms.
Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus NECATOR. The resulting anemia from this condition is less severe than that from ANCYLOSTOMIASIS.
A genus of nematodes of the superfamily ASCARIDOIDEA whose species usually inhabit the intestine.
A benzimidazole that acts by interfering with CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM and inhibiting polymerization of MICROTUBULES.
A superfamily of strongyles or roundworms which are parasites in the intestinal tract of equines, pigs, rodents, and primates (including man). It includes the genera Cyasthostomum, Ransomus, Globocephalus, OESOPHAGOSTOMUM, and STRONGYLUS.
The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.
Infection with nematodes of the genus STRONGYLOIDES. The presence of larvae may produce pneumonitis and the presence of adult worms in the intestine could lead to moderate to severe diarrhea.
The smallest species of TAPEWORMS. It is the only cestode that parasitizes humans without requiring an intermediate host.
Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A genus of nematode intestinal parasites that consists of several species. A. duodenale is the common hookworm in humans. A. braziliense, A. ceylonicum, and A. caninum occur primarily in cats and dogs, but all have been known to occur in humans.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.
A species of parasitic nematode usually found in domestic pigs and a few other animals. Human infection can also occur, presumably as result of handling pig manure, and can lead to intestinal obstruction.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
A genus of small tapeworms of birds and mammals.
Infection with tapeworms of the genus Taenia.
Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic flukes of the genus FASCIOLA, such as FASCIOLA HEPATICA.
A superfamily of parasitic nematodes which requires one or two intermediate arthropod hosts before finally being eaten by the final host. Its organisms occur rarely in man.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.
Infection with nematodes of the genus MANSONELLA. Symptoms include pruritus, headache, and articular swelling.
A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae which occurs at different stages in development in veins of the pulmonary and hepatic system and finally the bladder lumen. This parasite causes urinary schistosomiasis.
Infection by flukes of the genus Echinostoma.
Infection by round worms of the genus TOXOCARA, usually found in wild and domesticated cats and dogs and foxes, except for the larvae, which may produce visceral and ocular larva migrans in man.
Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.
A white threadlike worm which causes elephantiasis, lymphangitis, and chyluria by interfering with the lymphatic circulation. The microfilaria are found in the circulating blood and are carried by mosquitoes.
A genus of parasitic nematodes widely distributed as intestinal parasites of mammals.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.
A supergroup (some say phylum) of ameboid EUKARYOTES, comprising ARCHAMOEBAE; LOBOSEA; and MYCETOZOA.
A human disease caused by the infection of parasitic worms SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM. It is endemic in AFRICA and parts of the MIDDLE EAST. Tissue damages most often occur in the URINARY TRACT, specifically the URINARY BLADDER.
Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).
A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.
The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)
The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.
An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Its organisms are characterized by a single, ventral excretory gland and a relatively stout, short body.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Laos" is not a medical term; it is the name of a country located in Southeast Asia, officially known as the Lao People's Democratic Republic. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those!
A tri-benzene-ammonium usually compounded with zinc chloride. It is used as a biological stain and for the dyeing and printing of textiles.
Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus ANCYLOSTOMA. Characteristics include anemia, dyspepsia, eosinophilia, and abdominal swelling.
Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.
A genus of parasitic nematodes whose organisms are distributed in Central and South America. Characteristics include a smooth cuticle and an enlarged anterior end.
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.
A phylum of acoelomate, bilaterally symmetrical flatworms, without a definite anus. It includes three classes: Cestoda, Turbellaria, and Trematoda.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
A superfamily of parasitic nematodes consisting of several genera. ENTEROBIUS, which occurs in humans, and Oxyuris, which occurs in horses, are two of the most common. Other genera are: Skrjabinema, Passalurus, Dermatoxys, and Probstmayria.
A species of tapeworm (TAPEWORMS) infecting RATS and MICE but rarely causing disease in humans. Its life cycle involves RODENTS as the definitive host and BEETLES as the intermediate host.
An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Its organisms possess two or three pairs of dorsolateral caudal papillae.
A species of parasitic nematode found in the intestine of dogs. Lesions in the brain, liver, eye, kidney, and lung are caused by migrating larvae. In humans, these larvae do not follow normal patterns and may produce visceral larva migrans (LARVA MIGRANS, VISCERAL).
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Infection with nematodes of the genus ONCHOCERCA. Characteristics include the presence of firm subcutaneous nodules filled with adult worms, PRURITUS, and ocular lesions.
A superfamily of nematodes. Most are intestinal parasites of ruminants and accidentally in humans. This superfamily includes seven genera: DICTYOCAULUS; HAEMONCHUS; Cooperia, OSTERTAGIA; Nematodirus, TRICHOSTRONGYLUS; and Hyostrongylus.
A genus of intestinal flukes of the family Echinostomatidae which consists of many species. They occur in man and other vertebrates. The intermediate hosts are frequently mollusks.

Regulation of body length and male tail ray pattern formation of Caenorhabditis elegans by a member of TGF-beta family. (1/1944)

We have identified a new member of the TGF-beta superfamily, CET-1, from Caenorhabditis elegans, which is expressed in the ventral nerve cord and other neurons. cet-1 null mutants have shortened bodies and male tail abnormal phenotype resembling sma mutants, suggesting cet-1, sma-2, sma-3 and sma-4 share a common pathway. Overexpression experiments demonstrated that cet-1 function requires wild-type sma genes. Interestingly, CET-1 appears to affect body length in a dose-dependent manner. Heterozygotes for cet-1 displayed body lengths ranging between null mutant and wild type, and overexpression of CET-1 in wild-type worms elongated body length close to lon mutants. In male sensory ray patterning, lack of cet-1 function results in ray fusions. Epistasis analysis revealed that mab-21 lies downstream and is negatively regulated by the cet-1/sma pathway in the male tail. Our results show that cet-1 controls diverse biological processes during C. elegans development probably through different target genes.  (+info)

Alzheimer's disease: clues from flies and worms. (2/1944)

Presenilin mutations give rise to familial Alzheimer's disease and result in elevated production of amyloid beta peptide. Recent evidence that presenilins act in developmental signalling pathways may be the key to understanding how senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and apoptosis are all biochemically linked.  (+info)

The Caenorhabditis elegans sex determination gene mog-1 encodes a member of the DEAH-Box protein family. (3/1944)

In the Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite germ line, the sex-determining gene fem-3 is repressed posttranscriptionally to arrest spermatogenesis and permit oogenesis. This repression requires a cis-acting regulatory element in the fem-3 3' untranslated region; the FBF protein, which binds to this element; and at least six mog genes. In this paper, we report the molecular characterization of mog-1 as well as additional phenotypic characterization of this gene. The mog-1 gene encodes a member of the DEAH-box family. Three mog-1 alleles possess premature stop codons and are likely to be null alleles, and one is a missense mutation and is likely to retain residual activity. mog-1 mRNA is expressed in both germ line and somatic tissues and appears to be ubiquitous. The MOG-1 DEAH-box protein is most closely related to proteins essential for splicing in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but splicing appears to occur normally in a mog-1-null mutant. In addition to its involvement in the sperm-oocyte switch and control of fem-3, zygotic mog-1 is required for robust germ line proliferation and for normal growth during development. We suggest that mog-1 plays a broader role in RNA regulation than previously considered.  (+info)

Identification of a human HECT family protein with homology to the Drosophila tumor suppressor gene hyperplastic discs. (4/1944)

Use of the differential display technique to isolate progestin-regulated genes in T-47D human breast cancer cells led to identification of a novel gene, EDD. The cDNA sequence contains a 2799 amino acid open reading frame sharing 40% identity with the predicted 2894 amino acid product of the Drosophila melanogaster tumor suppressor gene hyperplastic discs, while the carboxy-terminal 889 amino acids show 96% identity to a rat 100 kDa HECT domain protein. EDD mRNA was progestin-induced in T-47D cells and was highly abundant in testes and expressed at moderately high levels in other tissues, suggesting a broad role for EDD. Anti-EDD antibodies immunoprecipitated an approximately 300 kDa protein from T-47D cell lysates. HECT family proteins function as E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases, targeting specific proteins for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. EDD is likely to function as an E3 as in vitro translated protein bound ubiquitin reversibly through a conserved HECT domain cysteine residue. EDD was localized by FISH to chromosome 8q22, a locus disrupted in a variety of cancers. Given the homology between EDD and the hyperplastic discs protein, which is required for control of imaginal disc growth in Drosophila, EDD potentially has a role in regulation of cell proliferation or differentiation.  (+info)

The Caenorhabditis elegans gene ham-2 links Hox patterning to migration of the HSN motor neuron. (5/1944)

The Caenorhabditis elegans HSN motor neurons permit genetic analysis of neuronal development at single-cell resolution. The egl-5 Hox gene, which patterns the posterior of the embryo, is required for both early (embryonic) and late (larval) development of the HSN. Here we show that ham-2 encodes a zinc finger protein that acts downstream of egl-5 to direct HSN cell migration, an early differentiation event. We also demonstrate that the EGL-43 zinc finger protein, also required for HSN migration, is expressed in the HSN specifically during its migration. In an egl-5 mutant background, the HSN still expresses EGL-43, but expression is no longer down-regulated at the end of the cell's migration. Finally, we find a new role in early HSN differentiation for UNC-86, a POU homeodomain transcription factor shown previously to act downstream of egl-5 in the regulation of late HSN differentiation. In an unc-86; ham-2 double mutant the HSNs are defective in EGL-43 down-regulation, an egl-5-like phenotype that is absent in either single mutant. Thus, in the HSN, a Hox gene, egl-5, regulates cell fate by activating the transcription of genes encoding the transcription factors HAM-2 and UNC-86 that in turn individually control some differentiation events and combinatorially affect others.  (+info)

Patterning of Caenorhabditis elegans posterior structures by the Abdominal-B homolog, egl-5. (6/1944)

The Caenorhabditis elegans body axis, like that of other animals, is patterned by the action of Hox genes. In order to examine the function of one C. elegans Hox gene in depth, we determined the postembryonic expression pattern of egl-5, the C. elegans member of the Abdominal-B Hox gene paralog group, by means of whole-mount staining with a polyclonal antibody. A major site of egl-5 expression and function is in the epithelium joining the posterior digestive tract with the external epidermis. Patterning this region and its derived structures is a conserved function of Abd-B paralog group genes in other animals. Cells that initiate egl-5 expression during embryogenesis are clustered around the presumptive anus. Expression is initiated postembryonically in four additional mesodermal and ectodermal cell lineages or tissues. Once initiated in a lineage, egl-5 expression continues throughout development, suggesting that the action of egl-5 can be regarded as defining a positional cell identity. A variety of cross-regulatory interactions between egl-5 and the next more anterior Hox gene, mab-5, help define the expression domains of their respective gene products. In its expression in a localized body region, function as a marker of positional cell identity, and interactions with another Hox gene, egl-5 resembles Hox genes of other animals. This suggests that C. elegans, in spite of its small cell number and reproducible cell lineages, may not differ greatly from other animals in the way it employs Hox genes for regional specification during development.  (+info)

Reverse genetic analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans presenilins reveals redundant but unequal roles for sel-12 and hop-1 in Notch-pathway signaling. (7/1944)

Mutations in the human presenilin genes PS1 and PS2 cause early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans and in mice indicate that one function of presenilin genes is to facilitate Notch-pathway signaling. Notably, mutations in the C. elegans presenilin gene sel-12 reduce signaling through an activated version of the Notch receptor LIN-12. To investigate the function of a second C. elegans presenilin gene hop-1 and to examine possible genetic interactions between hop-1 and sel-12, we used a reverse genetic strategy to isolate deletion alleles of both loci. Animals bearing both hop-1 and sel-12 deletions displayed new phenotypes not observed in animals bearing either single deletion. These new phenotypes-germ-line proliferation defects, maternal-effect embryonic lethality, and somatic gonad defects-resemble those resulting from a reduction in signaling through the C. elegans Notch receptors GLP-1 and LIN-12. Thus SEL-12 and HOP-1 appear to function redundantly in promoting Notch-pathway signaling. Phenotypic analyses of hop-1 and sel-12 single and double mutant animals suggest that sel-12 provides more presenilin function than does hop-1.  (+info)

Differential serodiagnosis for cystic and alveolar echinococcosis using fractions of Echinococcus granulosus cyst fluid (antigen B) and E. multilocularis protoscolex (EM18). (8/1944)

Echinococcus granulosus cyst fluid and E. multilocularis protoscolex extract were fractionated by a single step of preparative isoelectric focusing, resulting in an antigen B-rich fraction (8-kD) and an Em18-rich fraction, respectively. The usefulness of both fractions for differential serodiagnosis of cystic (CE) and alveolar (AE) echinococcosis was evaluated by a large-scale immunoblot analysis on a battery of 354 serum samples. These included 66 from AE patients originating from four different endemic areas, 173 from CE patients originating from seven different endemic areas, 71 from patients with other parasitic diseases, 15 from patients with hepatomas, and 29 from healthy individuals. In an immunoblot with the antigen B-rich fraction, 92% (158 of 173) of the CE sera as well as 79% (52 of 66) of the AE sera reacted with the 8-kD subunit. No cross-reactivity occurred with any sera from patients with cysticercosis, other parasitic diseases, or with hepatomas, or from healthy controls. In an immunoblot with the Em18-rich fraction, all but two sera from AE patients (64 of 66, 97%) recognized Em18, and only nine of 34 CE sera from China reacted with it. All other (139) CE sera from six other countries were negative as were all (115) other non-echinococcosis sera. These findings indicate that antigen B (8-kD) is not species-specific for E. granulosus but is genus-specific for Echinococcus, and that the Em18 antigen is a reliable serologic marker for species-specific differentiation of AE from CE.  (+info)

Helminths are a type of parasitic worm that can infect humans and animals. They are multi-cellular organisms that belong to the phyla Platyhelminthes (flatworms) or Nematoda (roundworms). Helminths can be further classified into three main groups: nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms), and trematodes (flukes).

Helminth infections are typically acquired through contact with contaminated soil, food, or water. The symptoms of helminth infections can vary widely depending on the type of worm and the location and extent of the infection. Some common symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and malnutrition.

Helminths have complex life cycles that often involve multiple hosts. They can be difficult to diagnose and treat, and in some cases, may require long-term treatment with anti-parasitic drugs. Preventive measures such as good hygiene practices, proper sanitation, and access to clean water can help reduce the risk of helminth infections.

Helminth proteins refer to the proteins that are produced and expressed by helminths, which are parasitic worms that cause diseases in humans and animals. These proteins can be found on the surface or inside the helminths and play various roles in their biology, such as in development, reproduction, and immune evasion. Some helminth proteins have been identified as potential targets for vaccines or drug development, as blocking their function may help to control or eliminate helminth infections. Examples of helminth proteins that have been studied include the antigen Bm86 from the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, and the tetraspanin protein Sm22.6 from the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.

Helminthiasis is a medical condition characterized by the infection and infestation of body tissues and organs by helminths, which are parasitic worms. These worms can be classified into three main groups: nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms), and trematodes (flukes).

Helminthiasis infections can occur through various modes of transmission, such as ingestion of contaminated food or water, skin contact with contaminated soil, or direct contact with an infected person or animal. The severity of the infection depends on several factors, including the type and number of worms involved, the duration of the infestation, and the overall health status of the host.

Common symptoms of helminthiasis include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, anemia, and nutritional deficiencies. In severe cases, the infection can lead to organ damage or failure, impaired growth and development in children, and even death.

Diagnosis of helminthiasis typically involves microscopic examination of stool samples to identify the presence and type of worms. Treatment usually consists of administering anthelmintic drugs that are effective against specific types of worms. Preventive measures include improving sanitation and hygiene, avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water, and practicing safe food handling and preparation.

Helminthiasis, in general, refers to the infection or infestation of humans and animals by helminths, which are parasitic worms. When referring to "Animal Helminthiasis," it specifically pertains to the condition where animals, including domestic pets and livestock, are infected by various helminth species. These parasitic worms can reside in different organs of the animal's body, leading to a wide range of clinical signs depending on the worm species and the location of the infestation.

Animal Helminthiasis can be caused by different types of helminths:

1. Nematodes (roundworms): These include species like Ascaris suum in pigs, Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina in cats, and Toxocara canis in dogs. They can cause gastrointestinal issues such as diarrhea, vomiting, and weight loss.
2. Cestodes (tapeworms): Examples include Taenia saginata in cattle, Echinococcus granulosus in sheep and goats, and Dipylidium caninum in dogs and cats. Tapeworm infestations may lead to gastrointestinal symptoms like diarrhea or constipation and may also cause vitamin deficiencies due to the worm's ability to absorb nutrients from the host animal's digestive system.
3. Trematodes (flukes): These include liver flukes such as Fasciola hepatica in sheep, goats, and cattle, and schistosomes that can affect various animals, including birds and mammals. Liver fluke infestations may cause liver damage, leading to symptoms like weight loss, decreased appetite, and jaundice. Schistosome infestations can lead to issues in multiple organs depending on the species involved.

Preventing and controlling Helminthiasis in animals is crucial for maintaining animal health and welfare, as well as ensuring food safety for humans who consume products from these animals. Regular deworming programs, good hygiene practices, proper pasture management, and monitoring for clinical signs are essential components of a comprehensive parasite control strategy.

Helminthic therapy, also known as helminth therapy or worm therapy, is a medical treatment that involves the intentional introduction of specially selected species of parasitic worms, known as helminths, into the human body. The goal of this therapy is to treat or alleviate various immune-mediated inflammatory disorders and autoimmune diseases by modulating the host's immune response.

The most commonly used helminths in therapeutic settings are:

1. Necator americanus (hookworm): These are intestinal parasites that adults typically acquire through contact with contaminated soil. In a therapeutic setting, a small number of larvae are introduced into the patient's skin, which then migrate to the gastrointestinal tract and establish a low-level, chronic infection.
2. Trichuris suis (pig whipworm): This is another intestinal parasite that primarily infects pigs. In helminthic therapy, patients ingest ova (eggs) of T. suis, which hatch in the small intestine and mature into adults. However, these worms cannot complete their life cycle in humans and are expelled from the body within a few weeks.

The exact mechanisms through which helminthic therapy exerts its therapeutic effects are not fully understood, but it is believed that the presence of these non-pathogenic worms helps to restore immune homeostasis by modulating the host's immune response. This includes downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines, which can help alleviate symptoms associated with various autoimmune and inflammatory conditions.

Helminthic therapy is still considered an experimental treatment and is not widely available or approved by regulatory agencies for the treatment of specific medical conditions. However, clinical trials and observational studies have suggested potential benefits in treating diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), multiple sclerosis (MS), asthma, and allergies. It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before considering helminthic therapy, as there are potential risks and side effects associated with the treatment.

Parasitic intestinal diseases are disorders caused by microscopic parasites that invade the gastrointestinal tract, specifically the small intestine. These parasites include protozoa (single-celled organisms) and helminths (parasitic worms). The most common protozoan parasites that cause intestinal disease are Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Entamoeba histolytica. Common helminthic parasites include roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides), tapeworms (Taenia saginata and Taenia solium), hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), and pinworms (Enterobius vermicularis).

Parasitic intestinal diseases can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and weight loss. The severity and duration of the symptoms depend on the type of parasite, the number of organisms present, and the immune status of the host.

Transmission of these parasites can occur through various routes, including contaminated food and water, person-to-person contact, and contact with contaminated soil or feces. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, washing hands thoroughly after using the toilet and before handling food, cooking food thoroughly, and avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat, poultry, or seafood.

Treatment of parasitic intestinal diseases typically involves the use of antiparasitic medications that target the specific parasite causing the infection. In some cases, supportive care such as fluid replacement and symptom management may also be necessary.

"Trichuris" is a genus of parasitic roundworms that are known to infect the intestines of various mammals, including humans. The species that commonly infects humans is called "Trichuris trichiura," which is also known as the human whipworm. These worms are named for their long, thin shape that resembles a whip.

The life cycle of Trichuris involves ingestion of eggs containing infective larvae through contaminated food or water. Once inside the human body, the larvae hatch and migrate to the large intestine, where they mature into adult worms that live in the caecum and colon. Adult female worms lay thousands of eggs every day, which are passed in the feces and can survive in the environment for years, waiting to infect a new host.

Infections with Trichuris trichiura can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, and weight loss. In severe cases, it can lead to anemia, malnutrition, and impaired growth in children. Treatment for trichuriasis typically involves medication that kills the adult worms, such as albendazole or mebendazole.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, known as an antigen. They are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens, neutralizing or marking them for destruction by other immune cells.

Helminths are parasitic worms that can infect humans and animals. They include roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes, among others. Helminth infections can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type of worm and the location of the infection.

Antibodies to helminths are produced by the immune system in response to an infection with one of these parasitic worms. These antibodies can be detected in the blood and serve as evidence of a current or past infection. They may also play a role in protecting against future infections with the same type of worm.

There are several different classes of antibodies, including IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Antibodies to helminths are typically of the IgE class, which are associated with allergic reactions and the defense against parasites. IgE antibodies can bind to mast cells and basophils, triggering the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators that help to protect against the worm.

In addition to IgE, other classes of antibodies may also be produced in response to a helminth infection. For example, IgG antibodies may be produced later in the course of the infection and can provide long-term immunity to reinfection. IgA antibodies may also be produced and can help to prevent the attachment and entry of the worm into the body.

Overall, the production of antibodies to helminths is an important part of the immune response to these parasitic worms. However, in some cases, the presence of these antibodies may also be associated with allergic reactions or other immunological disorders.

Helminth antigens refer to the proteins or other molecules found on the surface or within helminth parasites that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. Helminths are large, multicellular parasitic worms that can infect various tissues and organs in humans and animals, causing diseases such as schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, and soil-transmitted helminthiases.

Helminth antigens can be recognized by the host's immune system as foreign invaders, leading to the activation of various immune cells and the production of antibodies. However, many helminths have evolved mechanisms to evade or suppress the host's immune response, allowing them to establish long-term infections.

Studying helminth antigens is important for understanding the immunology of helminth infections and developing new strategies for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Some researchers have also explored the potential therapeutic use of helminth antigens or whole helminths as a way to modulate the immune system and treat autoimmune diseases or allergies. However, more research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of these approaches.

Ancylostomatoidea is a superfamily of nematode (roundworm) parasites that includes the genera Ancylostoma and Necator, which are commonly known as hookworms. These parasites are primarily found in the small intestine of their hosts, which can include humans and other animals.

Ancylostomatoidea parasites have a complex life cycle that involves both free-living and parasitic stages. The life cycle begins when the parasite's eggs are passed in the feces of an infected host and hatch into larvae in the soil. The larvae then infect a new host by penetrating the skin, usually through contact with contaminated soil.

Once inside the host, the larvae migrate through the body to the lungs, where they mature and are coughed up and swallowed, allowing them to reach the small intestine. Here, they attach to the intestinal wall and feed on the host's blood, causing anemia and other symptoms of hookworm infection.

Hookworm infections can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and fatigue. In severe cases, they can lead to anemia, intestinal obstruction, and even death. Prevention measures include wearing shoes in areas with contaminated soil, practicing good hygiene, and treating infected individuals to prevent the spread of the parasite.

Anthelmintics are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by parasitic worms, also known as helminths. These medications work by either stunting the growth of the worms, paralyzing them, or killing them outright, allowing the body to expel the worms through normal bodily functions. Anthelmintics are commonly used to treat infections caused by roundworms, tapeworms, flukeworms, and hookworms. Examples of anthelmintic drugs include albendazole, mebendazole, praziquantel, and ivermectin.

Nematospiroides dubius is a type of parasitic roundworm that primarily infects rodents, particularly mice. The adult worms reside in the small intestine and reproduce by releasing eggs into the host's feces. These eggs can then be ingested by other hosts, continuing the life cycle of the parasite.

While Nematospiroides dubius is not commonly known to infect humans, there have been rare cases of human infection reported in the literature. In such cases, the parasite is not believed to cause significant disease or symptoms in healthy individuals. However, it may be a potential confounding factor in research studies investigating allergic responses and intestinal inflammation.

It's worth noting that Nematospiroides dubius has been used as a laboratory model for studying immunity to helminth infections, particularly in the context of Th2-mediated immune responses.

Strongylida infections are a group of parasitic diseases caused by roundworms that belong to the order Strongylida. These nematodes infect various hosts, including humans, causing different clinical manifestations depending on the specific species involved. Here are some examples:

1. Strongyloidiasis: This is an infection caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. The parasite can penetrate the skin and migrate to the lungs and small intestine, causing respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms such as cough, wheezing, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. In immunocompromised individuals, the infection can become severe and disseminated, leading to systemic illness and even death.
2. Hookworm infections: The hookworms Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus infect humans through skin contact with contaminated soil. The larvae migrate to the lungs and then to the small intestine, where they attach to the intestinal wall and feed on blood. Heavy infections can cause anemia, protein loss, and developmental delays in children.
3. Trichostrongyliasis: This is a group of infections caused by various species of nematodes that infect the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals. The parasites can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and anemia.
4. Toxocariasis: This is an infection caused by the roundworms Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, which infect dogs and cats, respectively. Humans can become infected through accidental ingestion of contaminated soil or food. The larvae migrate to various organs such as the liver, lungs, and eyes, causing symptoms such as fever, cough, abdominal pain, and vision loss.

Preventive measures for Strongylida infections include personal hygiene, proper sanitation, and avoidance of contact with contaminated soil or water. Treatment usually involves antiparasitic drugs such as albendazole or ivermectin, depending on the specific infection and severity of symptoms.

Nematode infections, also known as roundworm infections, are caused by various species of nematodes or roundworms. These parasitic worms can infect humans and animals, leading to a range of health problems depending on the specific type of nematode and the location of the infection within the body.

Common forms of nematode infections include:

1. Ascariasis: Caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, this infection occurs when people ingest the parasite's eggs through contaminated food or water. The larvae hatch in the small intestine, mature into adult worms, and can cause abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In severe cases, the worms may obstruct the intestines or migrate to other organs, leading to potentially life-threatening complications.
2. Hookworm infections: These are caused by Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. The larvae penetrate the skin, usually through bare feet, and migrate to the small intestine, where they attach to the intestinal wall and feed on blood. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and protein loss.
3. Trichuriasis: Also known as whipworm infection, this is caused by Trichuris trichiura. The larvae hatch in the small intestine, mature into adult worms, and reside in the large intestine, causing abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal prolapse in severe cases.
4. Strongyloidiasis: Caused by Strongyloides stercoralis, this infection occurs when the larvae penetrate the skin, usually through contaminated soil, and migrate to the lungs and then the small intestine. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and skin rashes. In immunocompromised individuals, strongyloidiasis can lead to disseminated disease, which is potentially fatal.
5. Toxocariasis: This infection is caused by the roundworms Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, found in dogs and cats, respectively. Humans become infected through ingestion of contaminated soil or undercooked meat. Symptoms include fever, cough, abdominal pain, and vision loss in severe cases.
6. Enterobiasis: Also known as pinworm infection, this is caused by Enterobius vermicularis. The larvae hatch in the small intestine, mature into adult worms, and reside in the large intestine, causing perianal itching and restlessness, especially at night.

Preventive measures include:

1. Proper hand hygiene: Wash hands with soap and water after using the toilet, changing diapers, handling pets or their feces, and before preparing or eating food.
2. Personal hygiene: Keep fingernails short and clean, avoid biting nails, and wear shoes in public areas, especially where soil may be contaminated with human or animal feces.
3. Food safety: Wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly, cook meat properly, and avoid consuming raw or undercooked meat, poultry, or fish.
4. Environmental cleanliness: Regularly clean surfaces that come into contact with food, such as countertops, cutting boards, and utensils. Dispose of trash properly and maintain a clean living environment.
5. Pet care: Keep pets healthy and regularly deworm them as recommended by a veterinarian. Pick up pet feces promptly to prevent contamination of the environment.
6. Public health measures: Implement public health interventions, such as regular waste disposal, sewage treatment, and vector control, to reduce the transmission of parasitic infections.

Cestoda is a class of parasitic worms belonging to the phylum Platyhelminthes, also known as flatworms. Cestodes are commonly known as tapeworms and have a long, flat, segmented body that can grow to considerable length in their adult form. They lack a digestive system and absorb nutrients through their body surface.

Cestodes have a complex life cycle involving one or two intermediate hosts, usually insects or crustaceans, and a definitive host, which is typically a mammal, including humans. The tapeworm's larval stage develops in the intermediate host, and when the definitive host consumes the infected intermediate host, the larvae mature into adults in the host's intestine.

Humans can become infected with tapeworms by eating raw or undercooked meat from infected animals or through accidental ingestion of contaminated water or food containing tapeworm eggs or larvae. Infection with tapeworms can cause various symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and vitamin deficiencies.

A "Parasite Egg Count" is a laboratory measurement used to estimate the number of parasitic eggs present in a fecal sample. It is commonly used in veterinary and human medicine to diagnose and monitor parasitic infections, such as those caused by roundworms, hookworms, tapeworms, and other intestinal helminths (parasitic worms).

The most common method for measuring parasite egg counts is the McMaster technique. This involves mixing a known volume of feces with a flotation solution, which causes the eggs to float to the top of the mixture. A small sample of this mixture is then placed on a special counting chamber and examined under a microscope. The number of eggs present in the sample is then multiplied by a dilution factor to estimate the total number of eggs per gram (EPG) of feces.

Parasite egg counts can provide valuable information about the severity of an infection, as well as the effectiveness of treatment. However, it is important to note that not all parasitic infections produce visible eggs in the feces, and some parasites may only shed eggs intermittently. Therefore, a negative egg count does not always rule out the presence of a parasitic infection.

Albendazole is an antiparasitic medication used to treat a variety of parasitic infections, including neurocysticercosis (a tapeworm infection that affects the brain), hydatid disease (a parasitic infection that can affect various organs), and other types of worm infestations such as pinworm, roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm infections.

Albendazole works by inhibiting the polymerization of beta-tubulin, a protein found in the microtubules of parasitic cells, which disrupts the parasite's ability to maintain its shape and move. This leads to the death of the parasite and elimination of the infection.

Albendazole is available in oral form and is typically taken two to three times a day with meals for several days or weeks, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated. Common side effects of albendazole include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and headache. Rare but serious side effects may include liver damage, bone marrow suppression, and neurological problems.

It is important to note that albendazole should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have serious side effects and interactions with other medications. Additionally, it is not effective against all types of parasitic infections, so proper diagnosis is essential before starting treatment.

"Schistosoma mansoni" is a specific species of parasitic flatworm, also known as a blood fluke, that causes the disease schistosomiasis (also known as snail fever). This trematode has a complex life cycle involving both freshwater snails and humans. The adult worms live in the blood vessels of the human host, particularly in the venous plexus of the intestines, where they lay eggs that are excreted through feces. These eggs can hatch in fresh water and infect specific snail species, which then release a free-swimming form called cercariae. These cercariae can penetrate the skin of humans who come into contact with infested water, leading to infection and subsequent health complications if left untreated.

The medical definition of "Schistosoma mansoni" is: A species of trematode parasitic flatworm that causes schistosomiasis in humans through its complex life cycle involving freshwater snails as an intermediate host. Adult worms reside in the blood vessels of the human host, particularly those surrounding the intestines, and release eggs that are excreted through feces. Infection occurs when cercariae, released by infected snails, penetrate human skin during contact with infested water.

Protozoan infections are diseases caused by microscopic, single-celled organisms known as protozoa. These parasites can enter the human body through contaminated food, water, or contact with an infected person or animal. Once inside the body, they can multiply and cause a range of symptoms depending on the type of protozoan and where it infects in the body. Some common protozoan infections include malaria, giardiasis, amoebiasis, and toxoplasmosis. Symptoms can vary widely but may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, fatigue, and skin rashes. Treatment typically involves the use of antiprotozoal medications to kill the parasites and alleviate symptoms.

Filarioidea is a superfamily of parasitic nematode (roundworm) worms, many of which are important pathogens in humans and animals. They are transmitted to their hosts through the bite of insect vectors, such as mosquitoes or flies. The filarioid worms can cause a range of diseases known as filariases. Some examples include Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Onchocerca volvulus, which cause lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis) and river blindness, respectively. The adult worms live in the lymphatic system or subcutaneous tissues of their hosts, where they produce microfilariae, the infective stage for the insect vector.

The medical definition of Filarioidea is: A superfamily of parasitic nematode worms that includes several important human pathogens and causes various filariases. The adult worms live in the lymphatic system or subcutaneous tissues, while the microfilariae are taken up by insect vectors during a blood meal and develop into infective larvae inside the vector. These larvae are then transmitted to a new host through the bite of the infected vector.

Schistosoma is a genus of flatworms that cause the disease schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever. These parasitic worms infect freshwater snails and then release a form of the parasite that can penetrate the skin of humans when they come into contact with contaminated water. The larvae mature into adult worms in the human body, living in the blood vessels of the bladder, intestines or other organs, where they lay eggs. These eggs can cause serious damage to internal organs and lead to a range of symptoms including fever, chills, diarrhea, and anemia. Schistosomiasis is a significant public health problem in many tropical and subtropical regions around the world.

Cestode infections, also known as tapeworm infections, are caused by the ingestion of larval cestodes (tapeworms) present in undercooked meat or contaminated water. The most common types of cestode infections in humans include:

1. Taeniasis: This is an infection with the adult tapeworm of the genus Taenia, such as Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Taenia solium (pork tapeworm). Humans become infected by consuming undercooked beef or pork that contains viable tapeworm larvae. The larvae then mature into adult tapeworms in the human intestine, where they can live for several years, producing eggs that are passed in the feces.
2. Hydatid disease: This is a zoonotic infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, which is commonly found in dogs and other carnivores. Humans become infected by accidentally ingesting eggs present in dog feces or contaminated food or water. The eggs hatch in the human intestine and release larvae that migrate to various organs, such as the liver or lungs, where they form hydatid cysts. These cysts can grow slowly over several years and cause symptoms depending on their location and size.
3. Diphyllobothriasis: This is an infection with the fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum, which is found in freshwater fish. Humans become infected by consuming raw or undercooked fish that contain viable tapeworm larvae. The larvae mature into adult tapeworms in the human intestine and can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vitamin B12 deficiency.

Preventing cestode infections involves practicing good hygiene, cooking meat thoroughly, avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked fish, and washing fruits and vegetables carefully before eating. In some cases, treatment with antiparasitic drugs may be necessary to eliminate the tapeworms from the body.

Filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by infection with roundworms of the Filarioidea type. The infection is spread through the bite of infected mosquitoes and can lead to various symptoms depending on the type of filarial worm, including lymphatic dysfunction (elephantiasis), eye damage (onchocerciasis or river blindness), and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia. The disease is prevalent in tropical areas with poor sanitation and lack of access to clean water. Preventive measures include wearing protective clothing, using insect repellents, and sleeping under mosquito nets. Treatment typically involves the use of antiparasitic drugs such as diethylcarbamazine or ivermectin.

Nippostrongylus is a genus of parasitic nematode (roundworm) that primarily infects the gastrointestinal tract of various mammalian hosts, including rodents and primates. The most common species that infects humans is Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, although it's not a common human parasite in normal circumstances. It is more frequently used in laboratory settings as a model organism to study immunology and host-parasite interactions.

The adult worms live in the alveoli of the lungs, where they mature and reproduce, releasing eggs that are coughed up, swallowed, and then hatch in the small intestine. The larvae then mature into adults and complete the life cycle. Infections can cause symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, but these are typically mild in immunocompetent individuals.

It's worth noting that human infections with Nippostrongylus are rare and usually occur in people who have close contact with infected animals or who consume contaminated food or water. Proper sanitation and hygiene practices can help prevent infection.

Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia or snail fever, is a parasitic infection caused by several species of the trematode flatworm Schistosoma. The infection occurs when people come into contact with freshwater contaminated with the parasite's larvae, which are released by infected freshwater snails.

The larvae penetrate the skin, enter the bloodstream, and mature into adult worms in the blood vessels of the urinary tract or intestines. The female worms lay eggs, which can cause inflammation and scarring in various organs, including the liver, lungs, and brain.

Symptoms of schistosomiasis may include fever, chills, cough, muscle aches, and diarrhea. In chronic cases, the infection can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage, bladder cancer, and seizures. Schistosomiasis is prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions with poor sanitation and lack of access to safe drinking water. It is preventable through improved water supply, sanitation, and snail control measures. Treatment typically involves the use of a medication called praziquantel, which kills the adult worms.

Schistosomiasis mansoni is a parasitic infection caused by the trematode flatworm Schistosoma mansoni. The disease cycle begins when human hosts come into contact with fresh water contaminated with the parasite's larvae, called cercariae, which are released from infected snail intermediate hosts.

Once the cercariae penetrate the skin of a human host, they transform into schistosomula and migrate through various tissues before reaching the hepatic portal system. Here, the parasites mature into adult worms, mate, and produce eggs that can cause inflammation and damage to the intestinal wall, liver, spleen, and other organs.

Symptoms of schistosomiasis mansoni may include fever, chills, cough, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and blood in stool or urine. Chronic infection can lead to severe complications such as fibrosis of the liver, kidney damage, bladder cancer, and neurological disorders.

Preventive measures include avoiding contact with contaminated water sources, proper sanitation, and access to safe drinking water. Treatment typically involves administering a single dose of the drug praziquantel, which is effective in eliminating the adult worms and reducing egg production. However, it does not prevent reinfection.

Trematoda is a class of parasitic flatworms, also known as flukes. They have a complex life cycle involving one or more intermediate hosts and a definitive host. Adult trematodes are typically leaf-shaped and range in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters.

They have a characteristic oral sucker surrounding the mouth and a ventral sucker, which they use for locomotion and attachment to their host's tissues. Trematodes infect various organs of their hosts, including the liver, lungs, blood vessels, and intestines, causing a range of diseases in humans and animals.

Examples of human-infecting trematodes include Schistosoma spp., which cause schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia), and Fasciola hepatica, which causes fascioliasis (liver fluke disease). Trematode infections are typically treated with antiparasitic drugs.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Helminth DNA refers to the genetic material found in parasitic worms that belong to the phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) and Nematoda (roundworms). These parasites can infect various organs and tissues of humans and animals, causing a range of diseases.

Helminths have complex life cycles involving multiple developmental stages and hosts. The study of their DNA has provided valuable insights into their evolutionary history, genetic diversity, and mechanisms of pathogenesis. It has also facilitated the development of molecular diagnostic tools for identifying and monitoring helminth infections.

Understanding the genetic makeup of these parasites is crucial for developing effective control strategies, including drug discovery, vaccine development, and disease management.

'Fasciola hepatica' is a medical term that refers to a type of flatworm, specifically a liver fluke, which is a parasitic flatworm that infects the livers of various animals, including sheep, cattle, and humans. The parasite has a complex life cycle involving aquatic snails as an intermediate host and can cause significant damage to the liver and bile ducts in its definitive host. Infection with Fasciola hepatica is known as fascioliasis, which can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, and jaundice.

Trematode infections, also known as trematodiasis or fluke infections, are parasitic diseases caused by various species of flatworms called trematodes. These parasites have an indirect life cycle involving one or two intermediate hosts (such as snails or fish) and a definitive host (usually a mammal or bird).

Humans can become accidentally infected when they consume raw or undercooked aquatic plants, animals, or contaminated water that contains the larval stages of these parasites. The most common trematode infections affecting humans include:

1. Schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia): Caused by several species of blood flukes (Schistosoma spp.). Adult worms live in the blood vessels, and their eggs can cause inflammation and damage to various organs, such as the liver, intestines, bladder, or lungs.
2. Liver flukes: Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica are common liver fluke species that infect humans through contaminated watercress or other aquatic plants. These parasites can cause liver damage, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and eosinophilia (elevated eosinophil count in the blood).
3. Lung flukes: Paragonimus spp. are lung fluke species that infect humans through consumption of raw or undercooked crustaceans. These parasites can cause coughing, chest pain, and bloody sputum.
4. Intestinal flukes: Various species of intestinal flukes (e.g., Haplorchis spp., Metagonimus yokogawai) infect humans through consumption of raw or undercooked fish. These parasites can cause abdominal pain, diarrhea, and eosinophilia.
5. Eye fluke: The oriental eye fluke (Drepanotrema spp.) can infect the human eye through contaminated water. It can cause eye inflammation, corneal ulcers, and vision loss.

Prevention measures include avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked aquatic plants, animals, and their products; practicing good hygiene; and treating drinking water to kill parasites. Treatment typically involves administering anthelmintic drugs such as praziquantel, albendazole, or mebendazole, depending on the specific fluke species involved.

Necator americanus is a species of parasitic hookworm that primarily infects the human intestine. The medical definition of Necator americanus would be:

A nematode (roundworm) of the family Ancylostomatidae, which is one of the most common causes of human hookworm infection worldwide. The adult worms live in the small intestine and feed on blood, causing iron deficiency anemia and protein loss. Infection occurs through contact with contaminated soil, often through bare feet, and results in a skin infection called cutaneous larva migrans (creeping eruption). After penetrating the skin, the larvae migrate to the lungs, ascend the respiratory tract, are swallowed, and then mature into adults in the small intestine.

The life cycle of Necator americanus involves several developmental stages, including eggs, larvae, and adult worms. The eggs are passed in the feces of infected individuals and hatch in warm, moist soil. The larvae then mature and become infective, able to penetrate human skin upon contact.

Preventive measures include wearing shoes in areas with known hookworm infection, avoiding walking barefoot on contaminated soil, improving sanitation and hygiene practices, and treating infected individuals to break the transmission cycle. Treatment of hookworm infection typically involves administration of anthelmintic medications, such as albendazole or mebendazole, which kill the adult worms in the intestine.

Host-parasite interactions refer to the relationship between a parasitic organism (the parasite) and its host, which can be an animal, plant, or human body. The parasite lives on or inside the host and derives nutrients from it, often causing harm in the process. This interaction can range from relatively benign to severe, depending on various factors such as the species of the parasite, the immune response of the host, and the duration of infection.

The host-parasite relationship is often categorized based on the degree of harm caused to the host. Parasites that cause little to no harm are called commensals, while those that cause significant damage or disease are called parasitic pathogens. Some parasites can even manipulate their hosts' behavior and physiology to enhance their own survival and reproduction, leading to complex interactions between the two organisms.

Understanding host-parasite interactions is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat parasitic infections, as well as for understanding the ecological relationships between different species in natural ecosystems.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil" is not a term that has a medical definition. Soil is defined as the top layer of earth in which plants grow, a mixture of organic material, clay, sand, and silt. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

Nematoda is a phylum of pseudocoelomate, unsegmented worms with a round or filiform body shape. They are commonly known as roundworms or threadworms. Nematodes are among the most diverse and numerous animals on earth, with estimates of over 1 million species, of which only about 25,000 have been described.

Nematodes are found in a wide range of habitats, including marine, freshwater, and terrestrial environments. Some nematode species are free-living, while others are parasitic, infecting a variety of hosts, including plants, animals, and humans. Parasitic nematodes can cause significant disease and economic losses in agriculture, livestock production, and human health.

The medical importance of nematodes lies primarily in their role as parasites that infect humans and animals. Some common examples of medically important nematodes include:

* Ascaris lumbricoides (human roundworm)
* Trichuris trichiura (whipworm)
* Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus (hookworms)
* Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm or threadworm)
* Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Loa loa (filarial nematodes that cause lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, and loiasis, respectively)

Nematode infections can cause a range of clinical symptoms, depending on the species and the location of the parasite in the body. Common symptoms include gastrointestinal disturbances, anemia, skin rashes, and lymphatic swelling. In some cases, nematode infections can lead to serious complications or even death if left untreated.

Medical management of nematode infections typically involves the use of anthelmintic drugs, which are medications that kill or expel parasitic worms from the body. The choice of drug depends on the species of nematode and the severity of the infection. In some cases, preventive measures such as improved sanitation and hygiene can help reduce the risk of nematode infections.

Parasitic diseases are infections or illnesses caused by parasites, which are organisms that live and feed on host organisms, often causing harm. Parasites can be protozoans (single-celled organisms), helminths (worms), or ectoparasites (ticks, mites, fleas). These diseases can affect various body systems and cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type of parasite and the location of infection. They are typically spread through contaminated food or water, insect vectors, or direct contact with an infected host or contaminated environment. Examples of parasitic diseases include malaria, giardiasis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, and leishmaniasis.

Th2 cells, or T helper 2 cells, are a type of CD4+ T cell that plays a key role in the immune response to parasites and allergens. They produce cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 which promote the activation and proliferation of eosinophils, mast cells, and B cells, leading to the production of antibodies such as IgE. Th2 cells also play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis.

It's important to note that an imbalance in Th1/Th2 response can lead to immune dysregulation and disease states. For example, an overactive Th2 response can lead to allergic reactions while an underactive Th2 response can lead to decreased ability to fight off parasitic infections.

It's also worth noting that there are other subsets of CD4+ T cells such as Th1, Th17, Treg and others, each with their own specific functions and cytokine production profiles.

"Trichinella spiralis" is a species of parasitic roundworm that causes the disease trichinosis in humans. The adult worms live in the intestine, where they produce larvae that migrate to striated muscle tissue, including the diaphragm, tongue, and skeletal muscles, where they encyst and form nurse cells. Infection typically occurs through the consumption of undercooked or raw meat, particularly pork, contaminated with the larvae. Symptoms can range from gastrointestinal disturbances to fever, muscle pain, and potentially life-threatening complications in severe cases. Prevention includes cooking meat thoroughly and freezing it at certain temperatures to kill the larvae.

"Strongyloides stercoralis" is a species of parasitic roundworm that can infect humans and other animals. The adult female worms live in the small intestine, where they lay eggs that hatch into larvae. These larvae can then either mature into adult worms within the host's intestine or be passed out of the body in feces. If the larvae in the feces come into contact with suitable moist soil, they can mature into infective larvae that can penetrate the skin of a new host and cause infection.

In humans, "Strongyloides stercoralis" infection can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, and weight loss. In some cases, the infection can become chronic and lead to serious complications, such as disseminated disease or gram-negative sepsis, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

The diagnosis of "Strongyloides stercoralis" infection typically involves the detection of larvae in the stool or other bodily fluids, although serological tests and PCR assays are also available. Treatment usually involves the use of anti-parasitic drugs, such as ivermectin or albendazole, to kill the worms and prevent the progression of the infection.

Hymenolepiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the tapeworms Hymenolepis nana (dwarf tapeworm) or Hymenolepis diminuta (rat tapeworm).

The dwarf tapeworm, H. nana, is the most common cause of hymenolepiasis and can complete its life cycle within a single host, making human-to-human transmission possible through the fecal-oral route. This means that eggs are ingested, often through contaminated food or water, and then hatched in the small intestine, where they develop into adult tapeworms.

On the other hand, H. diminuta requires an intermediate host, usually a rat or beetle, to complete its life cycle. Humans can become infected by ingesting the infected insect or contaminated food.

Symptoms of hymenolepiasis may include abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, loss of appetite, and weight loss. In severe cases, anemia and intestinal inflammation can occur. The infection is typically diagnosed through the identification of eggs or tapeworm segments in stool samples. Treatment usually involves administering a course of medication that targets the parasite, such as praziquantel or niclosamide.

Parasitology is a branch of biology that deals with the study of parasites, their life cycles, the relationship between parasites and their hosts, the transmission of parasitic diseases, and the development of methods for their control and elimination. It involves understanding various types of parasites including protozoa, helminths, and arthropods that can infect humans, animals, and plants. Parasitologists also study the evolution, genetics, biochemistry, and ecology of parasites to develop effective strategies for their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

"Taenia" is a genus of tapeworms that are known to infect humans and animals. The most common species that affect humans are Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Taenia solium (pork tapeworm).

Humans can become infected with these tapeworms by consuming raw or undercooked meat from infected animals. Once inside the human body, the larvae can mature into adult tapeworms in the intestines, leading to a condition called taeniasis. Symptoms of taeniasis may include abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, and weight loss.

Ingesting eggs of Taenia solium, through contact with feces from an infected person or contaminated food, can lead to a more serious condition called cysticercosis, where larvae form cysts in various tissues throughout the body, including muscles, brain, and eyes. Cysticercosis can cause a range of symptoms depending on the location of the cysts, and it can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Preventive measures include cooking meat thoroughly, practicing good hygiene, and washing hands and food properly before eating.

Necatoriasis is a parasitic infection caused by the nematode (roundworm) Necator americanus, also known as the "New World hookworm." This condition is primarily found in areas with warm, moist climates and poor sanitation. The infection typically occurs when the larvae of the parasite penetrate the skin, usually through bare feet that come into contact with contaminated soil.

Once inside the human body, the larvae migrate to the lungs, where they mature and are coughed up and swallowed. They then reside in the small intestine, where they feed on blood and cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and growth retardation in children. Necatoriasis is usually treated with anthelmintic medications like albendazole or mebendazole. Preventive measures include wearing shoes in areas where the parasite is common and improving sanitation to reduce the spread of contaminated soil.

'Ascaris' is a genus of parasitic roundworms that are known to infect the human gastrointestinal tract. The two species that commonly infect humans are Ascaris lumbricoides (also known as the "large roundworm") and Ascaris suum (the "pig roundworm").

Human infection with Ascaris lumbricoides typically occurs through the ingestion of contaminated food or water containing the worm's eggs. Once inside the human body, these eggs hatch into larvae, which migrate through various tissues before reaching the small intestine, where they mature into adult worms. Adult female worms can grow up to 20-35 cm in length and produce thousands of eggs per day, which are then excreted in feces and can contaminate the environment, perpetuating the transmission cycle.

Symptoms of ascariasis (the infection caused by Ascaris) can range from mild to severe, depending on the number of worms present and the individual's overall health status. Light infections may not cause any symptoms, while heavy infections can lead to abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and intestinal obstruction. In some cases, Ascaris worms may migrate to unusual locations such as the lungs or bile ducts, causing additional complications.

Preventive measures include improving sanitation and hygiene practices, such as handwashing with soap and water, proper disposal of human feces, and cooking food thoroughly before consumption. Treatment typically involves administration of anthelmintic medications that kill the worms, followed by appropriate follow-up care to ensure complete eradication of the infection.

Mebendazole is a medication used to treat various types of worm infections, such as roundworm, whipworm, hookworm, and threadworm. It belongs to a class of drugs called anthelmintics, which work by preventing the worms from absorbing nutrients, leading to their eventual death and elimination from the body.

Mebendazole is available in various forms, including tablets, chewable tablets, and suspensions. It is usually taken as a single dose or for several days, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

It's important to note that mebendazole is not effective against all types of worm infections, so it should only be used under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare professional. Additionally, while taking mebendazole, it's recommended to maintain good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding contaminated food or water, to prevent reinfection.

Strongyloidea is a superfamily of parasitic nematode (roundworm) worms that includes several medically important genera such as Strongyloides and Rhabditis. These parasites are known to infect humans and other animals, causing a variety of symptoms depending on the species and the location of the infection in the body.

The genus Strongyloides contains several species that can infect humans, including S. stercoralis, S. fuelleborni, and S. kellyi. These parasites are known to cause strongyloidiasis, a disease characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and bloating, as well as skin rashes and respiratory symptoms in some cases.

The life cycle of Strongyloides species is complex and involves both free-living and parasitic stages. The worms can infect humans through contact with contaminated soil or water, and can then reproduce within the human body, causing ongoing infection and potentially serious complications if left untreated.

Treatment for strongyloidiasis typically involves administration of anti-parasitic drugs such as ivermectin or albendazole, which can help to eliminate the infection and prevent further transmission.

A helminth genome refers to the complete set of genetic information present in the DNA of a helminth organism. Helminths are parasitic worms that include nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms), and trematodes (flukes). The genome of a helminth includes all of the genes that code for proteins, as well as non-coding DNA sequences that regulate gene expression and other functions.

The study of helminth genomics has provided important insights into the biology and evolution of these parasites, as well as their interactions with their hosts. For example, genomic studies have identified potential drug targets and vaccine candidates, and have helped to elucidate the mechanisms of host-parasite coevolution.

It's worth noting that the size and complexity of helminth genomes can vary widely depending on the species. Some helminth genomes are relatively small and compact, while others are large and complex, with a high degree of genetic diversity. The human whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), for example, has a genome size of approximately 120 megabases, while the tapeworm Schistosoma mansoni has a genome size of over 360 megabases.

Overall, the study of helminth genomics is an important area of research that has the potential to inform the development of new strategies for preventing and treating helminth infections, which affect millions of people worldwide.

Strongyloidiasis is a tropical and subtropical parasitic disease caused by the nematode (roundworm) Strongyloides stercoralis. The infection occurs when the larvae of this parasite penetrate the skin, usually of the feet, and are carried through the bloodstream to the lungs. Here they mature, are coughed up and swallowed, and then mature in the small intestine where they lay eggs. These hatch into larvae that can either pass out with the feces or penetrate the skin of the anal area and restart the cycle.

The disease is often asymptomatic but can cause a range of symptoms including gastrointestinal (diarrhea, abdominal pain) and pulmonary (cough, wheezing) symptoms. Disseminated strongyloidiasis, where the larvae spread throughout the body, can occur in immunocompromised individuals and can be life-threatening.

Treatment is with anti-parasitic drugs such as ivermectin or thiabendazole. Prevention involves avoiding skin contact with contaminated soil and good hygiene practices.

Hymenolepis nana, also known as the dwarf tapeworm, is a small intestine-infecting cestode parasite that primarily affects humans and rodents. The adult worms are typically 15-40 mm in length and have a scolex (head) with four suckers but no hooks. The proglottids (segments) of the worm contain both male and female reproductive organs, allowing for self-fertilization.

The life cycle of Hymenolepis nana can be direct or indirect. In the direct life cycle, eggs are passed in the feces of an infected individual and ingested by another person through contaminated food, water, or fomites (inanimate objects). Once inside the human host, the eggs hatch in the small intestine, releasing oncospheres that invade the intestinal wall and develop into cysticercoids. The cysticercoids then mature into adult tapeworms within 10-15 days.

In the indirect life cycle, eggs are ingested by an intermediate host, usually a beetle or flea, where they hatch and develop into cysticercoids. When the infected insect is consumed by a rodent or human, the cysticercoids excyst in the small intestine and mature into adult tapeworms.

Symptoms of Hymenolepis nana infection can range from mild to severe and may include abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, loss of appetite, weight loss, and anemia. In some cases, particularly in children or individuals with weakened immune systems, the infection can lead to more serious complications such as intestinal obstruction or inflammation of the small intestine (enteritis).

Antiparasitic agents are a type of medication used to treat parasitic infections. These agents include a wide range of drugs that work to destroy, inhibit the growth of, or otherwise eliminate parasites from the body. Parasites are organisms that live on or inside a host and derive nutrients at the host's expense.

Antiparasitic agents can be divided into several categories based on the type of parasite they target. Some examples include:

* Antimalarial agents: These drugs are used to treat and prevent malaria, which is caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes.
* Antiprotozoal agents: These drugs are used to treat infections caused by protozoa, which are single-celled organisms that can cause diseases such as giardiasis, amoebic dysentery, and sleeping sickness.
* Antihelminthic agents: These drugs are used to treat infections caused by helminths, which are parasitic worms that can infect various organs of the body, including the intestines, lungs, and skin. Examples include roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes.

Antiparasitic agents work in different ways to target parasites. Some disrupt the parasite's metabolism or interfere with its ability to reproduce. Others damage the parasite's membrane or exoskeleton, leading to its death. The specific mechanism of action depends on the type of antiparasitic agent and the parasite it is targeting.

It is important to note that while antiparasitic agents can be effective in treating parasitic infections, they can also have side effects and potential risks. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any antiparasitic medication to ensure safe and appropriate use.

Trichinellosis is a parasitic disease caused by the roundworm Trichinella spiralis. The infection typically occurs when contaminated raw or undercooked meat, often pork, is consumed. After ingestion, the larvae of the worm are released from the cysts in the meat and migrate to the small intestine, where they mature into adults.

The adult females then lay new larvae that penetrate the intestinal wall and travel through the bloodstream to striated muscle tissue (such as skeletal muscles), where they encapsulate and form new cysts. The symptoms of trichinellosis can vary widely, depending on the number of worms ingested and the intensity of infection. Early symptoms may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. As the larvae migrate to muscle tissue, additional symptoms such as muscle pain, weakness, swelling of the face, eyelids, or tongue, and skin rashes can occur. Severe infections may lead to life-threatening complications, including heart and respiratory failure.

Prevention measures include cooking meat thoroughly (to an internal temperature of at least 160°F or 71°C), freezing meat properly (at -15°F or -26°C for several days) to kill the parasites, and avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat, especially from wild animals.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Ancylostoma is a genus of parasitic roundworms that are commonly known as hookworms. These intestinal parasites infect humans and other animals through contact with contaminated soil, often via the skin or mouth. Two species of Ancylostoma that commonly infect humans are Ancylostoma duodenale and Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

Ancylostoma duodenale is found primarily in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of the Mediterranean, Africa, Asia, and southern Europe. It can cause a disease called ancylostomiasis or hookworm infection, which can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and impaired growth in children.

Ancylostoma ceylanicum is found mainly in Southeast Asia, southern China, and some parts of Australia. It can also cause ancylostomiasis, with symptoms similar to those caused by Ancylostoma duodenale. However, Ancylostoma ceylanicum infections are often less severe than those caused by Ancylostoma duodenale.

Preventive measures for hookworm infection include wearing shoes in areas where the soil may be contaminated with feces, washing hands thoroughly after using the toilet or handling soil, and avoiding ingestion of contaminated soil or water. Treatment for hookworm infection typically involves administration of anthelmintic drugs to eliminate the parasites from the body.

A parasite is an organism that lives on or in a host organism and gets its sustenance at the expense of the host. Parasites are typically much smaller than their hosts, and they may be classified as either ectoparasites (which live on the outside of the host's body) or endoparasites (which live inside the host's body).

Parasites can cause a range of health problems in humans, depending on the type of parasite and the extent of the infection. Some parasites may cause only mild symptoms or none at all, while others can lead to serious illness or even death. Common symptoms of parasitic infections include diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fatigue.

There are many different types of parasites that can infect humans, including protozoa (single-celled organisms), helminths (worms), and ectoparasites (such as lice and ticks). Parasitic infections are more common in developing countries with poor sanitation and hygiene, but they can also occur in industrialized nations.

Preventing parasitic infections typically involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, cooking food thoroughly, and avoiding contaminated water. Treatment for parasitic infections usually involves medication to kill the parasites and relieve symptoms.

Praziquantel is an anthelmintic medication, which is used to treat and prevent trematode (fluke) infections, including schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia or snail fever), clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis, and fasciolopsiasis. It works by causing severe spasms in the muscle cells of the parasites, ultimately leading to their death. Praziquantel is available in tablet form and is typically taken orally in a single dose, although the dosage may vary depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

It's important to note that praziquantel is not effective against tapeworm infections, and other medications such as niclosamide or albendazole are used instead for those infections. Also, Praziquantel should be taken under medical supervision, as it may have some side effects, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache.

It's important to consult a healthcare professional before taking any medication.

'Ascaris suum' is a species of roundworm that primarily infects pigs, although it can also rarely infect humans. It is a type of parasitic nematode that lives in the intestines of its host and obtains nutrients from ingested food. The adult female worm can grow up to 40 cm in length and produces thousands of eggs every day. These eggs are passed in the feces of infected animals and can survive in the environment for years, making them a significant source of infection for other pigs or humans who come into contact with them.

In pigs, 'Ascaris suum' infection can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, vomiting, and stunted growth. In severe cases, it can lead to intestinal blockages or pneumonia. Humans who become infected with 'Ascaris suum' typically experience milder symptoms, such as abdominal pain, coughing, and wheezing. However, in rare cases, the infection can cause more serious complications, particularly if the worms migrate to other parts of the body.

Preventing 'Ascaris suum' infection involves good hygiene practices, such as washing hands thoroughly after handling animals or coming into contact with soil that may contain infected feces. It is also important to properly cook pork before eating it and to avoid consuming raw or undercooked meat. In areas where 'Ascaris suum' is common, deworming programs for pigs can help reduce the risk of infection for both animals and humans.

Coinfection is a term used in medicine to describe a situation where a person is infected with more than one pathogen (infectious agent) at the same time. This can occur when a person is infected with two or more viruses, bacteria, parasites, or fungi. Coinfections can complicate the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases, as the symptoms of each infection can overlap and interact with each other.

Coinfections are common in certain populations, such as people who are immunocompromised, have chronic illnesses, or live in areas with high levels of infectious agents. For example, a person with HIV/AIDS may be more susceptible to coinfections with tuberculosis, hepatitis, or pneumocystis pneumonia. Similarly, a person who has recently undergone an organ transplant may be at risk for coinfections with cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, or other opportunistic pathogens.

Coinfections can also occur in people who are otherwise healthy but are exposed to multiple infectious agents at once, such as through travel to areas with high levels of infectious diseases or through close contact with animals that carry infectious agents. For example, a person who travels to a tropical area may be at risk for coinfections with malaria and dengue fever, while a person who works on a farm may be at risk for coinfections with influenza and Q fever.

Effective treatment of coinfections requires accurate diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial therapy for each pathogen involved. In some cases, treating one infection may help to resolve the other, but in other cases, both infections may need to be treated simultaneously to achieve a cure. Preventing coinfections is an important part of infectious disease control, and can be achieved through measures such as vaccination, use of personal protective equipment, and avoidance of high-risk behaviors.

Hymenolepis is a genus of tapeworms that are commonly found in rodents and other small mammals, but can also infect humans. The two species that are most relevant to human health are Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta.

Hymenolepis nana, also known as the dwarf tapeworm, is the smallest tapeworm that infects humans. It is unique among tapeworms because it can complete its entire life cycle within a single host, without needing an intermediate host. This means that it can be transmitted directly from person to person through contaminated food or water.

Hymenolepis diminuta, on the other hand, requires an intermediate host, such as a beetle or grain moth, to complete its life cycle. Humans can become infected by accidentally ingesting these insects, which may be found in contaminated grains or other food products.

Both species of Hymenolepis can cause similar symptoms in humans, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss. In severe cases, they can also lead to more serious complications such as intestinal obstruction or nutritional deficiencies.

It's worth noting that while Hymenolepis infections are not uncommon in certain parts of the world, they are relatively rare in developed countries with good sanitation and hygiene practices. Treatment typically involves taking medication to kill the tapeworms, such as niclosamide or praziquantel.

Taeniasis is a parasitic infection caused by the tapeworm of the genus Taenia. The two most common species that infect humans are Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Taenia solium (pork tapeworm).

Humans get infected with T. saginata by consuming raw or undercooked beef from cattle that carry the larval form of the tapeworm, called cysticercus. In contrast, humans acquire T. solium through the consumption of contaminated pork or, more commonly, by accidentally ingesting T. solium eggs due to poor hygiene practices, leading to a more severe infection known as cysticercosis.

After ingestion, the larvae develop into adult tapeworms in the human intestine, where they can grow up to 8-12 meters long for T. saginata and 2-3 meters for T. solium. Adult tapeworms consist of a head (scolex) with hooks and suckers that attach to the intestinal wall, a neck region where new segments called proglottids are continuously formed, and a chain of mature proglottids containing male and female reproductive organs.

Symptoms of taeniasis can be mild or even absent, but they may include abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, nausea, weight loss, and the presence of proglottids or tapeworm segments in stools or, rarely, outside the body (e.g., around the anus). In cases of T. solium infection, accidental ingestion of eggs can lead to cysticercosis, which is a more severe condition involving the formation of larval cysts in various tissues, including muscles, brain, and eyes, causing neurological symptoms and potentially life-threatening complications.

Diagnosis of taeniasis typically involves microscopic examination of stool samples to identify tapeworm eggs or proglottids. In some cases, molecular techniques like PCR may be used for species identification. Treatment usually consists of a single oral dose of anthelmintic medication such as praziquantel or niclosamide, which eliminates the adult tapeworm from the intestine. Proper sanitation and hygiene measures are crucial to prevent transmission and reinfection.

Fascioliasis is a parasitic infection caused by two species of flatworms (trematodes) called Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. These worms are commonly known as liver flukes. The infection occurs when people consume raw or undercooked watercress, watercress salad, or other contaminated vegetables.

The life cycle of these parasites involves a complex series of stages involving snails and aquatic vegetation. When humans ingest the larval stage of the parasite, it migrates through the intestinal wall, enters the abdominal cavity, and eventually reaches the liver. Here, it causes damage to the bile ducts and liver parenchyma, leading to symptoms such as fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and jaundice.

Fascioliasis is more common in areas where livestock farming is prevalent, particularly in parts of South America, Africa, and Asia. However, it can also occur in travelers who have consumed contaminated food or water while visiting endemic areas. Treatment typically involves the use of anti-parasitic medications such as triclabendazole or praziquantel.

Spiruroidea is a taxonomic category of parasitic nematodes (roundworms) that belong to the phylum Nematoda. These parasites are primarily found in the gastrointestinal tract of various vertebrate hosts, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. They have a complex life cycle involving one or more intermediate hosts, often arthropods such as beetles or crustaceans.

Spiruroids are characterized by their long, slender bodies with distinct anterior and posterior ends. The mouth is surrounded by three lips, and they possess a muscular esophagus that is typically divided into two parts: a narrow anterior portion called the stoma, and a wider posterior portion called the bulb.

Some well-known examples of Spiruroidea include the genus Spirura, which parasitizes carnivores and birds; the genus Habronema, which infects horses and other herbivores; and the genus Thelazia, which causes eye infections in humans and animals.

It is important to note that taxonomy is a dynamic field, and the classification of Spiruroidea may change as new research and discoveries emerge.

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a key role in the immune response to parasitic infections and allergies. It is produced by B cells in response to stimulation by antigens, such as pollen, pet dander, or certain foods. Once produced, IgE binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, which are immune cells found in tissues and blood respectively. When an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, the cross-linking of IgE molecules bound to the FcεRI receptor triggers the release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and various cytokines from these cells. These mediators cause the symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as itching, swelling, and redness. IgE also plays a role in protecting against certain parasitic infections by activating eosinophils, which can kill the parasites.

In summary, Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune response to allergens and parasitic infections, it binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, when an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, it triggers the release of mediators from these cells causing the symptoms of an allergic reaction.

To the best of my knowledge, "Côte d'Ivoire" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country, which is officially known as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. The country is located in West Africa and is bordered by countries such as Ghana, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Liberia.

Côte d'Ivoire was once a French colony and gained its independence in 1960. The country has a diverse population and a developing economy, with agriculture being a major contributor to its GDP. The capital city of Côte d'Ivoire is Yamoussoukro, while the largest city is Abidjan.

It's important to note that medical terminology and concepts are typically related to anatomy, physiology, diseases, treatments, and other health-related topics. Therefore, it's unlikely that a country name like Côte d'Ivoire would have a direct medical definition or application.

Mansonelliasis is a parasitic infection caused by the nematode (roundworm) species Mansonella perstans, M. ozzardi, or M. streptocerca. These parasites are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blackflies or midges. The infection can cause a range of symptoms including fever, headache, pruritus (severe itching), and rash. In some cases, there may be no symptoms at all. Chronic infections can lead to more serious complications such as endocarditis, hepatomegaly (enlarged liver), and splenomegaly (enlarged spleen). However, mansonelliasis is often overlooked or misdiagnosed due to its nonspecific symptoms and the limited availability of diagnostic tests.

"Schistosoma haematobium" is a species of parasitic flatworm, also known as a blood fluke, that causes the disease schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia). This specific species is the most common cause of urogenital schistosomiasis.

The life cycle of Schistosoma haematobium involves freshwater snails as intermediate hosts. The parasite's eggs are released in the urine of an infected person and hatch in fresh water, releasing miracidia that infect the snail. After several developmental stages, the parasites emerge from the snail as free-swimming cercariae, which then infect the human host by penetrating the skin during contact with infested water.

Once inside the human body, the cercariae transform into schistosomula and migrate to the venous plexus around the bladder, where they mature into adult worms. The female worms lay eggs that can cause inflammation and damage to the urinary tract and, in some cases, other organs. Symptoms of infection can include blood in the urine, frequent urination, and pain during urination. Chronic infection can lead to more serious complications, such as bladder cancer and kidney damage.

Echinostomiasis is a type of foodborne parasitic infection caused by eating raw or undercooked freshwater fish, snails, or aquatic plants contaminated with certain species of trematode flatworms in the family Echinostomatidae. These parasites have a complex life cycle involving several intermediate hosts, such as snails and fish, before they can infect humans.

Infection with echinostomes can cause various symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and malnutrition. In severe cases, it may lead to liver damage or other complications. The diagnosis of echinostomiasis is usually made by identifying eggs or adult worms in the stool or through imaging techniques such as endoscopy.

Treatment for echinostomiasis typically involves administering anthelmintic drugs, such as praziquantel or albendazole, to kill the parasites. Preventive measures include cooking food thoroughly and avoiding the consumption of raw or undercooked freshwater fish, snails, or aquatic plants in areas where echinostomiasis is common.

Toxocariasis is a parasitic infection caused by the roundworms Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, which are found in the intestines of dogs and cats, respectively. Humans become infected through the accidental ingestion of infective eggs from contaminated soil, water, or food. The larvae hatch in the small intestine and migrate to various tissues, including the liver, lungs, eyes, and central nervous system, where they can cause inflammation and damage.

The severity of the infection depends on the number of larvae that have infected the body and the organs involved. Most infections are asymptomatic or mild, causing symptoms such as fever, cough, rash, or abdominal discomfort. However, in severe cases, toxocariasis can lead to serious complications, including blindness (ocular larva migrans) or neurological damage (visceral larva migrans).

Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands after handling soil or pets, and avoiding contact with dog or cat feces. Regular deworming of pets can also help reduce the risk of transmission.

Basophils are a type of white blood cell that are part of the immune system. They are granulocytes, which means they contain granules filled with chemicals that can be released in response to an infection or inflammation. Basophils are relatively rare, making up less than 1% of all white blood cells.

When basophils become activated, they release histamine and other chemical mediators that can contribute to allergic reactions, such as itching, swelling, and redness. They also play a role in inflammation, helping to recruit other immune cells to the site of an infection or injury.

Basophils can be identified under a microscope based on their characteristic staining properties. They are typically smaller than other granulocytes, such as neutrophils and eosinophils, and have a multi-lobed nucleus with dark purple-staining granules in the cytoplasm.

While basophils play an important role in the immune response, abnormal levels of basophils can be associated with various medical conditions, such as allergies, infections, and certain types of leukemia.

Wuchereria bancrofti is a parasitic roundworm that causes lymphatic filariasis, also known as elephantiasis. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. The worms infect the lymphatic system and can lead to chronic swelling of body parts such as the limbs, breasts, and genitals, as well as other symptoms including fever, chills, and skin rashes. Wuchereria bancrofti is a significant public health problem in many tropical and subtropical regions around the world.

Strongyloides is a type of parasitic roundworm that can infect humans and other animals. The most common species to infect humans is Strongyloides stercoralis. These tiny worms can cause a condition known as strongyloidiasis, which can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and skin rashes.

The life cycle of Strongyloides is unique among parasitic roundworms because it can complete its entire life cycle within a single host, without needing to exit the body and infect a new host. This is known as "autoinfection" and it allows the worm to persist in the human body for many years, even in the absence of new infections.

Strongyloides infection typically occurs when larvae (immature worms) penetrate the skin, often through contaminated soil. The larvae then travel through the bloodstream to the lungs, where they mature and are coughed up and swallowed, allowing them to reach the intestines and mature into adults. Female adult worms can lay eggs that hatch into larvae, which can either be excreted in feces or undergo autoinfection by penetrating the intestinal wall and entering the bloodstream again.

While many people with Strongyloides infection do not experience any symptoms, severe infections can lead to complications such as chronic diarrhea, malnutrition, and bacterial bloodstream infections. In immunocompromised individuals, Strongyloides infection can be life-threatening due to the rapid multiplication of larvae in the body, a condition known as "hyperinfection."

Parasitic diseases, animal, refer to conditions in animals that are caused by parasites, which are organisms that live on or inside a host and derive benefits from the host at its expense. Parasites can be classified into different groups such as protozoa, helminths (worms), and arthropods (e.g., ticks, fleas).

Parasitic diseases in animals can cause a wide range of clinical signs depending on the type of parasite, the animal species affected, and the location and extent of infection. Some common examples of parasitic diseases in animals include:

* Heartworm disease in dogs and cats caused by Dirofilaria immitis
* Coccidiosis in various animals caused by different species of Eimeria
* Toxoplasmosis in cats and other animals caused by Toxoplasma gondii
* Giardiasis in many animal species caused by Giardia spp.
* Lungworm disease in dogs and cats caused by Angiostrongylus vasorum or Aelurostrongylus abstrusus
* Tapeworm infection in dogs, cats, and other animals caused by different species of Taenia or Dipylidium caninum

Prevention and control of parasitic diseases in animals typically involve a combination of strategies such as regular veterinary care, appropriate use of medications, environmental management, and good hygiene practices.

Antinematodal agents are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by nematodes, which are also known as roundworms. These agents work by either killing the parasitic worms or preventing them from reproducing. Some examples of antinematodal agents include albendazole, ivermectin, and mebendazole. These medications are used to treat a variety of nematode infections, such as ascariasis, hookworm infection, and strongyloidiasis. It is important to note that the use of antinematodal agents should be under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

Amoebozoa is a supergroup of unicellular eukaryotic organisms that includes various kinds of amoebas and slime molds. These organisms are characterized by the presence of lobose pseudopodia, which are temporary protrusions of cytoplasm used for locomotion and feeding. Amoebozoa is a diverse group with over 9,000 described species, including both free-living and symbiotic forms. Some amoebozoans can form multicellular structures during their life cycle, such as slime molds, which are known for their complex behaviors and social interactions. The study of Amoebozoa is important for understanding the evolutionary history and diversity of eukaryotic organisms.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Schistosomiasis haematobia" is not a recognized medical term. Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by several species of blood flukes (schistosomes). The two main forms that affect humans are Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium, but the term "haematobia" itself refers to the presence of blood in urine.

So, when we talk about Schistosoma haematobium, it's a specific species of schistosome that causes an infection known as urogenital schistosomiasis, which is characterized by the presence of blood in the urine (haematuria) and other symptoms.

If you have any questions about tropical diseases or parasitic infections, feel free to ask!

Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are a group of infectious diseases that primarily affect people living in poverty, in tropical and subtropical areas. These diseases are called "neglected" because they have been largely ignored by medical research and drug development, as well as by global health agencies and pharmaceutical companies.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified 20 diseases as NTDs, including:

1. Buruli ulcer
2. Chagas disease
3. Dengue and chikungunya
4. Dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease)
5. Echinococcosis
6. Endemic treponematoses
7. Foodborne trematodiases
8. Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)
9. Leishmaniasis
10. Leprosy (Hansen's disease)
11. Lymphatic filariasis
12. Onchocerciasis (river blindness)
13. Rabies
14. Schistosomiasis
15. Soil-transmitted helminthiases
16. Snakebite envenoming
17. Taeniasis/Cysticercosis
18. Trachoma
19. Mycetoma, chromoblastomycosis and other deep mycoses
20. Yaws (Endemic treponematoses)

These diseases can lead to severe disfigurement, disability, and even death if left untreated. They affect more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in low-income countries in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. NTDs also have significant social and economic impacts, contributing to poverty, stigma, discrimination, and exclusion.

Efforts are underway to raise awareness and increase funding for research, prevention, and treatment of NTDs. The WHO has set targets for controlling or eliminating several NTDs by 2030, including dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, trachoma, and human African trypanosomiasis.

Ivermectin is an anti-parasitic drug that is used to treat a variety of infections caused by parasites such as roundworms, threadworms, and lice. It works by paralyzing and killing the parasites, thereby eliminating the infection. Ivermectin is available in various forms, including tablets, creams, and solutions for topical use, as well as injections for veterinary use.

Ivermectin has been shown to be effective against a wide range of parasitic infections, including onchocerciasis (river blindness), strongyloidiasis, scabies, and lice infestations. It is also being studied as a potential treatment for other conditions, such as COVID-19, although its effectiveness for this use has not been proven.

Ivermectin is generally considered safe when used as directed, but it can cause side effects in some people, including skin rashes, nausea, and diarrhea. It should be used with caution in pregnant women and people with certain medical conditions, such as liver or kidney disease.

Hygiene is the science and practice of maintaining and promoting health and preventing disease through cleanliness in personal and public environments. It includes various measures such as handwashing, bathing, using clean clothes, cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, proper waste disposal, safe food handling, and managing water supplies to prevent the spread of infectious agents like bacteria, viruses, and parasites.

In a medical context, hygiene is crucial in healthcare settings to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and ensure patient safety. Healthcare professionals are trained in infection control practices, including proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and safe injection practices.

Overall, maintaining good hygiene is essential for overall health and well-being, reducing the risk of illness and promoting a healthy lifestyle.

Tropical medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with health problems that are prevalent in or unique to tropical and subtropical regions. These regions are typically characterized by hot and humid climates, and often have distinct ecological systems that can contribute to the spread of infectious diseases.

The field of tropical medicine encompasses a wide range of health issues, including:

1. Infectious diseases: Many tropical diseases are caused by infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. Some of the most common infectious diseases in the tropics include malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, chikungunya, Zika virus, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, and Chagas disease.
2. Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs): A group of chronic infectious diseases that primarily affect poor and marginalized populations in the tropics. NTDs include diseases such as human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), leprosy, Buruli ulcer, and dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease).
3. Zoonotic diseases: Diseases that are transmitted between animals and humans, often through insect vectors or contaminated food and water. Examples of zoonotic diseases in the tropics include rabies, leptospirosis, and Rift Valley fever.
4. Environmental health issues: The tropical environment can pose unique health challenges, such as exposure to toxic chemicals, heat stress, and poor air quality. Tropical medicine also addresses these environmental health issues.
5. Travel medicine: As global travel increases, there is a growing need for medical professionals who are knowledgeable about the health risks associated with traveling to tropical destinations. Tropical medicine physicians often provide pre-travel consultations and post-travel evaluations for international travelers.

Overall, tropical medicine is an essential field that addresses the unique health challenges faced by populations living in or traveling to tropical and subtropical regions.

Oxyurida is an order of nematode worms, also known as pinworms or threadworms. The most well-known species in this group is Enterobius vermicularis, which is a common parasite in humans. Oxyurids are small, white, and thread-like in appearance, and they typically infect the gastrointestinal tract of their hosts.

Infection with Oxyurida occurs when individuals accidentally ingest the eggs of these worms, often through contaminated food or drink. Once inside the body, the larvae hatch from the eggs and migrate to the large intestine, where they mature into adult worms. Female adults then lay their eggs around the anus, typically at night, which can cause intense itching and discomfort.

Oxyurida infections are most commonly seen in children, but they can also occur in adults who have close contact with infected individuals or engage in poor hygiene practices. Treatment for Oxyurida infections typically involves the use of anti-parasitic medications to kill the worms and prevent their eggs from hatching. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding nail-biting, can also help prevent the spread of these parasites.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Laos" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, located in Southeast Asia. If you have any questions about medical terms or health-related topics, I'd be happy to try and help answer them!

Methyl Green is not typically considered a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that has been used in various medical and laboratory contexts. Here's the general definition:

Methyl Green is a basic dye, which is a type of organic compound with positively charged ions (cations). It is commonly used as a biological stain to selectively color certain structures in cells or tissues, such as nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), during microscopic examination.

In the medical field, Methyl Green has been used as a component of some topical ointments for treating superficial bacterial infections. However, its use is not widespread due to the availability of more effective antibiotics.

It's important to note that Methyl Green should not be confused with Methylene Blue, another basic dye that has broader medical applications, such as treating methemoglobinemia and used as a marker in some diagnostic tests.

Ancylostomiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the hookworms, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. These tiny worms infect the human intestines, specifically in the small intestine, where they attach themselves to the intestinal wall and feed on the host's blood.

The infection is typically acquired through skin contact with contaminated soil, particularly in areas where human feces are used as fertilizer or where there is poor sanitation. The larvae penetrate the skin, enter the bloodstream, and migrate to the lungs, where they mature further before being coughed up and swallowed, eventually reaching the small intestine.

Symptoms of ancylostomiasis can range from mild to severe and may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, weight loss, and fatigue. In severe cases, particularly in children or individuals with weakened immune systems, the infection can lead to protein-energy malnutrition, cognitive impairment, and even death.

Treatment for ancylostomiasis typically involves administration of anthelmintic medications such as albendazole or mebendazole, which kill the parasitic worms. Improved sanitation and hygiene practices can help prevent reinfection and reduce the spread of the disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hydrology" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental impacts of water usage.

However, if you meant to ask about "hemodynamics" or "hydrostatic equilibrium," these are medical terms related to fluid dynamics within the body:

1. Hemodynamics: This term refers to the study of blood flow or the circulation of blood in the body, including the forces involved (such as pressure and resistance) and the properties of the blood vessels. It is a crucial aspect of understanding cardiovascular function and disease.
2. Hydrostatic equilibrium: In medical terms, this concept relates to the balance between the forces exerted by fluids within the body, particularly in reference to the distribution of body fluids and the maintenance of fluid compartments (intracellular and extracellular). It is essential for maintaining proper physiological functioning.

Please let me know if you had a different term or concept in mind, and I would be happy to help further!

Mansonella is a genus of filarial nematodes (roundworms) that are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected blackflies or mosquitoes. There are several species within this genus, including M. perstans, M. ozzardi, and M. streptocerca, which can cause different clinical manifestations in humans.

Mansonella perstans is the most widespread species, found mainly in Africa and some parts of Central and South America. The adult worms reside in the abdominal cavity and the thoracic cavity, where they release microfilariae into the bloodstream. This species does not usually cause severe symptoms, but chronic infection can lead to general malaise, fatigue, and peripheral eosinophilia (high levels of eosinophils in the blood).

Mansonella ozzardi is found primarily in Central and South America, and its vectors are mosquitoes. The adult worms reside in the body cavities, subcutaneous tissues, and the peritoneal cavity. Infection with M. ozzardi can cause dermatological manifestations such as pruritus (itching), papular rash, and calcified nodules under the skin.

Mansonella streptocerca is transmitted through bites of infected midges in West and Central Africa. The adult worms live in the subcutaneous tissues, particularly around the head and neck regions, leading to pruritus, papular rash, and lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes).

Diagnosis of Mansonella infections is typically made through the detection of microfilariae in blood samples, often obtained during nighttime due to the nocturnal periodicity of some species. Treatment usually involves the administration of antiparasitic drugs such as ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine.

Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a type of cytokine, which is a cell signaling molecule that mediates communication between cells in the immune system. Specifically, IL-4 is produced by activated T cells and mast cells, among other cells, and plays an important role in the differentiation and activation of immune cells called Th2 cells.

Th2 cells are involved in the immune response to parasites, as well as in allergic reactions. IL-4 also promotes the growth and survival of B cells, which produce antibodies, and helps to regulate the production of certain types of antibodies. In addition, IL-4 has anti-inflammatory effects and can help to downregulate the immune response in some contexts.

Defects in IL-4 signaling have been implicated in a number of diseases, including asthma, allergies, and certain types of cancer.

Elephantiasis, filarial is a medical condition characterized by the severe swelling of limbs or other parts of the body due to the blockage of lymphatic vessels by parasitic worms. It is caused by infection with threadlike nematode filarial worms, such as Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia timori. These worms are transmitted to humans through mosquito bites.

The blockage of lymphatic vessels leads to the accumulation of lymph fluid in the affected area, causing progressive swelling, thickening, and hardening of the skin and underlying tissues. In advanced cases, the skin may become rough, nodular, and fissured, resembling the hide of an elephant, hence the name "elephantiasis."

The condition is usually chronic and can cause significant disability and social stigma. While there is no cure for filarial elephantiasis, various treatments are available to alleviate symptoms, prevent transmission, and halt the progression of the disease. These include antibiotics to kill the worms, surgery to remove the lymphatic obstruction, and various supportive measures to manage the swelling and prevent secondary infections.

Platyhelminths, also known as flatworms, are a phylum of invertebrate animals that includes free-living and parasitic forms. They are characterized by their soft, flat bodies, which lack a body cavity or circulatory system. The phylum Platyhelminthes is divided into several classes, including Turbellaria (free-living flatworms), Monogenea (ectoparasites on fish gills and skin), Trematoda (flukes, parasites in mollusks and vertebrates), and Cestoda (tapeworms, intestinal parasites of vertebrates). Platyhelminths are bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, and unsegmented. They have a simple digestive system that consists of a mouth and a gut, but no anus. The nervous system is characterized by a brain and a ladder-like series of nerve cords running along the length of the body. Reproduction in platyhelminths can be either sexual or asexual, depending on the species.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Oxyuroidea is a superfamily of small parasitic worms, also known as nematodes, that includes pinworms and other related species. These parasites are primarily found in the intestinal tracts of various animals, including humans, and can cause a number of health problems, such as itching, irritation, and infection.

Pinworms, which are the most common type of Oxyuroidea, are tiny white worms that live in the human colon and rectum. They are particularly common in children and can be spread easily through close contact or contaminated surfaces. Symptoms of pinworm infection may include itching around the anus, restless sleep, and irritability.

Other species of Oxyuroidea can infect a wide range of animals, including dogs, cats, and livestock. These parasites can cause similar symptoms in their hosts, such as diarrhea, weight loss, and decreased appetite. In severe cases, they can lead to more serious health problems if left untreated.

Treatment for Oxyuroidea infections typically involves the use of anti-parasitic drugs, which can help to kill the worms and alleviate symptoms. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and cleaning contaminated surfaces, can also help to prevent the spread of these parasites.

'Hymenolepis diminuta' is a species of tapeworm that infects rodents and, less commonly, humans. The adult worm typically measures 20-60 cm in length and inhabits the small intestine of its host. Infection in humans usually occurs through ingestion of infected transport hosts such as beetles or fleas, which can occur through the consumption of contaminated food or drink.

The medical definition of 'Hymenolepis diminuta' is a parasitic infection caused by the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta, also known as dwarf tapeworm. Symptoms of infection may include abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, and weight loss, although many infections are asymptomatic. Diagnosis is typically made through the identification of eggs or proglottids (segments of the worm) in the stool. Treatment usually involves administration of a medication called niclosamide, which kills the tapeworm. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene and food safety habits to reduce the risk of ingesting infected transport hosts.

Ascaridida is an order of large, parasitic roundworms that belong to the phylum Nematoda. These worms are known to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, and can cause significant damage to their host's health. The most well-known species in this order is Ascaris lumbricoides, which is the causative agent of ascariasis in humans.

Ascariasis is a common parasitic infection that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. The life cycle of Ascaris lumbricoides involves the ingestion of eggs present in contaminated food or water. Once inside the human body, the larvae hatch from the eggs and migrate through the lungs, where they mature into adult worms that can grow up to 15 inches long. The adult worms then lay thousands of eggs that are passed through the feces, perpetuating the life cycle.

Symptoms of ascariasis can range from mild to severe and may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and coughing. In severe cases, the worms can cause intestinal obstruction or perforation, which can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Prevention of ascariasis involves practicing good hygiene and sanitation, including washing hands thoroughly with soap and water before eating or preparing food, avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water, and cooking food thoroughly. Treatment typically involves the use of anti-parasitic drugs that kill the worms and their eggs.

"Toxocara canis" is a species of roundworm that primarily infects canids, such as dogs and foxes. The adult worms live in the intestines of the host animal, where they lay eggs that are passed in the feces. These eggs can then mature and become infective to other animals, including humans, if they ingest them.

In humans, infection with "Toxocara canis" can cause a range of symptoms known as toxocariasis, which can include fever, coughing, wheezing, rash, and abdominal pain. In severe cases, the larvae of the worm can migrate to various organs in the body, including the eyes, leading to potentially serious complications.

Preventive measures for "Toxocara canis" infection include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands after handling pets or coming into contact with soil that may contain infected feces, and regular deworming of pets.

Parasitic pregnancy complications refer to a rare condition where a parasitic twin takes over the development of the dominant twin's reproductive system and becomes pregnant. This condition is also known as fetus in fetu or vanishing twin syndrome with a parasitic twin. The parasitic twin may have some organs developed, but it is not fully formed and relies on the dominant twin for survival. The pregnancy can pose risks to the dominant twin, such as abnormal growth patterns, organ damage, and complications during childbirth. This condition is usually detected during prenatal ultrasound examinations.

Onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus. The infection is primarily transmitted through the bites of infected blackflies (Simulium spp.) that breed in fast-flowing rivers and streams. The larvae of the worms mature into adults in nodules under the skin, where females release microfilariae that migrate throughout the body, including the eyes.

Symptoms include severe itching, dermatitis, depigmentation, thickening and scarring of the skin, visual impairment, and blindness. The disease is also known as river blindness due to its association with riverside communities where blackflies breed. Onchocerciasis can lead to significant social and economic consequences for affected individuals and communities. Preventive chemotherapy using mass drug administration of ivermectin is the primary strategy for controlling onchocerciasis in endemic areas.

Trichostrongyloidea is a superfamily of nematode (roundworm) parasites that includes several medically and veterinarily important genera. These parasites primarily infect the gastrointestinal tract of their hosts, which can include humans, ruminants, equids, and other animals.

The life cycle of Trichostrongyloidea species typically involves eggs being passed in the feces of an infected host, hatching into larvae in the environment, and then infecting a new host through ingestion or skin penetration. The parasites then mature into adults in the host's gastrointestinal tract, where they feed on blood or tissue and cause various symptoms depending on the species and the severity of the infection.

Some common genera of Trichostrongyloidea include:
- Trichostrongylus (barber pole worm)
- Necator (human hookworms)
- Ancylostoma (hookworms that infect both humans and animals)
- Haemonchus (barber pole worm)
- Ostertagia (brown stomach worm)

Symptoms of Trichostrongyloidea infections can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, weight loss, and protein deficiency. Treatment typically involves administration of anthelmintic drugs to kill the parasites. Prevention measures include good sanitation and hygiene practices, as well as regular deworming of animals in veterinary settings.

Echinostoma is a genus of parasitic flatworms, specifically trematodes, that are known to infect various species of birds and mammals, including humans. These parasites have a complex life cycle involving multiple hosts, typically snails as the intermediate host and aquatic animals (such as fish or amphibians) as the secondary host. Humans can become infected by consuming raw or undercooked infected secondary hosts.

Echinostoma species are characterized by having a distinctive oral sucker surrounded by a collar of spines, which gives them their name (echinos means "spiny" in Greek). The adult worms live in the intestines of their definitive host and can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. In severe cases, infection with Echinostoma species can lead to weight loss, malnutrition, and other complications.

It's worth noting that while human infections with Echinostoma species are relatively rare in developed countries, they can be more common in areas where raw or undercooked aquatic animals are consumed as part of traditional diets. Proper cooking and hygiene practices can help prevent infection with these parasites.

... helminth proteins have potential to be co-opted to treat a number of other human diseases. Helminth proteins modulate the ... A helminth protein, or helminthic antigen, is a protein derived from a parasitic worm that causes an immune reaction. When ... The Helminth Secretome Database (HSD) is a repository for helminth proteins predicted using expressed sequence tags (ESTs). ... Garg G, Ranganathan S (2012-01-01). "Helminth secretome database (HSD): a collection of helminth excretory/secretory proteins ...
In fact it is a living structure consisting of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and RNA. It forms the protective layer and the ...
17 October 2017). "HpARI Protein Secreted by a Helminth Parasite Suppresses Interleukin-33". Immunity. 47 (4): 739-751. doi: ... Reynolds, Lisa A.; Filbey, Kara J.; Maizels, Rick M. (2012-10-11). "Immunity to the model intestinal helminth parasite ... "TGF-β mimic proteins form an extended gene family in the murine parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus". International Journal for ... as it is used as a model of human helminth infection to which a spectrum of natural resistance to parasite infection exists. ...
helminth vs. fungus vs. protist). Mature Th cells express the surface protein CD4 and are referred to as CD4+ T cells. CD4+ T ... gastric fluid acidification to expel helminths. IL-5 from CD4 T cells will activate eosinophils to attack helminths. IL-10 ... The protein ZAP-70 can bind these phosphorylated ITAMs via its SH2 domain and then itself becomes phosphorylated, wherein it ... Cytokines are small protein mediators that alter the behavior of target cells that express receptors for those cytokines. These ...
Some helminth-products, like a protein of the nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae, didn't have any effect. Another infectious ... In the past, helminths were thought to simply suppress T-helper Type 1 (Th1) cells while inducing T-helper Type 2 (Th2) cells. ... In the journal EMBO Reports, Rook says that such helminths "are all either things that really do us no harm, or things where ... However, helminths also regulate Th2-caused diseases, such as allergy and asthma. Rook postulates that different parasitic ...
Large parasites like helminths are too big to be engulfed and killed by phagocytosis. They also have an external structure or ... Antibodies can then bind to these viral proteins. Next, the NK cells which have reciprocal Fcγ receptors will bind to that ... During replication of a virus, some of the viral proteins are expressed on the cell surface membrane of the infected cell. ... Subsequently, interaction between FcεRI and the Fc portion of helminth-bound IgE signals the eosinophil to degranulate. Several ...
This involves the use of mass spectrometry find parasite antigens (proteins which activate an adaptive immune response) which ... Mutapi's lab at the University of Edinburgh, the Parasite Immuno-epidemiology Group, researches immune responses to helminths ... Currently there are no available vaccines for infections by helminth worms including bilharzia. Mutapi is pioneering proteomics ...
AEP is involved in presenting of foreign and self proteins using MHCII protein complex. The role of AEP in immunity is not ... Discovered in 1996 in beans, its homologues have been identified in plants, protozoa, vertebrates, and helminths. The enzyme ... AEP cleaves tau protein and amyloid precursor protein. In patients with PD, alpha synuclein is cut by AEP into toxic chunks., ... It digests SET protein, which is an inhibitor of DNase, leading to DNA damage and causing damage of the brain. Increased ...
PRG2 is a 117-residue protein that predominates in eosinophil granules. It is a potent enzyme against helminths and is toxic ... Eosinophil major basic protein, often shortened to major basic protein (MBP; also called Proteoglycan 2 (PRG2)) is encoded in ... Major basic protein has been shown to interact with Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A. Arylsulfatase GRCh38: Ensembl ... Structurally the major basic protein (MBP) is similar to lectins (sugar-binding proteins), and has a fold similar to that seen ...
Research on larval antigens has focused on proteins that are members of the pathogenesis-related protein superfamily, ... For example, helminth infections cause potent and highly polarized immune response characterized by increased T-helper cell ... Ancylostoma Secreted Proteins. Although they were first described in Anyclostoma, these proteins have also been successfully ... Several of these proteins that are responsible for this proteolytic cascade are also essential for the worm's nutrition and ...
The upregulation of the immune system incurs significant nutritional costs in the forms of protein and energy. Immune costs are ... Gene networks have also been correlated with specific pathogens including helminths. Studies have shown genes that are ... Lee KP, Cory JS, Wilson K, Raubenheimer D, Simpson SJ (April 2006). "Flexible diet choice offsets protein costs of pathogen ... The species S.littoralis caterpillar when infected with nucleopolyhedrovirus will self-select a protein-rich diet, which ...
... pollen proteins or helminth antigens). Recent studies in mice suggest that basophils may also regulate the behavior of T cells ... Basophils have protein receptors on their cell surface that bind IgE, an immunoglobulin involved in macroparasite defense and ... Voehringer D (December 2009). "The role of basophils in helminth infection". Trends in Parasitology. 25 (12): 551-6. doi: ...
... against which helminths are not resistant. The interaction of the FcεRII receptor with the Fc portion of helminth bound IgE ... This adaptor protein is called the Fcγ subunit and, like FcγRIIA, contains the two YXXL sequences that are characteristic of an ... This receptor is called the Fc-alpha/mu receptor (Fcα/μR) and is a type I transmembrane protein. With one Ig-like domain in its ... In immunology, an Fc receptor is a protein found on the surface of certain cells - including, among others, B lymphocytes, ...
Another protein named DV33 can kill the sheep's roundworm Haemonchus contortus. There are also proteins that act on nervous ... It was experimented with bacteria and helminths in which it specifically destroys the cell membranes, thus, has antibiotic and ... These toxins are all proteins or derivatives of proteins, and some of them are chemically similar to insect neuropeptide, ... they found that some of them have medicinal properties such as the ability to kill pathogenic bacteria and helminth parasites. ...
It is also used as a molecular technique for infection with different pathogens, such as HIV, microbes, and helminth parasites ... Acquired immunity depends upon the interaction between antigens and a group of proteins called antibodies produced by B cells ... "Protein motion and lock and key complementarity in antigen-antibody reactions". Pharmaceutica Acta Helvetiae. 69 (4): 225-30. ... proteins, and decompression". Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine. 20 (2): 101-119. PMID 8392414. Olopoenia, L. A.; King, A. L. ( ...
"An integrated transcriptomics and proteomics analysis of the secretome of the helminth pathogen Fasciola hepatica: proteins ... "Major colour patterns of reef-building corals are due to a family of GFP-like proteins". Coral Reefs. 19 (3): 197-204. doi: ...
One proposed mechanism by which this may take place is that proteases secreted by the helminths cleave proteins which act as ... This model is best illustrated by RIN4 protein in A. thaliana. RIN4 forms a complex with the NB-LRR proteins RPM1 and RPS2. ... The interaction between pathogen and accessory protein results in some modification of the accessory protein, which allows for ... In short, this example elucidates how one NBS-LRR protein is able to recognize the effects of more than one virulence factor or ...
Philipp, M.; Parkhouse, R. M. E.; Ogilvie, B. M. (1980). "Changing proteins on the surface of a parasitic nematode". Nature. ... Ogilvie, B. M. (1964). "Reagin-like Antibodies in Animals Immune to Helminth Parasites". Nature. 204 (4953): 91-92. Bibcode: ...
October 2001). "Antifungal proteins and other mechanisms in the control of sorghum stalk rot and grain mold". Journal of ... Maizels RM (December 2005). "Infections and allergy - helminths, hygiene and host immune regulation". Current Opinion in ... Specifically, Cts1 expression has to be activated in daughter cells during late mitosis and the protein has to localize at the ... Elias JA, Homer RJ, Hamid Q, Lee CG (September 2005). "Chitinases and chitinase-like proteins in T(H)2 inflammation and asthma ...
... s express chemosensory proteins, like TRPM5 and α-gustducin. These proteins indicate that neighbouring neurons can ... The clearance of helminth in mice that lacked taste receptor function (Trpm5 or/-gustducin KO) or enough tuft cells (Pou2f3 KO ... Helminth colonization inducts a type-2 immune response, causes mucosal healing and achieves clinical remission. During an ... This shows that tufts cells are important in playing a protective role during the helminth infections. It was observed that IL- ...
WormBase ParaSite, a database for the genomics for parasitic helminths (both Nematodes and Platyhelminthes). Scientific ... a protein family database Rfam, an RNA family database TreeFam, a database of phylogenetic trees for animal genes WormBase, a ... The protein families database". Nucleic Acids Research. 42 (Database issue): D222-30. doi:10.1093/nar/gkt1223. PMC 3965110. ...
She was a doctoral researcher at the University of California, Berkeley, where her PhD investigated cysteine-rich proteins of ... Allen studies helminthiasis, a disease caused by helminth (parasitic worm) infection. The infection is associated with the ... Allen, Judith (1991). The cysteine-rich proteins of Chlamydia trachomatis in structure and immunity. berkeley.edu (PhD thesis ... Allen discovered a relationship between the chitinase-like protein 3 YM1 and Interleukin 17, an inflammatory cytokine ...
B. prasina suffers from parasitic infections by helminths. Helminths are a frequent parasite of amphibians because of the ... Since there are differences in the concentrations of different odor proteins based on the sex of the host, it is conjectured ... whereas other helminths must be ingested as eggs in order to infect the frog. There are at least four helminth taxa that prey ... Madelaire, Carla Bonetti; Gomes, Fernando Ribeiro; Silva, Reinaldo José da (2012). "Helminth Parasites of Hypsiboas prasinus ( ...
70 kDa heat shock proteins) - Hsp90 (90 kDa heat shock proteins) - heavy-chain immunoglobulin - Hela cell - helminth protein - ... protein - protein biosynthesis - Protein Data Bank - protein design - protein expression - protein folding - protein isoform - ... protein P16 - protein P34cdc2 - protein precursor - protein structure prediction - protein subunit - protein synthesis - ... proto-oncogene protein C-kit - proto-oncogene proteins c-abl - proto-oncogene proteins c-bcl-2 - Proto-oncogene proteins c-fos ...
Animals that produce RQ (e.g. C. elegans and helminth parasites) contain both COQ-2 protein isoforms (COQ-2a and COQ-2e), and ... The RquA protein uses S-adenosyl-L-methionine as the amino donor to convert UQ to RQ in an unusual Mn(II)-catalyzed reaction. ... Because this cofactor is used in low oxygen environments, many helminth-like organisms have adapted to survive host ...
These factors include protein deprivation (causing inadequate synthesis of the enzyme trypsin protease, to which the toxin is ... a number of factors-diet and endemic helminth infections among them-compound to result in pig-bel. The majority of preterm ... Protein poisoning refers to a different diet-induced phenomenon. "Clostridial Necrotizing Enteritis: Anaerobic Bacteria: Merck ... In New Guinea, where people generally have low-protein diets apart from tribal feasts, ...
... cationic protein and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin are ribonucleases with antiviral activity. Major basic protein ... They also fight helminth (worm) colonization and may be slightly elevated in the presence of certain parasites. Eosinophils are ... These include: major basic protein (MBP) eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) eosinophil-derived ... Eosinophil cationic protein creates toxic pores in the membranes of target cells, allowing potential entry of other cytotoxic ...
Frequent exposure to helminth infections, which are endemic in Africa, activates individual immune systems, thereby shifting ... Entry inhibitors bind to the CCR5 protein to block HIV from binding to the CD4 cell.[citation needed] Coinfections or ... 2004). "The glutamine-rich region of HIV-1 Tat protein involved in T cell apoptosis". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (46 ... Baeuerle, P.A. (1991). "The inducible transcription activator NF-kappa B: regulation by distinct protein subunits". Biochimica ...
... helminth infections Malaria Trachoma Schistosomiasis Lymphatic filariasis Onchocerciasis Dengue Japanese encephalitis Protein- ... WHO (2014) Soil-transmitted helminth infections, Fact sheet N°366 Soil-transmitted helminth infections. Fact sheet N°366 ( ... Approximately two billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths worldwide. This type of intestinal worm infection ... helminth infections and insect vector diseases (see also waterborne diseases, which can contaminate drinking water). For ...
In a more recent study, led by Nicole Maloney Belle, the Herbert lab pursued the importance of Trefoil factor proteins in the ... In 2021, he presented a review on the major inventions in the immunology of helminth infection made over the last decade, ... Herbert has worked on the study of parasitic helminths (worms). He has made contributions to the understanding of how the ... Moreover, his studies tend to cover the status of human challenge trials with helminths as treatment for autoimmune diseases. ...
... helminth proteins have potential to be co-opted to treat a number of other human diseases. Helminth proteins modulate the ... A helminth protein, or helminthic antigen, is a protein derived from a parasitic worm that causes an immune reaction. When ... The Helminth Secretome Database (HSD) is a repository for helminth proteins predicted using expressed sequence tags (ESTs). ... Garg G, Ranganathan S (2012-01-01). "Helminth secretome database (HSD): a collection of helminth excretory/secretory proteins ...
Hookworm infection can lead to anemia due to blood loss and chronic protein deficiency, particularly in children. Whipworm ... CDC website: Soil-transmitted helminths. The following authors contributed to the previous version of this chapter: Christine ... Soil-transmitted helminths (geohelminths). In: Cook GC, Zumla A, editors. Mansons tropical diseases, 22nd edition. London: ... Soil-transmitted helminth infections: ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm. Lancet. 2006;367(9521):1521-32. ...
The four proteins are a Piezo protein, two voltage-dependent calcium channels and a protocadherin-like protein, are all ... Intestinal helminths are extremely widespread and highly prevalent infections of humans, particularly in rural and poor urban ... Autotransporter proteins are a family of outer membrane or secreted proteins in Gram-negative bacteria such as Campylobacter, ... From over 100,000 protein sequences analyzed, four transmembrane proteins were predicted to be non-allergen antigens and ...
Protein and Peptide Sciences. *Ceramics, Glass, Composites and Hybrid Materials. *Surfaces, Interfaces, Thin Films, Corrosion, ... Use of Terpenoids to Control Helminths in Small Ruminants. Author(s): Dauana Mesquita-Sousa, Victoria Miro, Carolina R. Silva, ... Use of Terpenoids to Control Helminths in Small Ruminants, Terpenoids: Recent Advances in Extraction, Biochemistry and ...
Combination of D1/2/3 and D4/5 as separate proteins did not alter potency, suggesting that a physical linkage is required and ... The murine intestinal helminth, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, down-modulates the host immune system through release of an ... The murine intestinal helminth, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, down-modulates the host immune system through release of an ... Coprecipitation from cells treated with biotinylated D4/5, followed by mass spectrometry, identified the cell surface protein ...
Helminth secretome database (HSD): a collection of helminth excretory/secretory proteins predicted from expressed sequence tags ... Helminths are important socio-economic organisms, responsible for causing major parasitic infections in humans, other animals ... Blocking Protein kinase C signaling pathway: mechanistic insights into the anti-leishmanial activity of prospective herbal ... Space-related pharma-motifs for fast search of protein binding motifs and polypharmacological targets To discover a compound ...
In silico analyses of protein glycosylating genes in the helminth Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) predict protein-linked glycan ... In silico analyses of protein glycosylating genes in the helminth Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) predict protein-linked glycan ... Infection by the Helminth Parasite Fasciola hepatica Requires Rapid Regulation of Metabolic, Virulence, and Invasive Factors to ... An atypical and functionally diverse family of Kunitz-type cysteine/serine proteinase inhibitors secreted by the helminth ...
An inverse relationship is recognized between helminth infections and atopic dermatitis but no other pathogens. [4] In addition ... and skin barrier proteins such as filaggrin are expressed at significantly lower levels in the skin of patients with atopic ... of atopic dermatitis in patients with loss-of-function mutations in the gene that encodes the epidermal structural protein ...
About 25% of the children had a low protein intake and 93% had low intakes of vitamin A. Calcium intake was low in school ... Aims: The aims of the study are (1) To determine the prevalence of anemia, malaria, helminth infections and malnutrition in a ... Background: The disease burden of malnutrition, anemia, malaria and helminth infections among school-aged children is rarely ... Avocado, beans and matooke contributed to the highest fat, protein and vitamin A intake, respectively. Every participant ...
Respon Imun Mencit terhadap Protein 24 dan 71 kDa Toxocara vitulorum dalam Membentuk Antibodi dan Protektifitasnya terhadap ... Diversity and dialogue in immunity to helminths. Nat Publ Gr. 11(6):37588. ... Proteins isolated were 24 and 71 kDa. Proteins 24, 71 kDa and intestinal homogenates immunized in mice with the addition of ... Toxocara vitulorum; protein 24 kDa; protein 71 kDa; L2 T. vitulorum; Protection; protektifitas ...
Helminth Proteins. *Helminthiasis. *Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests. *Hemangiosarcoma. *Hemarthrosis. *Hematologic Diseases. ...
intracellular signaling peptides and proteins. Definitions. Medical Information Search ... Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Cells grown in ... Salivary Proteins and Peptides. Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ... Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.. ...
How to care for the two species of human helminth used in helminthic therapy: Necator americanus (NA) and Trichuris trichiura ( ... and recombinant fusion protein drugs such as etanercept (Enbrel). It can be an advantage to be taking one of these drugs in the ... Home,Using helminths,Helminth care,Human helminth care manual PLEASE READ THIS FIRST. This manual is only concerned with the ... Will or may kill, or cause the loss of, human helminths.. ⚡ May cause harm to human helminths in some people.. ➿ May cause a ...
Antibody responses to its proteins have been found to be associated with asthma presentation; however, helminth products that ... Protein levels were compared between each disease group and healthy controls. Significant proteins were compared to the gene ... Helminths and bacterial microbiota can interact in various ways. In this review, the interactions between helminths and ... Humans have coexisted with helminths and bacteria for the entire existence of our species. Nowadays, helminth infections affect ...
Hookworm, Ascaris, and whipworm are known as soil-transmitted helminths (parasitic worms). Together, they account for a major ... The most serious effects of hookworm infection are blood loss leading to anemia, in addition to protein loss. Hookworm ...
The impact of helminth infections on human nutrition : schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths / Lani S. Stephenson ; ... Results of search for su:{Protein-energy malnutrition} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently available ... The Treatment and management of severe protein-energy malnutrition. Material type: Text; Format: print Publication details: ... Protein-energy malnutrition.Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ (2)Call number: PAHO SERIAL, ... ...
... and the taxonomically nearest reference helminth genome (using RATT); and ESTs, mRNAs and proteins from related organisms ... International Helminth Genomes Consortium. Comparative genomics of the major parasitic worms. Nat Genet, 2019;51(1):163-174 ... The laboratory strain has been maintained as described by Camberis et al (2003) and is often used to model human helminth ... as part of the 50 Helminth Genomes project. An in-house pipeline was developed that used MAKER to generate high-quality ...
His expertise centres around the proteins secreted by parasitic helminths that facilitate their parasitic existence and utility ... of these proteins as anti-helminth vaccines.. His work has taken him around the world, including an 18-month position at George ... Now James Cook University researcher Dr Michael Smout has found that a protein in the spit also sends wound-healing messages. ... His research interests have included melanoma, childhood viral infections and most recently parasitic helminths of humans. ...
Helminths: These are parasitic worms that usually live in the human digestive tract. They can also infect other tissues, such ... Blood tests: This involves taking a sample of blood and testing it for the presence of parasite antigens (proteins), antibodies ... For example, protozoa and helminths can be transmitted by oral-fecal route (such as through poor hygiene or sexual contact), ... This is usually done for helminths that cause large masses or obstructions in the digestive tract, lungs, liver, brain, or ...
Benzo (c) phenanthridine and isoquinoline alkaloids are neurotoxic to helminths. Steroidal saponins (polyphyllin D and dioscin ... Benzyl isothiocyanate glucosinolates interfere with DNA replication and protein expression, while isoflavones from Acacia ... Yeast particle encapsulated terpenes are effective for the control of albendazole-resistant helminths. Keywords: Synthetic, ... oxyphylla cause helminth flaccid paralysis, inhibit energy generation, and affect calcium utilization. Condensed tannins have ...
Protists (algae and protozoa) fungi and helminths. Though helminths are visible to the naked eye, their lifecycle includes ... Acellular Microbes: Not cells but macromolecules, made of Proteins and nucleic acids behave as obligate parasites. Viruses are ... It deals with the synthesis, interaction, structural and functional aspects of living molecules (Proteins, Carbohydrates, ...
Subramanian, H., Gupta, K., and Ali, H. (2016). Roles of Mas-Related G Protein-Coupled Receptor X2 on Mast Cell-Mediated Host ... In helminth infection, NEB can release NMU and NMB to bidirectionally regulate the immune response. NMU activates the second ... Many studies on SARS-CoV-2 suggested that its approach to human host cells is mainly mediated by transmembrane protein ... Mas-related G-protein coupled receptor member A1) on CD301b + DCs, causing their migration to dLN to initiate Th2 cell ...
Flow cytometry analysis with siRNA induced knockdown of these proteins confirmed that the presence of the protein is needed for ... TFF3 interacts with LINGO2 to regulate EGFR activation for protection against colitis and gastrointestinal helminths ... Flow cytometry analysis with siRNA induced knockdown of these proteins confirmed that the presence of the protein is needed for ... We are a biotech company specialized in elucidating protein-protein interaction in living cells focusing at the cell membrane. ...
Many studies have shown the role of transporter proteins as a potential mechanism of drug resistance in different helminth ... multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs), and breast cancer resistant protein (BCRP). P-GP acts as an efflux pump for ML compounds ... In contrast to mammals, nematodes have multiple genes coding for transporter proteins, which may be essential to protect them ... have been shown to be substrates of the P-GP transport protein. In the mammalian host, P-GP participates in the mechanism of ...
How does the disease manifest itself? Complications of helminth infestations. Prevention of worm infection. ... It provides detailed information on protein metabolism, identifies abnormal loss or increase in protein synthesis, and allows ... If the presence of helminths in the brain or eyes is suspected, a computed tomography scan is performed. To diagnose helminths ... Helminths parasitize mammalian, fish, mollusc and amphibian organisms. To avoid contagion, you must avoid eating them raw and ...
Dzhivhuhos project dealt with the impact of helminth infections on the immunogenicity of candidate HIV vaccines in a mouse ... N and S protein biology. ...
Imaging Ellipsometry as a Novel Detection Method for Protein-Protein Interactions. Johns PhD was co-supervised by Dr Russ ...
Protein-Rich Diets to Control Parasitism. Indian researchers conducted an experiment to determine the effect of dietary protein ... Kaplans research program is focused on measuring, understanding, and solving the problem of drug resistance in helminth ...
The most abundant proteins in the cell lysate, histone H4, heat shock 70 kDa protein 1A/1B, heat shock protein HSP 90 beta, and ... Taenia solium is a helminth parasite that causes 2 diseases in humans: cysticercosis and taeniasis. The establishment of T. ... The ES-7 proteins that were expressed in HEK and CHO cells, and the Lec-5 protein that was expressed in CHO cells, were ... Recently, recombinant proteins such as rSs-NIE-1 and rSs-IR have been used to detect IgG antibodies. We used rSs-NIE-1 and rSs- ...
  • Due to the role of contaminated soil in their transmission, this group of nematode worms are known as soil-transmitted helminths (STH). (cdc.gov)
  • Hookworm, Ascaris , and whipworm are known as soil-transmitted helminths (parasitic worms). (cdc.gov)
  • Ascaris lumbricoides ( Ascaris or roundworm), Ancylostoma duodenale (hookworm), Necator americanus (hookworm), and Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) are helminths (parasitic worms) that infect the intestine. (cdc.gov)
  • Helminths: These are parasitic worms that usually live in the human digestive tract. (braziltoflorida.com)
  • Dr. Dzhivhuho's project dealt with the impact of helminth infections on the immunogenicity of candidate HIV vaccines in a mouse model. (cuanschutz.edu)
  • The Helminth Secretome Database (HSD) is a repository for helminth proteins predicted using expressed sequence tags (ESTs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the database can also be used to develop protein targets for new drugs to treat helminth infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Helminths are important socio-economic organisms, responsible for causing major parasitic infections in humans, other animals and plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An inverse relationship is recognized between helminth infections and atopic dermatitis but no other pathogens. (medscape.com)
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Helminth infections modify the natural history of allergic diseases, by either decreasing or increasing their symptoms. (bvsalud.org)
  • His research interests have included melanoma, childhood viral infections and most recently parasitic helminths of humans. (freshscience.org)
  • Previously identified ESTs, which correspond to known helminth proteins, are used to predict the location and function of newly discovered helminth proteins based on genomic sequencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • and ESTs, mRNAs and proteins from related organisms aligned to the genome using BLAST, with refinement of alignments using Exonerate . (wormbase.org)
  • Other helminth proteins promote parasite survival in other ways, particularly since parasites must depend on hosts for the supply of essential nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parasites like helminths do not synthesize their own fatty acids or sterols, and are consequently dependent on their hosts for essential nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunopathogenetic Aspects of Disease Induced by Helminth Parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • If we take into account the weak natural defense of the child's body against helminth infestations, it is not difficult to realize how high the chances are that the parasites will affect the child's intestines. (clean-forte.pl)
  • Dr. Kaplan's research program is focused on measuring, understanding, and solving the problem of drug resistance in helminth parasites. (smore.com)
  • The two molecules were produced as recombinant proteins in E. coli expression systems. (bvsalud.org)
  • Intracellular signaling peptides and proteins. (lookformedical.com)
  • The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. (lookformedical.com)
  • We identify the targets of your extracellular ligands (small molecules, peptides, proteins, antibodies, ADC's, Fc-fusion proteins, and viruses) using the ligand-receptor capture LRC-TriCEPS and the HATRIC-LRC platforms. (dualsystems.com)
  • Limited pharmacological studies have been conducted on plant species used against poultry helminths. (kab.ac.ug)
  • Almost 400 species of helminths can parasitize the human body, 70 of these are the most widespread in our country. (clean-forte.pl)
  • The development of sulfonamides and penicillin in the period preceding World War II was followed by a remarkable period of progress in the discovery of antimicrobial agents efficient against micro organism, fungi, viruses, protozoa, and helminths. (chooseaustinfirst.com)
  • For example, protozoa and helminths can be transmitted by oral-fecal route (such as through poor hygiene or sexual contact), blood transfusion, organ transplant, or sharing needles. (braziltoflorida.com)
  • Ov-FAR-1 and ABA-1A1 may instead behave similarly to extracellular lipid-binding proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example protozoan parasitic diseases (e.g. trypanosomiasis, coccidiosis), disease caused by helminth pathogens (e.g. liver flukes, Cysticercosis), bacterial diseases (e.g. brucellosis, leptospirosis, and anthrax) and viral zoonotic diseases (e.g. rabies, rift valley fever) and several others can accidentally infect humans [ 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • A helminth protein, or helminthic antigen, is a protein derived from a parasitic worm that causes an immune reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Schistosome proteins also contain abundant proteases which and cleave IgE antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, helminth products that induce immunosuppression have been reported, which also raise specific antibodies. (bvsalud.org)
  • Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules. (lookformedical.com)
  • RECENT FINDINGS: We updated the list of helminth allergens and IgE-binding molecules, their effects on asthma presentation, and their impact on allergy diagnosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • The murine intestinal helminth, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, down-modulates the host immune system through release of an immunosuppressive TGF-β mimic, TGM1, which is a divergent member of the CCP (Sushi) protein family. (us.es)
  • Proteins 24, 71 kDa and intestinal homogenates immunized in mice with the addition of adjuvant (1: 1) for 3 times with period of 2 weeks. (ugm.ac.id)
  • Coprecipitation from cells treated with biotinylated D4/5, followed by mass spectrometry, identified the cell surface protein CD44 as a coreceptor for TGM1. (us.es)
  • A number of proteins are able to induce production of IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • All three of these proteins are able to deliver lipids to acceptor membranes, but this transfer process in Ov-FAR-1 and ABA-1A1 (a type of NPA) requires an aqueous diffusion step. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ceramide lipids in the stratum corneum, which are responsible for water retention and permeability functions, and skin barrier proteins such as filaggrin are expressed at significantly lower levels in the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis compared with the skin of patients without atopic dermatitis. (medscape.com)
  • Given the modulatory properties of helminth proteins, it has been suggested that they may be co-opted to successfully treat other human diseases, particularly those associated with auto-immunity disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2011. Diversity and dialogue in immunity to helminths. (ugm.ac.id)
  • When secreted, these proteins may modify the host's immune response in order to promote longevity of the parasite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, a parasite protein known to bind two host cytokine receptor subunits has evolved a third receptor specificity, which serves to raise the avidity and cell type-specific potency of TGF-β signaling in mammalian cells. (us.es)
  • The draft genome assembly was produced by the Parasite Genomic group at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute , in collaboration with Rick Maizels (Edinburgh University) as part of the 50 Helminth Genomes project. (wormbase.org)
  • The gene predictions were made by the Parasite Genomics group at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and WormBase, as part of the 50 Helminth Genomes project. (wormbase.org)
  • 8. Anti bodies - Protein substances produced on challenge by an antigen. (who.int)
  • Hookworm infection can lead to anemia due to blood loss and chronic protein deficiency, particularly in children. (cdc.gov)
  • The most serious effects of hookworm infection are blood loss leading to anemia, in addition to protein loss. (cdc.gov)
  • Antibacterial brokers could have an effect on cell wall or protein synthesis, nucleic acid formation, or critical metabolic pathways. (chooseaustinfirst.com)
  • Several helminth components are involved in the increasing of the allergic response and symptoms, overcoming the concomitant immunosuppression of helminthiases. (bvsalud.org)
  • Helminth proteins can result in a deregulated response to infection, and are implicated in reduced reactivity to other antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study aimed to get 24 and 71 kDa protein of T. vitulorum that have a high antigenicity and imunogenicity on ELISA and to get the protein which able to protect mice against artificial infection of L2 T. vitulorum . (ugm.ac.id)
  • The laboratory strain has been maintained as described by Camberis et al (2003) and is often used to model human helminth infection as it can establish chronic infection in different strains of mice. (wormbase.org)
  • Despite their pathogenic properties, helminth proteins have potential to be co-opted to treat a number of other human diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the care of the non-human helminths, TSO and HDC, see the Helminth care page. (helminthictherapywiki.org)
  • Will or may kill, or cause the loss of, human helminths. (helminthictherapywiki.org)
  • May cause harm to human helminths in some people. (helminthictherapywiki.org)
  • May cause a temporary reduction in benefits from human helminths. (helminthictherapywiki.org)
  • Safe, or likely to be safe, for human helminths. (helminthictherapywiki.org)
  • If no search results are found (and your spelling is correct) the substance is far more likely to be safe than unsafe for therapeutic human helminths. (helminthictherapywiki.org)
  • While many hosts of human helminths are able to eat normal dietary amounts of coconut products without affecting their worms, others find that some forms of this food will affect their worms sufficiently to impair their beneficial effects. (helminthictherapywiki.org)
  • Helminth proteins modulate the immune response of their hosts, but do not suppress it entirely. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Treatment and management of severe protein-energy malnutrition. (who.int)
  • This result supports the possibility of eventually using helminth products to treat type I diabetes in humans as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anther example of how the concentrated form of a substance can be harmful to helminths while foods containing the same substances are not are the phytochemical compounds, isomyristicin and bergaptenix . (helminthictherapywiki.org)
  • The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression , and patterns diagnostic for diseases. (lookformedical.com)
  • The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). (lookformedical.com)
  • Alpha-1, a protein released by schistosome eggs, can also be a chemokine binding protein, preventing the recruitment of other immune cells like neutrophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fact is that helminths periodically crawl through the child's anus, laying eggs in the immediate vicinity, which causes severe itching in the child. (clean-forte.pl)
  • Protein sources consumed almost every day by more than 50% of all participants were dried beans.Chicken, eggs and full cream milk were consumed significantly morefrequently by urban participants. (bvsalud.org)
  • Additionally, injection of proteins secreted by Fasciola hepatica in nonobese diabetic mice prevented the onset of type I diabetes, with 84% of the mice showing normal glucose levels 26 weeks after injection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Use of Terpenoids to Control Helminths in Small Ruminants, Terpenoids: Recent Advances in Extraction, Biochemistry and Biotechnology (2022) 1: 148. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Yeast particle encapsulated terpenes are effective for the control of albendazole-resistant helminths. (kab.ac.ug)
  • 24 and 71 kDa protein of T. vitulorum that have a high antigenicity and imunogenicity. (ugm.ac.id)
  • Now James Cook University researcher Dr Michael Smout has found that a protein in the spit also sends wound-healing messages. (freshscience.org)
  • We are a biotech company specialized in elucidating protein-protein interaction in living cells focusing at the cell membrane. (dualsystems.com)
  • The study was conducted in Adadiah poor weaning practices, a low-protein diet or and Ndon Ebom in Uruan Local Government Area secondarily from nutrient malabsorption across the (LGA) of Akwa Ibom State. (who.int)
  • CEPOQ (Centre d'expertise en production ovine du Québec) has developed a series of seven fact sheets on internal parasitism management. (smore.com)