Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
A syndrome related to increased atmospheric pressure and characterized by tremors, nausea, dizziness, decreased motor and mental performance, and SEIZURES. This condition may occur in those who dive deeply (c. 1000 ft) usually while breathing a mixture of oxygen and helium. The condition is associated with a neuroexcitatory effect of helium.
Elements that constitute group 18 (formerly the zero group) of the periodic table. They are gases that generally do not react chemically.
Progressive mental disturbances and unconsciousness due to breathing mixtures of oxygen and inert gases (argon, helium, xenon, krypton, and atmospheric nitrogen) at high pressure.
Ionized gases, consisting of free electrons and ionized atoms or molecules which collectively behave differently than gas, solid, or liquid. Plasma gases are used in biomedical fields in surface modification; biological decontamination; dentistry (e.g., PLASMA ARC DENTAL CURING LIGHTS); and in other treatments (e.g., ARGON PLASMA COAGULATION).
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
A noble gas that is found in the atmosphere. It has the atomic symbol Kr, atomic number 36, atomic weight 83.80, and has been used in electric bulbs.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.
Deliberate introduction of air into the peritoneal cavity.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Neon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ne, atomic number 10, and atomic weight 20.18. It is found in the earth's crust and atmosphere as an inert, odorless gas and is used in vacuum tubes and incandescent lamps.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Techniques where DNA is delivered directly into organelles at high speed using projectiles coated with nucleic acid, shot from a helium-powered gun (gene gun). One of these techniques involves immunization by DNA VACCINES, which delivers DNA-coated gold beads to the epidermis.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
'Fires' is not a recognized medical term for a symptom, diagnosis, or condition in patients.
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
Sulfur hexafluoride. An inert gas used mainly as a test gas in respiratory physiology. Other uses include its injection in vitreoretinal surgery to restore the vitreous chamber and as a tracer in monitoring the dispersion and deposition of air pollutants.
The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.
Lasers in which a gas lasing medium is stimulated to emit light by an electric current or high-frequency oscillator.
Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.
Nuclear reaction in which the nucleus of a heavy atom such as uranium or plutonium is split into two approximately equal parts by a neutron, charged particle, or photon.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.

Experiment of nitrox saturation diving with trimix excursion. (1/397)

Depth limitations to diving operation with air as the breathing gas are well known: air density, oxygen toxicity, nitrogen narcosis and requirement for decompression. The main objectives of our experiment were to assess the decompression, counterdiffusion and performance aspect of helium-nitrogen-oxygen excursions from nitrox saturation. The experiment was carried out in a wet diving stimulator with "igloo" attached to a 2-lock living chamber. Four subjects of two teams of 2 divers were saturated at 25 msw simulated depth in a nitrogen oxygen chamber environment for 8 days, during which period they performed 32 divers-excursions to 60 or 80 msw pressure. Excursion gas mix was trimix of 14.6% oxygen, 50% helium and 35.4% nitrogen, which gave a bottom oxygen partial pressure of 1.0 bars at 60 msw and 1.3 at 80 msw. Excursions were for 70 min at 60 msw with three 10-min work periods and 40 min at 80 msw with two 10-min work periods. Work was on a bicycle ergometer at a moderate level. We calculated the excursion decompression with M-Values based on methods of Hamilton (Hamilton et al., 1990). Staged decompression took 70 min for the 60 msw excursion and 98 min for 80 msw, with stops beginning at 34 or 43 msw respectively. After the second dive day bubbles were heard mainly in one diver but in three divers overall, to Spencer Grade III some times. No symptoms were reported. Saturation decompression using the Repex procedures began at 40 msw and was uneventful: Grade II and sometimes III bubbles persisted in 2 of the four divers until 24 hr after surfacing. We conclude that excursions with mixture rich in helium can be performed effectively to as deep as 80 msw using these procedures.  (+info)

Comparison of two new methods for the measurement of lung volumes with two standard methods. (2/397)

BACKGROUND: The two most commonly used methods for the measurement of lung volumes are helium dilution and body plethysmography. Two methods have been developed which are both easier and less time consuming to perform. Mathematical modelling uses complex calculations from the flow-volume loop to derive total lung capacity (TLC), and the nitrogen balance technique uses nitrogen from the atmosphere to calculate lung volume in a similar way to helium dilution. This study was designed to compare the two new methods with the two standard methods. METHODS: Sixty one subjects were studied, 23 with normal lung function, 17 with restrictive airway disease, and 21 with obstructive ventilatory defects. Each subject underwent repeated measurements of TLC by each of the four methods in random order. Reproducible values were obtained for each method according to BTS/ARTP guidelines. Bland-Altman plots were constructed for comparisons between the methods and paired t tests were used to assess differences in means. RESULTS: Bland-Altman plots showed that the differences between body plethysmography and helium dilution fell into clinically acceptable ranges (agreement limits +/-0.9 l). The agreement between mathematical modelling or the nitrogen balance technique and helium dilution or body plethysmography was poor (+/-1.8-3.4 l), especially for subjects with airflow obstruction. CONCLUSIONS: Neither of the new methods agrees sufficiently with standard methods to be useful in a clinical setting.  (+info)

Influence of gas density on simulated snoring. (3/397)

According to a recent theoretical model, snoring is related to instability of the upper airway (UA). Factors promoting UA instability include increased gas density. The aim of this study was to test the influence of gas density on simulated snoring production and supraglottic resistance. Supraglottic pressure and flow rate (V') were measured in 10 healthy seated subjects during simulated snoring. Subjects breathed three different gas mixtures: Helium-oxygen, He 79%-O2 21% (He-O2); air; and sulphur hexafluoride-oxygen, F6S 79%-O2 21% (F6S-O2) administered in a random order. Supraglottic resistance (Rsg) was measured on its linear range during quiet breathing and V' was measured at the onset and middle of snoring. Linear Rsg increased and V' conversely decreased with gas density. These data are in agreement with predictions of a mathematical model of the upper airway showing that snoring occurs at lower flow rates when gas density is increased.  (+info)

Helium and sulfur hexafluoride bolus washin in short-term microgravity. (4/397)

We performed single-breath washout (SBW) tests in which He and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) were inspired throughout the vital capacity inspirations or were inhaled as discrete boluses at different points in the inspiration. Tests were performed in normal gravity (1 G) and in up to 27 s of microgravity (microG) during parabolic flight. The phase III slope of the SBW could be accurately reconstructed from individual bolus tests when allowance for airways closure was made. Bolus tests showed that most of the SBW phase III slope results from events during inspiration at lung volumes below closing capacity and near total lung capacity, as does the SF6-He phase III slope difference. Similarly, the difference between 1 G and microG in phase III slopes for both gases was entirely accounted for by gravity-dependent events at high and low lung volumes. Phase IV height was always larger for SF6 than for He, suggesting at least some airway closure in close proximity to airways that remain open at residual volume. These results help explain previous studies in microG, which show large changes in gas mixing in vital capacity maneuvers but only small effects in tidal volume breaths.  (+info)

Intrapulmonary gas mixing and the sloping alveolar plateau in COPD patients with macroscopic emphysema. (5/397)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, especially those with emphysema, show steep slopes of the alveolar plateau (S). This study tested the hypothesis that continued gas exchange between poorly and well-ventilated lung units by means of collateral ventilation would contribute to S in these patients. Nine young volunteers, nine older volunteers and 11 patients with macroscopic emphysema performed wash-out tests with helium (He) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). S was determined for breaths 1-5 (range 1), and for breaths between 95% and 98% of complete wash-out (range 2). An unequal ventilation index (UVI) was defined as the ratio between the estimated mean alveolar pressure and the end tidal pressure (PET) of each tracer gas, calculated over range 2. Over the same range, a phase III ratio was calculated by dividing PET by the estimated pressure at Fowler dead space. In all groups of subjects, the S for He and SF6 were greater for range 2 than for range 1 (p< or =0.012). In the emphysema patients, the correlations between S and UVI were 0.72 for He (p=0.012) and 0.81 for SF6 (p=0.002), while the mean phase III ratios were 1.7 for He and 2.4 for SF6, much less than their theoretical maxima. It was concluded that in patients collateral ventilation may account for only a small part of the increase in the alveolar plateau slope between ranges 1 and 2, and that this increase was mainly caused by unequal ventilation in combination with sequential emptying of lung units. The degree of sequential emptying, however, was modest compared with its full potential.  (+info)

Single-shot diffusion measurement in laser-polarized Gas. (6/397)

A single-shot pulsed gradient stimulated echo sequence is introduced to address the challenges of diffusion measurements of laser polarized 3He and 129Xe gas. Laser polarization enhances the NMR sensitivity of these noble gases by >10(3), but creates an unstable, nonthermal polarization that is not readily renewable. A new method is presented which permits parallel acquisition of the several measurements required to determine a diffusive attenuation curve. The NMR characterization of a sample's diffusion behavior can be accomplished in a single measurement, using only a single polarization step. As a demonstration, the diffusion coefficient of a sample of laser-polarized 129Xe gas is measured via this method.  (+info)

Hyperbaric bradycardia and hypoventilation in exercising men: effects of ambient pressure and breathing gas. (7/397)

We sought to determine whether hydrostatic pressure contributed to bradycardia and hypoventilation in hyperbaria. Eight men were studied during exercise at 50, 150, and 250 W while breathing 1) air at 1 bar, 2) helium-oxygen (He-O(2)) at 5.5 bar, 3) sulfur hexafluoride-oxygen (SF(6)-O(2)) at 1.3 bar, and 4) nitrogen-oxygen (N(2)-O(2)) at 5.5 bar. Gas densities were pairwise identical in 1) and 2), and 3) and 4), respectively. Increased hydrostatic pressure to 5.5 bar resulted in a modest but significant relative bradycardia on the order of 6 beats/min, in both the absence [1) vs. 2), P = 0. 0015] and presence [3) vs. 4), P = 0.029] of gases that are both denser than normal and mildly narcotic. In contrast, ventilatory responses appeared not to be influenced by hydrostatic pressure. Also, the combined exposure to increased gas density and mild-to-moderate inert gas narcosis at a given hydrostatic pressure [1) vs. 3), 2) vs. 4)] caused bradycardia (P = 0.032 and 0.061, respectively) of similar magnitude as 5.5-bar hydrostatic pressure. At the same time there was relative hypoventilation at the two higher workloads. We conclude that heart rate control, but not ventilatory control, is sensitive to relatively small increases in hydrostatic pressure.  (+info)

A model of extravascular bubble evolution: effect of changes in breathing gas composition. (8/397)

Observations of bubble evolution in rats after decompression from air dives (O. Hyldegaard and J. Madsen. Undersea Biomed. Res. 16: 185-193, 1989; O. Hyldegaard and J. Madsen. Undersea Hyperbaric Med. 21: 413-424, 1994; O. Hyldegaard, M. Moller, and J. Madsen. Undersea Biomed. Res. 18: 361-371, 1991) suggest that bubbles may resolve more safely when the breathing gas is a heliox mixture than when it is pure O(2). This is due to a transient period of bubble growth seen during switches to O(2) breathing. In an attempt to understand these experimental results, we have developed a multigas-multipressure mathematical model of bubble evolution, which consists of a bubble in a well-stirred liquid. The liquid exchanges gas with the bubble via diffusion, and the exchange between liquid and blood is described by a single-exponential time constant for each inert gas. The model indicates that bubbles resolve most rapidly in spinal tissue, in adipose tissue, and in aqueous tissues when the breathing gas is switched to O(2) after surfacing. In addition, the model suggests that switching to heliox breathing may prolong the existence of the bubble relative to breathing air for bubbles in spinal and adipose tissues. Some possible explanations for the discrepancy between model and experiment are discussed.  (+info)

Argon is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, and nonreactive noble gas that occurs in the Earth's atmosphere. It is chemically inert and is extracted from air by fractional distillation. Argon is used in various applications such as illumination, welding, and as a shielding gas in manufacturing processes.

In medical terms, argon is not commonly used as a therapeutic agent or medication. However, it has been used in some medical procedures such as argon laser therapy for the treatment of certain eye conditions like diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. In these procedures, an argon laser is used to seal off leaking blood vessels or destroy abnormal tissue in the eye.

Overall, while argon has important uses in medical procedures, it is not a medication or therapeutic agent that is commonly administered directly to patients.

Atmospheric pressure, also known as barometric pressure, is the force per unit area exerted by the Earth's atmosphere on objects. It is measured in units of force per unit area, such as pascals (Pa), pounds per square inch (psi), or, more commonly, millimeters of mercury (mmHg).

Standard atmospheric pressure at sea level is defined as 101,325 Pa (14.7 psi) or 760 mmHg (29.92 inches of mercury). Atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing altitude, as the weight of the air above becomes less. This decrease in pressure can affect various bodily functions, such as respiration and digestion, and may require adaptation for individuals living at high altitudes. Changes in atmospheric pressure can also be used to predict weather patterns, as low pressure systems are often associated with stormy or inclement weather.

High pressure neurological syndrome (HPNS) is not a specific medical condition but rather a group of symptoms that can occur in deep sea divers during rapid decompression or ascent from great depths. It is caused by the increased pressure of nitrogen gas dissolved in the blood and tissues, which can affect the nervous system and cause various neurological symptoms.

HPNS is characterized by a range of symptoms including tremors, myoclonic jerks (involuntary muscle twitches), visual disturbances, nausea, dizziness, disorientation, and decreased mental performance. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures, loss of consciousness, and even death.

The exact mechanisms underlying HPNS are not fully understood, but it is believed that the high pressure causes changes in the membranes of nerve cells, leading to altered ion channel function and neurotransmitter release. The symptoms of HPNS can be minimized by using a slow decompression rate or by using gas mixtures that reduce the amount of nitrogen in the breathing gas.

The Noble gases are a group of elements in the periodic table, specifically helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and radon (Rn). They are called "noble" because they are very unreactive due to having a full complement of electrons in their outer atomic shell, which makes them stable and non-reactive with other elements. This property also means that they do not form compounds under normal conditions. Noble gases are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and nontoxic gases. They are used in various applications such as lighting, medical imaging, and scientific research.

Inert Gas Narcosis (IGN), also known as nitrogen narcosis or raptores narcosis, is a reversible alteration in consciousness, perception, and behavior that can occur in divers who breathe gas mixtures with high partial pressures of inert gases, such as nitrogen or helium, at depth. It is caused by the anesthetic effect of these gases on the central nervous system and is often described as feeling drunk or euphoric. The symptoms typically occur at depths greater than 30 meters (100 feet) and can include impaired judgment, memory, and coordination, which can increase the risk of accidents and injuries underwater. IGN is managed by ascending to shallower depths, where the partial pressure of the inert gas decreases, and by using gas mixtures with lower fractions of inert gases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plasma Gases" is not a recognized medical term or concept. Plasma is a state of matter, like solid, liquid, or gas, and it is often referred to as the fourth state of matter. It consists of ionized particles, or particles that have been stripped of some of their electrons.

In the context of medicine, plasma is most commonly discussed in relation to blood plasma, which is the yellowish fluid in which blood cells are suspended. Plasma carries cells, hormones, nutrients, and waste products throughout the body.

If you have any questions related to medical definitions or concepts, I'd be happy to help further if I can!

Air pressure, also known as atmospheric pressure, is the force exerted by the weight of air in the atmosphere on a surface. It is measured in units such as pounds per square inch (psi), hectopascals (hPa), or inches of mercury (inHg). The standard atmospheric pressure at sea level is defined as 101,325 Pa (14.7 psi/1013 hPa/29.92 inHg). Changes in air pressure can be used to predict weather patterns and are an important factor in the study of aerodynamics and respiratory physiology.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Krypton" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Kr and atomic number 36. It's a noble gas, colorless, odorless, tasteless, and nonreactive. It's commonly used in lighting products like flash lamps and high-powered gas lasers. The misconception might arise from its use in popular culture, notably as the element that gives Superman his powers in comic books, movies, and television shows.

Lung volume measurements are clinical tests that determine the amount of air inhaled, exhaled, and present in the lungs at different times during the breathing cycle. These measurements include:

1. Tidal Volume (TV): The amount of air inhaled or exhaled during normal breathing, usually around 500 mL in resting adults.
2. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): The additional air that can be inhaled after a normal inspiration, approximately 3,000 mL in adults.
3. Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV): The extra air that can be exhaled after a normal expiration, about 1,000-1,200 mL in adults.
4. Residual Volume (RV): The air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalation, approximately 1,100-1,500 mL in adults.
5. Total Lung Capacity (TLC): The total amount of air the lungs can hold at full inflation, calculated as TV + IRV + ERV + RV, around 6,000 mL in adults.
6. Functional Residual Capacity (FRC): The volume of air remaining in the lungs after a normal expiration, equal to ERV + RV, about 2,100-2,700 mL in adults.
7. Inspiratory Capacity (IC): The maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal expiration, equal to TV + IRV, around 3,500 mL in adults.
8. Vital Capacity (VC): The total volume of air that can be exhaled after a maximal inspiration, calculated as IC + ERV, approximately 4,200-5,600 mL in adults.

These measurements help assess lung function and identify various respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and restrictive lung diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyvinyl Chloride" (PVC) is not a medical term. It is a type of synthetic plastic polymer material. PVC is commonly used in various industrial, commercial, and consumer products, such as pipes, cable insulation, clothing, and inflatable items.

If you have any medical concerns or questions, please provide them, and I would be happy to help you find a relevant answer.

Artificial pneumoperitoneum is a medical condition that refers to the presence of air or gas in the peritoneal cavity, which is the space between the lining of the abdominal wall and the organs within the abdomen. This condition is typically created intentionally during surgical procedures, such as laparoscopy, to provide a working space for the surgeon to perform the operation.

During laparoscopic surgery, a thin tube called a trocar is inserted through a small incision in the abdominal wall, and carbon dioxide gas is pumped into the peritoneal cavity to create a pneumoperitoneum. This allows the surgeon to insert specialized instruments through other small incisions and perform the surgery while visualizing the operative field with a camera.

While artificial pneumoperitoneum is generally safe, there are potential complications that can arise, such as injury to surrounding organs or blood vessels during trocar insertion, subcutaneous emphysema (air trapped under the skin), or gas embolism (gas in the bloodstream). These risks are typically minimized through careful technique and monitoring during the procedure.

In medical terms, gases refer to the state of matter that has no fixed shape or volume and expands to fill any container it is placed in. Gases in the body can be normal, such as the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen that are present in the lungs and blood, or abnormal, such as gas that accumulates in the digestive tract due to conditions like bloating or swallowing air.

Gases can also be used medically for therapeutic purposes, such as in the administration of anesthesia or in the treatment of certain respiratory conditions with oxygen therapy. Additionally, measuring the amount of gas in the body, such as through imaging studies like X-rays or CT scans, can help diagnose various medical conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Neon" is not a medical term. Neon is actually a noble gas, the fourth lightest and second most abundant in the Earth's atmosphere. It is used in vacuum tubes and high-voltage indicators, and in advertising signs and neon lamps. If you have any medical terms you would like me to define, please let me know!

Oxygen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that constitutes about 21% of the earth's atmosphere. It is a crucial element for human and most living organisms as it is vital for respiration. Inhaled oxygen enters the lungs and binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, which carries it to tissues throughout the body where it is used to convert nutrients into energy and carbon dioxide, a waste product that is exhaled.

Medically, supplemental oxygen therapy may be provided to patients with conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, heart failure, or other medical conditions that impair the body's ability to extract sufficient oxygen from the air. Oxygen can be administered through various devices, including nasal cannulas, face masks, and ventilators.

Biolistics is a term used in the medical and scientific fields to describe a method of delivering biological material, such as DNA or RNA, into cells or tissues using physical force. It is also known as gene gun or particle bombardment. This technique typically involves coating tiny particles, such as gold or tungsten beads, with the desired genetic material and then propelling them at high speeds into the target cells using pressurized gas or an electrical discharge. The particles puncture the cell membrane and release the genetic material inside, allowing it to be taken up by the cell. This technique is often used in research settings for various purposes, such as introducing new genes into cells for study or therapeutic purposes.

In medical terms, 'air' is defined as the mixture of gases that make up the Earth's atmosphere. It primarily consists of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), and small amounts of other gases such as argon, carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of neon, helium, and methane.

Air is essential for human life, as it provides the oxygen that our bodies need to produce energy through respiration. We inhale air into our lungs, where oxygen is absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body. At the same time, carbon dioxide, a waste product of cellular metabolism, is exhaled out of the body through the lungs and back into the atmosphere.

In addition to its role in respiration, air also plays a critical role in regulating the Earth's climate and weather patterns, as well as serving as a medium for sound waves and other forms of energy transfer.

Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) is the volume of air that remains in the lungs after normal expiration during quiet breathing. It represents the sum of the residual volume (RV) and the expiratory reserve volume (ERV). The FRC is approximately 2.5-3.5 liters in a healthy adult. This volume of air serves to keep the alveoli open and maintain oxygenation during periods of quiet breathing, as well as providing a reservoir for additional ventilation during increased activity or exercise.

Nitrogen is not typically referred to as a medical term, but it is an element that is crucial to medicine and human life.

In a medical context, nitrogen is often mentioned in relation to gas analysis, respiratory therapy, or medical gases. Nitrogen (N) is a colorless, odorless, and nonreactive gas that makes up about 78% of the Earth's atmosphere. It is an essential element for various biological processes, such as the growth and maintenance of organisms, because it is a key component of amino acids, nucleic acids, and other organic compounds.

In some medical applications, nitrogen is used to displace oxygen in a mixture to create a controlled environment with reduced oxygen levels (hypoxic conditions) for therapeutic purposes, such as in certain types of hyperbaric chambers. Additionally, nitrogen gas is sometimes used in cryotherapy, where extremely low temperatures are applied to tissues to reduce pain, swelling, and inflammation.

However, it's important to note that breathing pure nitrogen can be dangerous, as it can lead to unconsciousness and even death due to lack of oxygen (asphyxiation) within minutes.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Fires" is not a medical term that I am aware of. In a general context, a fire refers to the rapid oxidation of a material in the chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products. If you are asking about a specific medical term or condition, could you please provide more context or clarify your question? I'm here to help!

Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure exerted by a fluid at equilibrium at a given point within the fluid, due to the force of gravity. In medical terms, hydrostatic pressure is often discussed in relation to body fluids and tissues. For example, the hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries (tiny blood vessels) is the force that drives the fluid out of the blood vessels and into the surrounding tissues. This helps to maintain the balance of fluids in the body. Additionally, abnormal increases in hydrostatic pressure can contribute to the development of edema (swelling) in the tissues.

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is not typically a term used in medical definitions, but it is a colorless, odorless, non-flammable gas that is heavier than air. It is commonly used in the medical field for its magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) properties.

In MRI, SF6 is used as a contrast agent to improve the visualization of blood vessels and flow. When injected into a patient's bloodstream, the gas displaces oxygen in the blood, causing the blood vessels to appear darker on an MRI scan. This allows doctors to better see any abnormalities or blockages in the blood vessels.

It is important to note that sulfur hexafluoride should only be used under medical supervision and with appropriate precautions, as it can have adverse effects if not handled properly.

Hyperbaric oxygenation is a medical treatment in which a patient breathes pure oxygen in a pressurized chamber, typically at greater than one atmosphere absolute (ATA). This process results in increased levels of oxygen being dissolved in the blood and delivered to body tissues, thereby promoting healing, reducing inflammation, and combating infection. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is used to treat various medical conditions, including carbon monoxide poisoning, decompression sickness, gangrene, and wounds that are slow to heal due to diabetes or radiation injury.

In medical terms, pressure is defined as the force applied per unit area on an object or body surface. It is often measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) in clinical settings. For example, blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the arteries and is recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (when the heart beats and pushes blood out) and diastolic pressure (when the heart rests between beats).

Pressure can also refer to the pressure exerted on a wound or incision to help control bleeding, or the pressure inside the skull or spinal canal. High or low pressure in different body systems can indicate various medical conditions and require appropriate treatment.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas that is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere. It is a normal byproduct of cellular respiration in humans, animals, and plants, and is also produced through the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

In medical terms, carbon dioxide is often used as a respiratory stimulant and to maintain the pH balance of blood. It is also used during certain medical procedures, such as laparoscopic surgery, to insufflate (inflate) the abdominal cavity and create a working space for the surgeon.

Elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the body can lead to respiratory acidosis, a condition characterized by an increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and a decrease in pH. This can occur in conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other lung diseases that impair breathing and gas exchange. Symptoms of respiratory acidosis may include shortness of breath, confusion, headache, and in severe cases, coma or death.

Total Lung Capacity (TLC) is the maximum volume of air that can be contained within the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It includes all of the following lung volumes: tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume. TLC can be measured directly using gas dilution techniques or indirectly by adding residual volume to vital capacity. Factors that affect TLC include age, sex, height, and lung health status.

Gas lasers are a type of laser that uses a gas as the gain medium, or the material through which the laser beam is amplified. In a gas laser, the gas is excited electrically or through the use of a radio frequency (RF) generator, causing the atoms or molecules within the gas to emit light at specific wavelengths.

The most common type of gas laser is the helium-neon (HeNe) laser, which produces a red beam at a wavelength of 632.8 nanometers. Other types of gas lasers include the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser, which produces an infrared beam and is commonly used for industrial cutting and welding applications, and the nitrogen laser, which produces a ultraviolet beam.

Gas lasers are known for their high efficiency, stability, and long lifespan. They are also relatively easy to maintain and operate, making them popular choices for a variety of industrial, scientific, and medical applications. In medicine, gas lasers are used for procedures such as laser surgery, where they can be used to cut or coagulate tissue with high precision.

Isotopes are variants of a chemical element that have the same number of protons in their atomic nucleus, but a different number of neutrons. This means they have different atomic masses, but share similar chemical properties. Some isotopes are stable and do not decay naturally, while others are unstable and radioactive, undergoing radioactive decay and emitting radiation in the process. These radioisotopes are often used in medical imaging and treatment procedures.

Plethysmography is a non-invasive medical technique used to measure changes in volume or blood flow within an organ or body part, typically in the lungs or extremities. There are several types of plethysmography, including:

1. **Whole Body Plethysmography (WBP):** This type of plethysmography is used to assess lung function and volumes by measuring changes in pressure within a sealed chamber that contains the patient's entire body except for their head. The patient breathes normally while wearing a nose clip, allowing technicians to analyze respiratory patterns, airflow, and lung volume changes.
2. **Segmental or Local Plethysmography:** This technique measures volume or blood flow changes in specific body parts, such as the limbs or digits. It can help diagnose and monitor conditions affecting peripheral circulation, like deep vein thrombosis, arterial occlusive disease, or Raynaud's phenomenon.
3. **Impedance Plethysmography (IPG):** This non-invasive method uses electrical impedance to estimate changes in blood volume within an organ or body part. By applying a small electrical current and measuring the opposition to flow (impedance), technicians can determine variations in blood volume, which can help diagnose conditions like deep vein thrombosis or heart failure.
4. **Optical Plethysmography:** This technique uses light to measure changes in blood volume, typically in the skin or mucous membranes. By shining a light on the area and analyzing the reflected or transmitted light, technicians can detect variations in blood volume related to cardiac output, respiration, or other physiological factors.

Overall, plethysmography is an essential tool for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions affecting circulation, respiratory function, and organ volumes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "nuclear fission" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. It is a concept from nuclear physics. Nuclear fission is the process of splitting a heavy, unstable atomic nucleus (such as uranium-235 or plutonium-239) into two lighter nuclei, along with a few subatomic particles (like neutrons and photons) and a large release of energy. This process can occur naturally, but it is also used in nuclear power plants and atomic bombs.

Urethane is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, in the field of chemistry and pharmacology, urethane is an ethyl carbamate ester which has been used as a general anesthetic. It is rarely used today due to its potential carcinogenic properties and the availability of safer alternatives.

In the context of materials science, polyurethanes are a class of polymers that contain urethane linkages (-NH-CO-O-) in their main chain. They are widely used in various applications such as foam insulation, coatings, adhesives, and medical devices due to their versatile properties like flexibility, durability, and resistance to abrasion.

Airway obstruction is a medical condition that occurs when the normal flow of air into and out of the lungs is partially or completely blocked. This blockage can be caused by a variety of factors, including swelling of the tissues in the airway, the presence of foreign objects or substances, or abnormal growths such as tumors.

When the airway becomes obstructed, it can make it difficult for a person to breathe normally. They may experience symptoms such as shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and chest tightness. In severe cases, airway obstruction can lead to respiratory failure and other life-threatening complications.

There are several types of airway obstruction, including:

1. Upper airway obstruction: This occurs when the blockage is located in the upper part of the airway, such as the nose, throat, or voice box.
2. Lower airway obstruction: This occurs when the blockage is located in the lower part of the airway, such as the trachea or bronchi.
3. Partial airway obstruction: This occurs when the airway is partially blocked, allowing some air to flow in and out of the lungs.
4. Complete airway obstruction: This occurs when the airway is completely blocked, preventing any air from flowing into or out of the lungs.

Treatment for airway obstruction depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, removing the obstruction may be as simple as clearing the airway of foreign objects or mucus. In other cases, more invasive treatments such as surgery may be necessary.

Indicator dilution techniques are a group of methods used in medicine and research to measure various physiological variables, such as cardiac output or cerebral blood flow. These techniques involve introducing a known quantity of an indicator substance (like a dye or a radioactive tracer) into the system being studied and then measuring its concentration over time at a specific location downstream.

The basic principle behind these techniques is that the concentration of the indicator substance will be inversely proportional to the flow rate of the fluid through which it is moving. By measuring the concentration of the indicator substance at different points in time, researchers can calculate the flow rate using mathematical formulas.

Indicator dilution techniques are widely used in clinical and research settings because they are relatively non-invasive and can provide accurate and reliable measurements of various physiological variables. Some common examples of indicator dilution techniques include thermodilution, dye dilution, and Fick principle-based methods.

The term "diving" is generally not used in the context of medical definitions. However, when referring to diving in relation to a medical or physiological context, it usually refers to the act of submerging the body underwater, typically for activities such as swimming, snorkeling, or scuba diving.

In a medical or physiological sense, diving can have specific effects on the human body due to changes in pressure, temperature, and exposure to water. Some of these effects include:

* Changes in lung volume and gas exchange due to increased ambient pressure at depth.
* Decompression sickness (DCS) or nitrogen narcosis, which can occur when dissolved gases form bubbles in the body during ascent from a dive.
* Hypothermia, which can occur if the water is cold and the diver is not adequately insulated.
* Barotrauma, which can occur due to pressure differences between the middle ear or sinuses and the surrounding environment.
* Other medical conditions such as seizures or heart problems can also be exacerbated by diving.

It's important for divers to undergo proper training and certification, follow safe diving practices, and monitor their health before and after dives to minimize the risks associated with diving.

Pulmonary gas exchange is the process by which oxygen (O2) from inhaled air is transferred to the blood, and carbon dioxide (CO2), a waste product of metabolism, is removed from the blood and exhaled. This process occurs in the lungs, primarily in the alveoli, where the thin walls of the alveoli and capillaries allow for the rapid diffusion of gases between them. The partial pressure gradient between the alveolar air and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries drives this diffusion process. Oxygen-rich blood is then transported to the body's tissues, while CO2-rich blood returns to the lungs to be exhaled.

A laser is not a medical term per se, but a physical concept that has important applications in medicine. The term "LASER" stands for "Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation." It refers to a device that produces and amplifies light with specific characteristics, such as monochromaticity (single wavelength), coherence (all waves moving in the same direction), and high intensity.

In medicine, lasers are used for various therapeutic and diagnostic purposes, including surgery, dermatology, ophthalmology, and dentistry. They can be used to cut, coagulate, or vaporize tissues with great precision, minimizing damage to surrounding structures. Additionally, lasers can be used to detect and measure physiological parameters, such as blood flow and oxygen saturation.

It's important to note that while lasers are powerful tools in medicine, they must be used by trained professionals to ensure safe and effective treatment.

Helium is not a medical term, but it's a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2. It's a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, inert, monatomic gas that heads the noble gases section of the periodic table. In medicine, helium is sometimes used in medical settings for its unique properties, such as being less dense than air, which can help improve the delivery of oxygen to patients with respiratory conditions. For example, heliox, a mixture of helium and oxygen, may be used to reduce the work of breathing in patients with conditions like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma. Additionally, helium is also used in cryogenic medical equipment and in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines to cool the superconducting magnets.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Xenon is a noble gas with symbol Xe and atomic number 54. It's a colorless, heavy, odorless, and chemically inert gas. In the field of medicine, xenon has been used as a general anesthetic due to its ability to produce unconsciousness while preserving physiological reflexes and cardiovascular stability. Its use is limited due to high cost compared to other anesthetics.

"Inhalation administration" is a medical term that refers to the method of delivering medications or therapeutic agents directly into the lungs by inhaling them through the airways. This route of administration is commonly used for treating respiratory conditions such as asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and cystic fibrosis.

Inhalation administration can be achieved using various devices, including metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs), nebulizers, and soft-mist inhalers. Each device has its unique mechanism of delivering the medication into the lungs, but they all aim to provide a high concentration of the drug directly to the site of action while minimizing systemic exposure and side effects.

The advantages of inhalation administration include rapid onset of action, increased local drug concentration, reduced systemic side effects, and improved patient compliance due to the ease of use and non-invasive nature of the delivery method. However, proper technique and device usage are crucial for effective therapy, as incorrect usage may result in suboptimal drug deposition and therapeutic outcomes.

Inhalational anesthesia is a type of general anesthesia that is induced by the inhalation of gases or vapors. It is administered through a breathing system, which delivers the anesthetic agents to the patient via a face mask, laryngeal mask airway, or endotracheal tube.

The most commonly used inhalational anesthetics include nitrous oxide, sevoflurane, isoflurane, and desflurane. These agents work by depressing the central nervous system, causing a reversible loss of consciousness, amnesia, analgesia, and muscle relaxation.

The depth of anesthesia can be easily adjusted during the procedure by changing the concentration of the anesthetic agent. Once the procedure is complete, the anesthetic agents are eliminated from the body through exhalation, allowing for a rapid recovery.

Inhalational anesthesia is commonly used in a wide range of surgical procedures due to its ease of administration, quick onset and offset of action, and ability to rapidly adjust the depth of anesthesia. However, it requires careful monitoring and management by trained anesthesia providers to ensure patient safety and optimize outcomes.

Intubation, intratracheal is a medical procedure in which a flexible plastic or rubber tube called an endotracheal tube (ETT) is inserted through the mouth or nose, passing through the vocal cords and into the trachea (windpipe). This procedure is performed to establish and maintain a patent airway, allowing for the delivery of oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide during mechanical ventilation in various clinical scenarios, such as:

1. Respiratory failure or arrest
2. Procedural sedation
3. Surgery under general anesthesia
4. Neuromuscular disorders
5. Ingestion of toxic substances
6. Head and neck trauma
7. Critical illness or injury affecting the airway

The process of intubation is typically performed by trained medical professionals, such as anesthesiologists, emergency medicine physicians, or critical care specialists, using direct laryngoscopy or video laryngoscopy to visualize the vocal cords and guide the ETT into the correct position. Once placed, the ETT is secured to prevent dislodgement, and the patient's respiratory status is continuously monitored to ensure proper ventilation and oxygenation.

Pulmonary ventilation, also known as pulmonary respiration or simply ventilation, is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange. It involves two main phases: inhalation (or inspiration) and exhalation (or expiration). During inhalation, the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract, causing the chest volume to increase and the pressure inside the chest to decrease, which then draws air into the lungs. Conversely, during exhalation, these muscles relax, causing the chest volume to decrease and the pressure inside the chest to increase, which pushes air out of the lungs. This process ensures that oxygen-rich air from the atmosphere enters the alveoli (air sacs in the lungs), where it can diffuse into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide-rich air from the bloodstream in the capillaries surrounding the alveoli is expelled out of the body.

Respiratory Function Tests (RFTs) are a group of medical tests that measure how well your lungs take in and exhale air, and how well they transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of your blood. They can help diagnose certain lung disorders, measure the severity of lung disease, and monitor response to treatment.

RFTs include several types of tests, such as:

1. Spirometry: This test measures how much air you can exhale and how quickly you can do it. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other lung diseases.
2. Lung volume testing: This test measures the total amount of air in your lungs. It can help diagnose restrictive lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis.
3. Diffusion capacity testing: This test measures how well oxygen moves from your lungs into your bloodstream. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, and other lung diseases that affect the ability of the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood.
4. Bronchoprovocation testing: This test involves inhaling a substance that can cause your airways to narrow, such as methacholine or histamine. It's often used to diagnose and monitor asthma.
5. Exercise stress testing: This test measures how well your lungs and heart work together during exercise. It's often used to diagnose lung or heart disease.

Overall, Respiratory Function Tests are an important tool for diagnosing and managing a wide range of lung conditions.

Respiratory mechanics refers to the biomechanical properties and processes that involve the movement of air through the respiratory system during breathing. It encompasses the mechanical behavior of the lungs, chest wall, and the muscles of respiration, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.

Respiratory mechanics includes several key components:

1. **Compliance**: The ability of the lungs and chest wall to expand and recoil during breathing. High compliance means that the structures can easily expand and recoil, while low compliance indicates greater resistance to expansion and recoil.
2. **Resistance**: The opposition to airflow within the respiratory system, primarily due to the friction between the air and the airway walls. Airway resistance is influenced by factors such as airway diameter, length, and the viscosity of the air.
3. **Lung volumes and capacities**: These are the amounts of air present in the lungs during different phases of the breathing cycle. They include tidal volume (the amount of air inspired or expired during normal breathing), inspiratory reserve volume (additional air that can be inspired beyond the tidal volume), expiratory reserve volume (additional air that can be exhaled beyond the tidal volume), and residual volume (the air remaining in the lungs after a forced maximum exhalation).
4. **Work of breathing**: The energy required to overcome the resistance and elastic forces during breathing. This work is primarily performed by the respiratory muscles, which contract to generate negative intrathoracic pressure and expand the chest wall, allowing air to flow into the lungs.
5. **Pressure-volume relationships**: These describe how changes in lung volume are associated with changes in pressure within the respiratory system. Important pressure components include alveolar pressure (the pressure inside the alveoli), pleural pressure (the pressure between the lungs and the chest wall), and transpulmonary pressure (the difference between alveolar and pleural pressures).

Understanding respiratory mechanics is crucial for diagnosing and managing various respiratory disorders, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and restrictive lung diseases.

Anesthetics are medications that are used to block or reduce feelings of pain and sensation, either locally in a specific area of the body or generally throughout the body. They work by depressing the nervous system, interrupting the communication between nerves and the brain. Anesthetics can be administered through various routes such as injection, inhalation, or topical application, depending on the type and the desired effect. There are several classes of anesthetics, including:

1. Local anesthetics: These numb a specific area of the body and are commonly used during minor surgical procedures, dental work, or to relieve pain from injuries. Examples include lidocaine, prilocaine, and bupivacaine.
2. Regional anesthetics: These block nerve impulses in a larger area of the body, such as an arm or leg, and can be used for more extensive surgical procedures. They are often administered through a catheter to provide continuous pain relief over a longer period. Examples include spinal anesthesia, epidural anesthesia, and peripheral nerve blocks.
3. General anesthetics: These cause a state of unconsciousness and are used for major surgical procedures or when the patient needs to be completely immobile during a procedure. They can be administered through inhalation or injection and affect the entire body. Examples include propofol, sevoflurane, and isoflurane.

Anesthetics are typically safe when used appropriately and under medical supervision. However, they can have side effects such as drowsiness, nausea, and respiratory depression. Proper dosing and monitoring by a healthcare professional are essential to minimize the risks associated with anesthesia.

Medical Definition of Respiration:

Respiration, in physiology, is the process by which an organism takes in oxygen and gives out carbon dioxide. It's also known as breathing. This process is essential for most forms of life because it provides the necessary oxygen for cellular respiration, where the cells convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and releases waste products, primarily carbon dioxide.

In humans and other mammals, respiration is a two-stage process:

1. Breathing (or external respiration): This involves the exchange of gases with the environment. Air enters the lungs through the mouth or nose, then passes through the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi, finally reaching the alveoli where the actual gas exchange occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses into the blood, while carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, diffuses from the blood into the alveoli to be exhaled.

2. Cellular respiration (or internal respiration): This is the process by which cells convert glucose and other nutrients into ATP, water, and carbon dioxide in the presence of oxygen. The carbon dioxide produced during this process then diffuses out of the cells and into the bloodstream to be exhaled during breathing.

In summary, respiration is a vital physiological function that enables organisms to obtain the necessary oxygen for cellular metabolism while eliminating waste products like carbon dioxide.

Metabolism is the complex network of chemical reactions that occur within our bodies to maintain life. It involves two main types of processes: catabolism, which is the breaking down of molecules to release energy, and anabolism, which is the building up of molecules using energy. These reactions are necessary for the body to grow, reproduce, respond to environmental changes, and repair itself. Metabolism is a continuous process that occurs at the cellular level and is regulated by enzymes, hormones, and other signaling molecules. It is influenced by various factors such as age, genetics, diet, physical activity, and overall health status.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. Gold is typically a chemical element with the symbol Au and atomic number 79. It is a dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions.

However, if you are referring to "Gold" in the context of medical terminology, it may refer to:

1. Gold salts: These are a group of compounds that contain gold and are used in medicine for their anti-inflammatory properties. They have been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, although they have largely been replaced by newer drugs with fewer side effects.
2. Gold implants: In some cases, a small amount of gold may be surgically implanted into the eye to treat conditions such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. The gold helps to hold the retina in place and can improve vision in some patients.
3. Gold thread embedment: This is an alternative therapy used in traditional Chinese medicine, where gold threads are embedded into the skin or acupuncture points for therapeutic purposes. However, there is limited scientific evidence to support its effectiveness.

I hope this information helps! If you have any further questions, please let me know.

Artificial respiration is an emergency procedure that can be used to provide oxygen to a person who is not breathing or is breathing inadequately. It involves manually forcing air into the lungs, either by compressing the chest or using a device to deliver breaths. The goal of artificial respiration is to maintain adequate oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs until the person can breathe on their own or until advanced medical care arrives. Artificial respiration may be used in conjunction with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in cases of cardiac arrest.

Anesthesia is a medical term that refers to the loss of sensation or awareness, usually induced by the administration of various drugs. It is commonly used during surgical procedures to prevent pain and discomfort. There are several types of anesthesia, including:

1. General anesthesia: This type of anesthesia causes a complete loss of consciousness and is typically used for major surgeries.
2. Regional anesthesia: This type of anesthesia numbs a specific area of the body, such as an arm or leg, while the patient remains conscious.
3. Local anesthesia: This type of anesthesia numbs a small area of the body, such as a cut or wound, and is typically used for minor procedures.

Anesthesia can be administered through various routes, including injection, inhalation, or topical application. The choice of anesthesia depends on several factors, including the type and duration of the procedure, the patient's medical history, and their overall health. Anesthesiologists are medical professionals who specialize in administering anesthesia and monitoring patients during surgical procedures to ensure their safety and comfort.

Tidal volume (Vt) is the amount of air that moves into or out of the lungs during normal, resting breathing. It is the difference between the volume of air in the lungs at the end of a normal expiration and the volume at the end of a normal inspiration. In other words, it's the volume of each breath you take when you are not making any effort to breathe more deeply.

The average tidal volume for an adult human is around 500 milliliters (ml) per breath, but this can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, size, and fitness level. During exercise or other activities that require increased oxygen intake, tidal volume may increase to meet the body's demands for more oxygen.

Tidal volume is an important concept in respiratory physiology and clinical medicine, as it can be used to assess lung function and diagnose respiratory disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma.

In the context of medicine, and specifically in physiology and respiratory therapy, partial pressure (P or p) is a measure of the pressure exerted by an individual gas in a mixture of gases. It's commonly used to describe the concentrations of gases in the body, such as oxygen (PO2), carbon dioxide (PCO2), and nitrogen (PN2).

The partial pressure of a specific gas is calculated as the fraction of that gas in the total mixture multiplied by the total pressure of the mixture. This concept is based on Dalton's law, which states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures exerted by each individual gas.

For example, in room air at sea level, the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) is approximately 160 mmHg (mm of mercury), which represents about 21% of the total barometric pressure (760 mmHg). This concept is crucial for understanding gas exchange in the lungs and how gases move across membranes, such as from alveoli to blood and vice versa.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Ischemic preconditioning, myocardial is a phenomenon in cardiac physiology where the heart muscle (myocardium) is made more resistant to the damaging effects of a prolonged period of reduced blood flow (ischemia) or oxygen deprivation (hypoxia), followed by reperfusion (restoration of blood flow). This resistance is developed through a series of brief, controlled episodes of ischemia and reperfusion, which act as "preconditioning" stimuli, protecting the myocardium from subsequent more severe ischemic events. The adaptive responses triggered during preconditioning include the activation of various protective signaling pathways, release of protective factors, and modulation of cellular metabolism, ultimately leading to reduced infarct size, improved contractile function, and attenuated reperfusion injury in the myocardium.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

In a medical context, "hot temperature" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, it is often used in relation to fever, which is a common symptom of illness. A fever is typically defined as a body temperature that is higher than normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F) for adults and above 37.5-38°C (99.5-101.3°F) for children, depending on the source.

Therefore, when a medical professional talks about "hot temperature," they may be referring to a body temperature that is higher than normal due to fever or other causes. It's important to note that a high environmental temperature can also contribute to an elevated body temperature, so it's essential to consider both the body temperature and the environmental temperature when assessing a patient's condition.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that combines the separating power of gas chromatography with the identification capabilities of mass spectrometry. This method is used to separate, identify, and quantify different components in complex mixtures.

In GC-MS, the mixture is first vaporized and carried through a long, narrow column by an inert gas (carrier gas). The various components in the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase inside the column, leading to their separation based on their partition coefficients between the mobile and stationary phases. As each component elutes from the column, it is then introduced into the mass spectrometer for analysis.

The mass spectrometer ionizes the sample, breaks it down into smaller fragments, and measures the mass-to-charge ratio of these fragments. This information is used to generate a mass spectrum, which serves as a unique "fingerprint" for each compound. By comparing the generated mass spectra with reference libraries or known standards, analysts can identify and quantify the components present in the original mixture.

GC-MS has wide applications in various fields such as forensics, environmental analysis, drug testing, and research laboratories due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and ability to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds.

I'm happy to help! However, it seems like there are two terms combined into one request: "Mitochondria" and "Heart." I will provide separate definitions for each.

Mitochondrion (singular) or Mitochondria (plural): These are specialized structures found in the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus), including human cells. They are often referred to as the "powerhouse" of the cell because they generate energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria contain their own DNA, which is distinct from the nuclear DNA, and are believed to have originated from ancient bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive eukaryotic cells.

Heart: In human anatomy, the heart is a muscular organ responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. It is located in the thoracic cavity, slightly left of the center, and is enclosed by the pericardium, a double-walled sac that provides protection and lubrication for the heart's movement. The human heart is divided into four chambers: two atria on the top and two ventricles on the bottom. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs, while the left side receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it to the rest of the body. The heart's pumping action is regulated by electrical signals that originate in a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells called the sinoatrial node (SA node).

Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter, a type of chemical messenger that transmits signals across a chemical synapse from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell. It is involved in both peripheral and central nervous system functions.

In the peripheral nervous system, acetylcholine acts as a neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction, where it transmits signals from motor neurons to activate muscles. Acetylcholine also acts as a neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system, where it is involved in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.

In the central nervous system, acetylcholine plays a role in learning, memory, attention, and arousal. Disruptions in cholinergic neurotransmission have been implicated in several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and myasthenia gravis.

Acetylcholine is synthesized from choline and acetyl-CoA by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and is stored in vesicles at the presynaptic terminal of the neuron. When a nerve impulse arrives, the vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane, releasing acetylcholine into the synapse. The acetylcholine then binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, triggering a response in the target cell. Acetylcholine is subsequently degraded by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which terminates its action and allows for signal transduction to be repeated.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

... -7 and helium-8 are created in certain nuclear reactions. Helium-6 and helium-8 are known to exhibit a nuclear halo. ... With some history of helium. U.S. Geological Survey publications on helium beginning 1996: Helium Where is all the helium? Aga ... Helium II also exhibits a creeping effect. When a surface extends past the level of helium II, the helium II moves along the ... The shortest-lived heavy helium isotope is the unbound helium-10 with a half-life of 2.6(4)×10−22 s. Helium-6 decays by ...
A Helium analyzer is an instrument used to identify the presence and concentration of helium in a mixture of gases. In ... oxygen content and helium content, and thus the content of helium can be determined by measuring the speed of sound through the ... and in these cases can generally give a full helium and oxygen analysis of the mixture simultaneously. Helium content may also ... A typical thermal helium analyser comprises two chambers, each with an identical thermal conductivity sensor. One chamber is ...
... is a three-body atom composed of an antiproton and an electron orbiting around a helium nucleus. It is thus ... An antiprotonic helium ion is a two-body object composed of a helium nucleus and orbiting antiproton. It has an electric charge ... Antiprotonic helium atoms are under study by the ASACUSA experiment at CERN. In these experiments, the atoms are first produced ... "Pionic helium". www.mpq.mpg.de. Retrieved 2022-03-16. ASACUSA improves measurement of antiproton mass (Articles with short ...
The degenerate helium core will keep on contracting, and finally becomes a helium white dwarf. The helium flash is not directly ... This allows hydrogen fusion to start in a layer above the helium layer. After enough additional helium accumulates, helium ... After the flash, helium fusion continues at an exponentially decaying rate for about 40% of the cycle as the helium shell is ... A helium flash is a very brief thermal runaway nuclear fusion of large quantities of helium into carbon through the triple- ...
Helium-3 is predicted to form a trimer, although ground state dimers containing helium-3 are completely unstable. Helium trimer ... The helium trimer is large, being more than 100 Å, which is even larger than the helium dimer. The atoms are not arranged in an ... The helium trimer (or trihelium) is a weakly bound molecule consisting of three helium atoms. Van der Waals forces link the ... Such a set up also produces the helium dimer and other helium atom clusters. The existence of the molecule was proven by matter ...
... also exists on the Moon and - as on Earth - it is the most abundant helium isotope. The helium atom is the second ... The stability of helium-4 is the reason that hydrogen is converted to helium-4, and not deuterium (hydrogen-2) or helium-3 or ... Helium-4 (4 He ) is a stable isotope of the element helium. It is by far the more abundant of the two naturally occurring ... The total spin of the helium-4 nucleus is an integer (zero), and therefore it is a boson (as are neutral atoms of helium-4). ...
With Helium-3 (3He) production the 4He/3He evolution is interpreted to provide an intragranular Helium-4 (4He) distribution. ... Helium dating may refer to the traditional uranium-thorium dating (abbreviated U-Th/He dating) or to a variety of He diffusion ... Helium diffusion experiments are often used to help interpret information retrieved from U-Th/He thermochronometric experiments ... A relatively new dating method, tritium-helium dating has been developed for determining rates of oxygen utilization in the ...
Gliese 436 b is a possible helium planet. There are several hypotheses for how a helium planet might form. A helium planet ... A helium planet is a planet with a helium-dominated atmosphere. This contrasts with ordinary gas giants such as Jupiter and ... leaving a greater proportion of helium behind. A scenario for forming helium planets from regular giant planets involves an ice ... and is hypothesized to be a helium planet. Planet § Formation "Helium-Shrouded Planets May Be Common in Our Galaxy". SpaceDaily ...
... official website Helium Vola at laut.de (in German) Helium Vola discography at MusicBrainz Pictures (Webarchive ... Hannah Wagner, who joined the Helium Vola ensemble on the latest album Wohin?, usually performs a few Helium Vola pieces on the ... "Helium Vola - Liod", Orkus Magazin 5/2004 (retrieved 30 November 2018). Colour-Ize Blog (February 22, 2013) "Helium Vola 'Wohin ... "Helium Vola: Omnis Mundi Creatura" (retrieved 30 November 2018). Interview with Michael Kuhlen (February 4, 2002), "Helium Vola ...
... the sudden beginning of helium fusion in certain kinds of stars Isotopes of helium Helium-3 Helium-4 Helium (band), American ... Look up helium in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Helium is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2. Helium may ... rock band Helium (Pram album), 1994 Helium (H3llb3nt album), 1998 Helium (Homeshake album) "Helium" (Sia song), song from Fifty ... "Helium", 2016 song and single by Mikael Gabriel Helium (film), a 2014 short film Helium, a fictional city-state in Edgar Rice ...
Helium discharge lamps produce vacuum ultraviolet radiation from helium molecules. When high energy protons hit helium gas it ... The electron can then combine with another helium atom and the excited helium atom to form He2−. He2− repels helium atoms, and ... The two helium atoms inside the C60 cage are separated by 1.979 Å and the distance from a helium atom to the carbon cage is ... The helium dimer can be formed in small amounts when helium gas expands and cools as it passes through a nozzle in a gas beam. ...
The Helium Network was begun by Helium, Inc. in 2013, as a network of LoRa gateway hotspots which could be deployed throughout ... In 2022, Helium Inc. rebranded to Nova Labs Inc. and raised $200 million in a funding round led by Tiger Global Management and ... The Helium Network is a decentralized wireless Internet of Things (IoT) network using the LoRaWAN system, tied to the ... Binder, Matt (July 29, 2022). "Web3 darling Helium has bragged about Lime being a client for years. Lime says it isn't true". ...
Within this liquid state, helium has two phases referred to as helium I and helium II. Helium I displays thermodynamic and ... In the field of cryogenics, helium [He] is utilized for a variety of reasons. The combination of helium's extremely low ... Another beneficial aspect of the liquid helium quantum system is that application of an electrical potential to liquid helium ... Under extreme conditions such as when cooled beyond Tλ, helium has the ability to form a new state of matter, known as a Bose- ...
Extreme helium stars (EHe) entirely lack hydrogen in their spectra. Pure helium stars lie on or near a helium main sequence, ... Previously, a helium star was a synonym for a B-type star, but this usage is considered obsolete. A helium star is also a term ... The helium main sequence is a line in the HR diagram where unevolved helium stars lie. It lies mostly parallel and to the left ... A helium star is a class O or B star (blue), which has extraordinarily strong helium lines and weaker than normal hydrogen ...
Helium discography at Discogs Mt. Helium at AllMusic (CS1 Italian-language sources (it), Articles with short description, Short ... Helium, formerly known as the Apex Theory, was an American rock band from Los Angeles, California, that was known for playing ... Helium, the band released its second album, Faces, as a digital download on June 3, 2008. Former vocalist Ontronik Khachaturian ... Helium's style has also been described as alternative metal, nu metal and post-grunge. David Hakopyan - bass guitar (1999-2008 ...
... was thought to be a radioactive isotope until it was also found in samples of natural helium, which is mostly helium-4 ... Helium-3 has less than half the density of helium-4 when it is at its boiling point: 59 g/L compared to 125 g/L of helium-4 at ... helium-3 has an overall spin of one half, making it a fermion. Pure helium-3 gas boils at 3.19 K compared with helium-4 at 4.23 ... helium-3 is the only stable isotope of any element with more protons than neutrons. Helium-3 was discovered in 1939. Helium-3 ...
October 17, 2017) 'Mary Timony Announces 'Plays Helium' Tour," Pitchfork. Retrieved on March 12, 2018. Helium on epitonic ... Helium was an American alternative rock band fronted by Mary Timony. The band formed during the summer of 1992. Between 1992 ... Adam Lasus produced and engineered The Dirt of Luck, Pirate Prude, and all of Helium's singles up to 1995. In 1997, the group ... Timony consequently played two "Mary Timony Plays Helium" tours in the U.S., backed by members of the band Hospitality, in 2017 ...
Impurity helium condensates (IHCs) (or impurity helium gels) are deposited as a snow like gel in liquid helium when various ... 3He is not stable and loses helium on a timescale of 340 hours when not under a helium atmosphere. When the helium intercalated ... The helium atom is small with the radius of the outer electron shell at 0.29 Å. Helium is a very hard atom with a Pearson ... Helium's first ionization energy of 24.57 eV is the highest of any element. Helium has a complete shell of electrons, and in ...
Helium is a 2013 Danish short drama film directed by Anders Walter. Alfred is a young boy staying in a hospital who suffers ... Enzo tells Alfred that to get to Helium, he will fly in an airship that will know to pick him up because of his red balloon dog ... Helium at IMDb v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, 2014 films, Template film ... "Helium at the International Film Festival Rotterdam". 22 January 2014. "2014 Oscar Nominations". Oscars.com. 16 January 2013. ...
... is a physical state of helium at very low temperatures at standard atmospheric pressures. Liquid helium may show ... the common isotope helium-4 or the rare isotope helium-3. These are the only two stable isotopes of helium. See the table below ... both helium-4 and helium-3 undergo transitions to superfluids. (See the table below.) Liquid helium can be solidified only ... Liquid helium-4 and the rare helium-3 are not completely miscible. Below 0.9 kelvin at their saturated vapor pressure, a ...
A helium atom is an atom of the chemical element helium. Helium is composed of two electrons bound by the electromagnetic force ... Helium's first ionization energy is −24.587387936(25) eV. This value was measured experimentally. The theoretic value of Helium ... For helium, Z = 2 from E 0 ( 0 ) = E n 1 = 1 , n 2 = 1 ( 0 ) = − Z 2 a.u. {\displaystyle E_{0}^{(0)}=E_{n_{1}=1,\,n_{2}=1}^{(0 ... The Hamiltonian for helium with two electrons can be written as a sum of the Hamiltonians for each electron: H = ∑ i = 1 2 h ( ...
Helium Helium compounds#Predicted compounds Lithium Tariq, Naima; Taisan, Nada; Singh, Vijay; Weinstein, Jonathan (8 April 2013 ... If the helium atom of LiHe is excited so that the 1s electron is promoted to 2s, it decays by transferring energy to ionise ... The substance is a cold low-density gas made of Van der Waals molecules, each composed of a helium atom and lithium atom bound ... LiHe was formed by laser ablation of lithium metal into a cryogenic helium buffer gas at a temperature between 1 and 5 K. The ...
"Helium - Pram". AllMusic. Retrieved 7 March 2013. Perry, Andrew (October 1994). "Pram: Helium". Select. No. 52. p. 102. Neff, ... Helium is the second album by English post-rock band Pram, released in September 1994 through Too Pure. The Vinyl District ... Helium at Discogs (list of releases) v t e (Use dmy dates from April 2022, Articles with short description, Short description ... Fact ranked Helium at number 29 on its list of the best post-rock albums. All lyrics are written by Rosie Cuckston; all music ...
... s are chemically peculiar stars which have a weak helium lines for their spectral type. Their helium lines ... A related class of stars have anomalously strong helium lines in their spectra, and are known as helium-strong stars. Helium ... "Abundance and Magnetic Field Geometries of Helium-Strong and Helium-Weak Stars". Symposium - International Astronomical Union. ... The helium-weak stars HD 19400, HD 34797 and HD 35456*". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 402: 331. Bibcode:2003A&A...402..331A. doi ...
Helium". Pitchfork. Darville, Jordan (November 7, 2018). "Homeshake shares "Like Mariah," announces new album Helium". The ... Helium is the fourth studio album by Canadian musician Peter Sagar, under his solo project Homeshake. It was released on ... "Helium - Homeshake". AllMusic. Retrieved June 4, 2019. Pearson, Luke (February 13, 2019). "Exclaim! Review". Exclaim!. ... Weddle, Adam (February 4, 2019). "Homeshake Releases Final Single from Helium, "Another Thing"". Paste. Retrieved June 4, 2019 ...
faulkes-telescope.com: "Extreme helium stars" "Astronomers Find Origin Of Extreme-Helium Stars" C. Simon Jeffery: "Extreme ... it is theorized that they are the product of the mergers of helium-core and carbon-oxygen core white dwarfs. Extreme helium ... An extreme helium star (abbreviated EHe) is a low-mass supergiant that is almost devoid of hydrogen, the most common chemical ... The known extreme helium stars are supergiants where hydrogen is underabundant by a factor of 10,000 or more. The surface ...
... or primary helium is helium that is extracted from the earth as the main product. Normally helium is extracted ... Some American helium explorers include American Helium, Energy Fuels Inc., Gran Tierra Energy Inc., Ring Energy Inc., and Yuma ... "Google and Netflix Buying up Massive Quantities of Helium". www.prnewswire.com. "First Look at GGE Helium Resource. How does it ... The motivation is the planned reduction in use of natural gas, and instabilities in the supply of helium. To accumulate to an ...
... is a 1999 comedy film. It is produced by Kevin Smith's View Askew production company and also features the ... Jesus Ming Chen as Club Patron Gary Dell'Abate as Trevor Lehigh Brian Lynch List of American films of 1999 Big Helium Dog at ...
A helium focusing cone is a concentration of helium atoms that has passed through the Sun's heliosphere and is concentrated in ... Solar wind Observations of the helium focusing cone with pickup ions The Flow of Interstellar Helium in the Solar System A ...
The gas mixture is mostly helium, so that helium atoms can be excited. The excited helium atoms collide with neon atoms, ... A helium-neon laser or He-Ne laser is a type of gas laser whose high energetic medium gain medium consists of a mixture of ... "Sam's Laser FAQ - Helium-Ne Lasers". K3PGP.org. Niebauer, T.M.; Faller, James E.; Godwin, H.M.; Hall, John L.; Barger, R.L. ( ... Without helium, the neon atoms would be excited mostly to lower excited states, responsible for non-laser lines. A neon laser ...
Helium-7 and helium-8 are created in certain nuclear reactions. Helium-6 and helium-8 are known to exhibit a nuclear halo. ... With some history of helium. U.S. Geological Survey publications on helium beginning 1996: Helium Where is all the helium? Aga ... Helium II also exhibits a creeping effect. When a surface extends past the level of helium II, the helium II moves along the ... The shortest-lived heavy helium isotope is the unbound helium-10 with a half-life of 2.6(4)×10−22 s. Helium-6 decays by ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
... of the global demand for helium by supplying crude helium to private helium refining companies, which in turn refine the helium ... Approximately 1 Bcf of crude helium. Lot 2 - Federal helium system and 800 million cubic feet of crude helium. *24,700 +/- sq. ... Helium is a colorless and odorless inert gas that will not burn or react with other elements. Helium is a non-renewable natural ... The federally owned helium in the storage reservoir includes both federal helium that was injected into the reservoir for ...
... helium is scarce on Earth. A product of nuclear fusion and radioactive decay, it is the lightest noble gas, colorless, odorless ... 5. About Helium. Bureau of Land Management. h ps://www.blm.gov/programs/energy-and-minerals/helium/about-helium (accessed 2/25/ ... What is Helium?. Helium is named after the Greek word for the sun, helios, as it was first identified in the suns corona (the ... Where is Helium from?. On the Earth, most helium is a radioactive decay product of uranium and thorium. It is found under the ...
Helium specializes in creating amazing customer experiences via digital communications. From strategy to campaign execution, we ... Helium specializes in creating amazing customer experiences via digital communications. From strategy to campaign execution, we ...
... helium reserve to keep operating, averting a sudden helium price spike, but experts still think that prices of the gas will ... The price of helium will go up and hopefully that will encourage more mining and discovering of new helium, said Moses Chan of ... The BLMs Federal Helium Reserve supplies about 40 percent of all the helium in the United States, and about 35 percent ... It broke even in September, and had Congress not acted, would have stopped selling its helium come October.. The new law will ...
"When a client installs one of our Helium capable units, the device will communicate the data over the Helium Network by ... Helium is now on Solana! The Helium Network has completed its migration. ... Thanks to Helium we are able to make a positive impact in the world and do so without taking resources away from those in need ... "Helium and the team at Nova Labs are always there for us, and we are looking forward to its new generation of technologies to ...
The remaining helium fraction of our atmosphere is a paltry 0.00052%.. Instead, the way nature forms helium on Earth is deep ... A helium extraction facility in Amarillo, TX. Any helium that leaves the plant floats to the top of... [+] the atmosphere, ... Every time we fill a single balloon with helium, we are damning practically all of the helium atoms... [+] present within that ... Every time you fill a single balloon with helium, youre taking approximately 3 × 1023 helium atoms, generated over billions of ...
Create a DIY balloon arch without helium by creating a frame using PVC piping. Then, attach balloons to a balloon decorating ... How to Make a Balloon Arch Without Helium By Katherine Malone Updated Jan 20, 2022 ... Fortunately, you dont need helium to get the balloons to form a beautiful arch. You can make your own arch with just a few ... If you want to have a freestanding balloon arch without helium, consider making your own frame using PVC pipe. You will need a ...
Helium is a decentralized wireless network built for the internet of things. With backing from Andreessen Horowitz, investors ... Purchasing a Helium hot spot is not the only way to make money from this project. Helium is powered by the Helium Network Token ... How to Buy Helium Crypto. If youre looking to get a piece of the Helium action, there are a few places you can go as a U.S. ... Best Software Wallet: Helium App. If your HNT is dedicated to trading, youll want to keep it on the Helium apps mobile wallet ...
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Your goal is to connect the underground helium pipes to blow up the balloon. Sounds easy right? Prove it! With increasingly ... Blowing up a helium balloon has never been so challenging and fun! ... Blowing up a helium balloon has never been so challenging and fun!. Your goal is to connect the underground helium pipes to ...
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Helium Audio Joiner, as its name suggests, allows you to merge various audio tracks into one single file ... Helium Audio Joiner is being constantly updated, so you always enjoy the latest features of merging applications. This compact ... These two features and a variety of other options make Helium Audio Joiner a reliable and helpful application for anyone ... Helium Audio Joiner, as its name suggests, allows you to merge various audio tracks into one single file using an intuitive ...
Helium filling of Herschel in S5B. Date: 20 April 2009. Satellite: Herschel. Depicts: Set-up for helium-I filling in S5B. ... ESA Science & Technology - Helium filling of Herschel in S5B. * Missions * Show All Missions ... The Herschel spacecraft in the S5B cleanroom is surrounded by platforms that are used for the helium filling activities. ...
By the time you read this, national helium problems may be solved. But I doubt it. ...
SO.... the US has a helium rich gas field located in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas! And helium is a gas critical for our current ... "SO…. the US has a helium rich gas field located in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas! And helium is a gas critical for our current ... Helium balloons, where the vast majority of the helium inside will escape the Earth. Image credit: HilkeFromm / Pixabay. ... Yet helium is becoming harder and harder to find, because the way we obtain it is by extracting it from underground reserves. ...
... who aimed to cross the Atlantic Ocean suspended from 370 helium-filled balloons, ends his mission 12 hours and about 470 miles ... Just like in the Disney movie "Up," Trappe is using 370 giant balloons filled with helium. He holds on to one of the many ... "Nobody has ever made a flight like this, using only small helium balloons - in manned flight - across the ocean," Trappe wrote ... Jonathan Trappe, the American who aimed to cross the Atlantic Ocean suspended from 370 helium-filled balloons, has aborted his ...
... precipitates are monitored as a function of dose after 50 keV helium ion irradiation at room temperature in the dose range from ... Microhardness-Microstructure Study of Aged Nimonic 90 Irradiated with Helium. Source Changes in the microhardness of an aged ... 1022 helium ions/m2. The microhardness showed an oscillatory behaviour. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy studies ... Nimonic 90 containing γ′-precipitates are monitored as a function of dose after 50 keV helium ion irradiation at room ...
I was debating between getting the helium or the plus. I want something thats going to give me power to make... ... I guess it really comes down to size is the plus noticeably bigger than the helium? So what do you mophie users recommend?. ... I was debating between getting the helium or the plus. I want something thats going to give me power to make it through the ... I have a red Mophie Helium that I bought and never used. Its in the marketplace. It retails for $79. Im looking for around $ ...
Title:Confined helium on Lagrange meshes. Authors:Daniel Baye, Jérémy Dohet-Eraly ... It is applied to the study of a confined helium atom. Two types of confinement are considered. Soft confinements by potentials ... Download a PDF of the paper titled Confined helium on Lagrange meshes, by Daniel Baye and J\er\emy Dohet-Eraly ... Download a PDF of the paper titled Confined helium on Lagrange meshes, by Daniel Baye and J\er\emy Dohet-Eraly ...
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... helium-oxygen (He-O2) mixtures reduce airway resistance and improve ventilation, but their influence on aerosol delivery is ... Improvement in aerosol delivery with helium-oxygen mixtures during mechanical ventilation Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Jan; ... Albuterol delivery from a MDI was increased when the ventilator circuit contained 80% helium and 20% oxygen (He-O2 80/20) ... In mechanically ventilated patients with airway obstruction, helium-oxygen (He-O2) mixtures reduce airway resistance and ...
Reduce power outage risk by controlling helium-filled balloons ... Never let helium-filled balloons drift away outdoors.. *Never ... Reduce power outage risk by controlling helium-filled balloons. Enjoy, and control your Valentines Day balloons ... Its soon Valentines Day and helium-filled balloons can make the holiday even more special, colorful and festive. ...
Helium) - Quick Start Guide, Installation, Troubleshooting Tips, Downloads. ... Enterprise Capacity 3.5 Hard Drives (Helium) Enterprise Capacity 3.5 Hard Drives (Helium) - Quick Start Guide, Installation, ...
DivX helium was also released, the beta version can be found here. Helium takes advantage of multi-thread capable systems, like ... DivX Helium codec demonstrates our latest research into processor optimization, achieving encoding times up to twice as fast as ... DivX 6 and Helium codec released. Posted on Wednesday, June 15 2005 @ 14:25 CEST by Thomas De Maesschalck ...
Whether youre thinking of a sea of balloons overhead or just handing them out, youre going to need helium. ... Buying Helium Tanks. Not keen on the whole rental process? Buying a disposable helium tank might be right up your alley. Heres ... Heres a rundown of what to know about renting helium tanks.. Sizing It Up. The first thing to know is that helium tanks are ... Buying Helium Tanks: The Final Verdict. When it comes to helium tanks, its not just about filling balloons; its about ...
Helium expands about 750 times when it expands from a liquid to a gas, so thats a lot of helium (90,000 L of gaseous He)." I ... Helium can diffuse through the fusion bond oxide and cause the cavity pressure to increase. In our pressure sensors, helium ... The helium must fully dissipate from the device, and the device battery should fully discharge in the process. After a week, ... Hydrogen and helium are notoriously hard to contain because their molecules are so small. It sounds like this is a problem that ...
  • Previous solutions weren't scaling well, so we began testing the Helium Network in Q3 2021, discovered the coverage was massive, and started deploying production devices Q1 2022. (helium.com)
  • On the arbitrariness of the ZH-L Helium coefficients (16.08.2022): during our tests [1] with the highly topical SCUBAPRO / Uwatec mix-gas dive computer G2 TEK and the SHEARWATER PERDIX, we found divergent results in Heliox run-times. (researchgate.net)
  • Helium press, Lund 2022. (lu.se)
  • The U.S., Qatar and Algeria have the world's major helium reserves, while the U.S., Russia and Algeria are the top suppliers. (acs.org)
  • In 2017, the blockade of Qatar suddenly removed 30% of the world's helium supply from the market, causing prices to temporarily skyrocket. (acs.org)
  • Recently passed legislation will prevent a major disruption in the world's helium supply, but will cause prices to rise. (aps.org)
  • This helium balloon/world's smallest R/C blimp can climb, dive, turn, and thrust forward using its 3 independantly controlled propellers, while piloting is handled. (thegreenhead.com)
  • Liquid helium is used in cryogenics (its largest single use, consuming about a quarter of production), and in the cooling of superconducting magnets, with its main commercial application in MRI scanners. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liquid helium is unique among all elements in that it can reach ultra-cold temperatures, approaching absolute zero (-273.15°C). Research conducted at these low temperatures has led to discoveries in superconductivity that have led to many applications, including the Maglev high-speed train. (acs.org)
  • Liquid helium boils off and can be captured and recycled by re-liquefying it. (acs.org)
  • Those field strengths can only be achieved with superconducting magnets, which necessitate the use of liquid helium. (scienceblogs.com)
  • This Helium (Liquid Helium and Gaseous Helium) market report captures manufacturing expenses, growing demands of customers, overall sale pattern, and customers' buying attitude. (openpr.com)
  • Helium (Liquid Helium and Gaseous Helium) market research works as one of the effective tools for key firms as it provides detailed understanding of what customers exactly want and helps to develop and launch those products that customers will use. (openpr.com)
  • It also helps to assess the viability of novel product or service with this help of this Helium (Liquid Helium and Gaseous Helium) market research carried out by making comprehensive market study. (openpr.com)
  • Helium (Liquid Helium and Gaseous Helium) market research analysis provides huge assistance to individuals and businesses to leverage their place in the market. (openpr.com)
  • One of the crucial statistics provided in this Helium (Liquid Helium and Gaseous Helium) market study report is the task of the manufacturers in the market. (openpr.com)
  • This sound Helium (Liquid Helium and Gaseous Helium) market research analysis helps to prepare better in beating the market competition and bringing business on better position. (openpr.com)
  • Figuring out ways of putting the best foot forward is possible with the help of this Helium (Liquid Helium and Gaseous Helium) market analysis report. (openpr.com)
  • That's when he posted the issue to Reddit, where other sysadmins speculated that it might be caused by the liquid helium used to cool the MRI machine. (ifixit.com)
  • Approximately 120 liters of liquid [helium] were vented over the course of 5 hours. (ifixit.com)
  • Helium expands about 750 times when it expands from a liquid to a gas, so that's a lot of helium (90,000 L of gaseous He). (ifixit.com)
  • The helium droplets form about 6,000 to 8,000 miles (10,000 to 13,000 kilometers) below the tops of Jupiter's hydrogen clouds, under pressures and temperatures so high that "you can't tell if hydrogen and helium are a gas or a liquid," he said. (astronomy.com)
  • Liquid helium-3 and helium-4 are remarkable substances. (stardrive.org)
  • Helium excimers generated by a corona discharge were investigated in the gas and normal liquid phases of helium as a function of temperature and pressure between 3.8 and 5.0 K and 0.2 and 5.6 bar. (arxiv.org)
  • At low enough temperatures, helium even becomes a superfluid: an ultra-rare state of matter that exhibits no friction or viscosity. (forbes.com)
  • The superfluid helium shown here is dripping because there is no friction in the fluid to keep it from creeping up the sides of the container and spilling over, which it does spontaneously. (forbes.com)
  • We demonstrate by neutron scattering that a localized superfluid component exists at high pressures within solid helium in aerogel. (harvard.edu)
  • Its existence is deduced from the observation of two sharp phonon-roton spectra which are clearly distinguishable from modes in bulk superfluid helium. (harvard.edu)
  • Comparison with theoretical calculations suggests that the model that reproduces the observed data best is that of superfluid double layers within the solid and at the helium-substrate interface. (harvard.edu)
  • We started our Helium project in September of 2021 and have huge plans with the Network. (helium.com)
  • Since summer 2021, we have been working to introduce Helium to the Latin American IoT market. (helium.com)
  • Large amounts of new helium are created by nuclear fusion of hydrogen in stars. (wikipedia.org)
  • They're all fluids, so the rain is really droplets of fluid helium mixed with neon falling through a fluid of metallic hydrogen. (astronomy.com)
  • Militzer and Wilson are among the modelers using "density functional theory" to predict the properties of Jupiter's interior, specifically what happens to the dominant constituents - hydrogen and helium - as temperatures and pressures increase toward the center of the planet. (astronomy.com)
  • This is all-in-one Mi Max UNIVERSAL CM13 ROM for both hydrogen and helium devices. (xda-developers.com)
  • While helium is the second most abundant element in the universe after hydrogen, it is rare on Earth and generated by the decay of heavy radioactive elements such as uranium. (labmanager.com)
  • Other components of welding fume may include chromium and other metals, shielding gases such as helium, argon, and nitrogen, and gases created by the process such as nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen fluoride, and ozone. (cdc.gov)
  • You can make a balloon arch without helium. (ehow.com)
  • If you want to have a freestanding balloon arch without helium, consider making your own frame using PVC pipe. (ehow.com)
  • Blowing up a helium balloon has never been so challenging and fun! (slideme.org)
  • Your goal is to connect the underground helium pipes to blow up the balloon. (slideme.org)
  • BTW, Good luck regulating all the helium balloon businesses in the US! (scienceblogs.com)
  • As helium is based on its own blockchain, it takes a special kind of crypto wallet to hold the currency. (benzinga.com)
  • The helium is used to replace nitrogen, a normal component of air that becomes intoxicating and too thick to breathe comfortably under pressure. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Lung volume can also be measured when you breathe nitrogen or helium gas through a tube for a certain period of time. (medlineplus.gov)
  • On the measurement manipulators of both endstations, Bloch is using a 'Stinger' closed cycle helium cryostat. (lu.se)
  • Deep-sea divers breathe a mixture of helium and oxygen, which helps them avoid the dangers of "the bends. (acs.org)
  • In mechanically ventilated patients with airway obstruction, helium-oxygen (He-O2) mixtures reduce airway resistance and improve ventilation, but their influence on aerosol delivery is unknown. (nih.gov)
  • But for deep-water divers, who breathe a helium-oxygen mix, such speech distortions can prove dangerous and costly. (sciencedaily.com)
  • When working deep-generally below 190 feet -- they breathe helium and oxygen. (sciencedaily.com)
  • in such chambers, divers can spend months at a time, breathing the oxygen-helium mix while resting from their work in the water and planning for their next dive. (sciencedaily.com)
  • There is a global helium shortage, and every single act of wastefulness such as this not only makes the problem worse, it permanently removes the used helium from the Earth entirely. (forbes.com)
  • The world is absolutely wasting our helium on frivolous applications, and if we don't do something about it, we'll have a medical and scientific shortage. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Amidst talks of "Helium Shortage 4.0", Grand Gulf Energy has inked a helium offtake agreement with Paradox Resources. (gasworld.com)
  • The HTF has specifically been built to test components and systems in helium at the very high temperatures and pressures that will be experienced in the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor. (pbmr.co.za)
  • The observed pressure dependence of linewidths, shapes and lineshifts established phases of coexistence and separation of excimer-helium mixtures, providing detailed insight into nucleation, solvation and boiling of He$_2^*$-He$_n$ clusters. (arxiv.org)
  • In scientific research, the behavior of the two fluid phases of helium-4 (helium I and helium II) is important to researchers studying quantum mechanics (in particular the property of superfluidity) and to those looking at the phenomena, such as superconductivity, produced in matter near absolute zero. (wikipedia.org)
  • Uncertainty about how private markets will distribute and price helium is a concern, especially to scientific researchers using small amounts of helium. (acs.org)
  • Federal scientists and researchers operating with a federal grant will have access to the 'in-kind' program, which offers helium at deeply discounted rates. (aps.org)
  • Some researchers have reported that in recent years as much as 70 percent of their grant money has gone towards procuring helium. (aps.org)
  • The sell-off of the federal strategic helium reserve has driven up demand for the vital element and poses a threat to the supply that researchers need, a panel of U.S. experts reported on Friday. (labmanager.com)
  • The law requiring the liquidation of the helium reserve, created in the 1920s, also called for evaluation by the National Academies to determine whether the sell-off hindered the work of U.S. researchers. (labmanager.com)
  • Charles Groat of the University of Texas at Austin, who was committee co-chairman, said researchers were "very uncomfortable" about the prospect of having to get helium from Russia or the Middle East once the U.S. supply is depleted. (labmanager.com)
  • The report said that "small-scale government-funded researchers who use helium have been hit particularly hard by sharp price rises and shortages that have characterized the helium market in recent times. (labmanager.com)
  • This helium-4 binding energy also accounts for why it is a product of both nuclear fusion and radioactive decay. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most terrestrial helium present today is created by the natural radioactive decay of heavy radioactive elements (thorium and uranium, although there are other examples), as the alpha particles emitted by such decays consist of helium-4 nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some studies suggest that helium produced deep in the Earth by radioactive decay can collect in natural gas reserves in larger-than-expected quantities, in some cases having been released by volcanic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the Earth, most helium is a radioactive decay product of uranium and thorium. (acs.org)
  • NASA can't fly its rockets without helium because it's used in cleaning the fuel tanks," he added. (labmanager.com)
  • To most people, helium is party balloons and the Goodyear blimp," he said in a telephone interview. (labmanager.com)
  • The most common isotope of helium in the universe is helium-4, the vast majority of which was formed during the Big Bang. (wikipedia.org)
  • Helium balloons, where the vast majority of the helium inside will escape the Earth. (scienceblogs.com)
  • So he investigated, and found there was a helium leak at the same time that vented into the building. (ifixit.com)
  • Changes in the microhardness of an aged Nimonic 90 containing γ′-precipitates are monitored as a function of dose after 50 keV helium ion irradiation at room temperature in the dose range from 3 × 10 20 to 3 × 10 22 helium ions/m 2 . (astm.org)
  • It sends high pressure room temperature helium into the blue can. (lu.se)
  • Because of legislation passed in 1996, the BLM could sell helium at a fixed price only until the reserve's substantial debt was paid off. (aps.org)
  • Congress in 1996 ordered the government to get out of the helium reserve business and sell it off to private industry. (labmanager.com)
  • The lightest inert gas found in nature: helium. (forbes.com)
  • The Helium has a recycled polyester ripstop body that won't tear if you snag a bramble bush. (howies.co.uk)
  • Terrestrial helium is a non-renewable resource because once released into the atmosphere, it promptly escapes into space. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to its unreactive nature, helium provides a protective atmosphere for making fiber optics, semiconductors, and in arc welding. (acs.org)
  • Once helium is released in the atmosphere, it will continue rising until it escapes into space, making it the only truly unrecoverable element. (acs.org)
  • So our study links the observed missing neon in the atmosphere to another proposed process, helium rain. (astronomy.com)
  • Their simulations showed that the only way neon could be removed from the upper atmosphere is to have it fall out with helium because neon and helium mix easily, like alcohol and water. (astronomy.com)
  • A few years later, scientists were able to isolate helium in a laboratory by chemically treating igneous rocks, separating the noble gases from the atoms they were bound together with. (forbes.com)
  • Just like in the Disney movie "Up," Trappe is using 370 giant balloons filled with helium. (cnn.com)
  • Is it cheaper to buy a helium tank or get balloons filled? (balloonhq.com)
  • The cost-effectiveness between buying a helium tank or having balloons filled at a store largely depends on the quantity you need. (balloonhq.com)
  • The Seagate Enterprise Capacity 3.5 helium-filled hard drive is based on the company's brand-new hermetically-sealed platform featuring fourteen heads and seven perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) platters with up to 1.43 TB capacity each. (anandtech.com)
  • The Enterprise Capacity 3.5' helium hard drive sports a 256 MB multi-segmented cache. (anandtech.com)
  • Seagate claims that its multi-segmented cache helps the Enterprise Capacity 3.5 (Helium) HDD to improve performance compared to its predecessors and rivals and enables burst transfer rates at up to 600 MB/s (for small chunks of data, of course). (anandtech.com)
  • Seagate will offer multiple versions of its Enterprise Capacity 3.5' Helium HDDs, including models with 8 TB capacity, 4K and 512e sectors as well as self-encrypting (SED) options. (anandtech.com)
  • Seagate declares fairly high performance numbers for its Enterprise Capacity 3.5' Helium HDDs: 243 or 254 MB/s maximum sustained transfer rate as well as 4.16 ms average latency, which is higher than the numbers listed by competing drives from HGST and Western Digital. (anandtech.com)
  • Lockyer was the first to propose that the line was due to a new element, which he named after the Sun. The formal discovery of the element was made in 1895 by chemists Sir William Ramsay, Per Teodor Cleve, and Nils Abraham Langlet, who found helium emanating from the uranium ore, cleveite, which is now not regarded as a separate mineral species, but as a variety of uraninite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seagate has started volume shipments of its first helium-filled hard drives. (anandtech.com)
  • Volume shipments of the 8 TB and 10 TB helium-filled hard drives will help Seagate to improve its financial results and margins, since the new HDDs will be amongst the most expensive drives in the company's lineup. (anandtech.com)
  • The GM cooler takes 300psi helium as input, expands it for cooling power then returns low pressure He. (lu.se)
  • Additionally, you can ask Helium Audio Joiner to automatically create a CUE file for the resulting file using the Create CUE checkbox. (free-codecs.com)
  • Going helium additionally reduces the power consumption of such a rack by up to 456 W. An increase of storage capacity amid reduction of power consumption not only maximizes data storage capacities of a particular facility, but also shrinks its total cost of ownership (TCO), an important metric for companies with multiple large datacenters. (anandtech.com)
  • The helium market is subject to frequent price shocks. (acs.org)
  • We design and manufacture our own Helium-compatible IoT devices for the African market, including an Animal Movement Tracker that is used to send early warning notifications via the Helium Network for possible animal theft or attacks from wild animals. (helium.com)
  • If your HNT is dedicated to trading, you'll want to keep it on the Helium app's mobile wallet for quick access as the market moves. (benzinga.com)
  • Video: Could Iran join the helium market? (gasworld.com)
  • Phil Kornbluth, President at Kornbluth Helium Consulting, discusses the helium market and if Iran could join in the future, exclusively on gasworld TV. (gasworld.com)
  • BRIDGEWATER, N.J. , Nov. 21, 2023 /PRNewswire/ -- Messer, the largest privately held industrial gas company in the world, proudly announces its ongoing support of and continued helium supply for the 97th Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade, one of New York City's most beloved events. (wboy.com)
  • Its abundance is similar to this in both the Sun and Jupiter, because of the very high nuclear binding energy (per nucleon) of helium-4, with respect to the next three elements after helium. (wikipedia.org)
  • PBMR planned to build a high temperature (>700 C) high pressure (60bar) demonstration reactor at Koeberg which will make use of helium as the working gas. (pbmr.co.za)
  • Cinematographer Tom Guilmette has a simple way you can shoot your own aerial shots if flying kites or RC planes/helicopters isn't for you: fill up a large number of helium balloons, attach a camera to them, and send it high into the air attached to a fishing pole. (petapixel.com)
  • GAINESVILLE, Fla.---Some people find inhaling helium fun at a party, where the squeaky, high-pitched voices it creates can be comical. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Helium (from Greek: ἥλιος, romanized: helios, lit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Helium is named after the Greek word for the sun, helios, as it was first identified in the sun's corona (the sun is composed of 25% helium). (acs.org)
  • Ensure the tank's valve is securely closed to prevent any helium leaks. (balloonhq.com)
  • Scientists have reported increasing numbers of instances when suppliers were totally out of helium. (aps.org)
  • In the interior of Jupiter, however, conditions are so strange that, according to predictions by University of California, Berkeley, scientists, helium condenses into droplets and falls like rain. (astronomy.com)
  • On Jupiter, however, UC Berkeley scientists claim that helium rain is the best way to explain the scarcity of neon in the outer layers of the planet, the solar system's largest. (astronomy.com)
  • In 1881, Italian physicist Luigi Palmieri detected helium on Earth for the first time through its D3 spectral line, when he analyzed a material that had been sublimated during a recent eruption of Mount Vesuvius. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the time you read this, national helium problems may be solved. (industrialheating.com)
  • As with any gas whose density differs from that of air, inhaling a small volume of helium temporarily changes the timbre and quality of the human voice. (wikipedia.org)
  • For us, Helium is essential because the cost of and the barriers to installing a gateway to every single deployment would make those deployments much more difficult. (helium.com)
  • Thanks to Helium we are able to make a positive impact in the world and do so without taking resources away from those in need. (helium.com)
  • Purchasing a Helium hot spot is not the only way to make money from this project. (benzinga.com)
  • These two features and a variety of other options make Helium Audio Joiner a reliable and helpful application for anyone looking to merge audio files. (free-codecs.com)
  • It's soon Valentine's Day and helium-filled balloons can make the holiday even more special, colorful and festive. (smud.org)
  • In 1903, large reserves of helium were found in natural gas fields in parts of the United States, by far the largest supplier of the gas today. (wikipedia.org)
  • This radiogenic helium is trapped with natural gas in concentrations as great as 7% by volume, from which it is extracted commercially by a low-temperature separation process called fractional distillation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) has received an update from an independent third-party consultant regarding Helium and Natural Gas reserves in the Bush Dome (Brown Dolomite and Panhandle formations) as of August 31. (gsa.gov)
  • The extension aims to ensure that all potential bidders can thoroughly assess the helium and natural gas potential in the Brown Dolomite and Panhandle formations, enabling informed competitive bids. (gsa.gov)
  • Canadian mining company Ivanhoe Mines has acquired a 5% stake in domestic natural gas and helium producer Renergen, with scope to be a majority shareholder, holding a 55% stake in the firm. (gasworld.com)
  • The price of helium will go up and hopefully that will encourage more mining and discovering of new helium,' said Moses Chan of Penn State University, who was part of a 2010 National Research Council committee that studied the impact of closing the reserve. (aps.org)
  • Renting may seem like a more significant investment initially, but it actually provides more helium for a lower price compared to disposable purchases. (balloonhq.com)
  • Helium was first detected as an unknown, yellow spectral line signature in sunlight during a solar eclipse in 1868 by Georges Rayet, Captain C. T. Haig, Norman R. Pogson, and Lieutenant John Herschel, and was subsequently confirmed by French astronomer Jules Janssen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Janssen recorded the helium spectral line during the solar eclipse of 1868, while Lockyer observed it from Britain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first evidence of helium was observed on August 18, 1868, as a bright yellow line with a wavelength of 587.49 nanometers in the spectrum of the chromosphere of the Sun. The line was detected by French astronomer Jules Janssen during a total solar eclipse in Guntur, India. (wikipedia.org)
  • All elements seemed to be slightly enriched compared to the abundance on the Sun — which is assumed to be similar to the elemental abundances 4.56 billion years ago when the solar system formed - except for helium and neon. (astronomy.com)
  • The strategic reserve was started when the government needed a ready supply of helium to fuel airships in a crisis and was bolstered during the Cold War. (labmanager.com)
  • The Helium is a lightweight active shell designed for multi-purpose use. (howies.co.uk)
  • The Helium Network represents a paradigm shift for decentralized wireless infrastructure. (helium.com)
  • CHOOVIO utilizes the Helium Network as a new method of deploying, maintaining, and capitalizing on physical wireless infrastructure. (helium.com)
  • Groat said helium was an essential commodity that taxpayers depend on daily yet know little about. (labmanager.com)
  • We're currently developing an agricultural project using Helium that aims to reduce costs and increase operational efficiency. (helium.com)
  • Usage of helium inside a hard drive helps to reduce the drag force acting on the spinning disk stack and lower the fluid flow forces affecting the disks and the heads. (anandtech.com)
  • On March 26, 1895, Scottish chemist Sir William Ramsay isolated helium on Earth by treating the mineral cleveite (a variety of uraninite with at least 10% rare-earth elements) with mineral acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The second most abundant element in the universe, helium is scarce on Earth. (acs.org)
  • It will take hundreds of millions of years for Earth to replenish its helium stores naturally. (forbes.com)
  • When helium was discovered on Earth, its unique properties immediately lent itself to a myriad of scientific uses. (forbes.com)
  • Yet helium, despite being the second most abundant element in the Universe as a whole, is extremely limited in abundance here on the surface of the Earth. (forbes.com)
  • On Earth, helium is a gas used to float balloons, as in the movie Up . (astronomy.com)
  • A recent discovery of helium beneath Tanzania may provide a short-term boost in future helium supply if development challenges can be overcome. (acs.org)
  • Accordingly, the U.S. has important economic and national security interests in ensuring a reliable supply of helium. (acs.org)
  • Partisan gridlock threatens to diminish the US Helium supply by 50% on October 1st unless the Congressional Leadership can enact bi-partisan legislation in the next two weeks of a very busy Congressional schedule,' Turner said in the email. (aps.org)
  • I ask you to call the office(s) of at least one member of the leadership today or tomorrow…to urge them to find a solution that will ensure the continued supply of Helium for the research community as well for use in MRIs and in the semiconductor industry. (aps.org)
  • Messer's commitment to a dependable helium supply helps the parade's iconic balloons - including characters such as Smokey the Bear and Stuart the Minion from the "Despicable Me" movie series - grace the sky on Thanksgiving morning. (wboy.com)
  • Helium in recoverable quantities is found in only a few locations around the world, and these sources are being rapidly depleted. (acs.org)
  • The Helium network is attractive to companies that use a large number of internet-connected devices around the world. (benzinga.com)
  • Helium processing and liquefaction hubs are key focus for Saskatchewan as the Canadian province continues on its mission to become a world leader in helium production and export over the next decade. (gasworld.com)
  • Once your account is funded, find the Helium page and place an order. (benzinga.com)
  • Find all your latex, foil, and helium balloons. (partycity.com)
  • Yet helium is becoming harder and harder to find, because the way we obtain it is by extracting it from underground reserves. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Helium is vital to numerous scientific, medical and industrial processes. (aps.org)
  • Sensors for humidity, temperature and helium pressure ensure that the helium-filled drive is always being monitored for reliable operation. (anandtech.com)
  • The cost of helium has increased 250% over the last five years, making scientific research more expensive. (acs.org)
  • The Helium Network enables us a low-cost network and peace of mind in connectivity and we utilize the Network on various university campuses, smart city applications, and workplace solutions. (helium.com)
  • Nobody has ever made a flight like this, using only small helium balloons - in manned flight - across the ocean," Trappe wrote on his website, clusterballoon.com , after the style of ballooning used in his attempt to across the Atlantic. (cnn.com)
  • My initial theory, shared by some on Reddit, was that the helium molecules were small enough to get inside these vacuum-sealed chips and interfere with the mechanical workings. (ifixit.com)
  • The smaller size, long battery life and coverage beginning to approach cellular in certain regions makes Helium-based devices a potential disruptor for solutions such as tracking loved ones, packages, and even pets. (helium.com)
  • Sometimes, they use headsets or handsets to transmit their voices to surface level, where an electronic helium speech unscrambler makes the words more intelligible and feeds them back into their earphones and those of other divers. (sciencedaily.com)
  • In recent years helium shortages had started growing acute. (aps.org)
  • Thanks to the Helium Network, we can offer years of battery life. (helium.com)
  • With Helium, we can easily deploy a network of gateways to provide coverage around a ranch or area of interest instead of waiting months or years for a cellular tower to be built, which ultimately may never happen. (helium.com)