An anti-gas warfare agent that is effective against Lewisite (dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine) and formerly known as British Anti-Lewisite or BAL. It acts as a chelating agent and is used in the treatment of arsenic, gold, and other heavy metal poisoning.
A mercaptodicarboxylic acid used as an antidote to heavy metal poisoning because it forms strong chelates with them.
Therapy of heavy metal poisoning using agents which sequester the metal from organs or tissues and bind it firmly within the ring structure of a new compound which can be eliminated from the body.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)
Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.
Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
An excessive accumulation of iron in the body due to a greater than normal absorption of iron from the gastrointestinal tract or from parenteral injection. This may arise from idiopathic hemochromatosis, excessive iron intake, chronic alcoholism, certain types of refractory anemia, or transfusional hemosiderosis. (From Churchill's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 1989)
A disorder characterized by reduced synthesis of the beta chains of hemoglobin. There is retardation of hemoglobin A synthesis in the heterozygous form (thalassemia minor), which is asymptomatic, while in the homozygous form (thalassemia major, Cooley's anemia, Mediterranean anemia, erythroblastic anemia), which can result in severe complications and even death, hemoglobin A synthesis is absent.
Pyridine derivatives with one or more keto groups on the ring.
Facilities which provide information concerning poisons and treatment of poisoning in emergencies.
Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.
A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.
The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.
Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are an important component of therapy in agricultural, industrial, and military poisonings by organophosphates and sulfonates.
Substances or materials used in the course of housekeeping or personal routine.
Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.
Inflammation of the eyelids.
Agents that arrest cells in MITOSIS, most notably TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.
Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; LEUKEMIA; or LIVER FAILURE.
A histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects.
A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.
Pathological processes involving the PROSTATE or its component tissues.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
A rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the deposition of copper in the BRAIN; LIVER; CORNEA; and other organs. It is caused by defects in the ATP7B gene encoding copper-transporting ATPase 2 (EC 3.6.3.4), also known as the Wilson disease protein. The overload of copper inevitably leads to progressive liver and neurological dysfunction such as LIVER CIRRHOSIS; TREMOR; ATAXIA and intellectual deterioration. Hepatic dysfunction may precede neurologic dysfunction by several years.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Vomiting of blood that is either fresh bright red, or older "coffee-ground" in character. It generally indicates bleeding of the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The black, tarry, foul-smelling FECES that contain degraded blood.
Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.
Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.
Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of the physiology and diseases of the digestive system and related structures (esophagus, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).
INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An insecticide synergist, especially for pyrethroids and ROTENONE.
A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.
Chemicals that, while not possessing inherent pesticidal activity, nonetheless promote or enhance the effectiveness of other pesticides when combined.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.
The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.
Tellurium. An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Te, atomic number 52, and atomic weight 127.60. It has been used as a coloring agent and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. Exposure may cause nausea, vomiting, and CNS depression.
... has unusually low toxicity for a heavy metal. As the toxicity of lead has become more apparent in recent years, there ... "Dimercaprol". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 8 December 2016. Boriova; et al. (2015). "Bismuth( ... Bismuth has unusually low toxicity for a heavy metal. As the toxicity of lead has become more apparent in recent years, there ... Scientific literature indicates that some of the compounds of bismuth are less toxic to humans via ingestion than other heavy ...
... are chelating agents that form complexes with various heavy metals. They are related to dimercaprol, which is another chelating ... The effects of DMPS on heavy metal poisoning, including with polonium-210, were investigated in the following years. DMPS was ... Chelation therapy Dimercaptosuccinic acid EDTA Heavy metal poisoning Mercury poisoning Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry : ...
Many new treatments were tried, since existing methods for heavy metal poisoning were not particularly effective. Dimercaprol ... Polythiol resins, penicillamine and dimercaprol sulfonate all helped, but are believed to have been largely insignificant in ...
... the removal of heavy metal poisons. Examples include dimercaptopropanesulfate (DMPS), dimercaprol ("BAL"), and meso-2,3- ... 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid Dimercaprol ("British anti-Lewisite"), an early antidote for arsenic poisoning Dihydrolipoic acid, a ...
In cases of suspected copper poisoning, penicillamine is the drug of choice, and dimercaprol, a heavy metal chelating agent, is ... Alpha lipoic acid is also being researched for chelating other heavy metals, such as mercury. Too much copper in water may ... The exact mechanism of action is unknown, but common to other heavy metals. Viruses are less susceptible to this effect than ... In addition, it includes poisoning and toxic effects of other metals including tin, selenium, nickel, iron, heavy metals, ...
... ore dumps are the source of many heavy elements such as cadmium, lead, zinc, copper, arsenic, selenium and mercury. When ... Gold toxicity can be ameliorated with chelation therapy with an agent such as dimercaprol. Gold metal was voted Allergen of the ... "Furthermore the second member of Delegation XVIII is carrying four small but evidently heavy jars on a yoke, probably ... Minute quantities of mercury compounds can reach water bodies, causing heavy metal contamination. Mercury can then enter into ...
It works by binding to a number of heavy metals, which renders them almost inert and allows them to leave the body in the urine ... For lead encephalopathy sodium calcium edetate is typically used together with dimercaprol. It may also be used to treat ...
It is also used for people with kidney stones who have high urine cystine levels, rheumatoid arthritis, and various heavy metal ... Penicillamine was the second line treatment for arsenic poisoning, after dimercaprol (BAL). It is no longer recommended. In ... Penicillamine works by binding heavy metals; the resulting penicillamine-metal complexes are then removed from the body in the ... and that dimercaprol should be used as a chelator. Later studies confirmed both the copper-centered theory and the efficacy of ...
The source of high energy arises from x-rays, gamma rays, charged particles and heavy particles. The therapeutic ratio in ... dimercaprol, theophylline, warfarin and lithium carbonate. Some antibiotics and antifungals require monitoring to balance ... Employing IG-IMRT, protons and heavy ions are likely to minimize dose to normal tissues by altered fractionation. Molecular ...
... works by binding with heavy metals. Dimercaprol was first made during World War II. It is on the World Health ... Dimercaprol has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning, and it is an essential drug. It is ... Dimercaprol also enhances the toxicity of selenium and tellurium, so it is not to be used to remove these elements from the ... Dimercaprol is a copper chelating agent that has been approved by the FDA to treat Wilson's disease. Arsenic and some other ...
Calcium EDTA is also effective if administered four hours after the administration of dimercaprol. Administering dimercaprol, ... Lead and other heavy metals create reactive radicals which damage cell structures including DNA and cell membranes. Lead also ... Dimercaprol used alone may also redistribute lead to the brain and testes. An adverse side effect of calcium EDTA is renal ... Medications used include dimercaprol, edetate calcium disodium, and succimer. In 2016, lead is believed to have resulted in ...
It has been suggested that chelation agents, such as British Anti-Lewisite (dimercaprol), can be used to decontaminate humans. ... Polonium halo Thayer, John S. (2010). "Relativistic Effects and the Chemistry of the Heavier Main Group Elements". Relativistic ... a heavy smoker, who died on 11 November 2004 of uncertain causes. The spokesman for the Institut de Radiophysique in Lausanne, ...
Calcium EDTA is also effective if administered four hours after the administration of dimercaprol. Administering dimercaprol, ... Lead and other heavy metals create reactive radicals which damage cell structures including DNA and cell membranes.[142] Lead ... 2007). "Heavy metals". Katzung & Trevor's Pharmacology: Examination & Board Review (8th ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN ... Kosnett, M.J. (2007). "Heavy metal intoxication and chelators". In Katzung, B.G. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. McGraw-Hill ...
British anti-lewisite (dimercaprol) is prescribed in doses of 5 mg/kg up to 300 mg every 4 hours for the first day, then every ... However, CCA remains in heavy use in other countries (such as on Malaysian rubber plantations). Arsenic was also used in ... and those that are heavier tend to decay by β− decay, with some exceptions. At least 10 nuclear isomers have been described, ... trioxide Fowler's solution GFAJ-1 Grainger challenge Hypothetical types of biochemistry Organoarsenic chemistry Toxic heavy ...
Heavy or prolonged exposure can do irreversible damage, in particular in fetuses, infants, and young children. Young's syndrome ... or dimercaprol (BAL). Only DMSA is FDA-approved for use in children for treating mercury poisoning. However, several studies ... Ibrahim D, Froberg B, Wolf A, Rusyniak DE (2006). "Heavy metal poisoning: clinical presentations and pathophysiology". Clin. ... medicines adulterated with heavy metals". Expert Opinion on Drug Safety. 4 (4): 769-78. doi:10.1517/14740338.4.4.769. PMID ...
It can almost completely prevent methylmercury uptake by erythrocytes and hepatocytes.In the past, dimercaprol (British ... a condition of pain and dusky pink discoloration in the hands and feet most often seen in children chronically exposed to heavy ...
It is a heavy metal that is denser than most common materials. Lead is soft and malleable, and also has a relatively low ... Treatment for lead poisoning normally involves the administration of dimercaprol and succimer. Acute cases may require the use ... The amount of lead in the universe is slowly increasing as most heavier atoms (all of which are unstable) gradually decay to ... Lead(II) sulfate is insoluble in water, like the sulfates of other heavy divalent cations. Lead(II) nitrate and lead(II) ...
Poultry and swine farms make heavy use of the organoarsenic compound roxarsone as an antibiotic in feed. Some wood is treated ... Other chelating agents can be used, but may cause more side effects than British Anti-Lewisite (BAL, Dimercaprol), succimer ( ... These three are British Anti-Lewisite (BAL, Dimercaprol), succimer (DMSA) and Unithiol (DMPS). When these agents chelate ...
Ibrahim D, Froberg B, Wolf A, Rusyniak DE (2006). "Heavy metal poisoning: clinical presentations and pathophysiology". Clin Lab ... Uporablja se 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonidno kislino (DMPS), D-penicilamin (DPCN) ali dimercaprol (BAL). Ameriška FDA je ...
Polyaspartic acid, like IDS, binds to calcium and other heavy metal ions. It has a higher value of 7.2 meq/g than does EDTA, ... IDS binds to calcium exceptionally well and forms stable compounds with other heavy metal ions. In addition to having a lower ... "Chelating Agents of a New Generation as an Alternative to Conventional Chelators for Heavy Metal Ions Removal from Different ... EDTA can also be used to test for bioavailability of heavy metals in sediments. However, EDTA may influence the bioavailability ...
Sweeney, W. A.; Olson, A. C. (December 1964). "Performance of straight-chain alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) in heavy-duty ...
The sulfhydryl group also has a high affinity for heavy metals, so that proteins containing cysteine, such as metallothionein, ...
The sulfhydryl group also has a high affinity for heavy metals, so that proteins containing cysteine, such as metallothionein, ...
Poultry and swine farms make heavy use of the organoarsenic compound roxarsone as an antibiotic in feed.[17][18] Some wood is ... Other chelating agents can be used, but may cause more side effects than British Anti-Lewisite (BAL, Dimercaprol), succimer ( ... These three are British Anti-Lewisite (BAL, Dimercaprol), succimer (DMSA) and Unithiol (DMPS).[63] ...
Dimercaprol works by binding with heavy metals. Dimercaprol was first made during World War II. It is on the World Health ... Dimercaprol has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning, and it is an essential drug. It is ... Dimercaprol also enhances the toxicity of selenium and tellurium, so it is not to be used to remove these elements from the ... Dimercaprol is a copper chelating agent that has been approved by the FDA to treat Wilsons disease. Arsenic and some other ...
Bismuth has unusually low toxicity for a heavy metal. As the toxicity of lead has become more apparent in recent years, there ... "Dimercaprol". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Retrieved 8 December 2016. Boriova; et al. (2015). "Bismuth( ... Bismuth has unusually low toxicity for a heavy metal. As the toxicity of lead has become more apparent in recent years, there ... Scientific literature indicates that some of the compounds of bismuth are less toxic to humans via ingestion than other heavy ...
Dimercaprol Injection USP is of questionable value in poisoning caused by other heavy metals such as antimony and bismuth. It ... The sulfhydryl groups of dimercaprol form complexes with certain heavy metals thus preventing or reversing the metallic binding ... Each 1 mL sterile BAL in Oil (Dimercaprol Injection USP) contains: 100 mg Dimercaprol in 200 mg Benzyl Benzoate and 700 mg ... BAL IN OIL- dimercaprol injection To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader ...
Toxicology and Heavy Metals flashcards from Dane Goodwin ... Chelation with UNITHOL (IV) or DIMERCAPROL (IM) 4-6 hours. -If ... NOT a heavy metal. -Prevents the cells of the body from getting oxygen and ATP causing them to die. -inhibits cytochrome C ... Render heavy metal ions unavailable for covalent interactions with functional groups of enzymes and other cellular targets.. * ... Water soluble form of dimercaprol (oral use only). -Increases Urinary lead excretion. -FDA approved when lead blood is >45 mcg/ ...
Succimer is an analog of dimercaprol. It forms water soluble chelates with heavy metals which are subsequently excreted renally ... Succimer binds heavy metals; however, the chemical form of these chelates is not known. ... Primary care providers should consult experts in chemotherapy of heavy metal toxicity before using chelation drug therapy. ...
... agent that is used to remove a heavy metal (such as lead or mercury) from the blood. Dimercaprol is used to treat arsenic, gold ... What is dimercaprol?. Dimercaprol is a chelating (KEE-late-ing) agent that is used to remove a heavy metal (such as lead or ... How is dimercaprol given?. Dimercaprol is injected into a muscle. A healthcare provider will give you this injection. ... What should I discuss with my health care provider before receiving dimercaprol?. If possible before you receive dimercaprol, ...
The process of removing heavy metals from the body is known as Chelation Therapy. Learn more about the medical procedure of ... Chelation Therapy for Heavy Metal Poisoning. *Dimercaprol / BAL (British Anti-Lewisite) and its analogues: Dimercaprol is ... a heavy metal is treated with a chelating drug. The chelating drug binds to the metal and is eliminated along with it in the ... Thus, they are beneficial to patients with heavy metal poisoning, and iron and copper overload. There are other suggested but ...
BAL(Dimercaprol)/ BAL in oil 10%®. Heavy metal poisoning. IM administration only ...
DIMERCAPROL (dahy mer KAP rawl) binds with heavy metals in the body. It is used to treat arsenic, mercury, gold, and lead ...
... and poisoning by heavy metals. Dimercaprol itself is a toxic drug but small therapeutic dosage can be used. Dimercaprol ... Dimercaprol. Dimercaprol is a synthetic compound produced for the treatment of lewisite (arsenic based chemical weapon) ... to bind to the heavy metals (Soares et al. 2003). Dimercaprol chelation avoid/reverse the inhibition of the sulphydryl group ... Therefore a dimercaprol-heavymetal complex is produced and the latter is freely excreted by the kidney. The intramuscular ...
Fisher on medicine for bal overdose: Administration of excessive dose of Dimercaprol (British anti-Lewisite or BAL). ... BAL = dimercaprol: Bal is "british anti-lewisite", a prescription medication given by injection for the removal of heavy metals ... Dimercaprol (Definition) Dimercaprol is a topical steroid which is a kind of skin-related medication. ...Read more ... BAL overdose: Administration of excessive dose of Dimercaprol (British anti-Lewisite or BAL). ...Read more ...
Obtain serum levels of heavy metals (e.g. lead, iron) before the initiation of therapy and again at the termination of the ...
It is also known as quicksilver or hydrargyrum (from "hydr-" water and "argyros" silver). A heavy, silvery d-block. D-block ... They are related to dimercaprol, which is another chelating agent..... (DMPS), and dimercaptosuccinic acid. Dimercaptosuccinic ... It is also known as quicksilver or hydrargyrum (from "hydr-" water and "argyros" silver). A heavy, silvery d-block. D-block ... Mercury is a heavy, silvery-white metal. As compared to other metals, it is a poor conductor of heat, but a fair conductor of ...
Dimercaprol is unable to make a diagnosis from this chart. R at i o n a l e s provides opportunity for exploring other activity ... The heavy chain is also the cause of a xenobiotic after death. For the patient to talk to your child. Hemodialysis is an ...
The antidotes for the heavy metals mercury and arsenic are dimercaprol (BAL) and D-penicillamine. ...
In cases of suspected copper poisoning, penicillamine is the drug of choice, and dimercaprol, a heavy metal chelating agent, is ... Alpha lipoic acid is also being researched for chelating other heavy metals, such as mercury. Cookware in which copper is the ... The exact mechanism of action is unknown, but common to other heavy metals. Viruses are less susceptible to this effect than ... In addition, it includes poisoning and toxic effects of other metals including tin, selenium nickel, iron, heavy metals, ...
Pharmacology - The sulfhydryl groups found on dimercaprol form heterocyclic ring complexes with heavy metals, principally ... Chelation to dimercaprol is not irreversible and metals can dissociate from the complex as dimercaprol concentrations decrease ... Dimercaprol Injection 100 mg/ml (for IM use only) in 3 ml amps; BAL in Oil® (Becton Dickinson); (Rx) ... Drug/Laboratory Interactions - Iodine I131 thyroidal uptake values may be decreased during or immediately following dimercaprol ...
Severe acute intoxication with arsenic responds to therapy with dimercaprol or penicillamine. Successful treatment of ...
... are chelating agents that form complexes with various heavy metals. It is related to dimercaprol, which is another chelating ... The effects if DMPS on heavy metal poisoning, including with polonium-210 were investigated in the following years. DMPS was ...
Two molecules of dimercaprol (BAL) combine with one atom of heavy metal to form a stable complex. BAL enhances fecal and ... Two molecules of dimercaprol (BAL) combine with one atom of heavy metal to form a stable complex. BAL enhances fecal and ... A statewide case registry for surveillance of occupational heavy metals absorption. Am J Public Health 1990:80: 162-4. ... Dimercaprol 2,3-dimercapto-l-propanol BAL Cuprimine D-penicillamine 3-mercapto-D-valine D-penicillamine Chemet Succimer Meso 2, ...
Dimercaprol (BAL, British AntiLewisite) for treating some heavy metal intoxications, e.g. Arsenic, Lead, Mercury, Cadmium. * ...
Despite chelation therapy with dimercaprol and dimercaptosuccinic acid, the patient died of multiple organ failure [21]. ... Urinalysis for heavy metals showed an arsenic level of 9000 𝜇. g/24 hours. The herbal tea was ultimately implicated as the ...
Administration of dimercaprol first may lessen this effect, Administer 10% dimercaprol in oil (2.5 mg/kg IM q4h on days I and 2 ... Sources Hydrogen sulfide is a highly toxic gas that is heavier than air. It is found in oil wells, refineries, tanneries, ... It is believed to be less toxic than dimercaprol, calcium EDTA, or penicillamine. Administer dimercaprol (BAL). CaEDTA will ... I Administer dimercaprol (BAL) 3 to 4 mg/kg IM q8h until recovery. in severe exposures, dose may be increased to 6 to 7. mg/kg ...
1. A malleable heavy metal with poisonous salts. 2. An electrical connection or electrode by which currents are conveyed to or ... Management Chelation-e.g., dimercaprol, calcium EDTA, d-penicillamine, succimer. lead. Toxicology pronounced Lead, as in dead A ... A heavy metal. Epidemiology Inorganic lead sources-gasoline, old paint, workplace chemicals, burning car batteries, moonshine ... dimercaprol, calcium EDTA, d-penicillamine, succimer. See Lead crystal, Lead line, Lead poisoning, Port Pirie Cohort Study, ...
The three most common chelating agents are calcium disodium edetate, dimercaprol (BAL), and penicillamine. The chelating agent ... Heavy metal poisoning is the toxic accumulation of heavy metals in the soft tissues of the body. ... The heavy metals most often implicated in human poisoning are lead, mercury, arsenic, and cadmium. Some heavy metals, such as ... Heavy metal poisoning is relatively uncommon. In children, lead ingestion is the major culprit of heavy metal poisoning. In ...
The method comprises administering to the host organism a therapeutically effective amount of a heavy-metal binding agent which ... when saturated with heavy metal atoms, is readily excreted from the body. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, ... The present invention discloses novel methods and compositions useful for removing toxic heavy metals from a host organism ... 1): 95, 1982); 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol ("Dimercaprol") (U.S. Pat. No. 2,402,665); and N-acetylcysteine (Hjortso et al., Eur. ...
EDTA with or without dimercaprol) in more severe cases. ... ... Heavy Metals. In: Katzung BG, Kruidering-Hall M, Trevor AJ. ... "Heavy Metals." Katzung & Trevors Pharmacology: Examination & Board Review, 12e Katzung BG, Kruidering-Hall M, Trevor AJ. ... The heavy metals discussed in this chapter-lead, arsenic, mercury, and iron-frequently cause toxicity in humans. The toxicity ... Chelators, which function as chemical antagonists, are used as antidotes in the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. ...
The antidote to heavy metal poisoning was dimercaprol, now dispensed as DMSA for chelating mercury. Interesting if the navy ...
Drugs that remove heavy metals from the body (chelating drugs), such as dimercaprol, edetate calcium disodium, penicillamine, ...
There are many heavy metals that people are exposed to regularly without realizing it. Mercury, cadmium, and aluminum, among ... Pharmaceuticals like 2,3-Dimercaprol have long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning, but they ... There are many heavy metals that people are exposed to regularly without realizing it. Mercury, cadmium, and aluminum, among ... Binds to heavy metals exceptionally well.. *Alpha and gamma lineolic acids in chlorella help increase the intake of fish oil ...
  • Administration of excessive dose of Dimercaprol (British anti-Lewisite or BAL ). (healthtap.com)
  • Bal is "british anti-lewisite", a prescription medication given by injection for the removal of heavy metals such as lead and mercury. (healthtap.com)
  • First developed to treat arsenic poisoning during the Second World War, dimercaprol (or British Anti-Lewisite, BAL) is a chelating agent which competes for heavy metal ions with the thiol groups of enzymes, thus preventing the inactivation of those enzymes. (kstc.com)
  • Treatment with dimercaprol (59529) (British Anti-Lewisite in Oil) and n-acetyl-d,1- penicillamine was not associated with significant immediate clinical improvement, although both drugs appeared to increase urinary excretion of mercury (7439976). (cdc.gov)
  • Dimercaprol has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning, and it is an essential drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arsenic and some other heavy metals act by chemically reacting with adjacent thiol residues on metabolic enzymes, creating a chelate complex that inhibits the affected enzyme's activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Dimercaprol is itself toxic, with a narrow therapeutic range and a tendency to concentrate arsenic in some organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The original name of dimercaprol reflects its origins as a compound secretly developed by British biochemists at Oxford University during World War II as an antidote for lewisite, a now-obsolete arsenic-based chemical warfare agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997) Are we ready to replace dimercaprol (BAL) as an arsenic antidote? (wikipedia.org)
  • The sustained presence of dimercaprol promotes continued excretion of the metallic poisons - arsenic, gold and mercury. (nih.gov)
  • BAL in Oil (Dimercaprol Injection USP) is indicated in the treatment of arsenic, gold and mercury poisoning. (nih.gov)
  • Dimercaprol is used to treat arsenic, gold, or mercury poisoning. (rexhealth.com)
  • Man is exposed to several heavy metals in the environment like lead, arsenic, cadmium, mercury etc. (medindia.net)
  • Dimercaprol is effective in poisoning due to the heavy metals such as arsenic, mercury, and lead since it increases the urinary excretion of these metals. (medindia.net)
  • The antidotes for the heavy metals mercury and arsenic are dimercaprol (BAL) and D-penicillamine. (1800petmeds.com)
  • Pharmacology - The sulfhydryl groups found on dimercaprol form heterocyclic ring complexes with heavy metals, principally arsenic, lead, mercury and gold. (elephantcare.org)
  • Contraindications/Precautions/Reproductive Safety - Dimercaprol is contraindicated in patients with impaired hepatic function, unless secondary to acute arsenic toxicity. (elephantcare.org)
  • The heavy metals most often implicated in human poisoning are lead, mercury, arsenic, and cadmium. (healthofchildren.com)
  • In general, the metals considered to be toxic to host organisms are the nutritionally-nonessential heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, cesium, arsenic and mercury. (google.com)
  • The heavy metals discussed in this chapter-lead, arsenic, mercury, and iron-frequently cause toxicity in humans. (mhmedical.com)
  • Pharmaceuticals like 2,3-Dimercaprol have long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning, but they have serious side effects. (sott.net)
  • 2,3-dimercaptopropanol) is a dithiol chelating agent that is used in the treatment of poisoning by the heavy metals arsenic, mercury, lead, and gold. (mhmedical.com)
  • A report by China's Ministry of Environmental Protection found that over 80 percent of this contamination was inorganic , and included dangerously high levels of heavy metals like lead, copper, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. (naturalnews.com)
  • Dimercaprol is a chelating agent used in the treatment of toxicity of heavy metals like lead, mercury, arsenic, gold, etc. (agcnigeria.org)
  • He was administered strong painkillers that produced hallucinations, as well as succimer, a chelating agent to purge heavy metals from the system, and also dozens of painful intramuscular injections of Dimercaprol, which is used to treat acute lead and arsenic poisoning. (naturalproductsinsider.com)
  • For the most common forms of heavy metal toxication-those involving e.g. lead, arsenic or mercury- a number of chelating agents are available. (yoursolutioncompounding.com.au)
  • For the most common forms of heavy metal poisoning - those involving lead, arsenic or mercury - the standard of care in the USA dictates the use of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) . (dmsachelation.com)
  • Dimercaprol had a little LAMB (Lead, Arsenic, Mercury = BAL. (brainscape.com)
  • Pharmaceutical drugs including 2,3-dimercaprol have been used as the basic element of chelation treatment in cases of lead poisoning or arsenic poisoning, but the truth is that they bring many other negative effects. (instiks.com)
  • 2] Chelation therapy is also indicated for the removal of heavy toxic metals such as iron (including in cases of thalassemia), mercury, arsenic, plutonium lead, uranium, and other forms of metal poisoning. (advancemedicalsystems.com)
  • These heavy metals include arsenic, lead, and mercury. (hhmglobal.com)
  • Succimer is an analog of dimercaprol. (drugs.com)
  • Treatment involves removal from the source of exposure, and chelation therapy, usually with oral succimer in outpatients and with parenteral agents (eg, EDTA with or without dimercaprol) in more severe cases. (mhmedical.com)
  • In addition, there are chelating agents available to reduce the toxicity of specific heavy metals, each with its own profile of efficacy (succimer [DMSA], dimercaprol [BAL], disodium dicalcium EDTA, penicillamine, deferoxamine). (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
  • Succimer is a chelator structurally related to dimercaprol . (drugster.org)
  • [4] [10] Medications used include dimercaprol , edetate calcium disodium , and succimer . (wikipedia.org)
  • Succimer is a chelating (KEE-late-ing) agent that is used to remove a heavy metal (such as lead) from the body. (cigna.com)
  • Succimer capsules is an orally active, heavy metal chelating agent. (livealthbiopharma.co.in)
  • EDTA 2,3-Dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid Dimercaptosuccinic acid DMSA scan Penicillamine Heavy metal poisoning Poisoning in Children. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cases of suspected copper poisoning, penicillamine is the drug of choice, and dimercaprol, a heavy metal chelating agent, is often administered. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three most common chelating agents are calcium disodium edetate, dimercaprol (BAL), and penicillamine. (healthofchildren.com)
  • Dimercaprol has been used as an adjunct in the treatment of the acute encephalopathy of lead toxicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although treatment with dimercaprol will increase the excretion of cadmium, there is a concomitant increase in renal cadmium concentration, so that its use in case of cadmium toxicity is to be avoided. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dimercaprol also enhances the toxicity of selenium and tellurium, so it is not to be used to remove these elements from the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bismuth has unusually low toxicity for a heavy metal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overdosage/Acute Toxicity - Symptoms of dimercaprol overdosage in animals include vomiting, seizures, tremors, coma and death. (elephantcare.org)
  • The level of heavy metal toxicity is dependent on the duration of exposure, how much a person absorbed, the way in which absorption occurred, the type of metal, and the age of the person. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We are also concerned about heavy metal toxicity in our patients. (wordpress.com)
  • The diagnosis of heavy metal toxicity requires observation of presenting symptoms, obtaining a thorough history of potential exposure, and the results of laboratory tests. (lifeextensionvitamins.com)
  • Providing a complete history of the person, including their occupation, hobbies, recreational activities, and environment, is critical in diagnosing heavy metal toxicity. (lifeextensionvitamins.com)
  • For anyone who has heavy metal toxicity, the information I know about heavy metals is a gold mine. (kristaumgelter.com)
  • The most accurate way to know if your body has heavy metal toxicity is with a Heavy Metals IV Challenge Test using 1500mg of Intravenous EDTA and a 500mg oral dose of DMSA followed by a 6-24 hour urine collection. (kristaumgelter.com)
  • Please read all my articles about heavy metal toxicity and removal. (kristaumgelter.com)
  • what is the most common cause of heavy metal toxicity? (memorize.com)
  • Anticonvulsant drugs are sometimes used to help with toxicity of what heavy metal? (memorize.com)
  • Do you fear heavy metal toxicity? (renegadehealth.com)
  • The EDTA mobilization test involves collecting urine samples after chelation therapy to analyze metal content in people who have heavy metal toxicity. (rootsnatural.ca)
  • Chelation therapy is the process where a drug is used to eliminate a heavy metal from the body and thereby prevent its adverse effect. (medindia.net)
  • Chelation therapy reduces concentration of heavy metals in the body by binding to them and facilitating their elimination. (medindia.net)
  • The treatment for most heavy metal poisoning is chelation therapy. (healthofchildren.com)
  • Chelation therapy, also known as a heavy metal detox, is a good place to start. (davidwolfe.com)
  • While the therapy is typically carried out using the pharmaceutical 2,3-Dimercaprol, you can perform chelation therapy on your child at home using cilantro and chlorella, which contain chelating agents that will bind to heavy metal toxins and remove them. (davidwolfe.com)
  • Below are just a few of the more common medical conditions associated with heavy metal poisoning, chelation therapy is thought to help with all of these. (dmsachelation.com)
  • The Food And Drug Administration (FDA) has approved chelation therapy as a treatment for heavy metal poisoning in the body and anemia. (hhmglobal.com)
  • EDTA is administered through injections in your veins (intravenously) and may be combined with the drug dimercaprol (BAL). (wordpress.com)
  • According to Dr. George Georgiou who is an expert in heavy metal poisoning, there are a huge number of health professionals who rely on synthetic chelating compounds like DMSA, DMPS, EDTA and few other agents when they want to activate and get rid of heavy metals. (instiks.com)
  • It forms water soluble chelates with heavy metals which are subsequently excreted renally. (drugs.com)
  • It forms water-soluble chelates with heavy metals and is used in the treatment of lead poisoning. (drugster.org)
  • And elevated circulating insulin proinsulin-like molecule levels are nearly but not the symptoms of hypoglycaemia autonomic neuroglycopenic general sweating confusion headache palpitations drowsiness nausea shaking odd behaviour hunger speech difculty incoordination box, heavy proteinuria g day chloroquine dimercaprol hydroxychloroquine isoniazid levodopa menadione water-soluble vitamin k deciency. (tetratherapeutics.com)
  • Dimercaprol Injection USP is effective for use in acute poisoning by mercury salts if therapy is begun within one or two hours following ingestion. (nih.gov)
  • Dimercaprol Injection USP is of questionable value in poisoning caused by other heavy metals such as antimony and bismuth. (nih.gov)
  • It should not be used in iron, cadmium, or selenium poisoning because the resulting dimercaprol-metal complexes are more toxic than the metal alone, especially to the kidneys. (nih.gov)
  • Worsening of outcomes from heavy metal poisoning. (brainscape.com)
  • Dimercaprol is most effective when used within 1 or 2 hours after a sudden poisoning. (rexhealth.com)
  • Dimercaprol is sometimes given for several days, depending on the type of poisoning being treated. (rexhealth.com)
  • Template:Fix/category [ citation needed ] The effects if DMPS on heavy metal poisoning, including with polonium -210 were investigated in the following years. (wikidoc.org)
  • Heavy metal poisoning is the toxic accumulation of heavy metals in the soft tissues of the body. (healthofchildren.com)
  • Heavy metal poisoning is relatively uncommon. (healthofchildren.com)
  • In children, lead ingestion is the major culprit of heavy metal poisoning. (healthofchildren.com)
  • Heavy metal poisoning may be detected using blood and urine tests, hair and tissue analysis, or x ray. (healthofchildren.com)
  • Chelators, which function as chemical antagonists, are used as antidotes in the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. (mhmedical.com)
  • Mercury , cadmium , and aluminum , among others, are able to imbed themselves into our central nervous systems and bones, bio-accumulating for years until we start to suffer acute health problems from heavy metal poisoning. (sott.net)
  • Methyl-coblolamine repairs the nervous system and damaged neurons which often suffer from heavy metal poisoning. (sott.net)
  • Doctors alert enough to recognize a heavy metal poisoning problem generally prescribe chelating agents like the drug 2,3-Dimercaprol to bind to heavy metal ions and remove them from the body through its excretory system. (naturalnews.com)
  • Recent reports of Lead in drinking water in Flint, Michigan and Newark, NJ, have many of us worried about whether we or our children have been subject to lead and potential heavy metal poisoning. (patientsmedical.com)
  • At Patients Medical, we have found that Patients who come in for potential lead level testing, frequently suffer from other forms of heavy metal poisoning also. (patientsmedical.com)
  • Heavy metal poisoning occurs when the soft tissues of the body absorb toxic amounts of metal. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • According to a 2019 review , heavy metal poisoning is a common health problem as a result of industrial, agricultural, and sewage waste. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Symptoms of heavy metal poisoning may vary depending on the metal. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • But is that all there is to heavy metal poisoning? (renegadehealth.com)
  • In cases of heavy metal poisoning the chelating agent attaches itself to a foreign metal such as lead or mercury. (dmsachelation.com)
  • Many conditions including auto immunity and Autism may be linked to immune system injury and heavy metal poisoning. (pandashopeforhealing.com)
  • It is used in heavy metal poisoning (such as lead or mercury), as it binds these metals and creates a compound that can pass out of the body in the urine. (rootsnatural.ca)
  • They create deposits over the years and as a result of that we start experiencing some serious health issues linked to poisoning with heavy metals. (instiks.com)
  • Cadmium #7 *chromium, nickel, and tin are also examples of heavy metals widely used in commercial manufacturing. (brainscape.com)
  • Unlike the heavy metals like lead, mercury and cadmium, copper is essential for the function of various enzymes in the body. (medindia.net)
  • Drug Interactions - Because dimercaprol can form a toxic complex with certain metals (cadmium, selenium, uranium and iron). (elephantcare.org)
  • Cadmium, aluminum and mercury are some of the heavy metals that have the ability to attach to the central nervous system and our joints and bones. (instiks.com)
  • DIMERCAPROL (dahy mer KAP rawl) binds with heavy metals in the body. (cvs.com)
  • Binds to heavy metals exceptionally well. (sott.net)
  • Binds with heavy metals to form dimercaprol-metal complex which can be readily excreted in the urine. (nursebuff.com)
  • It is the actual chemical that binds to the toxic heavy metals, it is properly called a chelating agent. (dmsachelation.com)
  • When the medicine enters the body, the chelating agent binds to these heavy metals and other toxins. (hhmglobal.com)
  • if you have been treated with dimercaprol or edetate calcium disodium in the past month. (cigna.com)
  • Chemistry - A dithiol chelating agent, dimercaprol occurs as a colorless or nearly color-less, viscous liquid that is soluble in alcohol, vegetable oils, and water, but is unstable in aqueous solutions. (elephantcare.org)
  • A common chelating agent is dimercaprol or DMSA. (dmsachelation.com)
  • Thus chelating agents are things that have more than one attaching group, like DMSA that has 2 sulfurs to attach to heavy metal atoms. (dmsachelation.com)
  • 1 Clearance was about ten times greater than that achieved with haemodialysis after intramuscular dimercaprol . (drugster.org)
  • Dimercaprol competes with the thiol groups for binding the metal ion, which is then excreted in the urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the dimercaprol-metal complex breaks down easily in an acid medium, production of an alkaline urine affords protection to the kidney during therapy. (nih.gov)
  • We strongly recommend that you do a complete urine analysis for all heavy metals in your system. (patientsmedical.com)
  • The only time a Provoked Urine Challenge test may not be providing the best results is if the heavy metals are tightly bound in a lump with bacteria, virus or fungus which will make the heavy metal unavailable to be captured by a chelator. (kristaumgelter.com)
  • When a chelator or methyl donor cannot bind to a heavy metal, the heavy metal cannot be removed from the body in the urine or the stool. (kristaumgelter.com)
  • This test may detect heavy metals in the urine even if blood levels are normal. (rootsnatural.ca)
  • Dimercaprol Injection USP is a colorless or almost colorless liquid chelating agent having a disagreeable, mercaptan-like odor. (nih.gov)
  • Each 1 mL sterile BAL in Oil (Dimercaprol Injection USP) contains: 100 mg Dimercaprol in 200 mg Benzyl Benzoate and 700 mg Peanut Oil. (nih.gov)
  • BAL in Oil (Dimercaprol Injection USP) is contraindicated in most instances of hepatic insufficiency with the exception of postarsenical jaundice. (nih.gov)
  • Medicinal iron should not be administered to patients under therapy with BAL in Oil (Dimercaprol Injection USP). (nih.gov)
  • One of the most consistent responses to Dimercaprol Injection USP is a rise in blood pressure accompanied by tachycardia. (nih.gov)
  • Because you will receive dimercaprol in a clinical setting, you are not likely to miss a dose. (rexhealth.com)
  • At least 24 hours should pass after the last dimercaprol dose, before iron or selenium therapy is begun. (elephantcare.org)
  • 2,3-Dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (abbreviated DMPS ) or its sodium salt (known as Unithiol ) are chelating agents that form complexes with various heavy metals. (wikidoc.org)
  • The sulfhydryl groups of dimercaprol form complexes with certain heavy metals thus preventing or reversing the metallic binding of sulfhydryl-containing enzymes. (nih.gov)
  • This binding helps prevent or reduce heavy metal binding to sulfhydryl-dependent enzymes. (elephantcare.org)
  • Different metals have differing affinities for both dimercaprol and sulfhydryl-dependent enzymes and the drug is relatively ineffective in chelating some metals ( e.g., selenium). (elephantcare.org)
  • however is a powerful chelator for numerous heavy metals. (sott.net)
  • The best medical chelator for you will take into consideration, the heavy metals elevated in your body, your medical conditions, body function and lifestyle. (kristaumgelter.com)
  • Each chelator has an affinity and greater bonding capacity to different heavy metals and uses different excretory pathways for each. (kristaumgelter.com)
  • 27 the dimercaprol-metal complexes with myelinated type of potassium. (rainierfruit.com)
  • Chelating agents are those that bind to heavy metal toxin ions, and then are removed from the body through our regular excretory channels. (sott.net)
  • Chlorella and cilantro are chelating compounds that can embed to heavy metal dangerous ions and after that, the body can easily flush these heavy metals out of the systems. (instiks.com)
  • A few reports suggest that dimercaprol or its metabolites are dialyzable and that BAL increases the dialysis clearance of mercury in patients with renal failure. (mhmedical.com)
  • When the agent attaches itself to a toxic heavy metal like lead the lead is no longer able to interact with other beneficial elements in your body like calcium. (dmsachelation.com)
  • Dimercaprol is a copper chelating agent that has been approved by the FDA to treat Wilson's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heavy metal testing does not reveal if copper or gold are in excess and both are toxic if too elevated. (kristaumgelter.com)
  • People may come in contact with heavy metals in industrial work, pharmaceutical manufacturing, and agriculture. (healthofchildren.com)
  • While it is mainly the cilantro that removes the heavy metals, chlorella is very important to prevent the body from being flooded by the toxins released by the cilantro. (naturalnews.com)
  • It is the best idea to use cilantro combined with chlorella because this natural ingredient activates more heavy metals and toxins than it is able to flush out of the body. (instiks.com)
  • Fortunately, there is a simple one-two-combination that helps to chelate heavy metals so that they are no longer circulating in the body, cilantro and chlorella. (sott.net)
  • What other drugs will affect dimercaprol? (rexhealth.com)
  • Other drugs may interact with dimercaprol, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. (rexhealth.com)
  • Chelation (pronounced key-lay-tion) Therapy is the administration of chelating agents to remove heavy metals from the body. (yoursolutioncompounding.com.au)
  • Exciting new research shows Coriander Essential Oil has the unique ability to safely remove heavy metals from the tissue of your body supporting natural immune system recovery. (pandashopeforhealing.com)
  • Aposhian HV, Maiorino RM, Gonzalez-Ramirez D, Zuniga-Charles M, Xu Z, Hurlbut KM et al (1995) Mobilization of heavy metals by newer, therapeutically useful chelating agents. (springer.com)
  • The dimercaprol-metal complex is excreted via renal and fecal routes. (elephantcare.org)
  • Because dimercaprol is potentially nephrotoxic, it should be used cautiously in patients with impaired renal function. (elephantcare.org)
  • The method comprises administering to the host organism a therapeutically effective amount of a heavy-metal binding agent which, when saturated with heavy metal atoms, is readily excreted from the body. (google.com)
  • Lead is a heavy metal commonly found in man's environment that can be an acute and chronic toxin. (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • Another professional category, coke-oven workers, has been examined: in these subjects, the interaction of heavy metals (As, Cd, chromium or Cr, Nickel or Ni, and Pb) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that increases oxidative stress has been demonstrated [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • [ 1 ] Lead is a heavy metal that is present at low levels in the earth's crust but has become pervasive in the environment because of its use in products such as gasoline, paint, jewelry, water pipes, lead solder, and lead-acid batteries. (medscape.com)
  • Symptoms will vary, depending on the nature and the quantity of the heavy metal ingested. (healthofchildren.com)
  • Heavy metals such as lead and mercury do NOT belong inside the human body. (dmsachelation.com)
  • The exposure to heavy metals may be a one-time exposure to a large amount, or may occur over a long period of time. (medindia.net)
  • A healthcare professional should be contacted whenever exposure to any heavy metal is suspected. (healthofchildren.com)
  • As far as the cause for early puberty, there is research that points the finger at exposure to heavy metals and environmental chemicals. (davidwolfe.com)
  • Modern people are in touch with a huge number of heavy metals and they are not aware of this exposure. (instiks.com)