Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Reperfusion: Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Ischemic Postconditioning: The application of repeated, brief periods of vascular occlusion at the onset of REPERFUSION to reduce REPERFUSION INJURY that follows a prolonged ischemic event. The techniques are similar to ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING but the time of application is after the ischemic event instead of before.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Thrombectomy: Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material from a blood vessel at the point of its formation. Removal of a clot arising from a distant site is called EMBOLECTOMY.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Suction: The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial: Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.Cardioplegic Solutions: Solutions which, upon administration, will temporarily arrest cardiac activity. They are used in the performance of heart surgery.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Heart Arrest, Induced: A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction: MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION in which the anterior wall of the heart is involved. Anterior wall myocardial infarction is often caused by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. It can be categorized as anteroseptal or anterolateral wall myocardial infarction.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Creatine Kinase, MB Form: An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the CARDIAC MUSCLE.Coronary Thrombosis: Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A family of percutaneous techniques that are used to manage CORONARY OCCLUSION, including standard balloon angioplasty (PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY), the placement of intracoronary STENTS, and atheroablative technologies (e.g., ATHERECTOMY; ENDARTERECTOMY; THROMBECTOMY; PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL LASER ANGIOPLASTY). PTCA was the dominant form of PCI, before the widespread use of stenting.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.P-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Ischemic Preconditioning: A technique in which tissue is rendered resistant to the deleterious effects of prolonged ISCHEMIA and REPERFUSION by prior exposure to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion. (Am J Physiol 1995 May;268(5 Pt 2):H2063-7, Abstract)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Heart Valves: Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Heart Block: Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Myocardial Stunning: Prolonged dysfunction of the myocardium after a brief episode of severe ischemia, with gradual return of contractile activity.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Mice, Inbred C57BLOxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Decanoic Acids: 10-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Hydroxy Acids: Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.Constriction: The act of constricting.Organ Preservation: The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Warm Ischemia: A tissue or organ remaining at physiological temperature during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. During ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION it begins when the organ reaches physiological temperature before the completion of SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS and ends with reestablishment of the BLOOD CIRCULATION through the tissue.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Heart Arrest: Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Protective Agents: Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Tiopronin: Sulfhydryl acylated derivative of GLYCINE.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Organ Preservation Solutions: Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Ventricular Fibrillation: A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Heart, Artificial: A pumping mechanism that duplicates the output, rate, and blood pressure of the natural heart. It may replace the function of the entire heart or a portion of it, and may be an intracorporeal, extracorporeal, or paracorporeal heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)Heart Failure, Systolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial contraction during SYSTOLE leading to defective cardiac emptying.Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Allopurinol: A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Heart Rate, Fetal: The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.Heart Septum: This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Streptokinase: Streptococcal fibrinolysin . An enzyme produced by hemolytic streptococci. It hydrolyzes amide linkages and serves as an activator of plasminogen. It is used in thrombolytic therapy and is used also in mixtures with streptodornase (STREPTODORNASE AND STREPTOKINASE). EC 3.4.-.Rheumatic Heart Disease: Cardiac manifestation of systemic rheumatological conditions, such as RHEUMATIC FEVER. Rheumatic heart disease can involve any part the heart, most often the HEART VALVES and the ENDOCARDIUM.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Guanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)American Heart Association: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.Cold Ischemia: The chilling of a tissue or organ during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. Cold ischemia time during ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION begins when the organ is cooled with a cold perfusion solution after ORGAN PROCUREMENT surgery, and ends after the tissue reaches physiological temperature during implantation procedures.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Rats, Inbred LewCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Heart Valve Prosthesis: A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Trimetazidine: A vasodilator used in angina of effort or ischemic heart disease.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Heart Failure, Diastolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial relaxation during DIASTOLE leading to defective cardiac filling.Tourniquets: Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Reperfusion in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction". CMAJ. 171 (9): 1039-41. doi:10.1503/cmaj.1041417. PMC 526323 ... "UOHI - Heart Attack". Ottawaheart.ca. Retrieved 2010-07-29. Cantor WJ, Morrison LJ (May 2005). "Guidelines for STEMI". CMAJ. ... "NHS Heart Hospital". Retrieved 2008-08-11. "AHA Cath Lab Definition". Retrieved 2008-08-09. "Maryland Shock Trauma". Retrieved ... Increasingly, research into the management of S-T segment elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI) occurring outside of the ...
Myocardial infarction[edit]. Main article: Myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction (MI) or heart attack, is caused by ... Targeting ischemia/reperfusion injury[edit]. Main article: Reperfusion injury. With reperfusion comes ischemia/reperfusion (IR ... Yellon, Derek M.; Hausenloy, Derek J. (2007-09-13). "Myocardial Reperfusion Injury". New England Journal of Medicine. 357 (11 ... "Targeting reperfusion injury in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: trials and tribulations". European ...
Reperfusion in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction". CMAJ. 171 (9): 1039-41. doi:10.1503/cmaj.1041417. PMC 526323 ... "UOHI - Heart Attack". Ottawaheart.ca. Retrieved 2010-07-29.. *^ Cantor WJ, Morrison LJ (May 2005). "Guidelines for STEMI". CMAJ ... Increasingly, research into the management of S-T segment elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI) occurring outside of the ... Nallamothu BK, Bates ER (October 2003). "Percutaneous coronary intervention versus fibrinolytic therapy in acute myocardial ...
"Reperfusion injury as a therapeutic challenge in patients with acute myocardial infarction". Heart Fail Rev. 12 (3-4): 207-16. ... It is a characteristic histologic finding of a recent myocardial infarction (heart attack) that was partially reperfused. The ... Myocardial infarction Timeline of myocardial infarction pathology Guanylyl cyclase Rodríguez-Sinovas A, Abdallah Y, Piper HM, ... Reperfusion associated cell death has been modulated (reduced) in animal studies and is an area of active research, which holds ...
... in the area of coronary heart disease in an attempt to limit the injury caused to the heart via ischemia and reperfusion injury ... Such injury would occur when a patient has an acute myocardial infarct followed by reperfusion by either percutaneous coronary ... ZQ, Zhao (August 2003). "Inhibition of myocardial injury by ischemic postconditioning during reperfusion: comparison with ... Heart Healthy living i.e. attention to lipid control is less frequent than in the general population ~25% of the patients in ...
Brief renal ischemia and reperfusion applied before coronary artery reperfusion reduces myocardial infarct size via endogenous ... "New directions for protecting the heart against ischaemia-reperfusion injury: targeting the Reperfusion Injury Salvage Kinase ( ... "Inhibition of myocardial injury by ischemic postconditioning during reperfusion: comparison with ischemic preconditioning". ... "Remote preconditioning protects the heart by activating myocardial PKCepsilon-isoform". Cardiovascular research. 55 (3): 583-9 ...
... protects the isolated rat heart from the myocardial injuries produced by ischemia and reperfusion. Planta Med, 1993 ... cyclobuxine was also found to have a protective effect on myocardial cells against ischemia and reperfusion (in an isolated rat ... Cyclobuxine was in this way able to suppress the damage (myocardial injury) produced by ischemia. As indicated above, research ... heart model). Cyclobuxine was proven to inhibit the release of ATP metabolites and prevent the release of creatine ...
Platelets protect against myocardial dysfunction and injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion in isolated rat hearts. ... Mehta's thesis topic was "studies on experimental myocardial reperfusion" which he completed under the direction of Prof. Tom ... Critical role of AT1 receptor expression after ischemia-reperfusion in isolated rat hearts: Beneficial effect of antisense ... Later, he went on to show that platelets also have a protective effect on the heart during ischemia mediated through release of ...
However, it is more commonly associated with reperfusion after myocardial injury. In the human heart the sinoatrial node is ... Moens, A.L.; Claeys, M.J.; Timmermans, J.P.; Vrints, C.J. (April 2005). "Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion-injury, a clinical ... The sinoatrial node is the first area of the heart to depolarize and to generate the action potential that leads to ... Norris, RM; Mercer, CJ (Mar-Apr 1974). "Significance of idioventricular rhythms in acute myocardial infarction". Progress in ...
Sustained protection by acadesine against ischemia- and reperfusion-induced injury. Studies in the transplanted rat heart. ... 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1- β - d -ribofuranoside Increases Myocardial Glucose Uptake during Reperfusion and Induces Late ... Translocation of myocardial GLUT-4 and increased glucose uptake through activation of AMPK by AICAR Translocation of myocardial ... The drug was first used in the 1980s as a method to preserve blood flow to the heart during surgery. Currently, the drug has ...
... on ventricular fibrillation inducibility during myocardial ischemia. Eur Heart J 22(abstract suppl), 546. Vajda, S., Baczko, I ... KATP channel inhibition is defibrillatory and improves survival during acute myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Eur J ... Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 278, H305−H312. Sato, T., & Marban, E. (2000). The role of mitochondrial KATP channels in ... A uniform refractory period corrects the conductance problems in the heart and prevents the re-entry arrhythmias. HMR 1883 ...
Heart attackEdit. Main article: Myocardial infarction. Patients arriving to the emergency department with a myocardial ... A patient's chance of survival is greatly improved if the patient receives definitive treatment (i.e. surgery or reperfusion) ... These patients require immediate reperfusion (re-opening) of the occluded vessel. This can be achieved in two ways: ... within one hour of an accident (such as a car accident) or onset of acute illness (such as a heart attack). This critical time ...
... of the C-terminal 19 amino acids was found during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in Langendorff perfused rat hearts. It ... on behalf of the third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction Global Task Force: Heart Failure Section". European Heart ... Early embryonic heart expresses solely slow skeletal muscle TnI. cTnI begins to express in mouse heart at approximately ... in transgenic mouse heart resulted in a phenotype of myocardial stunning with systolic and diastolic dysfunctions. Replacement ...
The rapid return of myocardial blood supply is critical in order to save the ischemic heart, but it also has the potential to ... Myocardial damage with the resumption of blood flow after an ischemic event is termed "reperfusion injury". The mitochondrial ... 2011) Intralipid-treated rat hearts were found to required more calcium to open mPTP during ischemia-reperfusion. The ... DOI: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182655e73 Sanada, S., Komuro, I., & Kitakaze, M. (2011). Pathophysiology of myocardial reperfusion ...
A cohort study in men showed that consumption of flavonoid containing food decreased the risk of mortality from coronary heart ... Kaempferol has also been shown to have a protective effect on the apoptosis induced by the ischemia/reperfusion of cardiac ... Another cohort study showed that high intake of tea is inversely associated with myocardial infarction. ... 2010). "The Potential Role of Honey and its Polyphenols in Preventing Heart Diseases: A Review". Afr J Tradit Complement Altern ...
"The American Heart Association recommends aspirin use for patients who've had a myocardial infarction (heart attack), unstable ... Ito Y (2003). "Effects of selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors on ischemia/reperfusion-induced hepatic microcirculatory ... It is believed that this shift in balance lowers the incidence of myocardial infarction (heart attack) and stroke. ... 1] American Heart Association: Aspirin in Heart Attack and Stroke Prevention " ...
TIMI - thrombolysis in myocardial infarction "Indications for fibrinolytic therapy in suspected acute myocardial infarction: ... In some countries such as the United States of America, emergency medical technicians may administer thrombolytics for heart ... Thrombolysis can also play an important part in reperfusion therapy that deals specifically with blocked arteries. Diseases ... It is used in ST elevation myocardial infarction, stroke, and very large pulmonary embolisms. The main complication is bleeding ...
... after myocardial infarction[25] (heart attack) and when mutations in mitochondrial DNA polymerase occur.[24] The heart attempts ... and reperfusion injury[24] (damage occurring after ischemia when blood flow returns to tissue), ... "European Journal of Heart Failure. 4 (6): 713-8. doi:10.1016/S1388-9842(02)00120-4. PMID 12453541. Archived from the original ... enters the mitochondria and causes the muscle cells (and thus the heart) to contract. If unregulated, the influx of Ca2+. can ...
A major topic of research is the impact of hydrogen sulfide on reducing myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Reperfusion ... The mitochondria has been known to protect the heart from ischemic-reperfusion injury through the opening of the ATP-sensitive ... Roles of the Nitric Oxide Signaling Pathway in Cardiac Ischemic Preconditioning Against Myocardial Ischemia-reperfusion Injury ... injury is a significant threat to myocardial function that arises with the reintroduction of blood flow to the heart following ...
"The American Heart Association recommends aspirin use for patients who've had a myocardial infarction (heart attack), unstable ... such as ischemia-reperfusion injury., hepatic inflammatory processes, acute hepatotoxicity etc. TxB2, a stable degradation ... It is believed that this shift in balance lowers the incidence of myocardial infarction (heart attack) and stroke. ... 1] American Heart Association: Aspirin in Heart Attack and Stroke Prevention " ...
2014) Sex Differences in Translocator Protein 18 kDa (TSPO) in the Heart: Implications for Imaging Myocardial Inflammation. J. ... myocardial infarction (due to ischemic reperfusion), cardiac hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, arrhythmias, and large vessel ... 2014) Sex Differemces in Translocator Protein 18 kDa (TSPO) in the Heart: Implications for Imaging Myocardial Inflammation. J. ... Higher levels of TSPO are present in those with heart disease, a change that is more common in men than women because ...
... protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via the sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium channel. Journal of ... Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2003 Dec;285(6):H2780-7. PMID 12919933 Wan TC, Ge ZD, Tampo A, Mio Y, Bienengraeber MW, ... and protects against tissue damage following myocardial ischemia, mediated via an interaction with ATP-sensitive potassium ... N-methyluronamides with high selectivity for human adenosine A3 receptors reduce ischemic myocardial injury. American Journal ...
... protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury". Pflugers Arch. 457: 979-988. doi:10.1007/s00424-008-0583-5. Sakamoto, ... "Mitochondrial kinase signalling pathways in myocardial protection from ischaemia/reperfusion-induced necrosis". Cardiovasc Res ... "Role of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels of coronary arteries in heart preservation". J Heart Lung ... Myocardial stunning is associated with oxidant radical damage and calcium overload. Contractile abnormalities can occur through ...
... ischemia-reperfusion injury, chronic diabetes and stress-induced heart disease. By using innovative approaches, he has ... remodeling of subcellular organelles plays a critical role in the development of congestive heart failure due to myocardial ... His work has also resulted in a concept that heart dysfunction in diabetes is due to an imbalance between fatty acid and ... In fact, the first Centre of Excellence in Heart Research in Canada was set up by the Medical Research Council under his ...
... protect the heart in an experimental model of myocardial infarction via the SAFE pathway." Lecour, Sandrine (2009). "Activation ... Ischaemic postconditioning protects against reperfusion injury via the SAFE pathway. Lydia Lacerda, Sarin Somers, Lionel H. ... It is an intrinsic protective signaling programme to limit cell death activated by the heart. This pathway allows ischaemic ... Res., 2009, 84 (2), pages 201-208, doi:10.1093/cvr/cvp274 When are pro-inflammatory cytokines SAFE in heart failure? Lecour ...
Additionally, severe cerebral hypoxia causes an elevated heart rate, and in extreme cases the heart may tire and stop pumping. ... Oxidants interfere with the normal brain chemistry and cause further damage (this is known as "reperfusion injury"). ... Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is being evaluated with the reduction in total and myocardial creatine phosphokinase levels showing a ... CPR, defibrilation, epinephrine, and atropine may all be tried in an effort to get the heart to resume pumping.[8] Severe ...
... administered just prior to reperfusion reduced but did not eliminate myocardial infarction in rabbits. Combining cangrelor with ... Triple Therapy Greatly Increases Myocardial Salvage During Ischemia/Reperfusion in the in situ Rat Heart. ... Myocardial salvage in acute myocardial infarction-challenges in clinical translation. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2011;51:451-3.PubMed ... Cangrelor, a P2Y12 receptor blocker, administered just prior to reperfusion reduced but did not eliminate myocardial infarction ...
Apoptotic mechanism has been implicated in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. ... were subjected to myocardial ischemia by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 45 min and reperfusion ... Adult mouse cardiomyocytes were isolated and cultured, then subjected to ischemia for 1 h, and reperfusion for 3 h. The ... Conclusion Calpain inhibitor PD150606 decreases myocardial apoptosis induced by I/R. Our data suggest that calpain activation ...
This is the first study to show that the anticancer drug Doxorubicin exacerbates myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury. ... Studies were undertaken in Langendorff hearts and adult/neonatal ventricular myocytes subjected to ischaemia-reperfusion. ... Hearts underwent triphenyl tetrazolium staining for infarct size assessment. Treatment groups (n=7-10) were perfused in the ... the cellular mechanism via which Doxorubicin mediates increased myocardial injury in conditions of ischaemia-reperfusion. ...
Diabetic hearts with higher HDACs activity were more vulnerable to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury compared with ... Suppression of Excessive Histone Deacetylases Activity in Diabetic Hearts Attenuates Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury via ... After reperfusion, hearts were removed rapidly and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Ventricle tissue was sampled (. rats/group) and ... Figure 3: The HDAC inhibitor attenuated MI/R injury in diabetic hearts. Serum levels of myocardial injury marker CK-MB (a) and ...
Preconditioning improves energy metabolism during reperfusion but does not attenuate myocardial stunning in porcine hearts.. M ... Preconditioning improves energy metabolism during reperfusion but does not attenuate myocardial stunning in porcine hearts. ... Preconditioning improves energy metabolism during reperfusion but does not attenuate myocardial stunning in porcine hearts. ... Preconditioning improves energy metabolism during reperfusion but does not attenuate myocardial stunning in porcine hearts. ...
American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology Published 1 January 2017 Vol. 312 no. 1, H60-H67 DOI: 10.1152 ... Novel Mechanisms of Myocardial Ischemia, Ischemia - Reperfusion, and Protection by Myocardial Conditioning. Deadline February 1 ... Myocardial interstitial levels of serotonin and its major metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid during ischemia-reperfusion. ... Myocardial interstitial levels of serotonin and its major metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid during ischemia-reperfusion ...
Inositol Phosphate Release and Metabolism During Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion in Rat Heart. Karen E. Anderson, Anthony M ... Hearts were subjected to 20-minute myocardial ischemia followed by 2-minute reperfusion in the absence or presence of neomycin ... A, 3H-labeled hearts were subjected to 20-minute myocardial ischemia followed by 2-minute reperfusion in oxygenated Krebs ... 3H]Inositol-labeled hearts were subjected to myocardial ischemia or 20-minute ischemia followed by reperfusion as described in ...
Heart dysfunction and fibrosis in rat treated with myocardial ischemia and reperfusion * CH Huang ... Keywords: Myocardial infarction, myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, animal model. Abstract. Because cardiovascular disease ... and to compare the heart dysfunction and fibrosis with SD and LE rats when treated with myocardial ischemia and reperfusion ... that SD rat is more suitable than LE rat for successful establishment of the model of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Also ...
... Sponsored ... To develop new dedicated therapies, experimental myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury would require methods to ... This allows structural analyses of fluorescence-labeled I/R hearts with exceptional detail. We discover and 3D-quantify ... he published a quantitative imaging approach for the murine heart that allows for homogenous imaging of labelled target ...
The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of Rg1 on heart ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury, with ... The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of Rg1 on heart ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury, with ... Myocradial blood flow and heart function were monitored over the period of ischemia and reperfution. Myocardial infarct size, ... Myocradial blood flow and heart function were monitored over the period of ischemia and reperfution. Myocardial infarct size, ...
... ... Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is an important health concern in myocardial infarction and situations such as ... can protect myocardial tissue in the reperfusion phase of I/R injury, and 2) evaluate the possible cooperative or synergistic ... and is the first to report the protection by catechin at this dose under conditions of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. ...
Nitric oxide mediates protective effect of endothelin receptor antagonism during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Download ... Buffer-perfused rat and mouse hearts were subjected to ischemia and reperfusion. At the onset of ischemia, the rat hearts ... Buffer-perfused rat and mouse hearts were subjected to ischemia and reperfusion. At the onset of ischemia, the rat hearts ... KnockoutMyocardial IschemiaMyocardial Reperfusion InjuryMyocardiumNitric OxideNitric Oxide DonorsNitric Oxide SynthaseNitric ...
... and heart failure both in animals and humans; however, the impact of increased myocardial Rac on impending ischemia-reperfusion ... and heart failure both in animals and humans; however, the impact of increased myocardial Rac on impending ischemia-reperfusion ... and heart failure both in animals and humans; however, the impact of increased myocardial Rac on impending ischemia-reperfusion ... and heart failure both in animals and humans; however, the impact of increased myocardial Rac on impending ischemia-reperfusion ...
... novel cardio-cytoprotective imidazole-carboxylic acid MMP-2 inhibitor lead candidate for the treatment of acute myocardial ... significantly decreased infarct size when applied at 1 µM in an ex vivo model for acute myocardial infarction.This is the first ... significantly decreased infarct size when applied at 1 µM in an ex vivo model for acute myocardial infarction. This is the ... Myocardial Infarction in Isolated Rat Heart. Ex Vivo Global Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury. Our experiment conforms to the ...
Myocardial Ultrastructure. Hearts were fixed by infusion with a mixture of 5% paraformaldehyde and 2% glutaraldehyde for 40 min ... American Heart Association, Learn and Live. Know the Facts, Get the Stats, American Heart Association, Dallas, Tex, USA, 2006. ... Heart tissues were removed at a level 4 mm above the apex after 60 min of reperfusion for determination of the parameters ... Rat hearts were subjected to 30 min of left descending artery occlusion followed by 60 min of reperfusion. Infarct size of ...
Myocardial metabolism in chronic reperfusion after nontransmural infarction in pig hearts. A. J. Liedtke, B. Renstrom, S. H. ... Myocardial metabolism in chronic reperfusion after nontransmural infarction in pig hearts. / Liedtke, A. J.; Renstrom, B.; ... Myocardial metabolism in chronic reperfusion after nontransmural infarction in pig hearts. American Journal of Physiology - ... title = "Myocardial metabolism in chronic reperfusion after nontransmural infarction in pig hearts", ...
Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion. In pilot experiments (n=8), hearts perfused with buffer alone were exposed to 40 minutes ... Platelets protect against myocardial dysfunction and injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion in isolated rat hearts. Circ ... 4 to 6 hours before excising the hearts. Ischemia/reperfusion resulted in a significant increase in myocardial AT1R expression ... a heart from saline-treated rat subjected to ischemia/reperfusion, and a heart from an AS-ODN-treated rat subjected to ischemia ...
The role of reperfusion therapy in paced patients with acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J. 2001 Sep. 142(3):516-9. [ ... Fever after acute myocardial infarction in patients treated with intravenous timolol or placebo. Br Heart J. 1987 Jan. 57 (1): ... What is the role of a lipid profile in the workup of myocardial infarction (MI, heart attack)?. Updated: May 07, 2019 ... Acute myocardial infarction, reperfusion type. In this case, the infarct is diffusely hemorrhagic. There is a rupture track ...
The role of reperfusion therapy in paced patients with acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J. 2001 Sep. 142(3):516-9. [ ... Fever after acute myocardial infarction in patients treated with intravenous timolol or placebo. Br Heart J. 1987 Jan. 57 (1): ... Acute myocardial infarction, reperfusion type. In this case, the infarct is diffusely hemorrhagic. There is a rupture track ... Healing myocardial infarction, lateral left ventricle. In this heart, there is a variegated or mottled appearance to the ...
Rapid expression of fibronectin in the rabbit heart after myocardial infarction with and without reperfusion. In: Journal of ... Rapid expression of fibronectin in the rabbit heart after myocardial infarction with and without reperfusion. / Knowlton, Anne ... Rapid expression of fibronectin in the rabbit heart after myocardial infarction with and without reperfusion. Journal of ... title = "Rapid expression of fibronectin in the rabbit heart after myocardial infarction with and without reperfusion", ...
ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction. Body Temperature Changes. Signs and Symptoms. Myocardial Infarction. Myocardial Ischemia. ... This study will look at the safety of treating patients with heart attack with mild hypothermia induced using a system of ... VELOCITY: Pilot Study to Evaluate Ultrafast Hypothermia Before Reperfusion in Patients With Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial ... Myocardial infarct size [ Time Frame: 3 days ]. Myocardial infarct size at 3 days post-procedure ...
Heart Arrest. Reperfusion Injury. Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. Ischemia. Hypothermia. Pathologic Processes. Heart Diseases. ... Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a key challenge in myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest. In this study most patients ... Hypothermia After Cardiac Arrest - Effects on Myocardial Function and Inflammatory Response. (IH3). The safety and scientific ... Hypothermia After Cardiac Arrest - Effects on Myocardial Function and Inflammatory Response.. Actual Study Start Date :. ...
Role of prothymosin α in necroptosis and heart failure after myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury. *阮, 俊能 (PI) ...
Reperfusion Injury. Heart Defects, Congenital. Myocardial Reperfusion Injury. Congenital Abnormalities. Vascular Diseases. ... Heart Defects, Congenital Cardiac Surgical Procedures Myocardial Reperfusion Injury Adenosine Drug: adenosine Phase 1 Phase 2 ... Heart Diseases. Cardiomyopathies. Myocardial Ischemia. Analgesics. Sensory System Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. ... But the safety and effectiveness of its use in myocardial protection in the setting of open heart surgery has not been ...
Ozone protects rat heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury. ... against IRI by attenuating mitochondrial damage and myocardial ... Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major cause of cardiac dysfunction during cardiovascular surgery, heart transplantation ... Antioxidant capacity, myocardial apoptosis and mitochondrial damage were evaluated and compared at the end of reperfusion. ... Ozone protects rat heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury: A role for oxidative preconditioning in attenuating mitochondrial ...
  • The study suggests a potential role for OzoneOP in protecting the heart against IRI during cardiovascular surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass procedures or transplantation. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Based on the evidence considered, the independent Appraisal Committee concluded that rivaroxaban, in combination with aspirin plus clopidogrel or with aspirin alone, was more effective than aspirin plus clopidogrel or aspirin alone for preventing further cardiovascular deaths and heart attacks in people with acute coronary syndrome and raised cardiac biomarkers. (nice.org.uk)
  • Reperfusion associated cell death has been modulated (reduced) in animal studies and is an area of active research, which holds the potential to significantly reduce the morbidity (disease burden) and mortality (death) of cardiovascular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. (medscape.com)
  • American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. (medscape.com)
  • abstract = "In order to study the effects of Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) in the heart, two transgenic mice were developed, one carrying a bidirectional HGF-TetO-GFP responder construct and the other carrying a α-MHC-tTA transactivator construct. (rug.nl)
  • Mice were subjected to myocardial ischemia by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 45 min and reperfusion for 3 h (I/R). Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase d-UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining was performed using an In Situ Cell Death Detection kit on paraffin heart sections (5 mm). (bmj.com)
  • Furthermore, HDACs inhibition was recently reported to improve myocardial function and prevent cardiac remodeling in diabetic mice [ 18 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The effect of myocardial I/R was examined in young adult wild-type (WT) and ZmRacD transgenic (TG) mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Hearts from wild-type and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS)-deficient mice received either vehicle or bosentan. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- Nondiabetic and diabetic ( db/db ) mice were subjected to transient myocardial ischemia for a period of 30 min followed by reperfusion. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In transgenic mice hearts overexpressing secreted frizzled protein 1 (sFRP1, a Wnt/Frz antagonist), GSK-3β phosphorylation, mTOR activation, and cardioprotection were impaired. (nih.gov)
  • The study examined the effect of Post-Con cardiac recovery after the ischemia-reperfusion sequence and the effect of Post-Con on low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice and control animals. (nih.gov)
  • Inactivation of the functional mouse Sod I gene in hearts by gene targeting (Sod I(+/-)) resulted in a 50% reduction of Cu/Zn-SOD mRNA and significant reduction of Cu/Zn-SOD enzyme activity compared with that of wild-type Sod I(+/+) mice. (curehunter.com)
  • The isolated buffer-perfused hearts from the knockout mice devoid of any functional copy of the Sod I (Sod I(-/-)) and matched nontransgenic control mice were subjected to 30 minutes of global ischemia followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. (curehunter.com)
  • For both groups of mice, the postischemic functional recovery for the hearts was lower than the baseline, but the recovery for the Sod I(-/-) was less compared with the wild-type mice. (curehunter.com)
  • In concert, a reduced amount of oxidative stress was found in the hearts of wild-type mice compared with Sod I(-/-) mouse hearts. (curehunter.com)
  • In vivo, loss of donor heart expression of apelin facilitated graft immune cell infiltration, blunted vascular repair, and worsened occlusive vasculopathy in mice. (jci.org)
  • A crucial factor in this case is the rapid call for help and the prompt ambulance response, enhancing the potential for myocardial salvage with reperfusion. (cmaj.ca)
  • In total, 14% of patients (hospital range, 7-29%) presented during the "golden" first hour after symptom onset, when there is the greatest potential for myocardial salvage. (mja.com.au)
  • Heart failure, which is generally characterised by impaired cardiac function and exercise intolerance affects a very large number of people worldwide, particularly in the Western world. (google.es)
  • 1,2 ⇓ NO can be produced by essentially all cell types in the heart and is known to have profound effects on cardiac function. (ahajournals.org)
  • Nonetheless, ischemia-reperfusion-induced changes in the β-adrenoceptors and adenylyl cyclase system have been demonstrated to be prevented by the presence of superoxide dismutase plus catalase, a combination which is known to remove the actions of H 2 O 2 . (springer.com)
  • The purpose of the present study was to explore, firstly, whether ozone induces oxidative preconditioning by activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and, secondly, whether ozone oxidative preconditioning (OzoneOP) can protect the heart against IRI by attenuating mitochondrial damage. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • BackgroundThis study aims to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the ethyl acetate extract of Desmodium gangeticum root for cardioprotection from ischemia reperfusion-induced oxidative stress.MethodsThe in vitro antioxidant potential of the extract was in terms of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, lipid peroxide scavenging activity, nitric oxide scavenging activity and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This finding provides direct evidence that the salutary effects of MDL 74,405 on myocardial stunning are due to attenuation of oxidative stress. (biomedsearch.com)
  • On the basis of this evidence, it is suggested that an increase in oxidative stress during both the ischemic and reperfusion phases may play an important role in the alteration of β-adrenergic receptors, the adenylyl cyclase and G s -protein system, and the attenuation of the inotropic responses of the ischemic-reperfused hearts to catecholamines. (springer.com)
  • In July of 2008 Witting moved from the ANZAC Research Institute to take up a full time Senior Lectureship and establish the Redox Biology Group in the Discipline of Pathology, The new facility combined with significant funding from the ARC and National Heart Foundation over the next 3 years provides an excellent environment for young researchers to be trained in biomedical techniques and explore the relationships between oxidative stress and disease. (edu.au)
  • The number of cells with such deposits was markedly increased after 30 min of ischemia (19%), as well as after 20 min of ischemia followed by reperfusion (17%), prior to the development of irreversible myocardial damage. (springer.com)
  • molecular weight 526.60), a specific chymase inhibitor (CM), on a clinically relevant swine model of AMI-R. A 60-min ischemia followed by a 120-min reperfusion was chosen to assess an early effect of chymase inhibition (it is the shorter time point where necrosis can be determined with accuracy and reproducibility) and to allow comparison with previous experiments performed by our group. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A novel transgenic mouse model with cardiac-specific overexpression of constitutively active mutant form of Zea maize Rac D (ZmRacD) gene has been reported with increased myocardial Rac-GTPase activity and O 2 · - generation. (elsevier.com)
  • Contraction band necrosis is a type of uncontrolled cell death (necrosis) unique to cardiac myocytes and thought to arise in reperfusion from hypercontraction, which results in sarcolemmal rupture. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study suggests that protection or lack of protection by idrapril on recovery of contractile function seems to depend on the degree of inhibition of tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in the setting of acute heart ischaemic insult. (elsevier.com)
  • Stem and progenitor cell-based therapy in ischaemic heart disease: promise, uncertainties, and challenges. (nature.com)
  • Human relevance of pre-clinical studies in stem cell therapy: systematic review and meta-analysis of large animal models of ischaemic heart disease. (nature.com)
  • 1. Reperfusion of the globally ischaemic isolated rat heart is associated with an enhanced overflow of endogenous noradrenaline (NA) after ischaemic periods of 20, 40 or 60 min but not of 10 min. (portlandpress.com)
  • 4. Reperfusion NA overflow correlates with the reperfusion overflow of an extracellular space marker infused before the ischaemic episode. (portlandpress.com)
  • Ischaemic heart disease, as the result of impaired blood supply, is currently the leading cause of cardiac failure and death. (springer.com)
  • Isolated rat hearts (n=48) were perfused in the retrograde mode with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer, and following the induction of 30 min global ischemia, ascorbate (150 µM) and/or catechin (5 µM) were added directly into the perfusate during 90 min reperfusion. (usask.ca)
  • Studies using the isolated perfused working heart model have reported that metformin at concentrations known to lower blood glucose provides cardioprotection in diabetic hearts against increasing preload and in nondiabetic hearts against global ischemia ( 20 , 21 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The rapid and transient release of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate at 2-minute postischemic reperfusion provides an explanation for the enhanced role of α 1 -adrenergic receptors under these conditions and suggests an important role for this compound in initiating reperfusion-induced pathological events. (ahajournals.org)
  • 7 Furthermore, α 1 -adrenergic receptor blockade has been shown to be antiarrhythmic during both early ischemia and postischemic reperfusion, 8 9 but not under nonischemic conditions. (ahajournals.org)
  • This study was undertaken to evaluate whether peroxisome proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) agonist-rosiglitazone (ROSI) induces postischemic functional recovery in Langendorf heart model. (koreamed.org)
  • Postischemic synthesis of high energy phosphates in isolated porcine hearts during reperfusion with 11 or 25 degrees C hypothermic perfluorocarbon emulsion FC 43. (curehunter.com)
  • Thus, the postischemic recovery of the developed force and the maximum first derivative of the developed force were consistently lower for the Sod I(-/-) mouse hearts compared with wild-type control hearts. (curehunter.com)
  • Cell-based therapies for myocardial repair and regeneration in ischemic heart disease and heart failure. (nature.com)
  • In this case, because the patient is hemodynamically stable and has no heart failure or contraindications to fibrinoysis, and because transfer for PCI would impose a further treatment delay, largely exceeding 60 minutes, fibrinolysis is the preferred option. (cmaj.ca)
  • To test this we used a rat model of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion where the duration of ischemia was 2 h, sufficient time to produce infarcts large enough to cause progression to heart failure. (aspetjournals.org)
  • For example, a third-degree heart block can worsen pre-existing conditions, such as heart failure . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pressure-overload-induced heart failure induces a selective reduction in glucose oxidation at physiological afterload. (semanticscholar.org)
  • At 3 months, one patient in the cyclosporine group versus three in the control group were rehospitalized for heart failure (p = 0.28). (acc.org)
  • Heart failure is a major human disease that afflicts millions of people worldwide. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • Intensive research in the past decade has yielded many exciting new mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of heart failure, but progress toward successful therapies to prevent, halt and reverse heart failure has been painfully slow. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • The overall goal of this Keystone Symposia conference is to focus on heart failure and highlight the scientific advances in basic discovery and early-phase therapeutic development in this fast-moving field. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • 1. A method for the treatment of heart failure in a mammal which comprises administering a cortisol antagonist to said mammal in an amount effective to treat the heart failure, with the proviso that said cortisol antagonist is not clonidine. (google.es)
  • 2. The method of claim 1 wherein the heart failure is selected from the group consisting of congestive heart failure, diastolic heart failure, low-output heart failure, right-sided heart failure, cardiac hypertrophy, and cardiac fibrosis. (google.es)
  • 9. A method for the treatment of one or more symptoms associated with heart failure selected from the group comprising edema of lower limbs, pulmonary edema, dyspnea, liver enlargement, increased heart rate, reduced stroke volume, shortness of breath and exercise intolerance which comprises administering, in a daily dose, a cortisol antagonist to a mammalian subject, with the proviso that said cortisol antagonist is not clonidine. (google.es)
  • The present invention relates to heart failure and in particular to the use of a particular class of compounds for the treatment of heart failure. (google.es)
  • Reliability and construct validity of PROMIS® measures for patients with heart failure who undergo heart transplant. (duke.edu)
  • The beneficial effects of ACE inhibitors (ACEi) or angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists (AT 1 -ant) are reportedly mediated by NO in heart failure (HF). (ahajournals.org)
  • Diltiazem protects the isolated rabbit heart from the mechanical and ultrastructural damage produced by transient hypoxia, low flow ischemia and exposure to Ca + -free medium. (springer.com)