A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.
The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.
Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.
Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.
Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.
Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.
Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).
The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
Agents that prevent clotting.
A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.
Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.
Pathological condition characterized by the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to regurgitation. It is caused by diseases of the AORTIC VALVE or its surrounding tissue (aortic root).
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
The valve consisting of three cusps situated between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)
Backflow of blood from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the LEFT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the MITRAL VALVE. This can lead to mitral valve regurgitation.
A valve situated at the entrance to the pulmonary trunk from the right ventricle.
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
Replacement for a knee joint.
Graphic registration of the heart sounds picked up as vibrations and transformed by a piezoelectric crystal microphone into a varying electrical output according to the stresses imposed by the sound waves. The electrical output is amplified by a stethograph amplifier and recorded by a device incorporated into the electrocardiograph or by a multichannel recording machine.
Replacement for a hip joint.
Rigid, semi-rigid, or inflatable cylindric hydraulic devices, with either combined or separate reservoir and pumping systems, implanted for the surgical treatment of organic ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
Narrowing of the passage through the MITRAL VALVE due to FIBROSIS, and CALCINOSIS in the leaflets and chordal areas. This elevates the left atrial pressure which, in turn, raises pulmonary venous and capillary pressure leading to bouts of DYSPNEA and TACHYCARDIA during physical exertion. RHEUMATIC FEVER is its primary cause.
System established by the World Health Organization and the International Committee on Thrombosis and Hemostasis for monitoring and reporting blood coagulation tests. Under this system, results are standardized using the International Sensitivity Index for the particular test reagent/instrument combination used.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
A disorder characterized by sudden attacks of respiratory distress in at rest patients with HEART FAILURE and PULMONARY EDEMA. It usually occurs at night after several hours of sleep in a reclining position. Patients awaken with a feeling of suffocation, coughing, a cold sweat, and TACHYCARDIA. When there is significant WHEEZING, it is called cardiac asthma.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.
Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts thereof.
Artificial device such as an externally-worn camera attached to a stimulator on the RETINA, OPTIC NERVE, or VISUAL CORTEX, intended to restore or amplify vision.
Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.
An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The fitting and adjusting of artificial parts of the body. (From Stedman's, 26th ed)
Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.
Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (ENDOCARDIUM), the continuous membrane lining the four chambers and HEART VALVES. It is often caused by microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and rickettsiae. Left untreated, endocarditis can damage heart valves and become life-threatening.
Medical devices which substitute for a nervous system function by electrically stimulating the nerves directly and monitoring the response to the electrical stimulation.
Abnormal protrusion or billowing of one or both of the leaflets of MITRAL VALVE into the LEFT ATRIUM during SYSTOLE. This allows the backflow of blood into left atrium leading to MITRAL VALVE INSUFFICIENCY; SYSTOLIC MURMURS; or CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An implant used to replace one or more of the ear ossicles. They are usually made of plastic, Gelfoam, ceramic, or stainless steel.
An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)
Flaps within the VEINS that allow the blood to flow only in one direction. They are usually in the medium size veins that carry blood to the heart against gravity.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Backflow of blood from the RIGHT VENTRICLE into the RIGHT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the TRICUSPID VALVE.
A prosthesis that gains its support, stability, and retention from a substructure that is implanted under the soft tissues of the basal seat of the device and is in contact with bone. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.
Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
'Amputee' is a medical term used to describe an individual who has undergone the surgical removal of a limb or extremity, such as an arm, leg, foot, or hand, due to various reasons like trauma, disease, or congenital defects.
A device, activated electronically or by expired pulmonary air, which simulates laryngeal activity and enables a laryngectomized person to speak. Examples of the pneumatic mechanical device are the Tokyo and Van Hunen artificial larynges. Electronic devices include the Western Electric electrolarynx, Tait oral vibrator, Cooper-Rand electrolarynx and the Ticchioni pipe.
A prosthetic appliance for the replacement of areas of the maxilla, mandible, and face, missing as a result of deformity, disease, injury, or surgery. When the prosthesis replaces portions of the mandible only, it is referred to as MANDIBULAR PROSTHESIS.
Partial or total replacement of a joint.

Animal experimental implantation of an atrial septal defect occluder system. (1/1916)

OBJECTIVE: To establish the implantation technique for the atrial septal defect occluder system (ASDOS) device in an experimental animal model and to determine long term mechanical stability of the device and its in vivo properties in terms of biocompatibility and tissue reaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An atrial septal defect was created and the device implanted in 17 pigs (mean weight 30 kg). The implantation technique was refined and modified because of initial technical and anatomical complications during nine acute pilot studies. The technique proved to be feasible in eight subsequent survival studies. Four pigs were electively killed three months after implantation (group 1). The remaining four pigs were killed six months after implantation (group 2). RESULTS: Necropsy showed all devices were embedded in soft tissue three months after implantation. Microscopic examination of atrial septal tissue showed an acute granulomatous inflammatory reaction in group 1 and fibrosis in group 2. The intensity of the inflammatory reaction around the device was clearly milder in group 2, indicating a decline in the inflammatory response with time. Clinical and biochemical investigations indicated acceptable biocompatibility of the device. CONCLUSION: The implantation technique for the ASDOS device in a chronic pig model has been established. Biocompatibility of the device was acceptable.  (+info)

Endocarditis at the millennium. (2/1916)

The members of the Interplanetary Society (Pus Club) have made significant contributions to the understanding of the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis (IE). Although the incidence of IE has essentially remained unchanged, the spectrum and characteristics of patients potentially affected by this disorder are expanding. Moreover, in addition to the typical microorganisms implicated in IE, there are increasing reports of new or atypical pathogens causing IE, including those that are resistant to standard antibiotic therapy. The infectious diseases community is challenged to continue to provide effective antimicrobial regimens for IE and to further develop diagnostic and surgical strategies to identify and treat patients with this disorder. New information is available regarding the demographics, diagnostic methods, and therapeutic options for the management of IE.  (+info)

Pregnancy in patients after valve replacement. (3/1916)

This report is based on information obtained from a questionnaire sent to major cardiac centres in the United Kingdom. This produced details of 39 pregnancies in 34 patients after valve replacement. The 39 pregnancies gave rise to 30 healthy babies. The small size of the series probably reflects both the increasing rarity of young women with rheumatic heart disease in this country and the cautious attitude of their cardiologists. This makes it likely that these women represented the best end of the spectrum of cardiac function after valve replacement. Twenty-four pregnancies in 20 women who were not given anticoagulants producted 23 healthy babies and 1 spontaneous abortion. This group comprised 6 patients with free aortic homografts, 1 patient with a fascia lata mitral valve, 1 with a Beall tricuspid prosthesis, 1 with a combined mitral homograft and Starr Edwards aortic prosthesis, and 1 with mitral and aortic frame-mounted fascia lata valves. There were no maternal deaths or thromboembolic complications in this group which included 5 patients who were in atrial fibrillation. Fifteen pregnancies in 14 women who received anticoagulants gave rise to 7 healthy babies. The fetal losses were one stillbirth, one intrauterine death at 34 weeks, and 3 spontaneous abortions; one surviving child has hydrocephalus as a result of blood clot and there were 2 maternal deaths. This group included 13 patients with Starr Edwards valves, 11 mitral and 2 aortic. A patient with a Hammersmith mitral valve was the only one to have been treated with heparin and her valve thrombosed. One patient with a mounted mitral homograft had a cerebral embolus. Nine of these patients were in atrial fibrillation. In 3 additional patients the valve replacement was carried out during pregnancy. Two of the patients survived operation. In one of these who was treated with warfarin the pregnancy well, but there is an increased fetal wastage in patients pregnancy gave rise to a congenitally malformed baby who died in the neonatal period. The baby born to the mother who did not receive anticoagulants has a hare-lip and talipes. Women with artificial valves can tolerate the haemodynamic load of pregnancy well, but there is an increased fetal wastage in patients taking oral anticoagulants. This is probably largely attributable to fetal haemorrhage but there is also a risk of malformation caused by a teratogenic effect of warfarin. Experience gained in non-pregnant patients suggests that withholding anticoagulatns in pregnant patients with prosthetic valves would usually be undersirable but warfarin should be avoided. The advantages of biological valves were apparent in this series.  (+info)

Malfunction of Bjork-Shiley valve prosthesis in tricuspid position. (4/1916)

Eight months after triple valve replacement with Bjork-Shiley tilting disc valves a patient developed symptoms and signs suggesting malfunction of the prosthesis in the tricuspid position. This was confirmed by echocardiography and angiocardiography, and at operation thedisc of the prosthesis was found to be stuck half-open by fibrin and clot. A further 11 patients with the same tupe of prosthesis in the triscupid position were then studied by phonocardiography and echocardiography. In one of these the prosthesis was found to be stuck and this was confirmed by angiocardiography and surgery. These 2 cases are reported in detail and the findings in the other 10 are discussed. The implications of this high incidence of malfunction of the Bjork-Shiley prosthesis in the tricuspid position are considered. Echocardiography appears to be essential in the follow-up of such patients.  (+info)

Intraoperative left ventricular perforation with false aneurysm formation. (5/1916)

Two cases of perforation of the left ventricle during mitral valve replacement are described. In the first case there was perforation at the site of papillary muscle excision and this was recognized and successfully treated. However, a true ventricular aneurysm developed at the repair site. One month after operation rupture of the left ventricle occurred at a second and separate site on the posterior aspect of the atrioventricular ring. This resulted in a false aneurysm which produced a pansystolic murmur mimicking mitral regurgitation. Both the true and the false aneurysm were successfully repaired. In the second case perforation occurred on the posterior aspect of the atrioventricular ring and was successfully repaired. However, a false ventricular aneurysm developed and ruptured into the left atrium producing severe, but silent, mitral regurgitation. This was recognized and successfully repaired. The implications of these cases are discussed.  (+info)

Mobile echoes on prosthetic valves are not reproducible. Results and clinical implications of a multicentre study. (6/1916)

AIMS: To test the hypothesis that inter-observer variability accounts for the wide variation in reported prevalences of fibrin strands on prosthetic heart valves and to develop criteria for their identification and reporting. METHODS AND RESULTS: A videotape with 30 sequences of prosthetic heart valves imaged by transoesophageal echocardiography and showing abnormalities such as strands, microbubbles, and spontaneous echocardiographic contrast, was assessed in 13 European and three American centres. There were three duplicated examples, unbeknown to the observers. Definitions and reported prevalence rates of the abnormalities were analysed, and inter- and intra-observer agreement estimated with the kappa statistic. Mobile echoes were identified in 40 to 80% of the sequences on the tape. The reported prevalence of mobile echoes correlated with the time spent reporting the tape. There was moderate inter-observer agreement for the identification of any mobile echoes (kappa = 0.38), but no agreement for their labelling (kappa = 0.22), in spite of similar definitions. Intra-observer reproducibility was good (agreement in 76% of the reduplicated sequences). CONCLUSIONS: The true prevalence and potential significance of mobile echoes on prosthetic heart valves cannot be assessed unless inter-observer consensus on echocardiographic criteria for identifying such echoes is reached.  (+info)

Surface ultrastructure of silicone rubber aortic valve poppetts after long-term implantation. A scanning electron microscope study of four poppets. (7/1916)

The surface ultrastructure, demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy, is described in four implanted Silastic aortic valve poppets. Ball variance was discovered at necropsy in two patients and clinically in one in whom the poppet was replaced. The fourth patient underwent reoperation, but ball variance was neither suspected nor found. All four poppets were densely coated with biological debris and microthrombi. The 'coat' was soluble in a weak solution of sodium hydroxide. The true Silastic surface beneath the coat was little altered compared with unimplanted poppets, even after 10 years' implantation.  (+info)

Automatic embolus detection by a neural network. (8/1916)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Embolus detection using transcranial Doppler ultrasound is a useful method for the identification of active embolic sources in cerebrovascular diseases. Automated embolus detection systems have been developed to reduce the time of evaluation in long-term recordings and to provide more "objective" criteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the critical conditions of automated embolus detection by means of a trained neural network (EMBotec V5.1 One, STAC GmbH, Germany). METHODS: In 11 normal volunteers and in 11 patients with arterial or cardiac embolic sources, we performed simultaneous recordings from both middle or both posterior cerebral arteries. In the normal subjects, we produced 1342 additional artifacts to use the latter as false-positives. Detection of microembolic signals (MES) was done offline from digital audiotapes (1) by an experienced blinded investigator used as a reference and (2) by a trained 3-layer-feed-forward neural network. RESULTS: From the 1342 provoked artifacts the neural network labeled 216 events as microemboli, yielding an artifact rejection of 85%. In microembolus-positive patients the neural network detected 282 events as emboli, among these 122 signals originating from artifacts; 58 "real" events were not detected. This result revealed a sensitivity of 73.4% and a positive predictive value of 56.7. The spectral power of the detected artifact signals was 16.5+/-5 dB above background signal. MES from patients with artificial heart valves had a spectral power of 6.4+/-2.1 dB; however, in patients with other sources of emboli, MES had an averaged energy reflection of 2.7+/-0.9 dB. CONCLUSIONS: The neural network is a promising tool for automated embolus detection, the formal algorithm for signal identification is unknown. However, extreme signal qualities, eg, strong artifacts, lead to misdiagnosis. Similar to other automated embolus detection systems, good signal quality and verification of MES by an experienced investigator is still mandatory.  (+info)

A heart valve prosthesis is a medical device that is implanted in the heart to replace a damaged or malfunctioning heart valve. The prosthetic valve can be made of biological tissue (such as from a pig or cow) or artificial materials (such as carbon or polyester). Its function is to allow for the proper directional flow of blood through the heart, opening and closing with each heartbeat to prevent backflow of blood.

There are several types of heart valve prostheses, including:

1. Mechanical valves: These are made entirely of artificial materials and have a longer lifespan than biological valves. However, they require the patient to take blood-thinning medication for the rest of their life to prevent blood clots from forming on the valve.
2. Bioprosthetic valves: These are made of biological tissue and typically last 10-15 years before needing replacement. They do not require the patient to take blood-thinning medication, but there is a higher risk of reoperation due to degeneration of the tissue over time.
3. Homografts or allografts: These are human heart valves that have been donated and preserved for transplantation. They have similar longevity to bioprosthetic valves and do not require blood-thinning medication.
4. Autografts: In this case, the patient's own pulmonary valve is removed and used to replace the damaged aortic valve. This procedure is called the Ross procedure and has excellent long-term results, but it requires advanced surgical skills and is not widely available.

The choice of heart valve prosthesis depends on various factors, including the patient's age, overall health, lifestyle, and personal preferences.

The aortic valve is the valve located between the left ventricle (the lower left chamber of the heart) and the aorta (the largest artery in the body, which carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body). It is made up of three thin flaps or leaflets that open and close to regulate blood flow. During a heartbeat, the aortic valve opens to allow blood to be pumped out of the left ventricle into the aorta, and then closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the ventricle when it relaxes. Any abnormality or damage to this valve can lead to various cardiovascular conditions such as aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, or infective endocarditis.

Heart valves are specialized structures in the heart that ensure unidirectional flow of blood through its chambers during the cardiac cycle. There are four heart valves: the tricuspid valve and the mitral (bicuspid) valve, located between the atria and ventricles, and the pulmonic (pulmonary) valve and aortic valve, located between the ventricles and the major blood vessels leaving the heart.

The heart valves are composed of thin flaps of tissue called leaflets or cusps, which are supported by a fibrous ring. The aortic and pulmonic valves have three cusps each, while the tricuspid and mitral valves have three and two cusps, respectively.

The heart valves open and close in response to pressure differences across them, allowing blood to flow forward into the ventricles during diastole (filling phase) and preventing backflow of blood into the atria during systole (contraction phase). A properly functioning heart valve ensures efficient pumping of blood by the heart and maintains normal blood circulation throughout the body.

A bioprosthesis is a type of medical implant that is made from biological materials, such as heart valves or tendons taken from animals (xenografts) or humans (allografts). These materials are processed and sterilized to be used in surgical procedures to replace damaged or diseased tissues in the body.

Bioprosthetic implants are often used in cardiac surgery, such as heart valve replacement, because they are less likely to cause an immune response than synthetic materials. However, they may have a limited lifespan due to calcification and degeneration of the biological tissue over time. Therefore, bioprosthetic implants may need to be replaced after several years.

Bioprostheses can also be used in other types of surgical procedures, such as ligament or tendon repair, where natural tissue is needed to restore function and mobility. These prostheses are designed to mimic the properties of native tissues and provide a more physiological solution than synthetic materials.

Heart valve prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure where an artificial heart valve is inserted to replace a damaged or malfunctioning native heart valve. This can be necessary for patients with valvular heart disease, including stenosis (narrowing) or regurgitation (leaking), who do not respond to medical management and are at risk of heart failure or other complications.

There are two main types of artificial heart valves used in prosthesis implantation: mechanical valves and biological valves. Mechanical valves are made of synthetic materials, such as carbon and metal, and can last a long time but require lifelong anticoagulation therapy to prevent blood clots from forming. Biological valves, on the other hand, are made from animal or human tissue and typically do not require anticoagulation therapy but may have a limited lifespan and may need to be replaced in the future.

The decision to undergo heart valve prosthesis implantation is based on several factors, including the patient's age, overall health, type and severity of valvular disease, and personal preferences. The procedure can be performed through traditional open-heart surgery or minimally invasive techniques, such as robotic-assisted surgery or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Recovery time varies depending on the approach used and individual patient factors.

Thromboembolism is a medical condition that refers to the obstruction of a blood vessel by a thrombus (blood clot) that has formed elsewhere in the body and then been transported by the bloodstream to a narrower vessel, where it becomes lodged. This process can occur in various parts of the body, leading to different types of thromboembolisms:

1. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): A thrombus forms in the deep veins, usually in the legs or pelvis, and then breaks off and travels to the lungs, causing a pulmonary embolism.
2. Pulmonary Embolism (PE): A thrombus formed elsewhere, often in the deep veins of the legs, dislodges and travels to the lungs, blocking one or more pulmonary arteries. This can lead to shortness of breath, chest pain, and potentially life-threatening complications if not treated promptly.
3. Cerebral Embolism: A thrombus formed in another part of the body, such as the heart or carotid artery, dislodges and travels to the brain, causing a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).
4. Arterial Thromboembolism: A thrombus forms in an artery and breaks off, traveling to another part of the body and blocking blood flow to an organ or tissue, leading to potential damage or loss of function. Examples include mesenteric ischemia (intestinal damage due to blocked blood flow) and retinal artery occlusion (vision loss due to blocked blood flow in the eye).

Prevention, early detection, and appropriate treatment are crucial for managing thromboembolism and reducing the risk of severe complications.

Heart valve diseases are a group of conditions that affect the function of one or more of the heart's four valves (tricuspid, pulmonic, mitral, and aortic). These valves are responsible for controlling the direction and flow of blood through the heart. Heart valve diseases can cause the valves to become narrowed (stenosis), leaky (regurgitation or insufficiency), or improperly closed (prolapse), leading to disrupted blood flow within the heart and potentially causing symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, and irregular heart rhythms. The causes of heart valve diseases can include congenital defects, age-related degenerative changes, infections, rheumatic heart disease, and high blood pressure. Treatment options may include medications, surgical repair or replacement of the affected valve(s), or transcatheter procedures.

The mitral valve, also known as the bicuspid valve, is a two-leaflet valve located between the left atrium and left ventricle in the heart. Its function is to ensure unidirectional flow of blood from the left atrium into the left ventricle during the cardiac cycle. The mitral valve consists of two leaflets (anterior and posterior), the chordae tendineae, papillary muscles, and the left atrial and ventricular myocardium. Dysfunction of the mitral valve can lead to various heart conditions such as mitral regurgitation or mitral stenosis.

Prosthesis design is a specialized field in medical device technology that involves creating and developing artificial substitutes to replace a missing body part, such as a limb, tooth, eye, or internal organ. The design process typically includes several stages: assessment of the patient's needs, selection of appropriate materials, creation of a prototype, testing and refinement, and final fabrication and fitting of the prosthesis.

The goal of prosthesis design is to create a device that functions as closely as possible to the natural body part it replaces, while also being comfortable, durable, and aesthetically pleasing for the patient. The design process may involve collaboration between medical professionals, engineers, and designers, and may take into account factors such as the patient's age, lifestyle, occupation, and overall health.

Prosthesis design can be highly complex, particularly for advanced devices such as robotic limbs or implantable organs. These devices often require sophisticated sensors, actuators, and control systems to mimic the natural functions of the body part they replace. As a result, prosthesis design is an active area of research and development in the medical field, with ongoing efforts to improve the functionality, comfort, and affordability of these devices for patients.

Anticoagulants are a class of medications that work to prevent the formation of blood clots in the body. They do this by inhibiting the coagulation cascade, which is a series of chemical reactions that lead to the formation of a clot. Anticoagulants can be given orally, intravenously, or subcutaneously, depending on the specific drug and the individual patient's needs.

There are several different types of anticoagulants, including:

1. Heparin: This is a naturally occurring anticoagulant that is often used in hospitalized patients who require immediate anticoagulation. It works by activating an enzyme called antithrombin III, which inhibits the formation of clots.
2. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH): LMWH is a form of heparin that has been broken down into smaller molecules. It has a longer half-life than standard heparin and can be given once or twice daily by subcutaneous injection.
3. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs): These are newer oral anticoagulants that work by directly inhibiting specific clotting factors in the coagulation cascade. Examples include apixaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran.
4. Vitamin K antagonists: These are older oral anticoagulants that work by inhibiting the action of vitamin K, which is necessary for the formation of clotting factors. Warfarin is an example of a vitamin K antagonist.

Anticoagulants are used to prevent and treat a variety of conditions, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), atrial fibrillation, and prosthetic heart valve thrombosis. It is important to note that anticoagulants can increase the risk of bleeding, so they must be used with caution and regular monitoring of blood clotting times may be required.

Aortic valve stenosis is a cardiac condition characterized by the narrowing or stiffening of the aortic valve, which separates the left ventricle (the heart's main pumping chamber) from the aorta (the large artery that carries oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body). This narrowing or stiffening prevents the aortic valve from opening fully, resulting in reduced blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta and the rest of the body.

The narrowing can be caused by several factors, including congenital heart defects, calcification (hardening) of the aortic valve due to aging, or scarring of the valve due to rheumatic fever or other inflammatory conditions. As a result, the left ventricle must work harder to pump blood through the narrowed valve, which can lead to thickening and enlargement of the left ventricular muscle (left ventricular hypertrophy).

Symptoms of aortic valve stenosis may include chest pain or tightness, shortness of breath, fatigue, dizziness or fainting, and heart palpitations. Severe aortic valve stenosis can lead to serious complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, or even sudden cardiac death. Treatment options may include medications to manage symptoms, lifestyle changes, or surgical intervention such as aortic valve replacement.

Prosthesis failure is a term used to describe a situation where a prosthetic device, such as an artificial joint or limb, has stopped functioning or failed to meet its intended purpose. This can be due to various reasons, including mechanical failure, infection, loosening of the device, or a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis.

Mechanical failure can occur due to wear and tear, manufacturing defects, or improper use of the prosthetic device. Infection can also lead to prosthesis failure, particularly in cases where the prosthesis is implanted inside the body. The immune system may react to the presence of the foreign material, leading to inflammation and infection.

Loosening of the prosthesis can also cause it to fail over time, as the device becomes less stable and eventually stops working properly. Additionally, some people may have a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis, leading to tissue damage or other complications that can result in prosthesis failure.

In general, prosthesis failure can lead to decreased mobility, pain, and the need for additional surgeries or treatments to correct the problem. It is important for individuals with prosthetic devices to follow their healthcare provider's instructions carefully to minimize the risk of prosthesis failure and ensure that the device continues to function properly over time.

Aortic valve insufficiency, also known as aortic regurgitation or aortic incompetence, is a cardiac condition in which the aortic valve does not close properly during the contraction phase of the heart cycle. This allows blood to flow back into the left ventricle from the aorta, instead of being pumped out to the rest of the body. As a result, the left ventricle must work harder to maintain adequate cardiac output, which can lead to left ventricular enlargement and heart failure over time if left untreated.

The aortic valve is a trileaflet valve that lies between the left ventricle and the aorta. During systole (the contraction phase of the heart cycle), the aortic valve opens to allow blood to be pumped out of the left ventricle into the aorta and then distributed to the rest of the body. During diastole (the relaxation phase of the heart cycle), the aortic valve closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the left ventricle.

Aortic valve insufficiency can be caused by various conditions, including congenital heart defects, infective endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, Marfan syndrome, and trauma. Symptoms of aortic valve insufficiency may include shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, palpitations, and edema (swelling). Diagnosis is typically made through physical examination, echocardiography, and other imaging studies. Treatment options depend on the severity of the condition and may include medication, surgery to repair or replace the aortic valve, or a combination of both.

In medical terms, the heart is a muscular organ located in the thoracic cavity that functions as a pump to circulate blood throughout the body. It's responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes. The human heart is divided into four chambers: two atria on the top and two ventricles on the bottom. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs, while the left side receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it out to the rest of the body. The heart's rhythmic contractions and relaxations are regulated by a complex electrical conduction system.

The tricuspid valve is the heart valve that separates the right atrium and the right ventricle in the human heart. It is called "tricuspid" because it has three leaflets or cusps, which are also referred to as flaps or segments. These cusps are named anterior, posterior, and septal. The tricuspid valve's function is to prevent the backflow of blood from the ventricle into the atrium during systole, ensuring unidirectional flow of blood through the heart.

Prostheses: Artificial substitutes or replacements for missing body parts, such as limbs, eyes, or teeth. They are designed to restore the function, appearance, or mobility of the lost part. Prosthetic devices can be categorized into several types, including:

1. External prostheses: Devices that are attached to the outside of the body, like artificial arms, legs, hands, and feet. These may be further classified into:
a. Cosmetic or aesthetic prostheses: Primarily designed to improve the appearance of the affected area.
b. Functional prostheses: Designed to help restore the functionality and mobility of the lost limb.
2. Internal prostheses: Implanted artificial parts that replace missing internal organs, bones, or tissues, such as heart valves, hip joints, or intraocular lenses.

Implants: Medical devices or substances that are intentionally placed inside the body to replace or support a missing or damaged biological structure, deliver medication, monitor physiological functions, or enhance bodily functions. Examples of implants include:

1. Orthopedic implants: Devices used to replace or reinforce damaged bones, joints, or cartilage, such as knee or hip replacements.
2. Cardiovascular implants: Devices that help support or regulate heart function, like pacemakers, defibrillators, and artificial heart valves.
3. Dental implants: Artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to support dental prostheses, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures.
4. Neurological implants: Devices used to stimulate nerves, brain structures, or spinal cord tissues to treat various neurological conditions, like deep brain stimulators for Parkinson's disease or cochlear implants for hearing loss.
5. Ophthalmic implants: Artificial lenses that are placed inside the eye to replace a damaged or removed natural lens, such as intraocular lenses used in cataract surgery.

A joint prosthesis, also known as an artificial joint or a replacement joint, is a surgical implant used to replace all or part of a damaged or diseased joint. The most common types of joint prostheses are total hip replacements and total knee replacements. These prostheses typically consist of a combination of metal, plastic, and ceramic components that are designed to replicate the movement and function of a natural joint.

Joint prostheses are usually recommended for patients who have severe joint pain or mobility issues that cannot be adequately managed with other treatments such as physical therapy, medication, or lifestyle changes. The goal of joint replacement surgery is to relieve pain, improve joint function, and enhance the patient's quality of life.

Joint prostheses are typically made from materials such as titanium, cobalt-chrome alloys, stainless steel, polyethylene plastic, and ceramics. The choice of material depends on a variety of factors, including the patient's age, activity level, weight, and overall health.

While joint replacement surgery is generally safe and effective, there are risks associated with any surgical procedure, including infection, blood clots, implant loosening or failure, and nerve damage. Patients who undergo joint replacement surgery typically require several weeks of rehabilitation and physical therapy to regain strength and mobility in the affected joint.

Mitral valve insufficiency, also known as mitral regurgitation, is a cardiac condition in which the mitral valve located between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart does not close properly, causing blood to flow backward into the atrium during contraction of the ventricle. This leads to an increased volume load on the left heart chamber and can result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. The condition can be caused by various factors including valve damage due to degenerative changes, infective endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, or trauma. Treatment options include medication, mitral valve repair, or replacement surgery depending on the severity and underlying cause of the insufficiency.

The pulmonary valve, also known as the pulmonic valve, is a semilunar valve located at the exit of the right ventricle of the heart and the beginning of the pulmonary artery. It has three cusps or leaflets that prevent the backflow of blood from the pulmonary artery into the right ventricle during ventricular diastole, ensuring unidirectional flow of blood towards the lungs for oxygenation.

Bacterial endocarditis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation and infection of the inner layer of the heart, known as the endocardium. This infection typically occurs when bacteria enter the bloodstream and attach themselves to damaged or abnormal heart valves or other parts of the endocardium. The bacteria can then multiply and cause the formation of vegetations, which are clusters of infected tissue that can further damage the heart valves and lead to serious complications such as heart failure, stroke, or even death if left untreated.

Bacterial endocarditis is a relatively uncommon but potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt medical attention. Risk factors for developing bacterial endocarditis include pre-existing heart conditions such as congenital heart defects, artificial heart valves, previous history of endocarditis, or other conditions that damage the heart valves. Intravenous drug use is also a significant risk factor for this condition.

Symptoms of bacterial endocarditis may include fever, chills, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, shortness of breath, chest pain, and a new or changing heart murmur. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, blood cultures, and imaging tests such as echocardiography. Treatment usually involves several weeks of intravenous antibiotics to eradicate the infection, and in some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart valves.

A knee prosthesis, also known as a knee replacement or artificial knee joint, is a medical device used to replace the damaged or diseased weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint. It typically consists of three components: the femoral component (made of metal) that fits over the end of the thighbone (femur), the tibial component (often made of metal and plastic) that fits into the top of the shinbone (tibia), and a patellar component (usually made of plastic) that replaces the damaged surface of the kneecap.

The primary goal of knee prosthesis is to relieve pain, restore function, and improve quality of life for individuals with advanced knee joint damage due to conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or traumatic injuries. The procedure to implant a knee prosthesis is called knee replacement surgery or total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Phonocardiography is a non-invasive medical procedure that involves the graphical representation and analysis of sounds produced by the heart. It uses a device called a phonocardiograph to record these sounds, which are then displayed as waveforms on a screen. The procedure is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic techniques, such as electrocardiography (ECG), to help diagnose various heart conditions, including valvular heart disease and heart murmurs.

During the procedure, a specialized microphone called a phonendoscope is placed on the chest wall over the area of the heart. The microphone picks up the sounds generated by the heart's movements, such as the closing and opening of the heart valves, and transmits them to the phonocardiograph. The phonocardiograph then converts these sounds into a visual representation, which can be analyzed for any abnormalities or irregularities in the heart's function.

Phonocardiography is a valuable tool for healthcare professionals, as it can provide important insights into the health and functioning of the heart. By analyzing the waveforms produced during phonocardiography, doctors can identify any potential issues with the heart's valves or other structures, which may require further investigation or treatment. Overall, phonocardiography is an essential component of modern cardiac diagnostics, helping to ensure that patients receive accurate and timely diagnoses for their heart conditions.

A hip prosthesis, also known as a total hip replacement, is a surgical implant designed to replace the damaged or diseased components of the human hip joint. The procedure involves replacing the femoral head (the ball at the top of the thigh bone) and the acetabulum (the socket in the pelvis) with artificial parts, typically made from materials such as metal, ceramic, or plastic.

The goal of a hip prosthesis is to relieve pain, improve joint mobility, and restore function, allowing patients to return to their normal activities and enjoy an improved quality of life. The procedure is most commonly performed in individuals with advanced osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or other degenerative conditions that have caused significant damage to the hip joint.

There are several different types of hip prostheses available, each with its own unique design and set of benefits and risks. The choice of prosthesis will depend on a variety of factors, including the patient's age, activity level, overall health, and specific medical needs. In general, however, all hip prostheses are designed to provide a durable, long-lasting solution for patients suffering from debilitating joint pain and stiffness.

A penile prosthesis is a medical device that is implanted inside the penis to treat erectile dysfunction. It consists of a pair of inflatable or semi-rigid rods, which are surgically placed into the corpora cavernosa (the two sponge-like areas inside the penis that fill with blood to create an erection). The implant allows the person with ED to have a controlled and manual erection suitable for sexual intercourse. This is usually considered as a last resort when other treatments, such as medications or vacuum devices, have failed.

Mitral valve stenosis is a cardiac condition characterized by the narrowing or stiffening of the mitral valve, one of the four heart valves that regulate blood flow through the heart. This narrowing prevents the mitral valve from fully opening during diastole (relaxation phase of the heart cycle), leading to restricted flow of oxygenated blood from the left atrium into the left ventricle.

The narrowing or stiffening of the mitral valve can be caused by various factors, such as rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart defects, aging, or calcium deposits on the valve leaflets. As a result, the left atrium has to work harder to pump blood into the left ventricle, causing increased pressure in the left atrium and pulmonary veins. This can lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, coughing, and heart palpitations.

Mitral valve stenosis is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and imaging techniques like echocardiography or cardiac catheterization. Treatment options may include medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications, as well as surgical interventions such as mitral valve repair or replacement to alleviate the stenosis and improve heart function.

The International Normalized Ratio (INR) is a standardized measurement of the prothrombin time (PT), which is the time it takes for blood to clot. The INR is used to monitor and regulate the effects of anticoagulant medications, such as warfarin, that affect the blood's ability to clot.

The INR is calculated by dividing the patient's PT by a control value (the PT of normal, healthy blood), raised to the power of a sensitivity factor called the International Sensitivity Index (ISI). The ISI is specific to the thromboplastin reagent used in the PT assay.

The INR provides a consistent and comparable way to monitor anticoagulation therapy across different laboratories, regardless of the thromboplastin reagent used. This helps ensure that patients receive appropriate doses of anticoagulant medications and reduces the risk of bleeding or clotting complications.

In general, an INR range of 2.0 to 3.0 is recommended for most people taking anticoagulants for conditions such as atrial fibrillation, deep vein thrombosis, or pulmonary embolism. However, the target INR range may vary depending on individual patient factors and medical indications.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

Cardiovascular complications in pregnancy refer to conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels, which can arise during pregnancy, childbirth, or after delivery. These complications can be pre-existing or new-onset and can range from mild to severe, potentially threatening the life of both the mother and the fetus. Some examples of cardiovascular complications in pregnancy include:

1. Hypertension disorders: This includes chronic hypertension (high blood pressure before pregnancy), gestational hypertension (high blood pressure that develops after 20 weeks of pregnancy), and preeclampsia/eclampsia (a pregnancy-specific disorder characterized by high blood pressure, proteinuria, and potential organ damage).

2. Cardiomyopathy: A condition in which the heart muscle becomes weakened, leading to an enlarged heart and reduced pumping efficiency. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a specific type that occurs during pregnancy or in the months following delivery.

3. Arrhythmias: Irregularities in the heart's rhythm, such as tachycardia (rapid heartbeat) or bradycardia (slow heartbeat), can occur during pregnancy and may require medical intervention.

4. Valvular heart disease: Pre-existing valve disorders, like mitral stenosis or aortic insufficiency, can worsen during pregnancy due to increased blood volume and cardiac output. Additionally, new valve issues might develop during pregnancy.

5. Venous thromboembolism (VTE): Pregnancy increases the risk of developing blood clots in the veins, particularly deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE).

6. Ischemic heart disease: Although rare, coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndrome can occur during pregnancy, especially in women with risk factors such as obesity, diabetes, or smoking history.

7. Heart failure: Severe cardiac dysfunction leading to fluid accumulation, shortness of breath, and reduced exercise tolerance may develop due to any of the above conditions or other underlying heart diseases.

Early recognition, monitoring, and appropriate management of these cardiovascular complications in pregnancy are crucial for maternal and fetal well-being.

Paroxysmal dyspnea is a medical term used to describe sudden and recurring episodes of difficulty breathing or shortness of breath. It can occur in people with various underlying medical conditions such as heart disease, lung disease, or neuromuscular disorders. The severity and duration of the symptoms may vary from person to person, but they usually last for a few minutes to a few hours.

Paroxysmal dyspnea is different from chronic dyspnea, which is persistent and continuous shortness of breath that may worsen over time. Paroxysmal dyspnea can be a medical emergency, especially if it is accompanied by chest pain, palpitations, or other symptoms. It is essential to seek immediate medical attention if you experience sudden and severe shortness of breath.

Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a type of echocardiogram, which is a medical test that uses sound waves to create detailed images of the heart. In TEE, a special probe containing a transducer is passed down the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach) to obtain views of the heart from behind. This allows for more detailed images of the heart structures and function compared to a standard echocardiogram, which uses a probe placed on the chest. TEE is often used in patients with poor image quality from a standard echocardiogram or when more detailed images are needed to diagnose or monitor certain heart conditions. It is typically performed by a trained cardiologist or sonographer under the direction of a cardiologist.

Cardiac catheterization is a medical procedure used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions. In this procedure, a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and threaded up to the heart. The catheter can be used to perform various diagnostic tests, such as measuring the pressure inside the heart chambers and assessing the function of the heart valves.

Cardiac catheterization can also be used to treat certain cardiovascular conditions, such as narrowed or blocked arteries. In these cases, a balloon or stent may be inserted through the catheter to open up the blood vessel and improve blood flow. This procedure is known as angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Cardiac catheterization is typically performed in a hospital cardiac catheterization laboratory by a team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, radiologists, and nurses. The procedure may be done under local anesthesia with sedation or general anesthesia, depending on the individual patient's needs and preferences.

Overall, cardiac catheterization is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of various heart conditions, and it can help improve symptoms, reduce complications, and prolong life for many patients.

Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, often expressed as beats per minute (bpm). It can vary significantly depending on factors such as age, physical fitness, emotions, and overall health status. A resting heart rate between 60-100 bpm is generally considered normal for adults, but athletes and individuals with high levels of physical fitness may have a resting heart rate below 60 bpm due to their enhanced cardiovascular efficiency. Monitoring heart rate can provide valuable insights into an individual's health status, exercise intensity, and response to various treatments or interventions.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

"Device Removal" in a medical context generally refers to the surgical or nonsurgical removal of a medical device that has been previously implanted in a patient's body. The purpose of removing the device may vary, depending on the individual case. Some common reasons for device removal include infection, malfunction, rejection, or when the device is no longer needed.

Examples of medical devices that may require removal include pacemakers, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), artificial joints, orthopedic hardware, breast implants, cochlear implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs). The procedure for device removal will depend on the type of device, its location in the body, and the reason for its removal.

It is important to note that device removal carries certain risks, such as bleeding, infection, damage to surrounding tissues, or complications related to anesthesia. Therefore, the decision to remove a medical device should be made carefully, considering both the potential benefits and risks of the procedure.

Artificial limbs, also known as prosthetics, are artificial substitutes that replace a part or all of an absent extremity or limb. They are designed to restore the function, mobility, and appearance of the lost limb as much as possible. Artificial limbs can be made from various materials such as wood, plastic, metal, or carbon fiber, and they can be custom-made to fit the individual's specific needs and measurements.

Prosthetic limbs can be categorized into two main types: cosmetic and functional. Cosmetic prosthetics are designed to look like natural limbs and are primarily used to improve the appearance of the person. Functional prosthetics, on the other hand, are designed to help the individual perform specific tasks and activities. They may include features such as hooks, hands, or specialized feet that can be used for different purposes.

Advances in technology have led to the development of more sophisticated artificial limbs, including those that can be controlled by the user's nervous system, known as bionic prosthetics. These advanced prosthetic devices can provide a greater degree of mobility and control for the user, allowing them to perform complex movements and tasks with ease.

A visual prosthesis, also known as a retinal implant or bionic eye, is a medical device that aims to restore some functional vision in individuals who have severe visual impairment or blindness due to certain eye conditions such as retinitis pigmentosa or age-related macular degeneration.

The prosthesis works by electrically stimulating the remaining viable nerve cells in the retina, which then transmit the signals to the brain via the optic nerve. The device typically consists of a camera that captures visual information, a processor that converts the images into electrical signals, and an electrode array that is implanted onto the surface of the retina.

The electrical stimulation of the retinal cells creates patterns of light in the individual's visual field, allowing them to perceive shapes, edges, and movements. While the level of visual acuity achieved with current visual prostheses is still limited, they can significantly improve the quality of life for some individuals by enabling them to perform tasks such as recognizing objects, navigating their environment, and identifying facial expressions.

Prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure where an artificial device or component, known as a prosthesis, is placed inside the body to replace a missing or damaged body part. The prosthesis can be made from various materials such as metal, plastic, or ceramic and is designed to perform the same function as the original body part.

The implantation procedure involves making an incision in the skin to create a pocket where the prosthesis will be placed. The prosthesis is then carefully positioned and secured in place using screws, cement, or other fixation methods. In some cases, tissue from the patient's own body may be used to help anchor the prosthesis.

Once the prosthesis is in place, the incision is closed with sutures or staples, and the area is bandaged. The patient will typically need to undergo rehabilitation and physical therapy to learn how to use the new prosthesis and regain mobility and strength.

Prosthesis implantation is commonly performed for a variety of reasons, including joint replacement due to arthritis or injury, dental implants to replace missing teeth, and breast reconstruction after mastectomy. The specific procedure and recovery time will depend on the type and location of the prosthesis being implanted.

Warfarin is a anticoagulant medication that works by inhibiting the vitamin K-dependent activation of several coagulation factors (factors II, VII, IX, and X). This results in prolonged clotting times and reduced thrombus formation. It is commonly used to prevent and treat blood clots in conditions such as atrial fibrillation, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. Warfarin is also known by its brand names Coumadin and Jantoven.

It's important to note that warfarin has a narrow therapeutic index, meaning that the difference between an effective dose and a toxic one is small. Therefore, it requires careful monitoring of the patient's coagulation status through regular blood tests (INR) to ensure that the dosage is appropriate and to minimize the risk of bleeding complications.

Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a clot forms in an artery, it can cut off the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues served by that artery, leading to damage or tissue death. If a thrombus forms in the heart, it can cause a heart attack. If a thrombus breaks off and travels through the bloodstream, it can lodge in a smaller vessel, causing blockage and potentially leading to damage in the organ that the vessel supplies. This is known as an embolism.

Thrombosis can occur due to various factors such as injury to the blood vessel wall, abnormalities in blood flow, or changes in the composition of the blood. Certain medical conditions, medications, and lifestyle factors can increase the risk of thrombosis. Treatment typically involves anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapy to dissolve or prevent further growth of the clot, as well as addressing any underlying causes.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Echocardiography is a medical procedure that uses sound waves to produce detailed images of the heart's structure, function, and motion. It is a non-invasive test that can help diagnose various heart conditions, such as valve problems, heart muscle damage, blood clots, and congenital heart defects.

During an echocardiogram, a transducer (a device that sends and receives sound waves) is placed on the chest or passed through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart. The sound waves produced by the transducer bounce off the heart structures and return to the transducer, which then converts them into electrical signals that are processed to create images of the heart.

There are several types of echocardiograms, including:

* Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE): This is the most common type of echocardiogram and involves placing the transducer on the chest.
* Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE): This type of echocardiogram involves passing a specialized transducer through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart from a closer proximity.
* Stress echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram is performed during exercise or medication-induced stress to assess how the heart functions under stress.
* Doppler echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram uses sound waves to measure blood flow and velocity in the heart and blood vessels.

Echocardiography is a valuable tool for diagnosing and managing various heart conditions, as it provides detailed information about the structure and function of the heart. It is generally safe, non-invasive, and painless, making it a popular choice for doctors and patients alike.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Prosthesis fitting is the process of selecting, designing, fabricating, and fitting a prosthetic device to replace a part of an individual's body that is missing due to congenital absence, illness, injury, or amputation. The primary goal of prosthesis fitting is to restore the person's physical function, mobility, and independence, as well as improve their overall quality of life.

The process typically involves several steps:

1. Assessment: A thorough evaluation of the patient's medical history, physical condition, and functional needs is conducted to determine the most appropriate type of prosthesis. This may include measurements, castings, or digital scans of the residual limb.

2. Design: Based on the assessment, a customized design plan is created for the prosthetic device, taking into account factors such as the patient's lifestyle, occupation, and personal preferences.

3. Fabrication: The prosthesis is manufactured using various materials, components, and techniques to meet the specific requirements of the patient. This may involve the use of 3D printing, computer-aided design (CAD), or traditional handcrafting methods.

4. Fitting: Once the prosthesis is fabricated, it is carefully fitted to the patient's residual limb, ensuring optimal comfort, alignment, and stability. Adjustments may be made as needed to achieve the best fit and function.

5. Training: The patient receives training on how to use and care for their new prosthetic device, including exercises to strengthen the residual limb and improve overall mobility. Follow-up appointments are scheduled to monitor progress, make any necessary adjustments, and provide ongoing support.

Doppler echocardiography is a type of ultrasound test that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce detailed images of the heart and its blood vessels. It measures the direction and speed of blood flow in the heart and major blood vessels leading to and from the heart. This helps to evaluate various conditions such as valve problems, congenital heart defects, and heart muscle diseases.

In Doppler echocardiography, a small handheld device called a transducer is placed on the chest, which emits sound waves that bounce off the heart and blood vessels. The transducer then picks up the returning echoes, which are processed by a computer to create moving images of the heart.

The Doppler effect is used to measure the speed and direction of blood flow. This occurs when the frequency of the sound waves changes as they bounce off moving objects, such as red blood cells. By analyzing these changes, the ultrasound machine can calculate the velocity and direction of blood flow in different parts of the heart.

Doppler echocardiography is a non-invasive test that does not require any needles or dyes. It is generally safe and painless, although patients may experience some discomfort from the pressure applied by the transducer on the chest. The test usually takes about 30 to 60 minutes to complete.

Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart chambers and heart valves, called the endocardium. This inflammation typically results from a bacterial or, less commonly, fungal infection that travels through the bloodstream and attaches to damaged areas of the heart.

There are two main types of endocarditis:

1. Acute Endocarditis: Develops quickly and can be severe, causing fever, chills, shortness of breath, fatigue, and heart murmurs. It may lead to serious complications like heart failure, embolism (blood clots that travel to other parts of the body), and damage to heart valves.

2. Subacute Endocarditis: Develops more slowly, often causing milder symptoms that can be mistaken for a cold or flu. Symptoms may include fatigue, weakness, fever, night sweats, weight loss, joint pain, and heart murmurs. Subacute endocarditis is more likely to affect people with previously damaged heart valves or congenital heart conditions.

Treatment usually involves several weeks of intravenous antibiotics or antifungal medications, depending on the cause of the infection. In some cases, surgery may be required to repair or replace damaged heart valves. Preventive measures include good oral hygiene and prompt treatment of infections, especially in individuals at a higher risk for endocarditis, such as those with congenital heart defects, artificial heart valves, or previous history of endocarditis.

A neural prosthesis is a type of medical device that is designed to assist or replace the function of impaired nervous system structures. These devices can be used to stimulate nerves and restore sensation, movement, or other functions that have been lost due to injury or disease. They may also be used to monitor neural activity and provide feedback to the user or to a external device.

Neural prostheses can take many forms, depending on the specific function they are intended to restore. For example, a cochlear implant is a type of neural prosthesis that is used to restore hearing in people with severe to profound hearing loss. The device consists of a microphone, a processor, and a array of electrodes that are implanted in the inner ear. Sound is converted into electrical signals by the microphone and processor, and these signals are then used to stimulate the remaining nerve cells in the inner ear, allowing the user to hear sounds.

Other examples of neural prostheses include deep brain stimulation devices, which are used to treat movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease; retinal implants, which are used to restore vision in people with certain types of blindness; and sacral nerve stimulators, which are used to treat urinary incontinence.

It is important to note that neural prostheses are not intended to cure or fully reverse the underlying condition that caused the impairment, but rather to help restore some level of function and improve the user's quality of life.

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a heart condition where the mitral valve, which separates the left atrium and left ventricle in the heart, doesn't function properly. In MVP, one or both of the mitral valve flaps (known as leaflets) bulge or billow into the left atrium during the contraction of the left ventricle. This prolapse can cause a leakage of blood back into the atrium, known as mitral regurgitation. In many cases, MVP is asymptomatic and doesn't require treatment, but in some instances, it may lead to complications such as infective endocarditis or arrhythmias. The exact causes of MVP are not fully understood, but it can be associated with certain genetic factors, connective tissue disorders, and mitral valve abnormalities present at birth.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

An ossicular prosthesis is a medical device used to replace one or more of the small bones (ossicles) in the middle ear that are involved in hearing. These bones, known as the malleus, incus, and stapes, form a chain responsible for transmitting sound vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear.

An ossicular prosthesis is typically made of biocompatible materials such as ceramic, plastic, or metal. The prosthesis is designed to bypass damaged or missing ossicles and reestablish the connection between the eardrum and the inner ear, thereby improving hearing function. Ossicular prostheses are often used in surgeries aimed at reconstructing the middle ear, such as tympanoplasty or stapedectomy, to treat various types of conductive hearing loss.

A dental prosthesis is a device that replaces one or more missing teeth or parts of teeth to correct deficiencies in chewing ability, speech, and aesthetics. It can be removable or fixed (permanent) and can be made from various materials such as acrylic resin, porcelain, metal alloys, or a combination of these. Examples of dental prostheses include dentures, bridges, crowns, and implants.

Venous valves are one-way flaps made of thin, flexible tissue that lie inside your veins. They allow blood to flow towards the heart but prevent it from flowing backward. These valves are especially important in the veins of the legs, where they help to counteract the force of gravity and ensure that blood flows back up to the heart. When venous valves become damaged or weakened, blood can pool in the veins, leading to conditions such as varicose veins or chronic venous insufficiency.

Heart failure is a pathophysiological state in which the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to meet the metabolic demands of the body or do so only at the expense of elevated filling pressures. It can be caused by various cardiac disorders, including coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. Heart failure is often classified based on the ejection fraction (EF), which is the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle during each contraction. A reduced EF (less than 40%) is indicative of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), while a preserved EF (greater than or equal to 50%) is indicative of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). There is also a category of heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) for those with an EF between 40-49%.

Tricuspid valve insufficiency, also known as tricuspid regurgitation, is a cardiac condition in which the tricuspid valve located between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart does not close properly, allowing blood to flow back into the right atrium during contraction of the right ventricle. This results in a portion of the blood being pumped inefficiently, which can lead to volume overload of the right side of the heart and potentially result in symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and fluid retention. The condition can be congenital or acquired, with common causes including dilated cardiomyopathy, infective endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, and trauma.

A dental prosthesis that is supported by dental implants is an artificial replacement for one or more missing teeth. It is a type of dental restoration that is anchored to the jawbone using one or more titanium implant posts, which are surgically placed into the bone. The prosthesis is then attached to the implants, providing a stable and secure fit that closely mimics the function and appearance of natural teeth.

There are several types of implant-supported dental prostheses, including crowns, bridges, and dentures. A single crown may be used to replace a single missing tooth, while a bridge or denture can be used to replace multiple missing teeth. The specific type of prosthesis used will depend on the number and location of the missing teeth, as well as the patient's individual needs and preferences.

Implant-supported dental prostheses offer several advantages over traditional removable dentures, including improved stability, comfort, and functionality. They also help to preserve jawbone density and prevent facial sagging that can occur when teeth are missing. However, they do require a surgical procedure to place the implants, and may not be suitable for all patients due to factors such as bone density or overall health status.

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are structural abnormalities in the heart that are present at birth. They can affect any part of the heart's structure, including the walls of the heart, the valves inside the heart, and the major blood vessels that lead to and from the heart.

Congenital heart defects can range from mild to severe and can cause various symptoms depending on the type and severity of the defect. Some common symptoms of CHDs include cyanosis (a bluish tint to the skin, lips, and fingernails), shortness of breath, fatigue, poor feeding, and slow growth in infants and children.

There are many different types of congenital heart defects, including:

1. Septal defects: These are holes in the walls that separate the four chambers of the heart. The two most common septal defects are atrial septal defect (ASD) and ventricular septal defect (VSD).
2. Valve abnormalities: These include narrowed or leaky valves, which can affect blood flow through the heart.
3. Obstruction defects: These occur when blood flow is blocked or restricted due to narrowing or absence of a part of the heart's structure. Examples include pulmonary stenosis and coarctation of the aorta.
4. Cyanotic heart defects: These cause a lack of oxygen in the blood, leading to cyanosis. Examples include tetralogy of Fallot and transposition of the great arteries.

The causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetic factors and environmental influences during pregnancy may play a role. Some CHDs can be detected before birth through prenatal testing, while others may not be diagnosed until after birth or later in childhood. Treatment for CHDs may include medication, surgery, or other interventions to improve blood flow and oxygenation of the body's tissues.

Heart disease is a broad term for a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. It's often used to refer to conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease. It occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become hardened and narrowed due to the buildup of cholesterol and other substances, which can lead to chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or a heart attack.

2. Heart failure: This condition occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.

3. Arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms, which can be too fast, too slow, or irregular. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, and fainting.

4. Valvular heart disease: This involves damage to one or more of the heart's four valves, which control blood flow through the heart. Damage can be caused by various conditions, including infection, rheumatic fever, and aging.

5. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, viral infections, and drug abuse.

6. Pericardial disease: This involves inflammation or other problems with the sac surrounding the heart (pericardium). It can cause chest pain and other symptoms.

7. Congenital heart defects: These are heart conditions that are present at birth, such as a hole in the heart or abnormal blood vessels. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.

8. Heart infections: The heart can become infected by bacteria, viruses, or parasites, leading to various symptoms and complications.

It's important to note that many factors can contribute to the development of heart disease, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions. Regular check-ups and a healthy lifestyle can help reduce the risk of developing heart disease.

Prosthesis-related infections, also known as prosthetic joint infections (PJIs), are infections that occur around or within a prosthetic device, such as an artificial joint. These infections can be caused by bacteria, fungi, or other microorganisms and can lead to serious complications if not treated promptly and effectively.

Prosthesis-related infections can occur soon after the implantation of the prosthetic device (early infection) or months or even years later (late infection). Early infections are often caused by bacteria that enter the surgical site during the procedure, while late infections may be caused by hematogenous seeding (i.e., when bacteria from another source spread through the bloodstream and settle in the prosthetic device) or by contamination during a subsequent medical procedure.

Symptoms of prosthesis-related infections can include pain, swelling, redness, warmth, and drainage around the affected area. In some cases, patients may also experience fever, chills, or fatigue. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests (such as blood cultures, joint fluid analysis, and tissue biopsy), and imaging studies (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI).

Treatment of prosthesis-related infections usually involves a combination of antibiotics and surgical intervention. The specific treatment approach will depend on the type and severity of the infection, as well as the patient's overall health status. In some cases, it may be necessary to remove or replace the affected prosthetic device.

Calcinosis is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal deposit of calcium salts in various tissues of the body, commonly under the skin or in the muscles and tendons. These calcium deposits can form hard lumps or nodules that can cause pain, inflammation, and restricted mobility. Calcinosis can occur as a complication of other medical conditions, such as autoimmune disorders, kidney disease, and hypercalcemia (high levels of calcium in the blood). In some cases, the cause of calcinosis may be unknown. Treatment for calcinosis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to manage calcium levels, physical therapy, and surgical removal of large deposits.

A blood vessel prosthesis is a medical device that is used as a substitute for a damaged or diseased natural blood vessel. It is typically made of synthetic materials such as polyester, Dacron, or ePTFE (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene) and is designed to mimic the function of a native blood vessel by allowing the flow of blood through it.

Blood vessel prostheses are used in various surgical procedures, including coronary artery bypass grafting, peripheral arterial reconstruction, and the creation of arteriovenous fistulas for dialysis access. The choice of material and size of the prosthesis depends on several factors, such as the location and diameter of the vessel being replaced, the patient's age and overall health status, and the surgeon's preference.

It is important to note that while blood vessel prostheses can be effective in restoring blood flow, they may also carry risks such as infection, thrombosis (blood clot formation), and graft failure over time. Therefore, careful patient selection, surgical technique, and postoperative management are crucial for the success of these procedures.

Tissue engineering is a branch of biomedical engineering that combines the principles of engineering, materials science, and biological sciences to develop functional substitutes for damaged or diseased tissues and organs. It involves the creation of living, three-dimensional structures that can restore, maintain, or improve tissue function. This is typically accomplished through the use of cells, scaffolds (biodegradable matrices), and biologically active molecules. The goal of tissue engineering is to develop biological substitutes that can ultimately restore normal function and structure in damaged tissues or organs.

An amputee is a person who has had a limb or extremity removed by trauma, medical illness, or surgical intervention. Amputation may affect any part of the body, including fingers, toes, hands, feet, arms, and legs. The level of amputation can vary from partial loss to complete removal of the affected limb.

There are several reasons why a person might become an amputee:
- Trauma: Accidents, injuries, or violence can result in amputations due to severe tissue damage or irreparable vascular injury.
- Medical illness: Certain medical conditions such as diabetes, peripheral arterial disease, and cancer may require amputation if the affected limb cannot be saved through other treatments.
- Infection: Severe infections that do not respond to antibiotics or other treatments may necessitate amputation to prevent the spread of infection.
- Congenital defects: Some individuals are born with missing or malformed limbs, making them congenital amputees.

Amputees face various challenges, including physical limitations, emotional distress, and social adjustment. However, advancements in prosthetics and rehabilitation have significantly improved the quality of life for many amputees, enabling them to lead active and fulfilling lives.

An artificial larynx, also known as a voice prosthesis or speech aid, is a device used to help individuals who have undergone a laryngectomy (surgical removal of the larynx) or have other conditions that prevent them from speaking normally. The device generates sound mechanically, which can then be shaped into speech by the user.

There are two main types of artificial larynx devices:

1. External: This type of device consists of a small electronic unit that produces sound when the user presses a button or activates it with a breath. The sound is then directed through a tube or hose into a face mask or a mouthpiece, where the user can shape it into speech.
2. Internal: An internal artificial larynx, also known as a voice prosthesis, is implanted in the body during surgery. It works by allowing air to flow from the trachea into the esophagus and then through the voice prosthesis, which creates sound that can be used for speech.

Both types of artificial larynx devices require practice and training to use effectively, but they can significantly improve communication and quality of life for individuals who have lost their natural voice due to laryngeal cancer or other conditions.

A maxillofacial prosthesis is a custom-made device used to replace all or part of a facial feature, such as an eye, ear, nose, or lip, that has been lost due to trauma, cancer surgery, or other causes. It is typically made from materials like silicone, acrylic, or nylon and is designed to mimic the appearance and texture of natural skin and tissues.

Maxillofacial prostheses are created by trained professionals called maxillofacial prosthodontists, who have specialized training in the diagnosis, treatment planning, and rehabilitation of patients with facial defects. The process of creating a maxillofacial prosthesis typically involves taking an impression of the affected area, creating a custom-made mold, and then fabricating the prosthesis to fit precisely over the defect.

Maxillofacial prostheses can help improve patients' appearance, self-confidence, and quality of life by restoring their facial symmetry and functionality. They may also help protect the underlying tissues and structures from injury or infection, and can be used in conjunction with other treatments, such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy, to enhance their effectiveness.

Arthroplasty, replacement, is a surgical procedure where a damaged or diseased joint surface is removed and replaced with an artificial implant or device. The goal of this surgery is to relieve pain, restore function, and improve the quality of life for patients who have severe joint damage due to arthritis or other conditions.

During the procedure, the surgeon removes the damaged cartilage and bone from the joint and replaces them with a metal, plastic, or ceramic component that replicates the shape and function of the natural joint surface. The most common types of joint replacement surgery are hip replacement, knee replacement, and shoulder replacement.

The success rate of joint replacement surgery is generally high, with many patients experiencing significant pain relief and improved mobility. However, as with any surgical procedure, there are risks involved, including infection, blood clots, implant loosening or failure, and nerve damage. Therefore, it's essential to discuss the potential benefits and risks of joint replacement surgery with a healthcare provider before making a decision.

Bloomfield P (June 2002). "Choice of heart valve prosthesis". Heart. 87 (6): 583-9. doi:10.1136/heart.87.6.583. PMC 1767148. ... An artificial heart valve is a one-way valve implanted into a person's heart to replace a heart valve that is not functioning ... The human heart contains four valves: tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve, mitral valve and aortic valve. Their main purpose is to ... An artificial heart valve should ideally function like a natural heart valve. The functioning of natural heart valves is ...
Bloomfield, P. (2002-06-01). "Choice of heart valve prosthesis". Heart. 87 (6): 583-589. doi:10.1136/heart.87.6.583. PMC ... There are two basic types of replacement heart valve: tissue (bioprosthetic) valves and mechanical valves. Tissue heart valves ... Aortic valve repair Artificial heart valve Valvular heart disease Minimally invasive cardiac surgery Pericardial heart valves ... The first attempts were valvotomies, (i.e. cutting the valve while the heart is pumping). A ball valve prosthesis placed on the ...
"The early days of vascular and heart valve prostheses: a historical review". The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery. 61 (5): 528 ... In 1957, he performed using the silk vascular prosthesis for a lower limb aneurysm operation on a patient. It was reported to ... In the 1950s, Dr Feng developed the first silk vascular prosthesis in Shanghai. ...
The pulmonary valve then needs to be replaced by a heart valve prosthesis. A drawback of this method is that it can frequently ... tissue-engineered heart valves: technical considerations and implications for translational cell-based heart valve concepts. ... The lack of durable heart valve prostheses for young patients has driven forward research in tissue engineering approaches for ... Biological prostheses, i.e. pericardial heart valves of animal origin (xenogenic), offer a viable alternative. However, in ...
But they will not be hurt, and Skumin syndrome will continue to hang over the human psyche with a heart valve prosthesis. The ... An artificial heart valve is a device implanted in the heart of a patient with valvular heart disease, congenital heart defect ... When one or two of the four heart valves malfunctions, the medical choice may be to replace the natural valve with an ... This requires open heart surgery. The mechanical valves are made from metal and pyrolytic carbon, and can last a lifetime. All ...
First attempts at aortic valve repair were undertaken even before heart valve prostheses were developed. In 1912 the French ... Nonetheless, the development of heart valve prostheses made replacement the standard approach because of its reproducibility. ... Understanding the structure of the unicuspid and unicommissural aortic valve. J Heart Valve Dis. 2003 Nov;12(6):670-673 Aicher ... and there is also an increased risk of infections of valve prosthesis (prosthetic valve endocarditis). Compared to the results ...
Prosthetic heart valves Radial head prosthesis It is also used in automotive industries where a desired amount of friction is ... For example, it finds use in artificial hearts and artificial heart valves. Blood vessel stents, by contrast, are often lined ... Because blood clots do not easily form on it, it is often advisable to line a blood-contacting prosthesis with this material in ... and in biomedical prostheses. Pyrolytic graphite samples usually have a single cleavage plane, similar to mica, because the ...
... artificial mitral valve prostheses, implanting them in dogs at the National Heart Institute's surgical clinic in 1959. On 11 ... inventor of the first artificial heart valve. She joined the NIH National Heart Institute (now the National Heart, Lung, and ... 78: 1135-6. "Charles A. Hufnagel, 72, Surgeon Who Invented Plastic Heart Valve". NY Times. Retrieved 13 March 2015. "Nina Starr ... She then developed a cloth-covered mechanical valve (the Braunwald-Cutter valve), which was implanted into thousands of ...
"Beating heart" (April 5, 2000), mitral-valve prosthesis via a unique endoscopic method (May 22, 2003), a liver transplantation ...
The Dorfman cardiac prosthesis was designed to have valves coated with tiranium. However, the Alphans' supply of tiranium is ... Heart number twelve is constructed with tiranium-coated valves, and functions perfectly. Helena calls Verdeschi with the news ... Early drafts of the script had Helena and Ben Vincent referring to their prosthesis as the 'Bergman' heart, as it was identical ... A new heart is her only salvation and the doctor promises to get tiranium for it. Osgood rejects her heresy, and husband and ...
... cardiac valve prostheses, pacemakers, and artificial hearts. Dental application Aircraft materials Ti-6Al-7Nb has a high ... Ti-6Al-7Nb is used as a material for hip prostheses. Ti―6Al―7Nb is one of the titanium alloys that built of hexagonal α phase ( ... "Tribological behavior of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb Alloys for Total Hip Prosthesis". Advances in Tribology. 2014: 1-13. doi: ... "Wear properties of Ti and Ti-6Al-7Nb castings for dental prostheses". Biomaterials. 24 (8): 1519-1524. doi:10.1016/s0142-9612( ...
... mechanical heart valve prosthesis Donald Shiley, one of the co-inventors of Pfizer's Bjork-Shiley heart valve Jean Shiley (1911 ... Shiley may refer to: Bjork-Shiley valve, ...
... mechanical heart valve prosthesis, blood oxygenators, ophthalmic sponge, concentric needle electrode, hydroxyapatite based ... It has also been the only institute in India to have developed an artificial heart valve that is currently manufactured and ...
... and in 1965 for the first time in the world he created and introduced into practice the anti-thrombotic heart valves prosthesis ... Now it is called Skumin syndrome (a disorder of the central nervous system of some patients after a prosthetic heart valve). N ... Nikolai Amosov "Амосов первым провёл протезирование клапана сердца" [Amosov was the first Soviet surgeon, who held heart valve ... Amosov elaborated a number of new methods of surgical treatment of heart lesions, the original model of heart-lung machine. His ...
... surgery Bone cement Artificial ligaments and tendons Dental implants for tooth fixation Blood vessel prostheses Heart valves ... The most widely used valve is a bileaflet disc heart valve or St. Jude valve. The mechanics involve two semicircular discs ... Such functions may be relatively passive, like being used for a heart valve, or maybe bioactive with a more interactive ... In the United States, 49% of the 250,000 valve replacement procedures performed annually involve a mechanical valve implant. ...
... and infections of permanent indwelling devices such as joint prostheses, heart valves, and intervertebral disc. The first ... Biofilms often form on the inert surfaces of implanted devices such as catheters, prosthetic cardiac valves and intrauterine ... "Research on microbial biofilms (PA-03-047)". NIH, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. 20 December 2002. Rogers A (2008 ...
... arteriovenous fistulas Arrhythmias Congenital heart defects Heart valve prostheses, implanted cardiac devices Chronic ... pulmonary hypertension Hypertensive heart disease Coronary syndromes Valvular heart diseases Cardiomyopathies, pericardial ... Resistant hypertension Stage III hypertension Stage I or II hypertension with end organ damage Heart failure Pulmonary heart ...
Heart pacemakers or valves may be inserted. Many other types of prostheses are used. creation of a stoma, a permanent or semi- ... Examples include: Cardiac surgery - the heart and mediastinal great vessels; Thoracic surgery - the thoracic cavity including ... "Hip prosthesis: biomechanics and design", Human Orthopaedic Biomechanics, Elsevier, pp. 361-376, doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-824481- ... Type of surgery performed on the heart Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) - Procedural classification used in the United ...
Other causes are heart conditions including myocardial infarction, mitral valve disease, chronic atrial fibrillation, ... cardiomyopathies, and prosthesis, in all of which thrombi are prone to develop. The thrombi may dislodge and may travel ... In most Western countries, Ischemic heart disease is the most common cause of death in both men and women, and a major cause of ... Hypotension (low blood pressure, e.g. in septic shock, heart failure) Outside compression of a blood vessel, e.g. by a tumor or ...
"Biodegradable polymer with collagen microsponge serves as a new bioengineered cardiovascular prosthesis". The Journal of ... Tissue engineered heart valves (TEHV) offer a new and advancing proposed treatment of creating a living heart valve for people ... Tissue engineered heart valves offer certain advantages over traditional biological and mechanical valves: Living valve - The ... Tissue engineering Valvular heart disease Valve replacement Artificial heart valve Nanotechnology Jegatheeswaran A, Butany J ( ...
... heart, artificial MeSH E07.695.300.300 - heart-assist devices MeSH E07.695.310 - heart valve prosthesis MeSH E07.695.340 - ... heart, artificial MeSH E07.858.082.374.300 - heart-assist devices MeSH E07.858.082.458 - heart-lung machine MeSH E07.858. ... ossicular prosthesis MeSH E07.695.610 - penile prosthesis MeSH E07.695.750 - stents MeSH E07.695.800 - tissue expanders MeSH ... hip prosthesis MeSH E07.695.400.410 - knee prosthesis MeSH E07.695.450 - larynx, artificial MeSH E07.695.460 - lenses, ...
... regaining it after several months of home recuperation with the aid of a voice prosthesis that was inserted into a neck valve. ... Schultz suffered congestive heart failure on November 14, 2011, which required hospital care. He died on November 26, 2011, ...
... using mechanical heart valve replacement, heart pacemaker, balloon catheter, and surgery without prosthesis. Furthermore, this ... Temples The Mother Princess Medical Volunteer Foundation The Prosthesis Foundation of H.R.H. The Princess Mother L'Association ...
Cardiac valve prostheses ISO 5840-1:2015 Part 1: General requirements ISO 5840-2:2015 Part 2: Surgically implanted heart valve ... Heart valve substitutes implanted by transcatheter techniques ISO 5841 Implants for surgery - Cardiac pacemakers ISO 5841-2: ... dampers and valves by measurement in a reverberation room ISO 5136:2003 Acoustics - Determination of sound power radiated into ... Valves, camshaft drives and actuating mechanisms ISO 7967-4:2005 Part 4: Pressure charging and air/exhaust gas ducting systems ...
The shape of these valves do not mimic normal heart valves. Tissue heart valves are usually made from animal tissues, either ... A replaceable model of Cardiac Biological Valve Prosthesis. Front of thorax, showing surface relations of bones, lungs (purple ... It is one of the four valves of the heart and one of the two semilunar valves, the other being the pulmonary valve. The aortic ... pleura (blue), and heart (red outline). Heart valves are labeled with "B", "T", "A", and "P". Aortic valve Bayne, Edward J (8 ...
... it is also a serious and often fatal experience in mechanical heart valves. The selection of biomaterials for wear resistance ... Although wear is commonly reported in orthopaedic applications such as knee and hip joint prostheses, ...
In this category we find examples such as animal tissue prostheses (xenogeneic bioprosthesis). Xenogeneic heart valves are of ... especially in the case of heart valves. The dynamic calcification systems aim at recreating the stresses and strains that ... "Development of a new combined test setup for accelerated dynamic pH-controlled in vitro calcification of porcine heart valves ... "Model experimental system for investigation of heart valve calcification in vitro". Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. ...
... neurosurgical shunt infections and endocarditis in patients with prosthetic heart valves (predominantly men). C. acnes may play ... infected joint prostheses (especially shoulder), ...
Patients with prosthetic heart valves carry a particularly high risk of thrombus formation due to the inorganic surface and ... turbulent blood flow generated by a mechanical prosthesis. The risk of blood clotting is further increased by generalized ... For some women, such as those with prosthetic heart valves, anticoagulation medication cannot be suspended during pregnancy as ... Heparin is one such anticoagulant medication, although its efficacy in patients with prosthetic heart valves is not well ...
The tissue heart valve division of Kohler Chemine GmbH was acquired in March 2007 and expanded Terumo's operations related to ... vascular prostheses. A year later the Japanese company Clinical Supply Co., Ltd. became a Terumo subsidiary and enhanced ... of coronary artery disease Drug-eluting stents Angiographic catheters Abdominal and peripheral endovascular coils Heart-lung ...
Most women were in New York Heart Association class I or II and in sinus rhythm. 150 women with mechanical valves and 11 (17%) ... OBJECTIVE--To study the outcome of pregnancy in women with artificial heart valves treated in major European centres, and to ... One patient with an aortic valve prosthesis refused to take anticoagulants. Including the spontaneous abortions reported as ... There were 13 valve thromboses (four fatal), eight embolic events (two fatal), and seven bleeds in women with mechanical valves ...
heart valve prosthesis, prosthetic valve endocarditis, recurrence, Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. in Open Forum Infectious ... heart valve prosthesis; prosthetic valve endocarditis; recurrence; Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia}}, language = {{eng}}, ... Patients with heart valve prosthesis (HVP) and Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) are at risk for endocarditis. In this ... Treatment Strategies and Risk of Recurrence in Patients with Heart Valve Prosthesis, Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia, and ...
Cardiac valve prostheses Part 3: Heart valve substitutes implanted by transcatheter ... BS EN ISO 5840-3:2021/Amd 1 Cardiovascular implants - Cardiac valve prostheses Part 3: Heart valve substitutes implanted by ... Cardiac valve prostheses Part 3: Heart valve substitutes implanted by transcatheter techniques. Amendment 1 ... This standard 24/30483886 DC BS EN ISO 5840-3:2021/Amd 1 Cardiovascular implants - Cardiac valve prostheses is classified in ...
Jude mechanical valve continues to be a reliable prosthesis. ... compare favorably with those for other mechanical prostheses. ... Heart Valve Diseases / surgery * Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation / methods* * Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation / ... Jude medical mechanical valve prosthesis Ann Thorac Surg. 2010 May;89(5):1402-9. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2010.01.045. ... Freedom from valve-related mortality was 66% +/- 8% and 87% +/- 3% for aortic and mitral valve replacement, respectively. ...
Heart valve prostheses. For those patients with heart valve prostheses, anticoagulant management is an important component of ... What is the perioperative medication management of heart valve prostheses?. What is the perioperative medication management of ... Congestive heart failure, valvular heart disease, arrhythmia, and conduction system disease. Patients with congestive heart ... Ischemic heart disease. Patients with known coronary artery disease undergoing surgery should be monitored for evidence of ...
Heart valve prostheses. For those patients with heart valve prostheses, anticoagulant management is an important component of ... What is the perioperative medication management of heart valve prostheses?. What is the perioperative medication management of ... Congestive heart failure, valvular heart disease, arrhythmia, and conduction system disease. Patients with congestive heart ... Ischemic heart disease. Patients with known coronary artery disease undergoing surgery should be monitored for evidence of ...
Bloomfield P (June 2002). "Choice of heart valve prosthesis". Heart. 87 (6): 583-9. doi:10.1136/heart.87.6.583. PMC 1767148. ... An artificial heart valve is a one-way valve implanted into a persons heart to replace a heart valve that is not functioning ... The human heart contains four valves: tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve, mitral valve and aortic valve. Their main purpose is to ... An artificial heart valve should ideally function like a natural heart valve. The functioning of natural heart valves is ...
Artificial hip prosthesis Artificial voice prosthesis Central venous catheter Intrauterine device Prosthetic heart valve ... Artificial hip prosthesis Central venous catheter Intrauterine device Prosthetic heart valve Urinary catheter. ... Artificial hip prosthesis Central venous catheter Urinary catheter. Staphylococcus aureus. Artificial hip prosthesis Central ... Artifical voice prosthesis Central venous catheter Intrauterine device. Coagulase-negative staphylococci. ...
Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation. *Heart Valve Prosthesis. *Echocardiography, Doppler, Color. *Echocardiography. *Coronary ... Waldron NH, Haney JC, Suarez A, Swaminathan M. The Value of Echocardiography in Unexpected Valve Disease in a Patient With ... Waldron NH, Haney JC, Suarez A, Swaminathan M. The Value of Echocardiography in Unexpected Valve Disease in a Patient With ... The Value of Echocardiography in Unexpected Valve Disease in a Patient With Ischemic Cardiomyopathy: Less Is Not Always the ...
Humans, Male, Aged, Hemoglobinuria, Heart Valve Prosthesis. Links. http://sisbib.unmsm.edu.pe/BVRevistas/acta_medica/2001_n1/ ... mitral valve replacement with a St. Jude prosthetic valve. There were no postoperative complications and after anticoagulation ... This is a case of 65 year old male with past medical history significant for coronary artery disease and severe mitral valve ... Jude mitral valve replacement. Clinical course was uneventful and the hemoglobinuria resolved spontaneously. This case ...
heart valve prosthesis 996.02. *. long-term effect 429.4. *. implant NEC 996.59. *. cardiac 996.00. *. automatic implantable ...
Structural valve deterioration in the Mitroflow biological heart valve prosthesis Event: ESC Congress 2017 ...
Early results of a new mechanical tri-leaflet heart valve prosthesis--"Tricusp": an animal study. ... Extracellular vesicles in heart failure - A study in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction or heart ... JOURNAL OF HEART VALVE DISEASE. 2014;23(4):463-472 Aortic dimensions in relation to bicuspid and tricuspid aortic valve ... Bicuspid aortic valve leaflet morphology in relation to aortic root morphology: a study of 300 patients undergoing open-heart ...
Cardiovascular Innovations: Expanding Horizons in Prosthetic Heart Valve Market The prosthetic heart valves market is being ... Diversifying Dynamics in the Global Artificial Heart Valve Market Progress within the artificial heart valve market is largely ... Global Prosthetic Heart Valves: Market Outlook and Procedure Innovations Pressurized by the escalating incidence of heart ... Utilized in heart valve replacement surgeries, these components sourced from cattle heart sac tissue have gained traction due ...
Tissues: abscesses, biopsies, heart valves, prostheses, stents. 主要用途. Ultra-Deep Microbiome Prep 適用在從≤1ml 臨床檢體中,萃取純化微生物 DNA
PAC is contraindicated in patients with tricuspid or pulmonary valve mechanical prosthesis, right heart mass (thrombus, tumor) ... B â€" Opening of the Aortic Valve, X â€" Closure of the Aortic Valve, Y â€" closure of pulmonary valve, O â€" mitral valve ... Heart Rate Monitoring. The simplest and the least invasive form of cardiac monitoring remains the measurement of heart rate. ... In the normal heart, the right ventricle is more compliant than the left. The use of CVP to assess the left-sided pre-load ...
... who had undergone implant of the Starr-Edwards heart valve prosthesis) and Surgical "3" (who had undergone implant of the "dura ... The patients with Starr-Edwards prosthesis must be fully advised about the risks of using oral anticoagulants and must be put ... The most favorable period for pregnancy in rheumatic heart patients with any kind of cardiac surgical history is that lasting ... In the surgical sub-group "2" (those with Starr-Edwards prosthesis) there is a relatively high probability of programm~d births ...
Next-generation heart valve accurately functions upon implantation and regenerates into long-lasting heart-like tissue. ... Moreover, in children, implanted heart valve prostheses need to be replaced even more often as they cannot grow with the child. ... tissue-engineered heart valves to replace mechanical and fixed-tissue heart valves. In Hoerstrups approach, human cells ... Heart Valve Innovator Foldax Closes $20 Million Financing CardioMech Gains $18.5M Series A for Transcatheter Mitral Valve ...
Thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications in patients with mechanical heart valve prosthesis attending an anticoagulation clinic ...
J Heart Valve Dis. 2004;13(1):S49-51. (Cohort size = 327, mean age = 67.2 ± 10.6 yrs. Number at risk for Prosthesis Replacement ... valve stenosis, valve thrombosis, valve frame distortion (from chest compression or trauma), and valve malposition, instability ... We have combined our proven pericardial valve technology with our innovations in transcatheter heart valves to create a ... The EDWARDS INTUITY Elite valve system represents our commitment to surgeons and patients in heart valve therapy. ...
Prosthesis Size and Mismatch are Independently Predictive of Recurrent Heart Failure After Aortic Valve Replacement. 56th ... Jude Medical, Medtronic-Hall and Carbomedics Mechanical Heart Valves. J Heart Valve Dis. 2001;10(3):403-9. ... Late incidence and predictors of persistent or recurrent heart failure in patients with mitral prosthetic valves. J Thorac ... Late incidence and determinants of reoperation in patients with prosthetic heart valves. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2004 Mar;25(3 ...
Effectiveness of rivaroxaban for thromboprophylaxis of prosthetic heart valves in a porcine heterotopic valve model. Eur J ... A model of heterotopic aortic valve replacement for studying thromboembolism prophylaxis in mechanical valve prostheses. J Surg ... J Heart Valve Dis, 18, 617-26. * McKellar SH, Thompson JL 3rd, Garcia-Rinaldi RF, Macdonald RJ, Sundt TM 3rd, Schaff HV (2008 ... J Heart Valve Dis, 18(6), 617-25; discussion 626. * Hoffmann NE, Siddiqui SA, Agarwal S, McKellar SH, Kurtz HJ, Gettman MT, ...
Percutaneous Aortic Valve Replacement 100% * Embolization 100% * Heart Valve Prosthesis 100% * Thrombosis 25% ... Spectral CT Imaging of Prosthetic Valve Embolization after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation. DAngelo, T., Vizzari, G., ...
... metallic prostheses, artificial heart valves, cochlear implants or shrapnel fragments, or having a history of being a welder or ... Any medical condition that would make the study procedures risky for the participant (e.g. congestive heart failure, coronary ... They will have tests to look at how well the brain, heart and lungs are working. ...
Thromboembolic and bleeding complications in patients with mechanical heart valve prostheses. Circulation 1994;89:635-641. doi ... Mechanical heart valves. Patients with mechanical heart valves are at risk of valve thrombosis and stroke, and warfarin or ... Any mitral valve prosthesis, any caged-ball or tilting disc aortic valve prosthesis, recent (within 6 months) stroke or TIA. ... Mechanical heart valve[3]. ,[5]. AF[4]. VTE[3]. ,[5]. Low risk (,5%). Bileaflet aortic valve with no additional risk factors. ...
In two patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Peptostreptococcus magnus, blood cultures in the BacT/Alert and ... Humans, Peptostreptococcus, Bacteremia, Endocarditis, Bacterial, Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation, Adult, Aged, Male ... Apparent culture-negative prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Peptostreptococcus magnus. Share Share Share ... In two patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Peptostreptococcus magnus, blood cultures in the BacT/Alert and ...
"State of the Heart", Matthias Bellmann.. Heart valve prostheses, both bioprosthetic and mechanical, have saved lives, but they ...
... which can be searched for their VALVE PORT-related patent result data, and can also be analyzed for VALVE PORT-related patent ... technical efficacy and accompanying drawings of VALVE PORT-related invention patents and utility model patents, ... Native valve. Cardiac valve prosthesis. Surgical methods. Abdominal aortic aneurysm. Replacement heart valve. Fastener. Heart ... Heart valve prosthesis and sutureless implantation of a heart valve prosthesis. InactiveUS20020032481A1. StentsBalloon catheter ...
  • The living cells are then eliminated from the scaffolds resulting in an "off-the-shelf" human matrix-based prostheses ready for implantation. (mpo-mag.com)
  • Implantation of the EDWARDS INTUITY Elite valve system is streamlined to help reduce procedural steps. (edwards.com)
  • The EDWARDS INTUITY Elite valve system is designed to enhance the ease of implantation through small incisions using three guiding sutures. (edwards.com)
  • Long-term results after Carpentier-Edwards pericardial aortic valve implantation, with attention to the impact of age. (edwards.com)
  • The prosthesis can be implanted into a patient's heart, such as during a direct vision procedure through a tubular implantation apparatus that maintains the prosthesis in its second condition until discharged from the tubular apparatus. (patsnap.com)
  • A valve prosthesis device is disclosed suitable for implantation in body ducts. (patsnap.com)
  • Implantation of prosthetic cardiac valves to treat hemodynamically significant aortic or mitral valve disease has become increasingly common. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with heart valve prosthesis (HVP) and Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) are at risk for endocarditis. (lu.se)
  • There are many potential causes of heart valve damage, such as birth defects, age related changes, and effects from other disorders, such as rheumatic fever and infections causing endocarditis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apparent culture-negative prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Peptostreptococcus magnus. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In two patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Peptostreptococcus magnus, blood cultures in the BacT/Alert and BACTEC 9240 systems were signal negative. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Noninfective Endocarditis Noninfective endocarditis refers to formation of sterile platelet and fibrin thrombi on cardiac valves and adjacent endocardium in response to trauma, circulating immune complexes, vasculitis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Massive bacteremia or particularly virulent microorganisms (eg, Staphylococcus aureus ) cause endocarditis on normal valves. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Endocarditis usually involves the heart valves. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Infective endocarditis occurs most often on the left side (eg, mitral or aortic valve). (msdmanuals.com)
  • A history of fever should raise the possibility of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE). (medscape.com)
  • Endocarditis with negative culture findings and seropositivity (culture positivity and seropositivity or culture negativity and seronegativity are relatively uncommon) is the main clinical presentation of chronic Q fever, usually occurring in patients with preexisting cardiac disease including valve defects, rheumatic heart disease, and prosthetic valves. (medscape.com)
  • We did not perform acute coronary syndrome, coronary elevation myocardial infarction, whereas angioplasty because the obstruction embolism should be kept in mind in the rest present with non-ST elevation was in the distal portion of the vessel those with prosthetic valves even in the myocardial infarction [8]. (who.int)
  • Prosthetic valves and other intracardiac devices are a particular risk. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Bileaflet valves are the most common type of mechanical valve implanted in patients today. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1952, Charles A. Hufnagel implanted caged ball heart valves into ten patients (six of whom survived the operation), marking the first success in prosthetic heart valves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sex Differences in Aortopathy and Valve Diseases Among Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgical Procedure. (ki.se)
  • Baseline characteristics of 547 new onset heart failure patients in the PREFERS heart failure study. (ki.se)
  • Extracellular vesicles in heart failure - A study in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction or heart failure with reduced ejection fraction characteristics undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting. (ki.se)
  • With a view to assessing the consequences of pregnancy in rheumatic heart patients this study considered two control groups: the clinical group (I) and the surgical group (II). (usp.br)
  • In addition, the new heart valve would be compatible with minimally invasive procedures to serve both pediatric and adult patients. (mpo-mag.com)
  • The EDWARDS INTUITY Elite valve system represents our commitment to surgeons and patients in heart valve therapy. (edwards.com)
  • Late Outcomes for Aortic Valve Replacement with the Carpentier-Edwards Pericardial Bioprosthesis: Up to 17-year Follow-up in 1,000 Patients. (edwards.com)
  • Long-Term Outcome of the Carpentier-Edwards Pericardial Valve in the Aortic Position in Japanese Patients. (edwards.com)
  • Randomized trial of an internet-based computer-tailored expert system for physical activity in patients with heart disease. (ottawaheart.ca)
  • Surgical treatment of tricuspid valve insufficiency promotes early reverse remodeling in patients with axial-flow left ventricular assist devices. (utah.edu)
  • Tricuspid valve insufficiency in patients with axial-flow left ventricular assist devices. (utah.edu)
  • Long-term risk of aortic events following aortic valve replacement in patients with bicuspid aortic valves. (utah.edu)
  • D'Alessandro DA, Skripochnik E, Neragi-Miandoab S. The significance of prosthesis type on survival following valve replacement in dialysis patients. (columbiasurgery.org)
  • Neragi-Miandoab S. Repair of aortic root in patients with aneurysm or dissection: comparing the outcomes of valve sparing root replacement with those from the Bentall procedure. (columbiasurgery.org)
  • Patients who use illicit intravenous drugs, immunocompromised patients, patients with prosthetic heart valves and other intracardiac devices are at highest risk. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In a retrospective cohort analysis of 4253 patients who underwent primary isolated aortic-valve replacement, 15-year survival and stroke rates were equivalent with bioprosthetic and mechanical valves. (medscape.com)
  • The reoperation rate was 12.1% in the bioprosthetic valve group at 15 years and 6.9% in the mechanical valve group, while major bleeding occurred in 6.6% of bioprosthesis patients and in 13.0% of the mechanical-valve group. (medscape.com)
  • An artificial heart valve is a one-way valve implanted into a person's heart to replace a heart valve that is not functioning properly (valvular heart disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • He has published extensively in many areas of adult cardiothoracic surgery including valvular heart disease, ascending aortic aneurismal disease but has a particular research interest in mechanical circulatory support and surgical strategies for right ventricular failure. (utah.edu)
  • She had no risk factors for coronary artery disease in her medical history but it was learned that she had undergone a mitral valve replacement 2 years before because of rheumatic mitral stenosis and that no international normalized ratio (INR) analysis had been done in the last 6 months. (who.int)
  • Both processes put strain on the heart and may lead to serious problems, including heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • High blood pressure and heart failure which can enlarge the heart and arteries, and scar tissue can form after a heart attack or injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even when promptly recognized and treated, acute prosthetic valve failure is associated with a high mortality rate. (medscape.com)
  • Introduction and Aims: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is an important cause of heart failure (HF) among children. (bvsalud.org)
  • Heart Failure was the most common cause of death. (bvsalud.org)
  • Seven died of sudden cardiac death, three from heart failure, and one from ventricular arrhythmias. (bvsalud.org)
  • Durability of pericardial versus porcine bioprosthetic heart valves. (edwards.com)
  • Effectiveness of rivaroxaban for thromboprophylaxis of prosthetic heart valves in a porcine heterotopic valve model. (utah.edu)
  • Mechanical valves come in three main types - caged ball, tilting-disc and bileaflet - with various modifications on these designs. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Introduced in 1979, bileaflet valves are made of two semicircular leaflets that revolve around struts attached to the valve housing. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the US, UK and the European Union, the most common type of artificial heart valve is the bioprosthetic valve. (wikipedia.org)
  • There were no maternal deaths in the bioprosthesis group but in 17/49 (35%) of these valves functional deterioration led to urgent replacement during pregnancy (two) or soon after. (bmj.com)
  • Age and Valve Size Effect on the Long-term Durability of the Carpentier-Edwards Aortic Pericardial Bioprosthesis. (edwards.com)
  • Among these, the emergence of transcatheter heart valve replacements represents one of the most transformative developments. (reportlinker.com)
  • We have combined our proven pericardial valve technology with our innovations in transcatheter heart valves to create a surgical valve designed to streamline procedures and facilitate smaller incision surgery. (edwards.com)
  • The EDWARDS INTUITY Elite valve system combines our proven pericardial valve technology with our innovations in transcatheter heart valves. (edwards.com)
  • This is a patient who was admitted because of shortness of breath, and they have a history of rheumatic heart disease. (medscape.com)
  • Caged ball valves are no longer implanted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caged ball valves are strongly associated with blood clot formation, so people who have one required a high degree of anticoagulation, usually with a target INR of 3.0-4.5. (wikipedia.org)
  • You can see the opening and closing of the mechanical aortic and the mechanical mitral valve because of the location of the continuous-wave Doppler going through both the aortic prosthesis and the "anterior" prosthesis of the mitral valve. (medscape.com)
  • INR of 1.6, myocardial infarction was mechanical valve surgery has increased cardial infarction. (who.int)
  • myocardial infarction caused by a was totally occluded by a thrombus thrombus of a mechanical mitral valve. (who.int)
  • In this paper, we report a rare case of myocardial infarction, which occurred as a result of a coronary embolism in a patient with prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis. (who.int)
  • The human heart contains four valves: tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve, mitral valve and aortic valve. (wikipedia.org)
  • A heart contains four valves (tricuspid, pulmonary, mitral and aortic valves) which open and close as blood passes through the heart. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood enters the heart in the right atrium and passes through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 10 to 20% of cases are right-sided (tricuspid or pulmonic valve). (msdmanuals.com)
  • 150 women with mechanical valves and 11 (17%) with bioprostheses received anticoagulants during pregnancy. (bmj.com)
  • One patient with an aortic valve prosthesis refused to take anticoagulants. (bmj.com)
  • The three main types of artificial heart valves are mechanical, biological (bioprosthetic/tissue), and tissue-engineered valves. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a leader in regenerative heart prostheses, Hoerstrup and his team in Zurich have previously developed regenerative, tissue-engineered heart valves to replace mechanical and fixed-tissue heart valves. (mpo-mag.com)
  • While some dysfunctional valves can be treated with drugs or repaired, others need to be replaced with an artificial valve. (wikipedia.org)
  • While these prostheses can restore the function of the heart for a while, they are associated with adverse comorbidity and wear down and need to be replaced during invasive and expensive surgeries. (mpo-mag.com)
  • Moreover, in children, implanted heart valve prostheses need to be replaced even more often as they cannot grow with the child. (mpo-mag.com)
  • Within healthcare technology, one niche market demonstrating notable dynamism is the global trade of bovine pericardial valves. (reportlinker.com)
  • You see a pulse Doppler through the mechanical mitral prosthesis. (medscape.com)
  • I am showing you a continuous-wave Doppler in the short axis around the aortic-valve level. (medscape.com)
  • In the next slide, there is a continuous-wave Doppler through the aortic valve. (medscape.com)
  • The continuous-wave Doppler for the mitral valve did not demonstrate any mitral gurgitation signal. (medscape.com)
  • Well, let's take another look at a continuous-wave Doppler that I already showed you through the aortic valve. (medscape.com)
  • Then you have the isovolumic contraction period, and then the aortic valve click demonstrating the aortic valve opening, followed by the ejection period, during which you have the continuous-wave Doppler signal through the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) and the aorta. (medscape.com)
  • Unfortunately, in over four million people each year, these delicate tissues malfunction due to birth defects, age-related deteriorations, and infections, causing cardiac valve disease. (mpo-mag.com)
  • Today, clinicians use either artificial prostheses or fixed animal and cadaver-sourced tissues to replace defective valves. (mpo-mag.com)
  • Most of these complications occurred with heparin but fatal aortic valve thrombosis occurred in the one woman who refused anticoagulant treatment out of the 151 women with mechanical valves. (bmj.com)
  • However, in tran- due to mechanical valve thrombosis is continued despite medical treatment. (who.int)
  • Mechanical valve thrombosis and the patient presented with non-ST prosthetic valve was non-obstructive causes embolism rarely. (who.int)
  • Bioprosthetic valves (see the image below) used in heart valve replacement generally offer functional properties (eg, hemodynamics, resistance to thrombosis) that are more similar to those of native valves. (medscape.com)
  • citation needed] Companies that manufacture heart valves include Edwards Lifesciences, Medtronic, Abbott (St. Jude Medical), CryoLife, and LifeNet Health. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Starr-Edwards valve was first implanted in a human on August 25, 1960, and was discontinued by Edwards Lifesciences in 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • 24/30483886 DC BS EN ISO 5840-3:2021/Amd 1 Cardiovascular implants - Cardiac valve prostheses Part 3: Heart valve substitutes implanted by transcatheter techniques. (en-standard.eu)
  • Remarkable advancements in biomedical technology have transformed the healthcare landscape, particularly in the area of artificial heart implants. (reportlinker.com)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: The Value of Echocardiography in Unexpected Valve Disease in a Patient With Ischemic Cardiomyopathy: Less Is Not Always the Right Answer. (duke.edu)
  • The second, an increase in the aging population around the globe leading to a growth in the prevalence of heart valve disease which fortifies the demand for. (reportlinker.com)
  • Journal of Heart Valve Disease, 2013;22(5):743-50. (columbiasurgery.org)
  • and center valve disease and valve prostheses (1,2). (idplink.net)
  • Replacement of diseased valves with prosthetic heart valves reduces the morbidity and mortality associated with native valvular disease, but it comes at the expense of risking complications related to the implanted prosthetic device. (medscape.com)
  • Frequency of cardiovascular events in women with a congenitally bicuspid aortic valve in a single community and effect of pregnancy on events. (utah.edu)
  • OBJECTIVE--To study the outcome of pregnancy in women with artificial heart valves treated in major European centres, and to compare the safety and efficacy of different anticoagulant regimens and of mechanical and bioprosthetic valves. (bmj.com)
  • Artificial heart valves can be separated into three broad classes: mechanical heart valves, bioprosthetic tissue valves and engineered tissue valves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Demographic shifts, such as ageing populations globally, have been instigators of increased cardiac disorders, underlining the relevance of artificial heart valves. (reportlinker.com)
  • A team lead by Kevin Kit Parker, Ph.D. at Harvard University's Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering recently developed a nanofiber fabrication technique to rapidly manufacture heart valves with regenerative and growth potential. (mpo-mag.com)
  • Cardiac valve prostheses Part 3: Heart valve substitutes implanted by transcatheter techniques. (en-standard.eu)
  • The valve support, which entirely supports the valve annulus, valve leaflets, and valve commissure points, is configured to be collapsible for transluminal delivery and expandable to contact the anatomical annulus of the native valve when the assembly is properly positioned. (patsnap.com)
  • The sizers can include valve leaflets or the sizing catheter can include a temporary valve. (justia.com)
  • In Hoerstrup's approach, human cells directly deposit a regenerative layer of complex ECM on biodegradable scaffolds shaped as heart valves and vessels. (mpo-mag.com)
  • In our previous studies, the cell-derived ECM-coated scaffolds could recruit cells from the receiving animal's heart and support cell proliferation, matrix remodeling, tissue regeneration, and even animal growth. (mpo-mag.com)
  • 151 pregnancies in 133 women with mechanical valves, and 63 pregnancies in 45 women with bioprostheses. (bmj.com)
  • Including the spontaneous abortions reported as well as the therapeutic abortions 83% of the pregnancies in women with bioprostheses and 73% in those with mechanical valves resulted in a healthy baby, full term or premature, who did well (NS). (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS--The outcome of pregnancy was similar for women with mechanical valves or bioprostheses. (bmj.com)
  • We evaluated all adult St. Jude mechanical valve recipients at our institution since the initial implant in January 1979 and now present our 25-year experience. (nih.gov)
  • After two and a half decades of observation with close follow-up, the St. Jude mechanical valve continues to be a reliable prosthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Heart valves can malfunction for a variety of reasons, which can impede the flow of blood through the valve (stenosis) and/or let blood flow backwards through the valve (regurgitation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Signs and symptoms of prosthetic heart valve malfunction depend on the type of valve, its location, and the nature of the complication. (medscape.com)
  • specifically, mechanical circulatory support devices (left ventricular assist devices) and heart and lung transplantation. (utah.edu)
  • In a paper published in Biomaterials, Andrew Capulli, Ph.D. and colleagues fabricated a valve-shaped nanofiber network that mimics the mechanical and chemical properties of the native valve extracellular matrix (ECM). (mpo-mag.com)
  • A prosthetic valve assembly for use in replacing a deficient native valve comprises a replacement valve supported on an expandable valve support. (patsnap.com)
  • When the outer sheath is retracted, the prosthetic valve assembly expands to an expanded position such that the valve and valve support expand within the deficient native valve, and the anchor engages the lumen wall. (patsnap.com)
  • For the last two decades, the field of cardiology has seen a significant shift from traditional open-heart surgeries to minimally invasive procedures. (reportlinker.com)
  • Freedom from valve-related mortality and morbidity at 25 years was 26% +/- 7% and 29% +/- 6% for aortic and mitral valve replacement, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Utilized in heart valve replacement surgeries, these components sourced from cattle heart sac tissue have gained traction due to their biocompatibility and durability. (reportlinker.com)
  • Although coronary embolism was performed because her chest pain tral prosthetic valve. (who.int)
  • It may also invade and proliferate within heart and coronary artery endothelial cells, and, along with Streptococcus sanguis, it may also induce platelet aggregation associated with thrombus formation. (medscape.com)
  • Their main purpose is to keep blood flowing in the proper direction through the heart, and from the heart into the major blood vessels connected to it (the pulmonary artery and the aorta). (wikipedia.org)
  • From there, blood is pumped through the pulmonary valve to enter the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present disclosure relates to sizing catheters for determining the size and other physical parameters of an internal orifice or lumen, such as an artery, vein, pulmonary trunk or aorta, to provide a physician with information relating to size and/or other parameters of the internal lumen for use in selecting an appropriate prosthetic device, such as a prosthetic heart valve. (justia.com)
  • Freedom from valve-related mortality was 66% +/- 8% and 87% +/- 3% for aortic and mitral valve replacement, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • In support of these translational efforts, the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering and the University of Zurich announced today a cross-institutional team effort to generate a functional heart valve replacement with the capacity for repair, regeneration, and growth. (mpo-mag.com)
  • Heart valve prostheses, both bioprosthetic and mechanical, have saved lives, but they have drawbacks: they often require later replacement, which comes with risks, and often require lifelong use of anticoagulant medication. (tuvsud.com)
  • Skripochnik E, Michler RE, Hentschel V, Neragi-Miandoab S. The efficacy and outcome of ministernotomy compared to those of standard sternotomy for aortic valve replacement. (columbiasurgery.org)
  • Most women were in New York Heart Association class I or II and in sinus rhythm. (bmj.com)
  • Outcome of pregnancy in women with valve prostheses. (bmj.com)
  • There were 13 valve thromboses (four fatal), eight embolic events (two fatal), and seven bleeds in women with mechanical valves. (bmj.com)
  • This scanning electron microscopy image shows how extracellular matrix (ECM) nanofibers generated with JetValve technology are arranged in parallel networks with physical properties comparable to those found in native heart tissue. (mpo-mag.com)
  • The left ventricle pumps blood to the aorta through the aortic valve. (wikipedia.org)
  • We had the M-modes to the aortic valve, and you notice that in the M-mode of the aortic valve, the aorta was going up and down a lot. (medscape.com)
  • Neragi-Miandoab S, Skripochnik E, Salemi A, Girardi L. Recently patented transcatheter aortic valves in clinical trials. (columbiasurgery.org)