The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
Small pumps, often implantable, designed for temporarily assisting the heart, usually the LEFT VENTRICLE, to pump blood. They consist of a pumping chamber and a power source, which may be partially or totally external to the body and activated by electromagnetic motors.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.
Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.
Transference of a tissue or organ from either an alive or deceased donor, within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.
The simultaneous, or near simultaneous, transference of heart and lungs from one human or animal to another.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).
The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.
The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
The period following a surgical operation.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A pumping mechanism that duplicates the output, rate, and blood pressure of the natural heart. It may replace the function of the entire heart or a portion of it, and may be an intracorporeal, extracorporeal, or paracorporeal heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease in which the ventricular walls are excessively rigid, impeding ventricular filling. It is marked by reduced diastolic volume of either or both ventricles but normal or nearly normal systolic function. It may be idiopathic or associated with other diseases (ENDOMYOCARDIAL FIBROSIS or AMYLOIDOSIS) causing interstitial fibrosis.
Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.
An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.
The procedure established to evaluate the health status and risk factors of the potential DONORS of biological materials. Donors are selected based on the principles that their health will not be compromised in the process, and the donated materials, such as TISSUES or organs, are safe for reuse in the recipients.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
An induced state of non-reactivity to grafted tissue from a donor organism that would ordinarily trigger a cell-mediated or humoral immune response.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The process by which organs are kept viable outside of the organism from which they were removed (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Non-cadaveric providers of organs for transplant to related or non-related recipients.
The inferior and superior venae cavae.
Pumping that aids the natural activity of the heart. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
Application of a life support system that circulates the blood through an oxygenating system, which may consist of a pump, a membrane oxygenator, and a heat exchanger. Examples of its use are to assist victims of smoke inhalation injury, respiratory failure, and cardiac failure.
The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.
Testing erythrocytes to determine presence or absence of blood-group antigens, testing of serum to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to these antigens, and selecting biocompatible blood by crossmatching samples from the donor against samples from the recipient. Crossmatching is performed prior to transfusion.
The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A form of ischemia-reperfusion injury occurring in the early period following transplantation. Significant pathophysiological changes in MITOCHONDRIA are the main cause of the dysfunction. It is most often seen in the transplanted lung, liver, or kidney and can lead to GRAFT REJECTION.
A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.
Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)
The omission of atrial activation that is caused by transient cessation of impulse generation at the SINOATRIAL NODE. It is characterized by a prolonged pause without P wave in an ELECTROCARDIOGRAM. Sinus arrest has been associated with sleep apnea (REM SLEEP-RELATED SINUS ARREST).
A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)
Surgery performed on the heart or blood vessels.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
An operation that uses stimulated latissimus dorsi muscle (SKELETAL MUSCLE VENTRICLE) to assist cardiac function. The latissimus dorsi muscle is mobilized from the chest wall and moved into the thorax through the bed of the resected 2nd or 3rd rib. The muscle is then wrapped around the left and right ventricles and stimulated to contract during cardiac systole by means of an implanted burst-stimulator. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
Tissues, cells, or organs transplanted between genetically different individuals of the same species.
Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.
Pathological conditions in the INTESTINES that are characterized by the gastrointestinal loss of serum proteins, including SERUM ALBUMIN; IMMUNOGLOBULINS; and at times LYMPHOCYTES. Severe condition can result in HYPOGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA or LYMPHOPENIA. Protein-losing enteropathies are associated with a number of diseases including INTESTINAL LYMPHANGIECTASIS; WHIPPLE'S DISEASE; and NEOPLASMS of the SMALL INTESTINE.
The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.
An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Condition where a primary dysfunction of either heart or kidney results in failure of the other organ (e.g., HEART FAILURE with worsening RENAL INSUFFICIENCY).
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.
A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Transplantation between animals of different species.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial contraction during SYSTOLE leading to defective cardiac emptying.
A condition caused by underdevelopment of the whole left half of the heart. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the left cardiac chambers (HEART ATRIUM; HEART VENTRICLE), the AORTA, the AORTIC VALVE, and the MITRAL VALVE. Severe symptoms appear in early infancy when DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS closes.
Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).
A disease of the CARDIAC MUSCLE developed subsequent to the initial protozoan infection by TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI. After infection, less than 10% develop acute illness such as MYOCARDITIS (mostly in children). The disease then enters a latent phase without clinical symptoms until about 20 years later. Myocardial symptoms of advanced CHAGAS DISEASE include conduction defects (HEART BLOCK) and CARDIOMEGALY.
An antigenic mismatch between donor and recipient blood. Antibodies present in the recipient's serum may be directed against antigens in the donor product. Such a mismatch may result in a transfusion reaction in which, for example, donor blood is hemolyzed. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984).
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
The treatment of patients without the use of allogeneic BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS or blood products.
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.
Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.
Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
A state of elevated cardiac output due to conditions of either increased hemodynamic demand or reduced cardiac oxygen output. These conditions may include ANEMIA; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; THYROTOXICOSIS; PREGNANCY; EXERCISE; FEVER; and ANOXIA. In time, compensatory changes of the heart can lead to pathological form of high cardiac output and eventual HEART FAILURE.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
A dead body, usually a human body.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
Members of a religious denomination founded in the United States during the late 19th century in which active evangelism is practiced, the imminent approach of the millennium is preached, and war and organized government authority in matters of conscience are strongly opposed (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). Jehovah's Witnesses generally refuse blood transfusions and other blood-based treatments based on religious belief.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Shock resulting from diminution of cardiac output in heart disease.
Abnormally rapid heartbeats originating from one or more automatic foci (nonsinus pacemakers) in the HEART ATRIUM but away from the SINOATRIAL NODE. Unlike the reentry mechanism, automatic tachycardia speeds up and slows down gradually. The episode is characterized by a HEART RATE between 135 to less than 200 beats per minute and lasting 30 seconds or longer.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.
Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
The transference between individuals of the entire face or major facial structures. In addition to the skin and cartilaginous tissue (CARTILAGE), it may include muscle and bone as well.
Institutions specializing in the care of patients with heart disorders.
The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
A condition in which the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the right ventricular wall.
Counterpulsation in which a pumping unit synchronized with the patient's electrocardiogram rapidly fills a balloon in the aorta with helium or carbon dioxide in early diastole and evacuates the balloon at the onset of systole. As the balloon inflates, it raises aortic diastolic pressure, and as it deflates, it lowers aortic systolic pressure. The result is a decrease in left ventricular work and increased myocardial and peripheral perfusion.
The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.
Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.
Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.
The period before a surgical operation.
An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.
The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.
Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.
Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
Creatinine is a waste product produced by the muscles that is filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and excreted in urine.
The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.
A group of cardiac arrhythmias in which the cardiac contractions are not initiated at the SINOATRIAL NODE. They include both atrial and ventricular premature beats, and are also known as extra or ectopic heartbeats. Their frequency is increased in heart diseases.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).
The field of nursing care concerned with the promotion, maintenance, and restoration of health.
Surgery performed on the heart.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES leading to an obstructive lung disease. Bronchioles are characterized by fibrous granulation tissue with bronchial exudates in the lumens. Clinical features include a nonproductive cough and DYSPNEA.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The dimension of the physical universe which, at a given place, orders the sequence of events. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A condition characterized by the thickening of ENDOCARDIUM due to proliferation of fibrous and elastic tissue, usually in the left ventricle leading to impaired cardiac function (CARDIOMYOPATHY, RESTRICTIVE). It is most commonly seen in young children and rarely in adults. It is often associated with congenital heart anomalies (HEART DEFECTS CONGENITAL;) INFECTION; or gene mutation. Defects in the tafazzin protein, encoded by TAZ gene, result in a form of autosomal dominant familial endocardial fibroelastosis.
A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).

ECG diagnosis of native heart ventricular tachycardia in a heterotopic heart transplant recipient. (1/3176)

A case is reported of haemodynamic collapse in a 51 year old male heterotopic heart transplant recipient caused by native heart ventricular tachycardia. An accurate diagnosis was made by selective right and left sided electrocardiography. Synchronised electrical cardioversion of the native heart (200 J) resulted in restoration of sinus rhythm with prompt relief of symptoms and amelioration of the clinical situation.  (+info)

Reversal of severe pulmonary hypertension with beta blockade in a patient with end stage left ventricular failure. (2/3176)

A 52 year old man with severe chronic left ventricular failure (New York Heart Association class IV) was considered unsuitable for cardiac transplantation because of high and irreversible pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). In an attempt to produce symptomatic improvement, metoprolol was cautiously introduced, initially at 6.25 mg twice daily. This was slowly increased to 50 mg twice daily over a two month period and continued thereafter. After four months of treatment the patient's symptoms had improved dramatically. His exercise tolerance had increased and diuretic requirements reduced to frusemide 160 mg/day only. Assessment of right heart pressures was repeated and, other than a drop in resting heart rate, there was little change in his pulmonary artery pressure or PVR. His right heart pressures were reassessed showing a pronounced reduction in pulmonary artery pressure and a significant reduction in PVR, which fell further with inhaled oxygen and sublingual nitrates. He was then accepted onto the active waiting list for cardiac transplantation. A possible mechanism of action was investigated by assessing responses to beta agonists during treatment. Not only was there pronounced improvement in PVR but it was also demonstrated that beta receptor subtype cross-regulation may have contributed to the mechanism of benefit.  (+info)

Clinical significance of expression of human cytomegalovirus pp67 late transcript in heart, lung, and bone marrow transplant recipients as determined by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification. (3/3176)

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection was monitored retrospectively by qualitative determination of pp67 mRNA (a late viral transcript) by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) in a series of 50 transplant recipients, including 26 solid-organ (11 heart and 15 lung) transplant recipients (SOTRs) and 24 bone marrow transplant recipients (BMTRs). NASBA results were compared with those obtained by prospective quantitation of HCMV viremia and antigenemia and retrospective quantitation of DNA in leukocytes (leukoDNAemia). On the whole, 29 patients were NASBA positive, whereas 10 were NASBA negative, and the blood of 11 patients remained HCMV negative. NASBA detected HCMV infection before quantitation of viremia did but after quantitation of leukoDNAemia and antigenemia did. In NASBA-positive blood samples, median levels of viremia, antigenemia, and leukoDNAemia were significantly higher than the relevant levels detected in NASBA-negative HCMV-positive blood samples. By using the quantitation of leukoDNAemia as the "gold standard," the analytical sensitivity (47.3%), as well as the negative predictive value (68. 3%), of NASBA for the diagnosis of HCMV infection intermediate between that of antigenemia quantitation (analytical sensitivity, 72. 3%) and that of viremia quantitation (analytical sensitivity, 28.7%), while the specificity and the positive predictive value were high (90 to 100%). However, with respect to the clinically relevant antigenemia cutoff of >/=100 used in this study for the initiation of preemptive therapy in SOTRs with reactivated HCMV infection, the clinical sensitivity of NASBA reached 100%, with a specificity of 68. 9%. Upon the initiation of antigenemia quantitation-guided treatment, the actual median antigenemia level was 158 (range, 124 to 580) in SOTRs who had reactivated infection and who presented with NASBA positivity 3.5 +/- 2.6 days in advance and 13.5 (range, 1 to 270) in the group that included BMTRs and SOTRs who had primary infection (in whom treatment was initiated upon the first confirmation of detection of HCMV in blood) and who presented with NASBA positivity 2.0 +/- 5.1 days later. Following antiviral treatment, the durations of the presence of antigenemia and pp67 mRNA in blood were found to be similar. In conclusion, monitoring of the expression of HCMV pp67 mRNA appears to be a promising, well-standardized tool for determination of the need for the initiation and termination of preemptive therapy. Its overall clinical impact should be analyzed in future prospective studies.  (+info)

Use of cardiopulmonary exercise testing with hemodynamic monitoring in the prognostic assessment of ambulatory patients with chronic heart failure. (4/3176)

OBJECTIVES: We studied whether direct assessment of the hemodynamic response to exercise could improve the prognostic evaluation of patients with heart failure (HF) and identify those in whom the main cause of the reduced functional capacity is related to extracardiac factors. BACKGROUND: Peak exercise oxygen consumption (VO2) is one of the main prognostic variables in patients with HF, but it is influenced also by many extracardiac factors. METHODS: Bicycle cardiopulmonary exercise testing with hemodynamic monitoring was performed, in addition to clinical evaluation and radionuclide ventriculography, in 219 consecutive patients with chronic HF (left ventricular ejection fraction, 22 +/- 7%; peak VO2, 14.2 +/- 4.4 ml/kg/min). RESULTS: During a follow-up of 19 +/- 25 months, 32 patients died and 6 underwent urgent transplantation with a 71% cumulative major event-free 2-year survival. Peak exercise stroke work index (SWI) was the most powerful prognostic variable selected by Cox multivariate analysis, followed by serum sodium and left ventricular ejection fraction, for one-year survival, and peak VO2 and serum sodium for two-year survival. Two-year survival was 54% in the patients with peak exercise SWI < or = 30 g x m/m2 versus 91% in those with a SWI >30 g x m/m2 (p < 0.0001). A significant percentage of patients (41%) had a normal cardiac output response to exercise with an excellent two-year survival (87% vs. 58% in the others) despite a relatively low peak VO2 (15.1 +/- 4.7 ml/kg/min). CONCLUSIONS: Direct assessment of exercise hemodynamics in patients with HF provides additive independent prognostic information, compared to traditional noninvasive data.  (+info)

T cell repertoire alterations of vascularized xenografts. (5/3176)

The role of T cells in the rejection of vascularized xenografts has been little explored. Because of the high potential diversity of xenoantigens, it has been suggested that xenotransplantation could induce a strong cellular response that could contribute to delayed rejection. Alternatively, alterations in molecular interactions could impair the T cell response. Because the analysis of TCR repertoire in vivo indirectly reflects the nature and the magnitude of T cell xenorecognition, we took advantage of the possibility of obtaining long term survival of hamster heart xenografts in rat recipients treated with a combination of cobra venom factor and cyclosporin A (CsA), to analyze T cell infiltration and, for the first time, V beta TCR usage, at the complementarity-determining region 3 level, in accommodated and rejected xenografts, compared with allografts. After withdrawal of CsA (on day 40), the analysis of V beta family expression and corresponding complementarity-determining region 3 lengths in rejected xenografts revealed a Gaussian pattern, in contrast to a much more restricted pattern in rejected allografts (p = 0.002), suggesting that, after withdrawal of CsA, all the underrepresented T cell clones are rapidly expanded in xenografts. These results correlate with the rapid kinetics of rejection (4 +/- 1 days), the high number of T cells, the rapid expression of markers of activation (IL-2 receptor alpha-chain and class II receptor), and the strong deposit of IgG Abs in rejected xenografts. Taken together, these results suggest that the intensity and diversity of the T cell response to xenografts could be stronger than the response to allografts in vivo.  (+info)

Sympathetic rhythmicity in cardiac transplant recipients. (6/3176)

BACKGROUND: Variability of R-R interval and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) occurs predominantly at a low frequency (LF, +/-0.1 Hz) and a high frequency (HF, +/-0.25 Hz) in normal humans. Increased sympathetic drive in normal humans is associated with an increased LF component of the R-R interval and MSNA. Patients with severe heart failure have high sympathetic activity but decreased or absent LF power of both R-R and MSNA. We tested the hypothesis that this dysfunction in autonomic modulation in heart failure can be reversed by heart transplantation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed spectral analysis of resting MSNA, R-R interval, and respiration in 9 patients with heart transplants, 9 chronic heart failure patients, and 9 normal control subjects, all closely matched for age, sex, and body mass index. MSNA (bursts per minute) was higher in patients with heart transplants (74+/-3) than either patients with heart failure (56+/-6) or normal subjects (40+/-4) (P<0.001). LF variability in the R-R interval was reduced in both heart transplant recipients and heart failure patients compared with the control subjects (P<0.01). The LF variability in MSNA was also nearly absent in the heart failure patients (P<0.01). However, the LF and HF oscillations in MSNA in patients with heart transplants were comparable to those evident in the control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac transplantation does not reduce MSNA. However, LF oscillations in sympathetic activity are restored after transplantation such that the MSNA oscillatory profile is similar to that observed in normal subjects.  (+info)

High and low pulmonary vascular resistance in heart transplant candidates. A 5-year follow-up after heart transplantation shows continuous reduction in resistance and no difference in complication rate. (7/3176)

BACKGROUND: In heart transplantation candidates, high pulmonary vascular resistance has been found to decrease promptly after heart transplantation without any further reduction during follow-up. Pulmonary hypertension has been described as associated with an increased peri- and postoperative complication rate and mortality. This study describes the evolution of pulmonary vascular resistance and the outcome for patients during 5 years following heart transplantation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Haemodynamic data, complication rate and mortality have been analysed during 5-year follow-up in all patients (n = 80) who were heart transplanted at Sahlgrenska University Hospital from 1988 through 1990. We found a significant and continuous reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance both in patients with a pre-operative high (> 3 Wood Units; n = 36), but reversible on nitroprusside, and pre-operative low (< or = 3 Wood Units; n = 44) pulmonary vascular resistance. A multivariate analysis showed that a pre-operative high mean pulmonary artery and low mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure predicted the decline in pulmonary vascular resistance during 5 years after heart transplantation. The need for a postoperative assist device, complication rate, and early and late mortality were independent of the pre-operative level of pulmonary vascular resistance. CONCLUSIONS: A continuous reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance during 5 years following heart transplantation was found in patients with both high, but reversible, and low pre-operative resistance levels. The outcome and survival were independent of the pre-operative pulmonary vascular resistance level.  (+info)

Incidence and clinical relevance of coronary calcification detected by electron beam computed tomography in heart transplant recipients. (8/3176)

BACKGROUND: Patients treated by cardiac transplantation who survive beyond one year are at significant risk from fatal coronary artery disease. The development of coronary artery calcification in these patients is discussed and methods available to detect it are reviewed. OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical importance of coronary artery calcium in heart transplant recipients. METHODS: In a cohort of 102 cardiac transplant recipients, electron beam computed tomography was used to measure calcium in the coronary arterial wall 63 days to 9.1 years (median 4.6 years) after transplantation. The results were compared with angiographic findings and with conventional coronary disease risk factors. The patients were followed for a mean of 2.12 years (1.2-4.02 years) to assess the relationship between these findings and future cardiac events. RESULTS: Forty-one (40.2%) had a stenosis of > 24% in one or more major coronary artery at angiography. Forty-six (45%) had a coronary calcium score > 0. The absence of calcium had a negative predictive value with respect to angiographic disease in any vessels of 87.5%. Logistic regression revealed that dyslipidaemia, systemic hypertension and organ ischaemic time were significant predictors of calcification. At follow-up, both an abnormal coronary angiogram and coronary calcium were found to be the only significant predictors of late events. Multivariate analysis suggested that the detection of coronary calcium did not offer any additional predictive information over that provided by the angiogram itself. CONCLUSION: Electron beam computed tomography is well suited to the assessment of calcium in the coronary arteries of heart transplant recipients, although the mechanisms of this calcification remain poorly understood. Calcium is detected more frequently than would be suggested by studies using intravascular ultrasound. It is associated with the presence of angiographic disease, and with some conventional risk factors for coronary disease. At follow-up the presence of coronary calcium was associated with an adverse clinical outcome, as it is in conventional ischaemic heart disease.  (+info)

Heart failure, also known as congestive heart failure, is a medical condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. This can lead to a buildup of fluid in the lungs, liver, and other organs, causing symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and ankles. Heart failure can be caused by a variety of factors, including damage to the heart muscle from a heart attack, high blood pressure, or long-term damage from conditions such as diabetes or coronary artery disease. It can also be caused by certain genetic disorders or infections. Treatment for heart failure typically involves medications to improve heart function and reduce fluid buildup, as well as lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. In some cases, surgery or other medical procedures may be necessary to treat the underlying cause of the heart failure or to improve heart function.

Dilated cardiomyopathy is a medical condition characterized by the enlargement and weakening of the heart muscle, specifically the ventricles, which are the lower chambers of the heart responsible for pumping blood out to the rest of the body. This enlargement causes the heart to become weakened and unable to pump blood efficiently, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and ankles. Dilated cardiomyopathy can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, infections, alcohol and drug abuse, and certain medications. It can also be a complication of other heart conditions, such as hypertension or coronary artery disease. Diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy typically involves a physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, and other imaging tests. Treatment may include medications to improve heart function, lifestyle changes such as a heart-healthy diet and exercise, and in some cases, surgery or heart transplantation.

Postoperative complications are adverse events that occur after a surgical procedure. They can range from minor issues, such as bruising or discomfort, to more serious problems, such as infection, bleeding, or organ damage. Postoperative complications can occur for a variety of reasons, including surgical errors, anesthesia errors, infections, allergic reactions to medications, and underlying medical conditions. They can also be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, dehydration, and smoking. Postoperative complications can have serious consequences for patients, including prolonged hospital stays, additional surgeries, and even death. Therefore, it is important for healthcare providers to take steps to prevent postoperative complications and to promptly recognize and treat them if they do occur.

Heart diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels. These conditions can range from minor to severe and can affect the heart's ability to pump blood effectively, leading to a variety of symptoms and complications. Some common types of heart diseases include: 1. Coronary artery disease: This is the most common type of heart disease, which occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque. 2. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. 3. Arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms that can cause the heart to beat too fast, too slow, or irregularly. 4. Valvular heart disease: This occurs when the heart valves become damaged or diseased, leading to problems with blood flow. 5. Congenital heart disease: This refers to heart defects that are present at birth. 6. Inflammatory heart disease: This includes conditions such as pericarditis and myocarditis, which cause inflammation of the heart. 7. Heart infections: These include conditions such as endocarditis and myocarditis, which can cause damage to the heart muscle and valves. Treatment for heart diseases depends on the specific condition and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery. Early detection and treatment are important for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are structural abnormalities in the heart that are present at birth. These defects can affect the heart's structure, function, or both, and can range from minor to severe. CHDs are the most common type of birth defect and affect approximately 1 in 100 live births. CHDs can occur in any part of the heart, including the valves, arteries, veins, and chambers. Some common types of CHDs include: - Atrial septal defect (ASD): A hole in the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart. - Ventricular septal defect (VSD): A hole in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart. - Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA): A blood vessel that remains open between the pulmonary artery and the aorta. - Coarctation of the aorta: A narrowing of the aorta, the main artery that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body. - Tetralogy of Fallot: A combination of four heart defects that affect the flow of blood through the heart. CHDs can cause a range of symptoms, including shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, and heart palpitations. Treatment for CHDs depends on the type and severity of the defect, and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions. Early diagnosis and treatment are important for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.

Cardiomyopathies are a group of heart diseases that affect the heart muscle (myocardium). These diseases can cause the heart to become enlarged, thickened, or rigid, which can lead to problems with the heart's ability to pump blood effectively. There are several different types of cardiomyopathies, including: 1. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: This is a condition in which the heart muscle becomes abnormally thick, which can make it difficult for the heart to pump blood. 2. Dilated cardiomyopathy: This is a condition in which the heart muscle becomes weakened and enlarged, which can cause the heart to pump blood less effectively. 3. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC): This is a condition in which the heart muscle in the right ventricle becomes abnormal and can cause irregular heart rhythms. 4. Non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy: This is a type of dilated cardiomyopathy that is not caused by a lack of blood flow to the heart muscle. 5. Idiopathic left ventricular hypertrophy: This is a condition in which the left ventricle of the heart becomes abnormally thick, which can make it difficult for the heart to pump blood. Cardiomyopathies can be inherited or acquired, and they can range from mild to severe. Treatment for cardiomyopathies depends on the specific type and severity of the condition, and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.

Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressive medication that is used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs, such as the heart, liver, or kidney. It works by suppressing the immune system's response to the transplanted organ, allowing it to integrate into the body without being attacked by the immune system. Cyclosporine is typically administered orally in the form of capsules or tablets. It is also available as an intravenous injection for patients who cannot take it by mouth. Cyclosporine can have side effects, including increased blood pressure, kidney damage, and an increased risk of infections. It is important for patients taking cyclosporine to be closely monitored by their healthcare provider to ensure that the benefits of the medication outweigh the risks.

Cardiomyopathy, restrictive is a type of heart disease that affects the heart's ability to pump blood effectively. In restrictive cardiomyopathy, the heart muscle becomes stiff and thickened, making it difficult for the heart to relax and fill with blood. This can lead to a decrease in the amount of blood that the heart is able to pump out to the rest of the body, which can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and ankles. There are several different types of restrictive cardiomyopathy, including infiltrative cardiomyopathy, fibrotic cardiomyopathy, and endomyocardial fibrosis. The exact cause of restrictive cardiomyopathy is often unknown, but it can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral infections, exposure to toxins, and certain genetic conditions. Treatment for restrictive cardiomyopathy typically involves managing symptoms and addressing any underlying causes of the condition. In some cases, medications or surgery may be necessary to improve heart function and prevent complications.

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a condition that can occur after a bone marrow or stem cell transplant. It happens when the transplanted cells (the graft) attack the recipient's (the host) tissues and organs. This can cause a range of symptoms, including skin rash, diarrhea, liver problems, and inflammation of the lungs, gut, and blood vessels. GVHD can be a serious and potentially life-threatening complication of transplantation, but it can also be treated with medications and other therapies.

Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is a condition that occurs when a transplanted organ or tissue fails to function properly soon after transplantation. It is a common complication of organ transplantation and can occur in various organs, including the heart, liver, kidney, and lung. PGD is caused by a variety of factors, including ischemia-reperfusion injury, immunological rejection, and infection. Ischemia-reperfusion injury occurs when the transplanted organ is deprived of oxygen and nutrients for a period of time before being reperfused with blood, causing damage to the organ's cells. Immunological rejection occurs when the recipient's immune system recognizes the transplanted organ as foreign and mounts an attack against it. Infection can also cause PGD by damaging the transplanted organ. Symptoms of PGD may include decreased organ function, fever, and inflammation. Treatment for PGD typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the dysfunction, such as administering immunosuppressive drugs to prevent rejection or treating an infection. In severe cases, the transplanted organ may need to be removed and replaced with a new one.

Tacrolimus is a medication that is used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs, such as the kidney, liver, or heart. It is also used to treat certain types of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. Tacrolimus works by suppressing the immune system, which helps to prevent the body from attacking the transplanted organ or treating the autoimmune disease. It is usually given as a pill or as a cream or ointment applied to the skin. Side effects of tacrolimus can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, and skin rash. It can also cause more serious side effects, such as high blood pressure, kidney problems, and an increased risk of infection. It is important to carefully follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking tacrolimus and to report any side effects that you experience.

In the medical field, recurrence refers to the reappearance of a disease or condition after it has been treated or has gone into remission. Recurrence can occur in various medical conditions, including cancer, infections, and autoimmune diseases. For example, in cancer, recurrence means that the cancer has come back after it has been treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or other treatments. Recurrence can occur months, years, or even decades after the initial treatment. In infections, recurrence means that the infection has returned after it has been treated with antibiotics or other medications. Recurrence can occur due to incomplete treatment, antibiotic resistance, or other factors. In autoimmune diseases, recurrence means that the symptoms of the disease return after they have been controlled with medication. Recurrence can occur due to changes in the immune system or other factors. Overall, recurrence is a significant concern for patients and healthcare providers, as it can require additional treatment and can impact the patient's quality of life.

Myocarditis is an inflammation of the heart muscle (myocardium) that can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection, autoimmune disorders, or other factors. It can lead to swelling and damage to the heart muscle, which can affect its ability to pump blood effectively. Symptoms of myocarditis can include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, and an irregular heartbeat. Treatment for myocarditis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, rest, and lifestyle changes. In severe cases, hospitalization and supportive care may be necessary. Myocarditis can be a serious condition and can lead to complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death.

Liver failure is a medical condition in which the liver is unable to perform its normal functions effectively. The liver is a vital organ that plays a crucial role in many bodily processes, including metabolism, detoxification, and the production of bile, which helps to digest fats. There are several types of liver failure, including acute liver failure and chronic liver failure. Acute liver failure occurs suddenly and is often caused by a severe injury or infection to the liver, such as from alcohol abuse, viral hepatitis, or drug toxicity. Chronic liver failure, on the other hand, develops gradually over time and is often caused by long-term liver damage from conditions such as cirrhosis, fatty liver disease, or autoimmune hepatitis. Symptoms of liver failure can include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and confusion. Treatment for liver failure depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or liver transplantation in severe cases.

Sinus arrest is a type of arrhythmia, which is a disorder of the heart's rhythm. It occurs when the sinoatrial (SA) node, which is the natural pacemaker of the heart, fails to initiate a heartbeat for a certain period of time. This can result in a pause or slowing of the heart rate, which can cause symptoms such as dizziness, fainting, and shortness of breath. Sinus arrest can be classified as either complete or incomplete. Complete sinus arrest occurs when the SA node is unable to initiate any heartbeats, while incomplete sinus arrest occurs when the SA node is able to initiate some heartbeats but not others. Sinus arrest can be caused by a variety of factors, including damage to the SA node, certain medications, electrolyte imbalances, and heart disease. Treatment for sinus arrest depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the symptoms. In some cases, treatment may involve the use of medications to regulate the heart rate, or the insertion of a pacemaker to help the heart maintain a normal rhythm.

Brain death is a medical condition in which the brain is no longer capable of performing any vital functions, including maintaining heartbeat and respiration. It is a state of irreversible coma, and it is considered to be equivalent to death in most legal and ethical contexts. The diagnosis of brain death is typically made by a team of medical professionals, including neurologists, neurosurgeons, and critical care physicians. The process involves a series of tests and evaluations, including a neurological examination, imaging studies, and tests of brain function. Once brain death has been diagnosed, the patient is considered legally and medically dead, and organ donation may be considered. However, it is important to note that brain death is not the same as clinical death, which refers to the absence of heartbeat and breathing.

In the medical field, an acute disease is a condition that develops suddenly and progresses rapidly over a short period of time. Acute diseases are typically characterized by severe symptoms and a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Examples of acute diseases include pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and heart attacks. These diseases require prompt medical attention and treatment to prevent complications and improve outcomes. In contrast, chronic diseases are long-term conditions that develop gradually over time and may persist for years or even decades.

Infection is a disease caused by the invasion and multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, in the body. These microorganisms can enter the body through various routes, such as the respiratory system, digestive system, skin, or bloodstream. Infections can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the type of microorganism and the affected body. Common symptoms of infections include fever, chills, fatigue, body aches, cough, sore throat, runny nose, diarrhea, vomiting, and skin rashes. Infections can be treated with antibiotics, antiviral drugs, antifungal medications, or antiparasitic drugs, depending on the type of microorganism causing the infection. In some cases, supportive care, such as rest, fluids, and pain relief, may be necessary to help the body fight off the infection. Preventing infections is also important, and can be achieved through good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with sick individuals. Vaccines can also be used to prevent certain types of infections, such as influenza, measles, and pneumonia.

In the medical field, a chronic disease is a long-term health condition that persists for an extended period, typically for more than three months. Chronic diseases are often progressive, meaning that they tend to worsen over time, and they can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. Chronic diseases can affect any part of the body and can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Some examples of chronic diseases include heart disease, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and arthritis. Chronic diseases often require ongoing medical management, including medication, lifestyle changes, and regular monitoring to prevent complications and manage symptoms. Treatment for chronic diseases may also involve rehabilitation, physical therapy, and other supportive care.

Ventricular dysfunction, left, is a medical condition in which the left ventricle of the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently. The left ventricle is responsible for pumping oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. When it is not functioning properly, it can lead to a variety of symptoms, including shortness of breath, fatigue, and chest pain. There are several causes of left ventricular dysfunction, including heart attacks, high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, and heart valve problems. Treatment for left ventricular dysfunction depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery. Left ventricular dysfunction can be a serious condition and requires prompt medical attention.

Protein-losing enteropathies (PLE) are a group of disorders that cause excessive loss of proteins from the digestive tract. This loss of proteins can lead to a variety of symptoms, including edema (swelling), fatigue, weakness, and malnutrition. PLE can be caused by a variety of factors, including inflammation of the digestive tract, damage to the lining of the small intestine, and certain genetic disorders. Treatment for PLE typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the disorder and managing symptoms such as edema and malnutrition.

Mycophenolic acid is an immunosuppressive drug that is used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs, such as kidneys, liver, and heart. It works by inhibiting the production of immune cells that can attack the transplanted organ. Mycophenolic acid is often used in combination with other immunosuppressive drugs, such as corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors, to increase the effectiveness of the treatment and reduce the risk of rejection. It is usually administered orally in the form of a tablet or capsule. Mycophenolic acid can also be used to treat autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, by suppressing the immune system and reducing inflammation.

Cardio-Renal Syndrome (CRS) is a complex clinical condition in which there is a reciprocal relationship between the heart and kidneys, leading to a decline in kidney function and/or heart function. CRS can be classified into five different types based on the severity of the condition and the underlying cause. Type 1 CRS is characterized by acute kidney injury (AKI) in the setting of an acute decompensation of heart failure. Type 2 CRS is characterized by chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the setting of chronic heart failure. Type 3 CRS is characterized by AKI in the setting of acute myocardial infarction. Type 4 CRS is characterized by CKD in the setting of hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. Type 5 CRS is characterized by a combination of CKD and heart failure. CRS is a serious condition that can lead to poor outcomes, including increased morbidity and mortality. Treatment of CRS typically involves addressing both the underlying heart and kidney conditions, as well as managing any associated complications.

Amyloidosis is a rare disorder characterized by the abnormal accumulation of a protein called amyloid in various tissues and organs of the body. Amyloid is a protein that is normally produced by cells in the body and broken down naturally. However, in amyloidosis, the amyloid protein is produced in excess or is not broken down properly, leading to the formation of abnormal deposits in tissues and organs. The accumulation of amyloid can cause damage to the affected organs and tissues, leading to a range of symptoms and complications depending on the location and severity of the deposits. Common symptoms of amyloidosis include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, swelling in the legs and abdomen, and difficulty breathing. There are several types of amyloidosis, including primary amyloidosis, secondary amyloidosis, and familial amyloidosis. Primary amyloidosis is the most common form and is usually caused by abnormal production of the amyloid protein in the body. Secondary amyloidosis is caused by another underlying medical condition, such as chronic inflammatory diseases or cancer. Familial amyloidosis is an inherited form of the disease that is caused by mutations in certain genes. Treatment for amyloidosis depends on the type and severity of the disease, as well as the underlying cause. Treatment options may include medications to manage symptoms, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, and supportive care to manage complications.

Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute, typically measured in liters per minute (L/min). Low cardiac output refers to a condition where the heart is not pumping enough blood to meet the body's needs. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including heart failure, low blood volume, severe anemia, and certain medications. Symptoms of low cardiac output may include shortness of breath, fatigue, dizziness, and decreased urine output. Treatment for low cardiac output depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, fluid replacement, or surgery.

In the medical field, isoantibodies are antibodies that react with specific antigens on red blood cells (RBCs) that are not present on the individual's own RBCs. These antigens are called isoantigens because they are different from the individual's own antigens. Isoantibodies can be produced by the immune system in response to exposure to foreign RBCs, such as during a blood transfusion or pregnancy. When isoantibodies bind to RBCs, they can cause a variety of problems, including hemolysis (the breakdown of RBCs), jaundice, and anemia. There are many different types of isoantibodies, and they can be detected through blood tests. The presence of isoantibodies can be a cause for concern in certain medical situations, such as before a blood transfusion or during pregnancy, and may require special precautions to prevent complications.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are a group of viral infections caused by the cytomegalovirus, a member of the herpesvirus family. CMV is a common virus that can infect people of all ages, but it is most commonly transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth, or through breast milk. In healthy individuals, CMV infections are usually asymptomatic or cause mild flu-like symptoms. However, in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, organ transplant recipients, or pregnant women with HIV, CMV infections can cause serious complications, including pneumonia, encephalitis, and retinitis. CMV infections can also be transmitted through blood transfusions, organ transplantation, and from mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth. Treatment for CMV infections typically involves antiviral medications to help control the virus and prevent complications.

Coronary disease, also known as coronary artery disease (CAD), is a condition in which the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque. This can lead to reduced blood flow to the heart, which can cause chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, and other symptoms. In severe cases, coronary disease can lead to a heart attack, which occurs when the blood flow to a part of the heart is completely blocked, causing damage to the heart muscle. Coronary disease is a common condition that affects many people, particularly those who are middle-aged or older, and is often associated with other risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes. Treatment for coronary disease may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery.

Heart failure, systolic refers to a condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. This type of heart failure is characterized by a weak or impaired systolic function, which is the phase of the heartbeat when the heart muscle contracts and pumps blood out to the body. In systolic heart failure, the heart muscle may be weakened or damaged due to a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, heart attack, or certain genetic conditions. As a result, the heart is unable to pump enough blood to the body, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, swelling in the legs and ankles, and rapid or irregular heartbeat. Treatment for systolic heart failure typically involves medications to improve heart function, lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, and in some cases, surgery or other medical procedures. It is important for individuals with systolic heart failure to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their condition and prevent complications.

Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a rare and complex congenital heart defect that affects the left side of the heart. It is characterized by underdevelopment or abnormal development of the left ventricle, the left atrium, and the aorta, which are the main pumping chambers and vessels of the heart. As a result of this underdevelopment, the heart is unable to pump enough oxygen-rich blood to the body, leading to a range of symptoms such as fatigue, shortness of breath, and blue skin (cyanosis). In severe cases, HLHS can be life-threatening and require immediate medical attention. Treatment for HLHS typically involves a series of surgeries to repair or replace the affected heart structures. The first surgery, called the Norwood procedure, is typically performed within the first few days of birth and involves creating a connection between the right ventricle and the aorta to allow some blood to flow to the body. Subsequent surgeries may be required to further repair or replace the heart structures as the child grows.

Chagas cardiomyopathy is a type of heart disease caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite, which is commonly transmitted to humans through the bite of infected triatomine bugs, also known as "kissing bugs." The parasite infects the heart muscle and can cause inflammation, scarring, and damage to the heart over time. This can lead to a variety of symptoms, including chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and feet. In severe cases, Chagas cardiomyopathy can lead to heart failure, arrhythmias, and even sudden death. The disease is most common in Latin America, but it can also occur in other parts of the world where the parasite is present.

Blood group incompatibility refers to a condition where the blood of two individuals has different blood types, resulting in an immune response when the two types are mixed. This immune response can lead to the destruction of red blood cells, which can cause symptoms such as anemia, jaundice, and organ damage. Blood group incompatibility is most commonly associated with Rh incompatibility, where a person with Rh-negative blood reacts to Rh-positive blood, but it can also occur with other blood types and antigens. In severe cases, blood group incompatibility can be life-threatening and may require medical intervention such as blood transfusions or immunosuppressive therapy.

Antilymphocyte serum (ALS) is a type of serum that contains antibodies against lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune system. ALS is used in medical treatments to suppress the immune system, particularly in cases where the immune system is overactive or attacking healthy cells. ALS is typically used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and multiple sclerosis, where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues. It is also used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma, where the immune system is weakened and unable to fight off the cancer cells. ALS is prepared by injecting a small amount of lymphocytes into a horse, which then produces antibodies against the lymphocytes. These antibodies are then harvested from the horse's blood and purified to create ALS. The resulting serum contains high levels of antibodies that can bind to and neutralize lymphocytes, thereby suppressing the immune system.

Myocardial ischemia is a medical condition that occurs when the blood flow to the heart muscle is reduced or blocked, leading to a lack of oxygen and nutrients to the heart cells. This can cause chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, and other symptoms. Myocardial ischemia is often caused by atherosclerosis, a condition in which plaque builds up in the arteries, narrowing or blocking the flow of blood. It can also be caused by other factors, such as heart valve problems or blood clots. Myocardial ischemia can be a serious condition and requires prompt medical attention to prevent heart attack or other complications.

Hematologic neoplasms are a group of disorders that affect the blood and bone marrow, including the production of blood cells. These disorders are characterized by the abnormal growth and proliferation of blood cells, which can lead to an overproduction of certain types of blood cells (such as leukemias) or a deficiency of certain types of blood cells (such as anemia). Hematologic neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can affect people of all ages. Some common types of hematologic neoplasms include leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and myelodysplastic syndromes. Treatment for hematologic neoplasms typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or stem cell transplantation.

Azathioprine is a medication that is used to suppress the immune system. It is often prescribed to prevent the body from rejecting transplanted organs, such as a kidney or liver. Azathioprine is also used to treat autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and inflammatory bowel disease. It works by inhibiting the production of white blood cells, which are responsible for attacking foreign substances in the body. Azathioprine is usually taken as a pill and is often used in combination with other medications to treat these conditions.

Chronic kidney failure, also known as chronic renal failure, is a condition in which the kidneys are unable to function properly over a long period of time. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes, high blood pressure, and glomerulonephritis. Chronic kidney failure is typically diagnosed when the kidneys are functioning at less than 60% of their normal capacity, and the condition has been present for at least three months. As the kidneys become less functional, they are unable to filter waste products from the blood, leading to a buildup of toxins in the body. This can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, nausea, and difficulty concentrating. Treatment for chronic kidney failure typically involves managing the underlying cause of the condition, as well as managing symptoms and complications. This may include medications to control blood pressure and blood sugar levels, as well as dietary changes and other lifestyle modifications. In some cases, dialysis or kidney transplantation may be necessary to help the body remove waste products and maintain proper fluid balance.

Cardiac output (CO) is a measure of the amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute. It is calculated by multiplying the heart rate (HR) by the stroke volume (SV), which is the amount of blood pumped by each beat of the heart. A high cardiac output (also known as tachycardia) is defined as a heart rate that is faster than normal for an individual. The normal range for heart rate can vary depending on factors such as age, fitness level, and overall health, but generally, a heart rate above 100 beats per minute (bpm) in adults is considered high. A high cardiac output can be caused by a variety of factors, including physical exertion, anxiety, fever, thyroid disorders, and some medications. In some cases, a high cardiac output may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition, such as heart disease or anemia. Treatment for a high cardiac output depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, lifestyle changes such as exercise and a healthy diet may be sufficient to lower heart rate. In other cases, medications or medical procedures may be necessary to treat the underlying condition.

Cyclosporins are a group of immunosuppressive drugs that are commonly used to prevent organ rejection in transplant patients. They work by inhibiting the activation of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. Cyclosporins are also used to treat autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, and to prevent rejection of bone marrow transplants. They are typically administered orally in the form of capsules or tablets.

In the medical field, a cadaver refers to a dead human body that has been donated for the purpose of medical education, research, or training. Cadavers are often used in anatomy classes, surgical training, and other medical education programs to help students and professionals learn about the human body and its structures. The process of donating a body for medical use is known as body donation or anatomical donation. It involves signing a consent form and making arrangements with a medical school or other organization that accepts body donations. The body is then prepared for use through a process called embalming, which involves preserving the body with chemicals to prevent decay and decomposition. Cadavers are an important resource in medical education and research, as they provide a way for students and professionals to study the human body in detail and gain hands-on experience with surgical procedures and other medical techniques.

Cardiogenic shock is a medical condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. This can occur as a result of a heart attack, heart failure, or other conditions that affect the heart's ability to function properly. Symptoms of cardiogenic shock may include rapid or weak pulse, low blood pressure, confusion, and shortness of breath. Treatment typically involves medications to improve heart function and support organ function, as well as mechanical support such as a heart pump. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace the damaged heart tissue.

Tachycardia, ectopic atrial is a type of abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular heartbeats that originate from the atria (upper chambers) of the heart. In a normal heartbeat, the sinoatrial (SA) node, which is located in the right atrium, generates electrical impulses that stimulate the atria to contract and pump blood into the ventricles (lower chambers) of the heart. However, in tachycardia, ectopic atrial, the electrical impulses are generated by a different part of the atria, such as the pulmonary veins or the Bachmann's bundle, instead of the SA node. This leads to rapid and irregular heartbeats that can cause symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, and shortness of breath. Tachycardia, ectopic atrial can be a serious condition and may require medical intervention to treat.

Renal insufficiency is a medical condition in which the kidneys are unable to filter waste products and excess fluids from the blood effectively. This can lead to a buildup of toxins in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms and complications. There are two main types of renal insufficiency: acute and chronic. Acute renal insufficiency occurs suddenly and is often caused by a blockage in the kidneys or a sudden decrease in blood flow to the kidneys. Chronic renal insufficiency, on the other hand, develops gradually over time and is often caused by long-term kidney damage or disease. Symptoms of renal insufficiency may include fatigue, weakness, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and difficulty concentrating. In more severe cases, it can lead to fluid retention, high blood pressure, anemia, and bone disease. Treatment for renal insufficiency depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet and regular exercise may be sufficient to manage the condition. In more severe cases, medications or dialysis may be necessary to help the kidneys function properly.

Liver diseases refer to a wide range of medical conditions that affect the liver, which is a vital organ responsible for many essential functions in the body. These diseases can be caused by various factors, including viral infections, alcohol abuse, drug toxicity, autoimmune disorders, genetic mutations, and metabolic disorders. Some common liver diseases include: 1. Hepatitis: An inflammation of the liver caused by a viral infection, such as hepatitis A, B, or C. 2. Cirrhosis: A chronic liver disease characterized by the scarring and hardening of liver tissue, which can lead to liver failure. 3. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): A condition in which excess fat accumulates in the liver, often as a result of obesity, insulin resistance, or a high-fat diet. 4. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD): A group of liver diseases caused by excessive alcohol consumption, including fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. 5. Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC): A chronic autoimmune liver disease that affects the bile ducts in the liver. 6. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC): A chronic autoimmune liver disease that affects the bile ducts in the liver and can lead to cirrhosis. 7. Wilson's disease: A genetic disorder that causes copper to accumulate in the liver and other organs, leading to liver damage and other health problems. 8. Hemochromatosis: A genetic disorder that causes the body to absorb too much iron, leading to iron overload in the liver and other organs. Treatment for liver diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise may be sufficient to manage the disease. In more severe cases, medications, surgery, or liver transplantation may be necessary.

Ventricular dysfunction, right refers to a medical condition where the right ventricle of the heart is not functioning properly. The right ventricle is responsible for pumping blood from the heart to the lungs, where it receives oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide. When the right ventricle is not functioning properly, it can lead to a decrease in the amount of blood that is pumped to the lungs, which can cause a variety of symptoms and complications. There are several different causes of right ventricular dysfunction, including heart valve problems, heart muscle damage, and heart rhythm disorders. Treatment for right ventricular dysfunction depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if you are experiencing symptoms of right ventricular dysfunction, as early diagnosis and treatment can help to improve outcomes and prevent complications.

Ventricular remodeling refers to the structural and functional changes that occur in the heart's ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart) in response to various factors such as heart disease, injury, or genetic predisposition. These changes can include thickening of the heart muscle, enlargement of the ventricles, and changes in the electrical activity of the heart. Ventricular remodeling can lead to a variety of heart conditions, including heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. It is a complex process that involves multiple cellular and molecular mechanisms, including inflammation, fibrosis, and changes in gene expression. In the medical field, ventricular remodeling is an important area of research, as it can help identify new targets for the prevention and treatment of heart disease. Treatment options for ventricular remodeling may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgical interventions.

Vascular diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels, including arteries, veins, and capillaries. These diseases can affect any part of the circulatory system, from the heart to the smallest blood vessels in the body. Some common examples of vascular diseases include: 1. Atherosclerosis: A condition in which plaque builds up inside the arteries, narrowing them and reducing blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. 2. Arteriosclerosis: A condition in which the walls of the arteries become thickened and stiff, reducing blood flow and increasing the risk of heart attack and stroke. 3. Peripheral artery disease: A condition in which the blood vessels in the legs and feet become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, cramping, and other symptoms. 4. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the legs, and can travel to the lungs and cause a life-threatening condition called pulmonary embolism. 5. Varicose veins: Abnormal, enlarged veins that often appear on the legs and are caused by weakened valves in the veins that allow blood to flow backward. 6. Raynaud's phenomenon: A condition in which the blood vessels in the fingers and toes constrict, leading to numbness, tingling, and sometimes pain. Vascular diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices (such as smoking, poor diet, and lack of exercise), and underlying medical conditions (such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol). Treatment for vascular diseases may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.

Heart block is a condition in which the electrical signals that regulate the heartbeat are slowed or blocked as they travel through the heart's conduction system. This can cause the heart to beat too slowly (bradycardia) or irregularly, which can lead to symptoms such as dizziness, fainting, and shortness of breath. There are three main types of heart block: first-degree, second-degree, and third-degree. First-degree heart block is the mildest form and usually does not cause any symptoms. Second-degree heart block is more serious and can cause symptoms, especially if it is caused by an underlying heart condition. Third-degree heart block is the most serious form and can lead to life-threatening complications if not treated promptly. Heart block can be caused by a variety of factors, including damage to the heart muscle, certain medications, and inherited conditions. Treatment options depend on the severity of the heart block and the underlying cause. In some cases, a pacemaker may be necessary to regulate the heartbeat.

Busulfan is a chemotherapy drug that is used to treat various types of cancer, including leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. It works by damaging the DNA of cancer cells, which prevents them from dividing and growing. Busulfan is usually given orally or intravenously, and it can also be used as a conditioning agent before a bone marrow transplant. The drug can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and low blood cell counts. It is important to closely monitor patients who are taking busulfan to ensure that the drug is working as intended and to manage any side effects that may occur.

Disease progression refers to the worsening or progression of a disease over time. It is a natural course of events that occurs in many chronic illnesses, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Disease progression can be measured in various ways, such as changes in symptoms, physical examination findings, laboratory test results, or imaging studies. In some cases, disease progression can be slowed or stopped through medical treatment, such as medications, surgery, or radiation therapy. However, in other cases, disease progression may be inevitable, and the focus of treatment may shift from trying to cure the disease to managing symptoms and improving quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for healthcare providers to develop effective treatment plans and to communicate with patients about their condition and prognosis. It can also help patients and their families make informed decisions about their care and treatment options.

Natriuretic Peptide, Brain (NPB) is a hormone that is produced by the brain and released into the bloodstream. It is a member of the natriuretic peptide family, which also includes atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP). NPB has several functions in the body, including regulating blood pressure, fluid balance, and heart rate. It works by inhibiting the release of renin, a hormone that stimulates the production of angiotensin II, which in turn constricts blood vessels and increases blood pressure. NPB also has a role in the regulation of the autonomic nervous system, which controls heart rate and blood pressure. It can stimulate the release of nitric oxide, a molecule that helps to relax blood vessels and lower blood pressure. In the medical field, NPB is being studied as a potential diagnostic tool for various cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure and hypertension. It may also have therapeutic potential for these conditions, as it has been shown to improve cardiac function and reduce blood pressure in animal models.

Myocardial reperfusion injury (MRI) refers to the damage that occurs to the heart muscle when blood flow is restored to an area of the heart that has been previously deprived of oxygen-rich blood. This can happen during a heart attack, when a blood clot blocks a coronary artery, cutting off blood flow to a portion of the heart muscle. MRI is a complex process that involves a combination of physical, chemical, and inflammatory mechanisms. When blood flow is restored to the heart muscle, it can cause damage to the cells and tissues in the area, leading to inflammation, cell death, and scarring. This damage can further impair the heart's ability to pump blood effectively, leading to heart failure and other complications. There are several strategies that can be used to reduce the risk of MRI, including the use of medications to prevent blood clots, timely revascularization procedures to restore blood flow to the heart muscle, and the use of protective therapies to minimize the damage caused by reperfusion. Understanding the mechanisms of MRI is important for developing effective treatments to prevent and manage heart attacks and other cardiovascular diseases.

Creatinine is a waste product that is produced by the muscles in the body as a result of normal metabolism. It is filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. In the medical field, creatinine is often used as a marker of kidney function. A high level of creatinine in the blood can indicate that the kidneys are not functioning properly, while a low level can indicate that the kidneys are overworking. Creatinine levels can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment for kidney disease.

Premature cardiac complexes, also known as premature beats or PVCs, are extra heartbeats that occur before the normal heartbeat. They are a common type of arrhythmia, which is an abnormal heart rhythm. PVCs can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, anxiety, caffeine, alcohol, certain medications, and heart disease. They are usually not a serious problem, but in some cases, they can be a sign of an underlying heart condition and may require medical treatment.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a condition in which the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque. This can lead to reduced blood flow to the heart, which can cause chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, and other symptoms. Over time, CAD can also lead to a heart attack if the blood flow to the heart is completely blocked. CAD is a common condition that affects many people, particularly those who are middle-aged or older, and is often associated with other risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes. Treatment for CAD may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery.

Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. It is characterized by the abnormal production of white blood cells, which can interfere with the normal functioning of the immune system and other parts of the body. There are several different types of leukemia, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Treatment for leukemia typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or stem cell transplantation.

In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.

Ephedrine is a stimulant drug that is derived from the Ephedra plant. It is commonly used in over-the-counter medications to treat symptoms of allergies, colds, and flu. Ephedrine works by constricting blood vessels in the nasal passages, reducing inflammation, and opening airways, which can help to relieve congestion and other respiratory symptoms. In addition to its use in over-the-counter medications, ephedrine is also used in some prescription medications to treat asthma and other respiratory conditions. It is also sometimes used as a recreational drug, particularly in combination with other stimulants such as amphetamines. Ephedrine is a Schedule IV controlled substance in the United States, meaning that it has a low potential for abuse and dependence, but it can still be misused if not used as directed. It is important to follow the instructions on the label and to talk to a healthcare provider before using ephedrine or any other medication.

Myocardial infarction (MI), also known as a heart attack, is a medical condition that occurs when blood flow to a part of the heart muscle is blocked, usually by a blood clot. This lack of blood flow can cause damage to the heart muscle, which can lead to serious complications and even death if not treated promptly. The most common cause of a heart attack is atherosclerosis, a condition in which plaque builds up in the arteries that supply blood to the heart. When a plaque ruptures or becomes unstable, it can form a blood clot that blocks the flow of blood to the heart muscle. Other causes of heart attacks include coronary artery spasms, blood clots that travel to the heart from other parts of the body, and certain medical conditions such as Kawasaki disease. Symptoms of a heart attack may include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, nausea or vomiting, lightheadedness or dizziness, and pain or discomfort in the arms, back, neck, jaw, or stomach. If you suspect that you or someone else is having a heart attack, it is important to call emergency services immediately. Early treatment with medications and possibly surgery can help to reduce the risk of serious complications and improve the chances of a full recovery.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a type of heart disease characterized by the thickening of the heart muscle, particularly the walls of the left ventricle. This thickening can obstruct blood flow through the heart, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, and fatigue. HCM can be caused by genetic mutations or be acquired as a result of other medical conditions or environmental factors. It is a common condition, affecting an estimated 1 in 500 people worldwide. Treatment for HCM may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery or other procedures to improve blood flow and reduce the risk of complications.

Bronchiolitis obliterans is a chronic lung disease characterized by inflammation and scarring of the small airways (bronchioles) in the lungs. This scarring can lead to narrowing or complete blockage of the bronchioles, making it difficult for air to flow in and out of the lungs. The condition is often caused by exposure to harmful substances, such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, or certain chemicals. Symptoms of bronchiolitis obliterans may include shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and chest tightness. Treatment may involve the use of medications to reduce inflammation and open up the airways, as well as oxygen therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation. In severe cases, a lung transplant may be necessary.

In the medical field, "Death, Sudden, Cardiac" refers to a sudden and unexpected death that is caused by a problem with the heart. This type of death is often referred to as sudden cardiac death (SCD) and can occur in people of all ages, including children and young adults. SCD is typically caused by an arrhythmia, which is an abnormal heartbeat that can disrupt the flow of blood to the brain and other vital organs. Other factors that can contribute to SCD include coronary artery disease, heart failure, and inherited heart conditions. Symptoms of SCD may include sudden collapse, loss of consciousness, and difficulty breathing. Treatment for SCD typically involves cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and the use of a defibrillator to shock the heart back into a normal rhythm. However, because SCD is sudden and often fatal, prevention is key, and people who are at risk may be prescribed medications or undergo procedures to reduce their risk of experiencing a cardiac event.

Endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) is a rare heart condition that occurs in infants and young children. It is characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fibrous and elastic tissue in the inner lining of the heart's heart chambers (endocardium). This buildup of tissue can obstruct blood flow through the heart and lead to heart failure. EFE is usually diagnosed in infants and young children, and it is more common in boys than girls. The exact cause of EFE is not known, but it is thought to be related to a viral infection or exposure to certain medications during pregnancy. Other risk factors for EFE include prematurity, low birth weight, and a family history of heart disease. Treatment for EFE typically involves medications to manage symptoms and improve heart function. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the excess tissue and improve blood flow through the heart. The prognosis for children with EFE depends on the severity of their condition and how well they respond to treatment. Some children with EFE may recover fully, while others may require ongoing medical care.

Complement C4b is a protein that is part of the complement system, a complex series of proteins that plays a role in the body's immune response. The complement system helps to identify and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria and viruses, that enter the body. C4b is one of several proteins that are produced when the complement system is activated. It is produced when C4, another protein in the complement system, is cleaved by an enzyme called C1s. C4b is then attached to the surface of a pathogen, marking it for destruction by other components of the complement system. C4b is also involved in the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC), which is a group of proteins that form a pore in the membrane of a pathogen, causing it to burst and be destroyed. The MAC is one of the most powerful weapons in the complement system, and it is able to destroy even highly resistant pathogens. In addition to its role in the immune response, C4b has been implicated in a number of other biological processes, including inflammation, cell signaling, and the regulation of the complement system itself.

Anemia, aplastic is a rare and serious medical condition characterized by a decrease in the number of red blood cells (RBCs) produced by the bone marrow. The bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells. In aplastic anemia, the bone marrow fails to produce enough RBCs, leading to a decrease in the number of oxygen-carrying red blood cells in the body. Aplastic anemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including exposure to certain chemicals or medications, radiation therapy, viral infections, autoimmune disorders, and genetic factors. Symptoms of aplastic anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, pale skin, and an increased risk of infections. Treatment for aplastic anemia typically involves medications to stimulate the production of blood cells in the bone marrow, such as immunosuppressive drugs or growth factors. In severe cases, a bone marrow transplant may be necessary to replace the damaged bone marrow with healthy bone marrow from a donor.

Hypertension, Pulmonary refers to high blood pressure that affects the blood vessels in the lungs. It is also known as Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) or Pulmonary Hypertension (PH). PAH is a rare and serious condition that causes the blood vessels in the lungs to narrow and stiffen, leading to increased blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries. This increased pressure can cause the heart to work harder to pump blood through the lungs, which can lead to heart failure over time. Symptoms of Pulmonary Hypertension may include shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, dizziness, and fainting. The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, infections, autoimmune disorders, and exposure to certain toxins. Treatment for Pulmonary Hypertension typically involves medications to lower blood pressure and improve blood flow in the lungs, as well as oxygen therapy and in some cases, surgery. Early diagnosis and treatment are important for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.

Sirolimus is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called immunosuppressants. It is primarily used to prevent organ rejection in people who have received a kidney, liver, or heart transplant. Sirolimus works by inhibiting the growth of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. By suppressing the immune system, sirolimus helps to prevent the body from attacking the transplanted organ as a foreign object. It is also used to treat certain types of cancer, such as lymphoma and renal cell carcinoma.

Cyclophosphamide is an immunosuppressive drug that is commonly used to treat various types of cancer, including lymphoma, leukemia, and multiple myeloma. It works by inhibiting the growth and division of cells, including cancer cells, and by suppressing the immune system. Cyclophosphamide is usually administered intravenously or orally, and its dosage and duration of treatment depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the patient's overall health. Side effects of cyclophosphamide can include nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection. It can also cause damage to the kidneys, bladder, and reproductive organs, and may increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer later in life.

End Stage Liver Disease (ESLD) is a severe form of liver disease that occurs when the liver is unable to function properly due to chronic damage or disease. It is also known as cirrhosis, which is a condition characterized by the replacement of healthy liver tissue with scar tissue. ESLD is typically caused by long-term alcohol abuse, viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, or other liver diseases. The symptoms of ESLD can vary depending on the underlying cause, but may include fatigue, weakness, jaundice, abdominal pain, and swelling in the legs and ankles. ESLD is a serious condition that can lead to liver failure, which is a life-threatening condition that requires a liver transplant. Treatment for ESLD may include medications to manage symptoms, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, a liver transplant. Early detection and treatment of liver disease can help prevent the progression to ESLD.

Fibrosis is a medical condition characterized by the excessive accumulation of fibrous connective tissue in the body. This tissue is made up of collagen fibers, which are responsible for providing strength and support to tissues. Fibrosis can occur in any part of the body, but it is most commonly seen in the lungs, liver, heart, and kidneys. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, infection, inflammation, and chronic diseases such as diabetes and scleroderma. The accumulation of fibrous tissue can lead to a range of symptoms, depending on the affected organ. For example, in the lungs, fibrosis can cause shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain. In the liver, it can lead to liver failure and other complications. In the heart, it can cause heart failure and arrhythmias. Fibrosis is often a progressive condition, meaning that it can worsen over time if left untreated. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause of the fibrosis and the severity of the symptoms. In some cases, medications or surgery may be used to slow the progression of the disease or to manage symptoms.

Orthotopic heart transplantation: the bicaval technique Heart Treatments - Heart Treatments , NHLBI, NIH NIH (Articles with ... The 2016 International Society for Heart Lung Transplantation listing criteria for heart transplantation: A 10-year update. J ... Heart transplantation is not considered to be a cure for heart disease; rather it is a life-saving treatment intended to ... following Barnard's landmark heart transplantation on December 3, 1967, 107 human heart transplants were performed by 64 ...
It was established in 1981 as Heart Transplantation, and was renamed to the Journal of Heart Transplantation in 1984. It ... The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering heart and lung ... "The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation". 2021 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Clarivate ... It is published by Elsevier on behalf of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation, of which is the official ...
Heart transplantation". In Raja, Shahzad G. (ed.). Cardiac Surgery: A Complete Guide. Switzerland: Springer. pp. 639-642. ISBN ... "International Society for Heart & Lung Transplantation Reveals 2014 Award Winners". PRWeb. Retrieved 2018-08-08. "ISHLT: The ... "International Society for Heart & Lung Transplantation Reveals 2014 Award Winners". Prweb.com. Retrieved 3 February 2019. Green ... It holds annual scientific meetings and publishes The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. It also holds the worlds ...
American Society of Transplantation. Retrieved from "ABO Incompatible Heart Transplantation in Young Infants , American Society ... Intentional ABO-incompatible heart transplantation: a case report of 2 adult patients. The Journal of Heart and Lung ... Canadian centers have a heart transplantation policy matching the proposed policy in the United States. Intentional ABOi heart ... The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, 28(12), 1254-1260. doi:10.1016/j.healun.2009.06.024 Roche, S. L., Burch, M., ...
... this type of transplant typically involves the transplantation of a heart and lungs into recipient A, whose own healthy heart ... Lung transplantation United Network for Organ Sharing International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Lung Transplant ... March 1982). "Heart-lung transplantation: successful therapy for patients with pulmonary vascular disease". The New England ... Lung transplantation, or pulmonary transplantation, is a surgical procedure in which one or both lungs are replaced by lungs ...
The success of Blaiberg's heart transplant furthered the progress made in regard to heart transplantation. Blaiberg was born in ... "Heart Transplantation". Salem Press. Archived from the original on 25 March 2006. Retrieved 8 February 2007. "Definition of ... In March 1967, Blaiberg's heart failed, and it appeared that he was dying. The world's first human heart transplant operation ... By the end of August 1968, 34 heart transplants had been performed, and by December 1968, 100 hearts had been transplanted into ...
"Heart-lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis and subsequent domino heart transplantation". The Journal of Heart ... Heart transplantation is increasingly performed in patients with end-stage heart failure, most often related to ischemic and ... "Intentional ABO-incompatible heart transplantation: a case report of 2 adult patients". The Journal of Heart and Lung ... "ABO Incompatible Heart Transplantation in Young Infants". American Society of Transplantation. 30 July 2009. Archived from the ...
Human heart transplantation: current status. Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 1976 August; 22(2): 171-175. PMID 788661 Griepp RB, ... Children's Heart Fund Precious Heart Award, 2003 Distinguished Scientist Award, Bicuspid Aortic Foundation Partial list: Etz CD ... A heart and lung transplant program commenced in 1990. Griepp stepped down as chairman in 2001 to pursue research and clinical ... Children's Heart Fund Mount Sinai Hospital homepage Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai homepage The Society of Thoracic ...
LeGal, Yves M. (May 1990). "Lung and heart-lung transplantation". The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 49 (5): 840-844. Retrieved 27 ...
Heart transplantation in Chagas' disease. 10 years after the initial experience. Circulation. 1996 Oct 15;94(8):1815-7. PMID ... Experience on three cases of human heart transplantation. Laval Med. 1970 Feb;41(2):149-54. PMID 4929483 Losardo RJ et al. ... He is internationally known for performing the first heart transplantation in Latin America in 1968, and for creating the ... Fundação Zerbini Dura mater heart valve invention. (In Portuguese) Search for Dr. Zerbini's papers in PubMed v t e (Articles ...
In 1984, it began covering heart transplantations offered at Stanford University Medical Center. The Blue Cross of California, ... Evans, Roger W. (January 1987). "The economics of heart transplantation". Circulation. 75 (1): 73. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.75.1.63. ...
It also includes heart transplantation. The earliest operations on the pericardium (the sac that surrounds the heart) took ... Norman Shumway is widely regarded as the father of human heart transplantation, although the world's first adult heart ... ". "Heart Surgery , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)". June 2022. "A Heart Surgery Overview - Texas Heart ... Recovery from open-heart surgery begins with about 48 hours in an intensive care unit, where heart rate, blood pressure, and ...
"Relation between norman and heart transplantation". "Norman Shumway, Heart Transplantation Pioneer, Dies At 83" Archived 2012- ... International Recognition Award, Heart Research Foundation, 1982. Gold Heart Award, American Heart Association, for ... The couple had four children, one of whom directs heart and lung transplantation at the University of Minnesota. Shumway died ... The Newsletter of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation, Volume 1, Issue 1 Archived 2005-08-24 at the ...
... a pioneer in human heart transplantation; in 1987 he performed the first successful heart transplant in Poland; in 1995 he was ... Polish Artificial Heart Program launched by the Foundation for Cardiac Surgery Development in Zabrze. Graphene acquisition, in ... Maria Siemionow, a renowned Polish transplantation surgeon and scientist who gained world recognition when she led a team of ... "Polish Artificial Heart - new coatings, technology, diagnostics". researchgate.com. Retrieved 30 April 2023. "Polish scientists ...
Heart Transplantation Geneva, Switzerland, 1968 III. Evaluation of Drugs: Whose Responsibility? Liège, Belgium, 1968 IV. ...
Current Advances in Heart Transplantation: An Issue of Heart Failure Clinics, Elsevier (2007), ISBN 978-1416043201. History of ... the Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. He was also president of the Heart Failure Society of America. Mandeep Rajinder ... the Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. In 2016, he was appointed president of the Heart Failure Society of America. He ... Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. Retrieved June 6, 2015. Stiles, Steve (February 1, 2012). "Dr Mandeep Mehra leaves ...
The International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) bestows one of its highest awards in his name. Caves was ... Tesler, Ugo Filippo (2020). "9. The history of heart transplantation". A History of Cardiac Surgery: An Adventurous Voyage from ... "ISHLT: The International Society for Heart & Lung Transplantation". www.ishlt.org. Retrieved 30 June 2018. "Dr. Margaret ... the management of heart transplant patients and helped in a significant improvement in the results of heart transplantation. ...
A Jarvic 7 heart was used as a bridge to transplantation until a human donor heart could be found and the patient subsequently ... "International Society For Heart & Lung Transplantation Reveals 2014 Award Winners" (PDF). International Society for Heart & ... Three months after the moratorium on heart transplantation, English became inspired by a visit to his friend Philip Caves, at ... A founding member of the International Society for Heart Transplantation, English subsequently received the Society's Lifetime ...
"What's old is new again: Palliative Potts shunt in children with PAH". International Society for Heart & Lung Transplantation ... Open heart surgery had become common by this time, and Potts said that it should be performed "by young men whose fingers are ... Potts' congenital heart surgery research center was renamed in his honor. In a 1966 interview with the Associated Press, Potts ... Potts' work with heart surgery included the invention of at least three surgical devices. His neighbor, Bruno Richter, worked ...
... primarily for detecting rejection of a donor heart following heart transplantation. It is also used as a diagnostic tool in ... The main reason for performing an EMB is to assess allograft rejection following heart transplantation and sometimes to ... ISBN 978-0-7817-5567-2. Hunt, Sharon (19 August 2008). "The Changing Face of Heart Transplantation". Journal of the American ... Unlike for rejection detection, for diagnosing heart disease, different biopsy sites within the heart are targeted. It is ...
Heart transplants On 14 April 1969, Senning performed the first heart transplantation in Switzerland, and shortly afterwards ... The Senning-Crafoord heart-lung mashine, cited by Galletti P.P., Brecher G. A. Heart-Lung Bypass. New York & London, Grune & ... The Senning-Crafoord heart-lung mashine, zitiert von Galletti P.P., Brecher G. A. Heart-Lung Bypass. New York & London, Grune ... Open-heart surgery on humans Together with Clarence Crafoord, he performed the first successful open-heart surgery on humans in ...
A cytokine-responsive macrophage molecule expressed in transplanted human hearts". Transplantation. 61 (9): 1387-92. doi: ...
A cytokine-responsive macrophage molecule expressed in transplanted human hearts". Transplantation. 61 (9): 1387-92. doi: ...
When heart transplantation is required in a person with situs inversus, reconstruction of the venous pathways to accommodate a ... Eddy, S. "Dextrocardia and Proper Lead Placement". Deuse, Tobias; Reitz, Bruce A. (September 2009). "Heart-Lung Transplantation ... In this form of dextrocardia, the heart is simply placed further right in the thorax than is normal. It is commonly associated ... Dextrocardia situs inversus refers to the heart being a mirror image situated on the right side. For all visceral organs to be ...
The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. 24 (3): 246-250. doi:10.1016/j.healun.2004.01.015. PMID 15737749. Cui Q, Lim SK ... The cardiac crescent forms two heart fields; primary heart field and the secondary heart field. At this point in development, ... the two heart fields fuse to form a primitive, single-chambered heart referred to as the primary myocardium. The secondary ( ... heart field of these cardiac crescent cells will give rise to the outflow tract and the right ventricle of the mature heart. A ...
... a dilemma for lung transplantation". The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. 22 (2): 210-213. doi:10.1016/S1053-2498(02) ... September 2006). "Sirolimus-associated interstitial pneumonitis in 3 heart transplant recipients". The Journal of Heart and ... The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. 26 (3): 296-298. doi:10.1016/j.healun.2006.12.004. PMID 17346635. Delgado JF, ... July 2012). "Sirolimus and secondary skin-cancer prevention in kidney transplantation". The New England Journal of Medicine. ...
The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. 29 (5): 509-516. doi:10.1016/j.healun.2009.11.602. PMID 20061166. Sombogaard F, ... 2008). "Association of four DNA polymorphisms with acute rejection after kidney transplantation". Transpl. Int. 21 (9): 879-91 ... 2010). "Genetic polymorphisms influence mycophenolate mofetil-related adverse events in pediatric heart transplant patients". ... a 2-year follow-up in kidney transplantation". Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 83 (2): 328-35. doi:10.1038/sj.clpt.6100300. PMID ...
Matsuura K, Haraguchi Y, Shimizu T, Okano T (2013). "Cell sheet transplantation for heart tissue repair". J Control Release. ... Mammal hearts also host naturally occurring cardiac stem cells which may be capable of differentiating themselves into ... Cardiomyoplasty is a surgical procedure in which healthy muscle from another part of the body is wrapped around the heart to ... heart muscle). Tissue engineering, which is now being categorized as a form of regenerative medicine, can be defined as ...
The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. 27 (4): 457-61. doi:10.1016/j.healun.2008.01.013. PMID 18374884. Basic & ... heart arrhythmia - decrease the output of sinus node thus stabilizing heart function coronary artery disease - reduce heart ... Ørn S, Dickstein K (2002-04-01). "How do heart failure patients die?". European Heart Journal Supplements. 4 (Suppl D): D59-D65 ... The β receptor couples to Gs and increases intracellular cAMP activity, resulting in e.g. heart muscle contraction, smooth ...
"Utility of Virtual Crossmatch in Sensitized Patients Awaiting Heart Transplantation". The Journal of Heart and Lung ... The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. 28 (1): 51-57. doi:10.1016/j.healun.2008.09.012. PMID 19134531. Quentin L. Cook ... The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. 28 (8): 838-842. doi:10.1016/j.healun.2009.04.031. PMC 2758491. PMID 19632582. ... The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. 28 (12): 1254-1260. doi:10.1016/j.healun.2009.06.024. PMID 19782582. Drakos, ...
A heart transplant removes a damaged or diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy one. Read about the surgery, risks, and ... The heart failure might have been caused by coronary heart disease, damaged heart valves or heart muscles, congenital heart ... Getting a New Heart (American Society of Transplantation) - PDF * Heart Treatments (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) ... Heart Anatomy (Texas Heart Institute) Also in Spanish * How the Heart Works (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) Also in ...
Read full-text medical journal articles from Medscapes Heart failure and transplantation with Dr Ileana Piña. ... Heart failure and transplantation with Dr Ileana Piña. * Quick, Reliable Marker to PUSH Decongestive Therapy in AHF Ileana Piña ... Heart Failure Guidelines Update: What the ESC Got Right Heart failure specialist Dr Ileana Piña discusses what she likes about ... Defining Heart Failure: EF Slicing and Dicing Ileana L. Piña, MD, MPH, discusses the definition of heart failure based on ...
The 1-year survival rate after cardiac transplantation is as high as 81. ... Heart transplantation is the replacement of a failing heart with a heart from a suitable donor. ... Indications for heart transplantation. Heart transplantation is generally reserved for patients with end-stage chronic heart ... Heart transplantation is the replacement of a failing heart with a heart from a suitable donor. [1] After a decline between ...
For more information, please see the projects "Heart Transplantation" and "Lung Transplantation" ... Heart and Lung transplantations profile in Lund University Research portal Description. ...
Lung and Heart-Lung Transplantation - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - ... Heart-lung transplantation Heart-lung transplantation requires median sternotomy with cardiopulmonary bypass. Aortic, right ... Lung or heart-lung transplantation is an option for patients who have respiratory insufficiency or failure and who remain at ... With heart-lung transplantation, overall survival rate at 1 year is about 80% for patients and grafts. ...
Heart and Lung Transplantation. A Society that Includes Basic Science, the Failing Heart and Advanced Lung Disease. ...
Heart and Lung Transplantation. A Society that Includes Basic Science, the Failing Heart and Advanced Lung Disease. ...
Thirteen patients received transplanted hearts from hepatitis C-virus positive donors at one U.S. center. ... Despite the antivirals cost there are significant cost savings from fewer days in the ICU waiting for heart transplantation ... DALLAS - The heart transplant team at Vanderbilt University has successfully placed hearts from deceased, hepatitis C virus- ... for a total of 13 heart transplants performed using hearts that until now have been routinely beyond consideration.. The ...
Read full-text medical journal articles from Medscapes Heart failure and transplantation with Dr Ileana Piña. ... Heart failure and transplantation with Dr Ileana Piña. * Nebulized Nitrite for HFpEF? Dont Hold Your Breath Dr Ileana Piña ... Updated Heart Failure Guidelines: Where Do New Drugs Fit In? Dr Ileana Piña reviews the recent updates to both US and European ... Snapshot of the Heart Failure Guideline Focused Update Dr Piña runs through some of the key takeaways from the ACC/AHA/HFSA ...
PRADO, Bárbara Catarina da Cunha; LOPES, Sandra Ribeiro de Almeida y SANTANA, Juliana Stella. Teenagers with heart diseases ... Palabras clave : future prospect; cardiac transplantation; teenagers and mothers. · resumen en Portugués · texto en Portugués ... This research aimed to understand how the heart transplant interferes with teenagers future prospects and their mothers. This ... and their mothers prospects after transplantation. Rev. SBPH [online]. 2015, vol.18, n.1, pp. 5-38. ISSN 1516-0858. ...
Transplantation is published monthly and is the most cited and influential journal in the field, wit ... HLA and MICA: Targets of Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Heart Transplantation. Zhang, Qiuheng; Cecka, J. Michael; Gjertson, ... Collection Details : Transplantation. You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable ... Transplantation is pleased to present this collection. We hope you find this collection helpful and stimulating, and encourage ...
Published in The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, the updated guidelines are a result of a collaboration between the ... Published in The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, the updated guidelines are a result of a collaboration between the ... International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) Heart Failure and Transplantation, Pediatric and Infectious ... One key issue has been heart transplantation eligibility for patients with certain medical conditions; the 2006 guidelines ...
What is heart transplantation? It is a surgical transplant procedure to replace a failing heart with a healthier donor heart. ... you can get a new heart and live for many more years! So, ... Heart Transplantation The area of organ transplantation has ... What is heart transplantation?. It is a surgical transplant procedure to replace a failing heart with a healthier donor heart. ... When was heart transplantation invented?. Christiaan Barnard, who was born in 1922, established a successful open-heart surgery ...
Heart Recipient. The heart recipient was a middle-aged man with a history of nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Before transplantation ... Although sepsis developed in the heart recipient several hours after transplantation, F. tularensis infection was not ... Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network policies [cited 2018 May 4]. https ... Ciprofloxacin was discontinued 1 day before transplantation and ceftriaxone the day of transplantation. Several hours after ...
Prospective assessment of pre-existing and de novo anti-HLA IgE in kidney, liver, lung and heart transplantation. ... We prospectively measured anti-HLA IgE antibodies in a cohort of kidney (n=60), liver, heart and lung (n=15 each) transplant ... These data demonstrate that anti-HLA IgE antibodies occur at low frequency in kidney, liver, heart and lung transplant ... Antibody mediated rejection (ABMR) is a major factor limiting outcome after organ transplantation. Anti-HLA donor-specific ...
Patient care after heart and kidney transplantation - case report. Andrzej Brzozowski, Andrzej Jaroszyński ...
... NICOLINI, Francesco. Writing - Original Draft ... Alternatives to transplantation in the surgical therapy for heart failure / Nicolini, Francesco; Gherli, Tiziano. - In: ... Alternatives to transplantation in the surgical therapy for heart failure / Nicolini, Francesco; Gherli, Tiziano. - In: ... the gold standard for the treatment of these patients remains heart transplantation. Nevertheless, in consideration of the ...
Role of cardiac transplantation in the management of congestive heart failure. / Baumgartner, William A. In: The American ... Role of cardiac transplantation in the management of congestive heart failure. The American journal of medicine. 1986 Feb 28;80 ... Baumgartner, W. A. (1986). Role of cardiac transplantation in the management of congestive heart failure. The American journal ... Baumgartner, William A. / Role of cardiac transplantation in the management of congestive heart failure. In: The American ...
IL for The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation as a Member Services Administrator ... Looking to make a difference?The International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation is seeking a Member Services ... ISHLT is the worlds largest multidisciplinary organization dedicated to improving the care of patients with advanced heart or ... lung disease through transplantation, mechanical circulatory support and innovative therapies. In this role, youll be ...
American Heart Association Heart Failure and Transplantation Committee of the Council on Clinical Cardiology; Council on ... and metabolic syndrome in chronic heart failure: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2016; ...
... quality treatment for patients undergoing care through the Corrigan Minehan Heart Center. ... Heart transplantation. *Lung transplantation. *Major thoracic aorta procedures. *Procedures to treat adult congenital heart ... We work with clinicians in the Department of Surgery and the Corrigan Minehan Heart Center to recommend the best anesthetic ... We provide comprehensive, quality treatment for patients undergoing care through the Corrigan Minehan Heart Center. ...
Mount Sinai Heart/Cardiology, located in New York City, is a world leader in all facets of cardiology care, cardiovascular ... Heart Failure & Transplantation We treat and manage people who are living with mild, moderate, and advanced congestive heart ... Heart - Cardiology & Cardiovascular Surgery. Heart - Cardiology & Cardiovascular Surgery. "Mount Sinai Heart: Where Youre the ... Heart Health-Prevention We try to target people who are at risk early, rather than treat them for heart disease later on. ...
... is for parents of children and young people undergoing assessment for possible lung or heart-lung transplantation. A transplant ... Survival after lung and heart-lung transplantation. During the early years of the lung and heart-lung transplant programme at ... The British Heart Foundation offers support and advice for anyone with a heart condition. Call their helpline on 0300 330 3311 ... Combined heart-lung transplant - In this operation a patient receives a heart and both lungs. ...
At present the most effective cure for end-stage congestive heart failure is cardiac transplantation. This method is severely ... At present the most effective cure for end-stage congestive heart failure is cardiac transplantation. This method is severely ... The ventricular assist device: a bridge to ventricular recovery, a bridge to heart transplantation or destination therapy?. ... The ventricular assist device: a bridge to ventricular recovery, a bridge to heart transplantation or destination therapy? ...
Twenty-third Official Adult Lung and Heart-Lung Transplantation Report-2006. Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, 25(8), ... Twenty-third Official Adult Lung and Heart-Lung Transplantation Report-2006, Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, vol. ... Twenty-third Official Adult Lung and Heart-Lung Transplantation Report-2006. In: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. ... Twenty-third Official Adult Lung and Heart-Lung Transplantation Report-2006. Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. 2006 ...
Human iPSC-CM grafts survived in infarcted rat hearts and restored myocardial function 4 weeks after transplantation. Cell ... However, the treatment efficacy and the survival of iPSC-CMs in vivo after transplantation have yielded inconsistent results. ... Four weeks after intramyocardial injection of iPSC-CMs, animals undergoing iPSC-CM transplantation had lower mortality than the ... and molecular biology techniques indicated that the grafted cardiomyocytes survived in the rat heart 1 month after iPSC-CM ...
ESKD, Death Risks Are High After Heart Transplantation With Kidney Dysfunction Back to Top * Renal & Urology News publishes ... for up to 200 days after transplantation. Patients receiving lymphocyte-depleting induction immunosuppression were equally ...
  • The Pig Heart Transplant Surgeon on What He Learned Ileana Piña speaks with Bart Griffith about the first porcine-to-human cardiac xenotransplantation and where the field is going. (medscape.com)
  • Systemic disease processes are a contraindication to cardiac transplantation. (medscape.com)
  • Grafts from non-heart-beating donors, called donation-after-cardiac-death (DCD) donors, are being increasingly used because lungs from more suitable donors are lacking. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 60 years and have normal cardiac function and no history of coronary artery disease or other heart disorders. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A number of innovative approaches are being investigated in terms of improved survival and quality of life in patients refractory to medical therapy and excluded from cardiac transplantation lists. (unipr.it)
  • The modern approach to surgical treatment of HF is multidisciplinary, given that the number of alternative available options to heart transplantation requires a close collaboration between both cardiologists and cardiac surgeons in treating patients with end-stage HF who are not candidates for transplant. (unipr.it)
  • Outcomes in patients with cardiac amyloidosis undergoing heart transplantation: the eurotransplant experience. (bibliose.org)
  • Baumgartner, WA 1986, ' Role of cardiac transplantation in the management of congestive heart failure ', The American journal of medicine , vol. 80, no. 2 SUPPL. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • Conservative management with medications and/or lung and cardiac transplantation are therapeutic approaches that can offer quality-of-life improvement. (medscape.com)
  • The FF initially refused cardiac (heart) monitoring and transport to the local hospital, but since his condition did not improve, he eventually consented to ambulance transport. (cdc.gov)
  • En route to the hospital a cardiac monitor showed changes consistent with a heart attack and the FF's blood pressure began to fall. (cdc.gov)
  • The following recommendations are preventive measures recommended by other fire service groups to reduce, among other things, the risk of on-the- job heart attacks and sudden cardiac arrest among fire fighters. (cdc.gov)
  • Dr DeVore, from the first US center to perform an adult heart transplant using an organ donated after circulatory death, explains the differences and similarities with brain-dead donation to Dr Piña. (medscape.com)
  • The recipients have been patients in a marginal clinical state and facing a long projected wait on the heart-recipient queue of the United Network for Organ Sharing ( UNOS ), Dr. Schlendorf said in an interview. (mdedge.com)
  • The Vanderbilt team has so far approached 15 patients in their program wait-listed for hearts about the possibility of accepting an HCV-positive organ, and all 15 have given their consent, she said. (mdedge.com)
  • From 1968 to 1983, Chris Barnard and his team continued to make significant contributions to organ transplantation, notably the development of heterotopic heart transplants. (medicalartsshop.com)
  • This investigation documents F. tularensis transmission by solid organ transplantation. (cdc.gov)
  • Nevertheless, in consideration of the shortage of organ donors, this procedure can be offered only to a small percentage of patients who could benefit from a new heart. (unipr.it)
  • This is the first report of HIV transmission by organ transplantation from a donor screened for HIV antibody. (cdc.gov)
  • Blood transfusion also plays a key role in the management of conditions such as haematological disorders (including leukaemia, haemophilia, thalassaemia), cancer chemotherapy, open heart surgery, and bone marrow and organ transplantation. (who.int)
  • Heart Failure Guidelines Update: What the ESC Got Right Heart failure specialist Dr Ileana Piña discusses what she likes about the 2023 ESC focused update to the heart failure guidelines. (medscape.com)
  • A 2014 guideline from the European Society of Cardiology , a 2017 guideline from the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and Heart Rhythm Society , and a 2020 guideline from the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology all recommend genetic testing for patients meeting diagnostic criteria for HCM. (cdc.gov)
  • The team has also placed hearts from HCV-positive donors into an additional four patients who have not developed HCV infection, for a total of 13 heart transplants performed using hearts that until now have been routinely beyond consideration. (mdedge.com)
  • Nearly all donated lungs are from brain-dead (deceased), heart-beating donors. (msdmanuals.com)
  • There is a limited supply of heart donors, so the criteria are relatively strict. (medicalartsshop.com)
  • The third, who had received the donors heart, did not survive the transplant procedure. (cdc.gov)
  • A cardiologist, cardiothoracic surgeon, trained nursing staff, and pharmacist well trained with titration and side effects of immunosuppressants can significantly improve heart transplantation outcomes. (medicalartsshop.com)
  • It is the last resort for people with heart failure when all other treatments have failed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The heart failure might have been caused by coronary heart disease, damaged heart valves or heart muscles, congenital heart defects, or viral infections of the heart. (medlineplus.gov)
  • SGLT2i in Acute Heart Failure, The Earlier The Better? (medscape.com)
  • Ileana Piña interviews Zachary Cox, PharmD, about the DICTATE-AHF trial on the initiation of the SGLT2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin, early in acute heart failure decompensation. (medscape.com)
  • ACC HFpEF Guidance: What to Know Ileana Piña, MD, MPH, discusses the Expert Consensus Decision Pathway from ACC focused on the definition, diagnosis, and treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. (medscape.com)
  • Defining Heart Failure: EF Slicing and Dicing Ileana L. Piña, MD, MPH, discusses the definition of heart failure based on various ejection fraction ranges and changes. (medscape.com)
  • STRONG-HF: This Is the Science, Let's Get It Done Ileana L. Piña, MD, MPH, discusses the need to implement the findings of STRONG-HF in heart failure clinics across the globe. (medscape.com)
  • AHA 2022 STRONG-HF Strategy for Intense ADHF Discharge Care Explained Alexandre Mebazaa gives Ileana Piña the details on the STRONG-HF trial that showed benefits for early intensive drug therapy after hospitalization for acute decompensated heart failure. (medscape.com)
  • ESC 2022 DELIVERing the Details on Dapagliflozin in Heart Failure Drs Pina and Solomon discuss the DELIVER trial presented at the European Society of Cardiology and whether all patients with heart failure should get SGLT2 inhibitors regardless of ejection fraction. (medscape.com)
  • Key Points From the New Heart Failure Guidelines Dr Ileana Piña discusses the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA heart failure guidelines and how they compare with the European guidelines and recent data on heart failure. (medscape.com)
  • ACC 2022 SODIUM-HF Simplifies Message to Patients on Diet Drs Ileana Piña and Justin Ezekowitz discuss results from the SODIUM-HF trial, which investigated the effects of a pragmatic intervention to reduce dietary sodium intake in patients with heart failure. (medscape.com)
  • Heart transplantation is generally reserved for patients with end-stage chronic heart failure (CHF) who are estimated to have less than 1 year to live without the transplant and who are not candidates for or have not been helped by conventional medical therapy. (medscape.com)
  • Lung or heart-lung transplantation is an option for patients who have respiratory insufficiency or failure and who remain at risk of death despite optimal medical treatment. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This novel trial uses mobile apps to reward or punish heart failure patients for good or poor adherence to treatment regimens. (medscape.com)
  • What Are the Best Surrogates in Heart Failure Trials? (medscape.com)
  • Heart Failure and AF: Where Does Ablation Fit in? (medscape.com)
  • CASTLE-AF and AATAC show that ablation for coexisting AF reduces mortality patients with heart failure. (medscape.com)
  • Halting HF in Patients With Diabetes: Insights From EMPA-REG A substudy of EMPA-REG finds that SGLT2 inhibitors may slow the onset of heart failure. (medscape.com)
  • HF and CKD: Learning With Nephrologists Patients with kidney disease are often excluded from heart failure trials. (medscape.com)
  • Snapshot of the Heart Failure Guideline Focused Update Dr Piña runs through some of the key takeaways from the ACC/AHA/HFSA Focused Update of the guidelines on the management of heart failure. (medscape.com)
  • Digoxin: Clues to a Threshold for This Last-Resort Drug Dr De Ferrari provides details on a substudy of the ARISTOTLE trial that examined digoxin blood levels and mortality in patients with and without heart failure. (medscape.com)
  • Understanding CV Hemodynamics Key in Heart Failure Dr Piña interviews Dr Burkhoff, a physician and biomechanical engineer who developed a software application of cardiovascular physiology and hemodynamics for use in teaching and clinical practice. (medscape.com)
  • TRUE-AHF: Better to Prevent vs Treat Acute Decompensation Dr Pina interviews Dr Packer about his trial on ularitide infusion in patients with acute decompensated heart failure, which was presented at the American Heart Association meeting. (medscape.com)
  • The Stronger Hearts™ Best Practices Award is rewarding community-based programs for innovative heart failure care. (medscape.com)
  • Published in The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, the updated guidelines are a result of a collaboration between the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) Heart Failure and Transplantation, Pediatric and Infectious Disease Councils. (dentalsegria.com)
  • Alternatives to transplantation in the surgical therapy for heart failure. (unipr.it)
  • Despite considerable improvements in the medical treatment of heart failure (HF), the gold standard for the treatment of these patients remains heart transplantation. (unipr.it)
  • Use of milrinone to support therapy-induced heart failure through hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a pediatric patient with high-risk FLT3+ acute myeloid leukemia. (bvsalud.org)
  • Eisenmenger syndrome was initially described in 1897, when Victor Eisenmenger reported on a patient with symptoms of dyspnea and cyanosis from infancy who subsequently developed heart failure and succumbed to massive hemoptysis. (medscape.com)
  • Patients selected for heart transplants have severe end-stage heart failure that is caused by a variety of cardiovascular diseases, hereditary conditions and viral infections of the heart. (who.int)
  • HCM is an inherited heart disorder which results in abnormal thickening of the heart walls (hypertrophy) that can lead to heart failure (HF), atrial fibrillation, and sudden death due to ventricular arrhythmias . (cdc.gov)
  • In our experimental model, rat heart subjected to heterotopic transplantation, low temperature global ischemia (2 h) was followed by an in vivo reperfusion (60 min). (unifi.it)
  • Role of pulmonary function in the detection of allograft dysfunction after heart-lung transplantation. (bmj.com)
  • This radiograph reveals an enlarged right heart and pulmonary artery dilatation in a 24-year-old woman with an unrestricted patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and Eisenmenger syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] After a decline between 1993 and 2004, heart transplant volumes reported to the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantion (ISHLT) Transplant Registry have been steadily increasing, especially in recent years, with more than 6,000 heart transplants performed annually worldwide. (medscape.com)
  • ISHLT is the world's largest multidisciplinary organization dedicated to improving the care of patients with advanced heart or lung disease through transplantation, mechanical circulatory support and innovative therapies. (asaecenter.org)
  • We investigated the effect of 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), an inhibitor of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), against early ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury in heart transplantation. (unifi.it)
  • After the surgery, most heart transplant patients can return to their normal levels of activity. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ileana Piña interviews Paul Kalra about the IRONMAN trial from the American Heart Association which randomized HF patients with iron deficiency to IV ferric derisomaltose repletion or no infusions. (medscape.com)
  • Heart transplantation (HTx) has become the preferred therapy for select patients, with a 1-year survival of almost 90% and a conditional half-life (the time at which 50% of patients who survived the first year are still alive) of 13 years. (medscape.com)
  • DALLAS - The heart transplant team at Vanderbilt University has successfully placed hearts from deceased, hepatitis C virus-positive patients into recipients, and then eradicated the subsequent infection that appeared in most recipients using a standard regimen. (mdedge.com)
  • What is the survival rate for heart transplant patients? (medicalartsshop.com)
  • Approximately 85-90% of heart transplant patients live up to one year after their surgery. (medicalartsshop.com)
  • With improvements in medications suppressing the immune system and preventing all kinds of infection, the survival rate among heart transplant patients has increased. (medicalartsshop.com)
  • Objectives Identifying patients at risk for impaired long-term survival after heart transplantation (HT) remains a clinical challenge. (uni-luebeck.de)
  • Although not yet scientifically proven, evaluation and dental treatment during the pre-transplantation period is recommended in order to prevent infections and resultant odontogenic-origin sepsis during the post-transplant period, when patients receive immunosuppressive therapy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Aim: To evaluate the invasive dental procedures for removing dental foci performed in patients scheduled for liver transplantation and its accompanying complications. (bvsalud.org)
  • This research aimed at evaluating invasive dental procedures for removing dental foci in patients scheduled for liver transplantation along with any accompanying complications. (bvsalud.org)
  • These were forwarded with the donated organs to the various transplantation centers. (cdc.gov)
  • The donor's kidneys, heart, and liver were removed and transported to other medical centers for transplantation. (cdc.gov)
  • Despite the antivirals' cost there are significant cost savings from fewer days in the ICU waiting for heart transplantation and a reduced need for mechanical support as a bridge to transplant, she noted. (mdedge.com)
  • In addition to sudden death, symptoms of HF occur with a lifetime incidence of ~70% in HCM , and approximately 5% of individuals will develop medically refractory HF that leads to premature death or the need for advanced HF therapies such as heart transplantation or a surgically implanted mechanical heart pump (left ventricular assist device, or LVAD). (cdc.gov)
  • Based on her analysis of UNOS data, "upwards of 100" and perhaps as many as 300 additional donor hearts could be available annually for U.S. transplants if the organs weren't excluded because of HCV infection. (mdedge.com)
  • Rarely, living adult (usually parent-to-child) lobar transplantation is done when deceased-donor organs are unavailable. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Overview of Congenital Cardiovascular Anomalies Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital anomaly, occurring in almost 1% of live births ( 1). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Among birth defects, congenital heart disease is the leading cause of infant mortality. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A Society that Includes Basic Science, the Failing Heart and Advanced Lung Disease. (ishlt.org)
  • Posteroanterior and lateral chest radiographs: Used to screen for other thoracic pathologies that may preclude transplantation. (medscape.com)
  • to generate guarded optimism that heart transplantation would eventually become a viable therapeutic option. (medicalartsshop.com)
  • The transplantation teams were notified of the test result, but the heart, liver, and one kidney had already been transplanted. (cdc.gov)
  • Future therapies for HF could include stem cell therapy, associated with standard revascularization techniques or with other procedures such as ventricular assist devices implantation or ventricular restoration techniques, allowing the potential differentiation of implanted stem cells in a resting and unloaded heart. (unipr.it)
  • Because of the poor condition of their heart, most heart transplantation candidates are excluded from other surgical options. (medscape.com)
  • It is a surgical transplant procedure to replace a failing heart with a healthier donor heart. (medicalartsshop.com)
  • Dalle Ave et al (2016) provide a valuable overview of several protocols for heart transplantation after circulatory death. (bmj.com)
  • the exception is chronic diffuse infection (eg, bronchiectasis), for which double lung transplantation is best. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The heart recipient remained seronegative with negative blood cultures but had been receiving antimicrobial drugs for a medical device infection before transplant. (cdc.gov)
  • An organization of more than 3000 professionals dedicated to advancing the field of transplantation. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • Is heart transplantation after circulatory death compatible with the dead donor rule? (bmj.com)
  • However, their analysis of the compatibility of heart donation after circulatory death (DCD) with the dead donor rule (DDR) is flawed. (bmj.com)
  • AHA 2022 Meds and Community Over Mindfulness for Most Hypertension Catch up on blood pressure presentations from the 2022 American Heart Association meeting, including ones on mindfulness, community approaches, and a comparison of hydrochlorothiazide and chlorthalidone. (medscape.com)
  • Cor pulmonale often reverses after lung transplantation alone and is therefore rarely an indication for heart-lung transplantation. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Although heart transplant surgery is a life-saving measure, it has many risks. (medlineplus.gov)
  • How long does a heart transplantation surgery take? (medicalartsshop.com)
  • A heart transplant surgery procedure takes approximately four hours. (medicalartsshop.com)
  • The society represents approximately 1,800 professionals dedicated to excellence in transplantation surgery. (atcmeetingabstracts.com)
  • Chaired by Dr. Mandeep R. Mehra, professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, and medical director of the Heart and Vascular Center at Brigham and Women's Hospital - both in Boston, MA - the revised guidelines for heart transplantation candidacy address some of the issues that have arisen since such guidelines were first put in place in 2006. (dentalsegria.com)
  • Transplantation is often used to treat end-stage kidney disease. (who.int)
  • Donor and recipient must have compatible ABO blood types, and appropriate heart size is critical. (msdmanuals.com)
  • During the procedure, the patient is aided by a heart-lung machine for blood circulation throughout the body. (medicalartsshop.com)
  • A blood specimen collected 10 weeks after transplantation was positive for HIV antibody by EIA, and a specimen collected 1 week later was positive by both EIA and Western blot assay. (cdc.gov)