Abnormalities in any part of the HEART SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communication between the left and the right chambers of the heart. The abnormal blood flow inside the heart may be caused by defects in the ATRIAL SEPTUM, the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM, or both.
Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two lower chambers of the heart. Classification of ventricular septal defects is based on location of the communication, such as perimembranous, inlet, outlet (infundibular), central muscular, marginal muscular, or apical muscular defect.
Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
A CATHETER-delivered implant used for closing abnormal holes in the cardiovascular system, especially HEART SEPTAL DEFECTS; or passageways intentionally made during cardiovascular surgical procedures.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
Surgery performed on the heart.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.
A developmental abnormality in which the spiral (aortopulmonary) septum failed to completely divide the TRUNCUS ARTERIOSUS into ASCENDING AORTA and PULMONARY ARTERY. This abnormal communication between the two major vessels usually lies above their respective valves (AORTIC VALVE; PULMONARY VALVE).
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
Use of a balloon CATHETER to block the flow of blood through an artery or vein.
A congenital cardiovascular malformation in which the AORTA arises entirely from the RIGHT VENTRICLE, and the PULMONARY ARTERY arises from the LEFT VENTRICLE. Consequently, the pulmonary and the systemic circulations are parallel and not sequential, so that the venous return from the peripheral circulation is re-circulated by the right ventricle via aorta to the systemic circulation without being oxygenated in the lungs. This is a potentially lethal form of heart disease in newborns and infants.
The thin membrane-like muscular structure separating the right and the left upper chambers (HEART ATRIA) of a heart.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
A combination of congenital heart defects consisting of four key features including VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECTS; PULMONARY STENOSIS; RIGHT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY; and a dextro-positioned AORTA. In this condition, blood from both ventricles (oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor) is pumped into the body often causing CYANOSIS.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.
The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.
A congenital heart defect characterized by the narrowing or complete absence of the opening between the RIGHT VENTRICLE and the PULMONARY ARTERY. Lacking a normal PULMONARY VALVE, unoxygenated blood in the right ventricle can not be effectively pumped into the lung for oxygenation. Clinical features include rapid breathing, CYANOSIS, right ventricle atrophy, and abnormal heart sounds (HEART MURMURS).
General or unspecified injuries to the heart.
Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.
Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.
'Abnormalities, Multiple' is a broad term referring to the presence of two or more structural or functional anomalies in an individual, which may be genetic or environmental in origin, and can affect various systems and organs of the body.
Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
The pathologic narrowing of the orifice of the PULMONARY VALVE. This lesion restricts blood outflow from the RIGHT VENTRICLE to the PULMONARY ARTERY. When the trileaflet valve is fused into an imperforate membrane, the blockage is complete.
A spectrum of septal defects involving the ATRIAL SEPTUM; VENTRICULAR SEPTUM; and the atrioventricular valves (TRICUSPID VALVE; BICUSPID VALVE). These defects are due to incomplete growth and fusion of the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS which are important in the formation of two atrioventricular canals, site of future atrioventricular valves.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A localized bulging or dilatation in the muscle wall of a heart (MYOCARDIUM), usually in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Blood-filled aneurysms are dangerous because they may burst. Fibrous aneurysms interfere with the heart function through the loss of contractility. True aneurysm is bound by the vessel wall or cardiac wall. False aneurysms are HEMATOMA caused by myocardial rupture.
The valve consisting of three cusps situated between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.
A pathological constriction occurring in the region below the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.
A birth defect characterized by the narrowing of the AORTA that can be of varying degree and at any point from the transverse arch to the iliac bifurcation. Aortic coarctation causes arterial HYPERTENSION before the point of narrowing and arterial HYPOTENSION beyond the narrowed portion.
Narrowing below the PULMONARY VALVE or well below it in the infundibuluar chamber where the pulmonary artery originates, usually caused by a defective VENTRICULAR SEPTUM or presence of fibrous tissues. It is characterized by restricted blood outflow from the RIGHT VENTRICLE into the PULMONARY ARTERY, exertional fatigue, DYSPNEA, and chest discomfort.
Laceration or tearing of the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM, usually caused by MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
A congenital anomaly caused by the failed development of TRUNCUS ARTERIOSUS into separate AORTA and PULMONARY ARTERY. It is characterized by a single arterial trunk that forms the outlet for both HEART VENTRICLES and gives rise to the systemic, pulmonary, and coronary arteries. It is always accompanied by a ventricular septal defect.
Radiography of the heart and great vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Surgery performed on the heart or blood vessels.
Incomplete transposition of the great vessels in which both the AORTA and the PULMONARY ARTERY arise from the RIGHT VENTRICLE. The only outlet of the LEFT VENTRICLE is a large ventricular septal defect (VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECTS or VSD). The various subtypes are classified by the location of the septal defect, such as subaortic, subpulmonary, or noncommitted.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A congenital heart defect characterized by downward or apical displacement of the TRICUSPID VALVE, usually with the septal and posterior leaflets being attached to the wall of the RIGHT VENTRICLE. It is characterized by a huge RIGHT ATRIUM and a small and less effective right ventricle.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
A bluish or purplish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to an increase in the amount of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood or a structural defect in the hemoglobin molecule.
Echocardiography amplified by the addition of depth to the conventional two-dimensional ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY visualizing only the length and width of the heart. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging was first described in 1961 but its application to echocardiography did not take place until 1974. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.
Heart sounds caused by vibrations resulting from the flow of blood through the heart. Heart murmurs can be examined by HEART AUSCULTATION, and analyzed by their intensity (6 grades), duration, timing (systolic, diastolic, or continuous), location, transmission, and quality (musical, vibratory, blowing, etc).
Congenital, inherited, or acquired anomalies of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, including the HEART and BLOOD VESSELS.
The muscular structure separating the right and the left lower chambers (HEART VENTRICLES) of the heart. The ventricular septum consists of a very small membranous portion just beneath the AORTIC VALVE, and a large thick muscular portion consisting of three sections including the inlet septum, the trabecular septum, and the outlet septum.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A valve situated at the entrance to the pulmonary trunk from the right ventricle.
Backflow of blood from the RIGHT VENTRICLE into the RIGHT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the TRICUSPID VALVE.
Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Motion pictures of the passage of contrast medium through blood vessels.
A condition associated with VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT and other congenital heart defects that allow the mixing of pulmonary and systemic circulation, increase blood flow into the lung, and subsequent responses to low oxygen in blood. This complex is characterized by progressive PULMONARY HYPERTENSION; HYPERTROPHY of the RIGHT VENTRICLE; CYANOSIS; and ERYTHROCYTOSIS.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
A congenital abnormality in which organs in the THORAX and the ABDOMEN are opposite to their normal positions (situs solitus) due to lateral transposition. Normally the STOMACH and SPLEEN are on the left, LIVER on the right, the three-lobed right lung is on the right, and the two-lobed left lung on the left. Situs inversus has a familial pattern and has been associated with a number of genes related to microtubule-associated proteins.
A congenital defect in which the heart is located on the right side of the THORAX instead of on the left side (levocardia, the normal position). When dextrocardia is accompanied with inverted HEART ATRIA, a right-sided STOMACH, and a left-sided LIVER, the combination is called dextrocardia with SITUS INVERSUS. Dextrocardia may adversely affect other thoracic organs.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
A condition caused by underdevelopment of the whole left half of the heart. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the left cardiac chambers (HEART ATRIUM; HEART VENTRICLE), the AORTA, the AORTIC VALVE, and the MITRAL VALVE. Severe symptoms appear in early infancy when DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS closes.
The venous trunk which returns blood from the head, neck, upper extremities and chest.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.
Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).
Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.
Malformations of CORONARY VESSELS, either arteries or veins. Included are anomalous origins of coronary arteries; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; CORONARY ANEURYSM; MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING; and others.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Graphic registration of the heart sounds picked up as vibrations and transformed by a piezoelectric crystal microphone into a varying electrical output according to the stresses imposed by the sound waves. The electrical output is amplified by a stethograph amplifier and recorded by a device incorporated into the electrocardiograph or by a multichannel recording machine.
The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.
The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.
A spontaneous diminution or abatement of a disease over time, without formal treatment.
The dilatation of the aortic wall behind each of the cusps of the aortic valve.
Act of listening for sounds within the heart.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A characteristic symptom complex.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.
Dynamic three-dimensional echocardiography using the added dimension of time to impart the cinematic perception of motion. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)
The protrusion of an organ or part of an organ into a natural or artificial orifice.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Abnormal thoracoabdominal VISCERA arrangement (visceral heterotaxy) or malformation that involves additional CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS (e.g., heart isomerism; DEXTROCARDIA) and/or abnormal SPLEEN (e.g., asplenia and polysplenia). Irregularities with the central nervous system, the skeleton and urinary tract are often associated with the syndrome.
The downward displacement of the cuspal or pointed end of the trileaflet AORTIC VALVE causing misalignment of the cusps. Severe valve distortion can cause leakage and allow the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to aortic regurgitation.
Laceration or tearing of cardiac tissues appearing after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.
A clinically recognized malformation condition caused by a distal 11q deletion. The features of the syndrome are growth retardation, psychomotor retardation, trigonocephaly, divergent intermittent strabismus, epicanthus, telecanthus, broad nasal bridge, short nose with anteverted nostrils, carp-shaped upper lip, retrognathia, low-set dysmorphic ears, bilateral camptodactyly, and hammertoes. Most patients have a THROMBOCYTOPENIA and platelet dysfunction known also as Paris-Trousseau type thrombocytopenia.
Backflow of blood from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the LEFT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the MITRAL VALVE. This can lead to mitral valve regurgitation.
Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.
Nonexpendable apparatus used during surgical procedures. They are differentiated from SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS, usually hand-held and used in the immediate operative field.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Occlusion of the outflow tract in either the LEFT VENTRICLE or the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This may result from CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS, predisposing heart diseases, complications of surgery, or HEART NEOPLASMS.
Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. Some species are pathogenic for man.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
Surgical incision into the chest wall.
Pathological condition characterized by the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to regurgitation. It is caused by diseases of the AORTIC VALVE or its surrounding tissue (aortic root).
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
The period following a surgical operation.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the UPPER EXTREMITY.
Making an incision in the STERNUM.
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.
A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
Penetrating wounds caused by a pointed object.
Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).
A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
A flexible, tubular device that is used to carry fluids into or from a blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity.
Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.
A condition of substandard growth or diminished capacity to maintain normal function.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the heart on a plane of the body surface delineated as a vector function of time.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
Impaired impulse conduction from HEART ATRIA to HEART VENTRICLES. AV block can mean delayed or completely blocked impulse conduction.
A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.
Congenital structural abnormalities and deformities of the musculoskeletal system.
The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A condition in which the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION, and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the right ventricular wall.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the LOWER EXTREMITY.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.
Heart murmurs which are systolic in timing. They occur between the first and the second HEART SOUNDS, between the closure of MITRAL VALVE and TRICUSPID VALVE and the closure of semilunar aortic and pulmonary valves. Systolic murmurs include ejection murmurs and regurgitant murmurs.
Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.
A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.
Congenital syndrome characterized by a wide spectrum of characteristics including the absence of the THYMUS and PARATHYROID GLANDS resulting in T-cell immunodeficiency, HYPOCALCEMIA, defects in the outflow tract of the heart, and craniofacial anomalies.
A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.
A malformation of the heart in which the embryonic common PULMONARY VEIN was not incorporated into the LEFT ATRIUM leaving behind a perforated fibromuscular membrane bisecting the left atrium, a three-atrium heart. The opening between the two left atrium sections determines the degree of obstruction to pulmonary venous return, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
A type of constriction that is caused by the presence of a fibrous ring (discrete type) below the AORTIC VALVE, anywhere between the aortic valve and the MITRAL VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.
ENDOCARDIUM infection that is usually caused by STREPTOCOCCUS. Subacute infective endocarditis evolves over weeks and months with modest toxicity and rare metastatic infection.
The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.
Blockage of an artery due to passage of a clot (THROMBUS) from a systemic vein to a systemic artery without its passing through the lung which acts as a filter to remove blood clots from entering the arterial circulation. Paradoxical embolism occurs when there is a defect that allows a clot to cross directly from the right to the left side of the heart as in the cases of ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECTS or open FORAMEN OVALE. Once in the arterial circulation, a clot can travel to the brain, block an artery, and cause a STROKE.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A fetal heart structure that is the bulging areas in the cardiac septum between the HEART ATRIA and the HEART VENTRICLES. During development, growth and fusion of endocardial cushions at midline forms the two atrioventricular canals, the sites for future TRICUSPID VALVE and BICUSPID VALVE.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.
Absence of the orifice between the RIGHT ATRIUM and RIGHT VENTRICLE, with the presence of an atrial defect through which all the systemic venous return reaches the left heart. As a result, there is left ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR) because the right ventricle is absent or not functional.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A pumping mechanism that duplicates the output, rate, and blood pressure of the natural heart. It may replace the function of the entire heart or a portion of it, and may be an intracorporeal, extracorporeal, or paracorporeal heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Abnormal communication between two ARTERIES that may result from injury or occur as a congenital abnormality.
Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.
The act of constricting.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.

Transcatheter closure of patent foramen ovale using the Amplatzer septal occluder to prevent recurrence of neurological decompression illness in divers. (1/891)

OBJECTIVE: Large flap valve patent foramens may cause paradoxical thromboembolism and neurological decompression illness in divers. The ability of a self expanding Nitinol wire mesh device (Amplatzer septal occluder) to produce complete closure of the patent foramen ovale was assessed. PATIENTS: Seven adults, aged 18-60 years, who had experienced neurological decompression illness related to diving. Six appeared to have a normal atrial septum on transthoracic echocardiography, while one was found to have an aneurysm of the interatrial septum. METHODS: Right atrial angiography was performed to delineate the morphology of the right to left shunt. The defects were sized bidirectionally with a precalibrated balloon filled with dilute contrast. The largest balloon diameter that could be repeatedly passed across the septum was used to select the occlusion device diameter. Devices were introduced through 7 F long sheaths. All patients underwent transthoracic contrast echocardiography one month after the implant. RESULTS: Device placement was successful in all patients. Device sizes ranged from 9-14 mm. The patient with an aneurysm of the interatrial septum had three defects, which were closed with two devices. Right atrial angiography showed complete immediate closure in all patients. Median (range) fluoroscopy time was 13.7 (6-35) minutes. Follow up contrast echocardiography showed no right to left shunting in six of seven patients and the passage of a few bubbles in one patient. All patients have been allowed to return to diving. CONCLUSION: The Amplatzer septal occluder can close the large flap valve patent foramen ovale in divers who have experienced neurological decompression illness. Interatrial septal aneurysms with multiple defects may require more than one device.  (+info)

Animal experimental implantation of an atrial septal defect occluder system. (2/891)

OBJECTIVE: To establish the implantation technique for the atrial septal defect occluder system (ASDOS) device in an experimental animal model and to determine long term mechanical stability of the device and its in vivo properties in terms of biocompatibility and tissue reaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An atrial septal defect was created and the device implanted in 17 pigs (mean weight 30 kg). The implantation technique was refined and modified because of initial technical and anatomical complications during nine acute pilot studies. The technique proved to be feasible in eight subsequent survival studies. Four pigs were electively killed three months after implantation (group 1). The remaining four pigs were killed six months after implantation (group 2). RESULTS: Necropsy showed all devices were embedded in soft tissue three months after implantation. Microscopic examination of atrial septal tissue showed an acute granulomatous inflammatory reaction in group 1 and fibrosis in group 2. The intensity of the inflammatory reaction around the device was clearly milder in group 2, indicating a decline in the inflammatory response with time. Clinical and biochemical investigations indicated acceptable biocompatibility of the device. CONCLUSION: The implantation technique for the ASDOS device in a chronic pig model has been established. Biocompatibility of the device was acceptable.  (+info)

Prenatal features of ductus arteriosus constriction and restrictive foramen ovale in d-transposition of the great arteries. (3/891)

BACKGROUND: Although most neonates with d-transposition of the great arteries (TGA) have an uncomplicated preoperative course, some with a restrictive foramen ovale (FO), ductus arteriosus (DA) constriction, or pulmonary hypertension may be severely hypoxemic and even die shortly after birth. Our goal was to determine whether prenatal echocardiography can identify these high-risk fetuses with TGA. METHODS AND RESULTS: We reviewed the prenatal and postnatal echocardiograms and outcomes of 16 fetuses with TGA/intact ventricular septum or small ventricular septal defect. Of the 16 fetuses, 6 prenatally had an abnormal FO (fixed position, flat, and/or redundant septum primum). Five of the 6 had restrictive FO at birth. Five fetuses had DA narrowing at the pulmonary artery end in utero, and 6 had a small DA (diameter z score of <-2.0). Of 4 fetuses with the most diminutive DA, 2 also had an abnormal appearance of the FO, and both died immediately after birth. One other fetus had persistent pulmonary hypertension. Eight fetuses had abnormal Doppler flow pattern in the DA (continuous high-velocity flow, n=1; retrograde diastolic flow, n=7). CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal features of the FO, DA, or both are present in fetuses with TGA at high risk for postnatal hypoxemia. These features may result from the abnormal intrauterine hemodynamics in TGA. A combination of restrictive FO and DA constriction in TGA may be associated with early neonatal death.  (+info)

Biventricular repair approach in ducto-dependent neonates with hypoplastic but morphologically normal left ventricle. (4/891)

OBJECTIVES: Increased afterload and multilevel LV obstruction is constant. We assumed that restoration of normal loading conditions by relief of LV obstructions promotes its growth, provided that part of the cardiac output was preoperatively supported by the LV, whatever the echocardiographic indexes. BACKGROUND: Whether to perform uni- or biventricular repair in ducto dependent neonates with hypoplastic but morphologically normal LV (hypoplastic left heart syndrome classes II & III) remains unanswered. Echocardiographic criteria have been proposed for surgical decision. METHODS: Twenty ducto dependent neonates presented with this anomaly. All had aortic coarctation associated to multilevel LV obstruction. Preoperative echocardiographic assessment showed: mean EDLW of 12.4 +/- 3.03 ml/m2 and mean Rhodes score of -1.73 +/-0.8. Surgery consisted in relief of LV outflow tract obstruction by coarctation repair in all associated to aortic commissurotomy in one and ASD closure in 2. RESULTS: There were 3 early and 2 late deaths. Failure of biventricular repair and LV growth was obvious in patients with severe anatomic mitral stenosis. The other demonstrated growth of the left heart. At hospital discharge the EDLVV was 19.4+/-3.12 ml/m2 (p = 0.0001) and the Rhodes score was -0.38+/-1.01 (p = 0.0003). Actuarial survival and freedom from reoperation rates at 5 years were 72.5% and 46%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Biventricular repair can be proposed to ducto dependent neonates with hypoplastic but morphologically normal LV provided that all anatomical causes of LV obstruction can be relieved. Secondary growth of the left heart then occurs; however, the reoperation rate is high.  (+info)

Atrial arrhythmia after surgical closure of atrial septal defects in adults. (5/891)

BACKGROUND: Atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation are causes of morbidity in adults with an atrial septal defect. In this study, we attempted to identify risk factors for atrial flutter and fibrillation both before and after the surgical closure of an atrial septal defect. METHODS: We searched for preoperative and postoperative atrial flutter or fibrillation in 213 adult patients (82 men and 131 women) who underwent surgical closure of atrial septal defects because of symptoms, a substantial left-to-right shunt (ratio of pulmonary to systemic blood flow, >1.5:1), or both at Toronto Hospital between 1986 and 1997. RESULTS: Forty patients (19 percent) had sustained atrial flutter or fibrillation before surgery. As compared with the patients who did not have atrial flutter or fibrillation before surgery, those who did were older (59+/-11 vs. 37+/-13 years, P<0.001) and had higher mean pulmonary arterial pressures (25.0+/-9.7 vs. 19.7+/-8.2 mm Hg, P=0.001). There were no perioperative deaths. After a mean follow-up period of 3.8+/-2.5 years, 24 of the 40 patients (60 percent) continued to have atrial flutter or fibrillation. The mean age of these patients was greater than that of the 16 who converted to sinus rhythm (P=0.02). New-onset atrial flutter or atrial fibrillation was more likely to have developed at follow-up in patients who were older than 40 years at the time of surgery than in those who were 40 or younger (5 of 67 vs. 0 of 106, P=0.008). Late events (those occurring more than one month after surgery) included stroke in six patients (all but one with atrial flutter or fibrillation, one of whom died) and death from noncardiac causes in two patients. Multivariate analysis showed that older age (>40 years) at the time of surgery (P=0.001), the presence of preoperative atrial flutter or fibrillation (P<0.001), and the presence of postoperative atrial flutter or fibrillation or junctional rhythm (P=0.02) were predictive of late postoperative atrial flutter or fibrillation. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of atrial flutter or atrial fibrillation in adults with atrial septal defects is related to the age at the time of surgical repair and the pulmonary arterial pressure. To reduce the morbidity associated with atrial flutter and fibrillation, the timely closure of atrial septal defects is warranted.  (+info)

Cardiac function and morphology studied by two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography in unsedated newborn pigs. (6/891)

The newborn pig is currently the most used species in animal neonatal research. Valid non-invasive monitoring is important in particular for long-term survival of unsedated animals. In the unsedated newborn pig (n = 35, median age 24 h, range 7-48 h) we standardized two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography and determined the normal ranges for cardiac function. Probe positioning had to be adjusted to the V-shaped thorax and the mid-line position of the heart. Six out of the sixteen animals < 20 h had a patent ductus arteriosus compared with one of the twenty animals > 20 h old. One atrial septal defect (5 mm) and one small ventricular septal defect were diagnosed. The average heart size was 0.7-0.9% of body weight which is similar to human infants of the same size. The mean aortic diameter was 6.0 +/- 0.5 mm (mean +/- S.D.) and cardiac output was 0.38 +/- 0.08 l min-1; both correlate with body weight (r = 0.80 and 0.73, respectively). Tricuspid regurgitation velocity was 3.0 +/- 0.4 m s-1 (mean +/- S.D.), giving an estimated pressure gradient across the tricuspid valve of 37 +/- 9.7 mmHg. The aortic diameter and the heart weight per kg body weight are comparable to those reported for preterm neonates. The cardiac output and velocities across the four valves are more comparable with term neonates.  (+info)

Contrast transcranial Doppler ultrasound in the detection of right-to-left shunts. Reproducibility, comparison of 2 agents, and distribution of microemboli. (7/891)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cardiac right-to-left shunts can be identified by transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) with the use of different contrast agents and by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Systematic data are available on neither the reproducibility of contrast TCD, the comparison of different contrast agents, nor the comparison of simultaneous bilateral to unilateral recordings. Furthermore, we assessed the side distribution of thus provoked artificial cardiac emboli. METHODS: Fifty-four patients were investigated by TEE and by bilateral TCD of the middle cerebral artery. The following protocol was performed twice: injection of 9 mL of agitated saline without Valsalva maneuver, injection of 9 mL of agitated saline with Valsalva maneuver, injection of 5 mL of a commercial galactose-based contrast agent without Valsalva maneuver, and injection of 5 mL of the galactose-based contrast agent with Valsalva maneuver. RESULTS: In 18 patients, a right-to-left shunt was demonstrated by TEE and contrast TCD (shunt positive). Twenty-nine patients were negative in both investigations, 1 was positive on TEE and negative on TCD, and 6 patients were only positive on TCD. Both bilateral and repeated recordings increased the sensitivity of contrast TCD. There was a symmetrical distribution of microembolic signals in the right and left middle cerebral artery. CONCLUSIONS: TCD performed twice and with the use of saline or a galactose-based contrast agent is a sensitive method in the identification of cardiac right-to-left shunts also identified by TEE. The cardiac microemboli in this study did not show any side preference for one of the middle cerebral arteries.  (+info)

The mammalian Tolloid-like 1 gene, Tll1, is necessary for normal septation and positioning of the heart. (8/891)

Mammalian Tolloid-like 1 (mTLL-1) is an astacin-like metalloprotease, highly similar in domain structure to the morphogenetically important proteases bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP-1) and Drosophila Tolloid. To investigate possible roles for mTLL-1 in mammalian development, we have used gene targeting in ES cells to produce mice with a disrupted allele for the corresponding gene, Tll1. Homozygous mutants were embryonic lethal, with death at mid-gestation from cardiac failure and a unique constellation of developmental defects that were apparently confined solely to the heart. Constant features were incomplete formation of the muscular interventricular septum and an abnormal and novel positioning of the heart and aorta. Consistent with roles in cardiac development, Tll1 expression was specific to precardiac tissue and endocardium in 7.5 and 8.5 days p.c. embryos, respectively. Tll1 expression was also high in the developing interventricular septum, where expression of the BMP-1 gene, Bmp1, was not observed. Cardiac structures that were not affected in Tll1-/- embryos either showed no Tll1 expression (atrio-ventricular cushions) or showed overlapping expression of Tll1 and Bmp1 (aortico-pulmonary septum), suggesting that products of the Bmp1 gene may be capable of functionally substituting for mTLL-1 at sites in which they are co-expressed. Together, the various data show that mTLL-1 plays multiple roles in formation of the mammalian heart and is essential for formation of the interventricular septum.  (+info)

A heart septal defect is a type of congenital heart defect, which means it is present at birth. It involves an abnormal opening in the septum, the wall that separates the two sides of the heart. This opening allows oxygen-rich blood to leak into the oxygen-poor blood chambers in the heart.

There are several types of heart septal defects, including:

1. Atrial Septal Defect (ASD): A hole in the atrial septum, the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart (the right and left atria).
2. Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD): A hole in the ventricular septum, the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart (the right and left ventricles).
3. Atrioventricular Septal Defect (AVSD): A combination of an ASD and a VSD, often accompanied by malformation of the mitral and/or tricuspid valves.

The severity of a heart septal defect depends on the size of the opening and its location in the septum. Small defects may cause no symptoms and may close on their own over time. Larger defects can lead to complications, such as heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, or infective endocarditis, and may require medical or surgical intervention.

A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a type of congenital heart defect that involves a hole in the wall separating the two lower chambers of the heart, the ventricles. This defect allows oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to mix with deoxygenated blood in the right ventricle, leading to inefficient oxygenation of the body's tissues. The size and location of the hole can vary, and symptoms may range from none to severe, depending on the size of the defect and the amount of blood that is able to shunt between the ventricles. Small VSDs may close on their own over time, while larger defects usually require medical intervention, such as medication or surgery, to prevent complications like pulmonary hypertension and heart failure.

Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a type of congenital heart defect that involves the septum, which is the wall that separates the two upper chambers of the heart (atria). An ASD is a hole or abnormal opening in the atrial septum, allowing oxygen-rich blood to leak into the oxygen-poor blood chambers in the heart. This leads to an overload of blood in the right side of the heart, which can cause enlargement of the heart and increased work for the right ventricle.

ASDs can vary in size, and small defects may not cause any symptoms or require treatment. Larger defects, however, can result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and heart rhythm abnormalities. Over time, if left untreated, ASDs can lead to complications like pulmonary hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and stroke.

Treatment for ASD typically involves surgical closure of the defect or catheter-based procedures using devices to close the hole. The choice of treatment depends on factors such as the size and location of the defect, the patient's age and overall health, and the presence of any coexisting conditions.

In medical terms, the heart is a muscular organ located in the thoracic cavity that functions as a pump to circulate blood throughout the body. It's responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes. The human heart is divided into four chambers: two atria on the top and two ventricles on the bottom. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs, while the left side receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it out to the rest of the body. The heart's rhythmic contractions and relaxations are regulated by a complex electrical conduction system.

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are structural abnormalities in the heart that are present at birth. They can affect any part of the heart's structure, including the walls of the heart, the valves inside the heart, and the major blood vessels that lead to and from the heart.

Congenital heart defects can range from mild to severe and can cause various symptoms depending on the type and severity of the defect. Some common symptoms of CHDs include cyanosis (a bluish tint to the skin, lips, and fingernails), shortness of breath, fatigue, poor feeding, and slow growth in infants and children.

There are many different types of congenital heart defects, including:

1. Septal defects: These are holes in the walls that separate the four chambers of the heart. The two most common septal defects are atrial septal defect (ASD) and ventricular septal defect (VSD).
2. Valve abnormalities: These include narrowed or leaky valves, which can affect blood flow through the heart.
3. Obstruction defects: These occur when blood flow is blocked or restricted due to narrowing or absence of a part of the heart's structure. Examples include pulmonary stenosis and coarctation of the aorta.
4. Cyanotic heart defects: These cause a lack of oxygen in the blood, leading to cyanosis. Examples include tetralogy of Fallot and transposition of the great arteries.

The causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetic factors and environmental influences during pregnancy may play a role. Some CHDs can be detected before birth through prenatal testing, while others may not be diagnosed until after birth or later in childhood. Treatment for CHDs may include medication, surgery, or other interventions to improve blood flow and oxygenation of the body's tissues.

A septal occluder device is a type of medical implant used to close defects or holes in the heart, specifically within the septum, which is the wall that separates the two sides of the heart. The device typically consists of two disc-shaped components connected by a waist, resembling a button or an umbrella.

The procedure for implanting a septal occluder device involves inserting it through a catheter, which is introduced into a vein in the leg and guided to the heart. Once in position, the discs of the device expand and are pressed against the septum on both sides of the hole, effectively closing it. Over time, tissue grows over the device, permanently sealing the defect.

Septal occluder devices are commonly used to treat atrial septal defects (ASD) and patent foramen ovale (PFO), which are two types of congenital heart defects that can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and heart palpitations. The use of these devices has revolutionized the treatment of these conditions, allowing for less invasive procedures and faster recovery times compared to traditional surgical methods.

Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, often expressed as beats per minute (bpm). It can vary significantly depending on factors such as age, physical fitness, emotions, and overall health status. A resting heart rate between 60-100 bpm is generally considered normal for adults, but athletes and individuals with high levels of physical fitness may have a resting heart rate below 60 bpm due to their enhanced cardiovascular efficiency. Monitoring heart rate can provide valuable insights into an individual's health status, exercise intensity, and response to various treatments or interventions.

The heart septum is the thick, muscular wall that divides the right and left sides of the heart. It consists of two main parts: the atrial septum, which separates the right and left atria (the upper chambers of the heart), and the ventricular septum, which separates the right and left ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). A normal heart septum ensures that oxygen-rich blood from the lungs does not mix with oxygen-poor blood from the body. Any defect or abnormality in the heart septum is called a septal defect, which can lead to various congenital heart diseases.

Cardiac catheterization is a medical procedure used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions. In this procedure, a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and threaded up to the heart. The catheter can be used to perform various diagnostic tests, such as measuring the pressure inside the heart chambers and assessing the function of the heart valves.

Cardiac catheterization can also be used to treat certain cardiovascular conditions, such as narrowed or blocked arteries. In these cases, a balloon or stent may be inserted through the catheter to open up the blood vessel and improve blood flow. This procedure is known as angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Cardiac catheterization is typically performed in a hospital cardiac catheterization laboratory by a team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, radiologists, and nurses. The procedure may be done under local anesthesia with sedation or general anesthesia, depending on the individual patient's needs and preferences.

Overall, cardiac catheterization is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of various heart conditions, and it can help improve symptoms, reduce complications, and prolong life for many patients.

Cardiac surgical procedures are operations that are performed on the heart or great vessels (the aorta and vena cava) by cardiothoracic surgeons. These surgeries are often complex and require a high level of skill and expertise. Some common reasons for cardiac surgical procedures include:

1. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): This is a surgery to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with coronary artery disease. During the procedure, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is used to create a detour around the blocked or narrowed portion of the coronary artery.
2. Valve repair or replacement: The heart has four valves that control blood flow through and out of the heart. If one or more of these valves become damaged or diseased, they may need to be repaired or replaced. This can be done using artificial valves or valves from animal or human donors.
3. Aneurysm repair: An aneurysm is a weakened area in the wall of an artery that can bulge out and potentially rupture. If an aneurysm occurs in the aorta, it may require surgical repair to prevent rupture.
4. Heart transplantation: In some cases, heart failure may be so severe that a heart transplant is necessary. This involves removing the diseased heart and replacing it with a healthy donor heart.
5. Arrhythmia surgery: Certain types of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) may require surgical treatment. One such procedure is called the Maze procedure, which involves creating a pattern of scar tissue in the heart to disrupt the abnormal electrical signals that cause the arrhythmia.
6. Congenital heart defect repair: Some people are born with structural problems in their hearts that require surgical correction. These may include holes between the chambers of the heart or abnormal blood vessels.

Cardiac surgical procedures carry risks, including bleeding, infection, stroke, and death. However, for many patients, these surgeries can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity.

Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a type of echocardiogram, which is a medical test that uses sound waves to create detailed images of the heart. In TEE, a special probe containing a transducer is passed down the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach) to obtain views of the heart from behind. This allows for more detailed images of the heart structures and function compared to a standard echocardiogram, which uses a probe placed on the chest. TEE is often used in patients with poor image quality from a standard echocardiogram or when more detailed images are needed to diagnose or monitor certain heart conditions. It is typically performed by a trained cardiologist or sonographer under the direction of a cardiologist.

An aortopulmonary septal defect, also known as a congenital heart defect, is a type of ventricular septal defect (VSD). It is a hole in the wall that separates the two lower chambers of the heart - the left and right ventricles. In an aortopulmonary septal defect, the hole is located in the part of the ventricular septum that is next to the pulmonary valve and the aortic valve. This defect allows oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to mix with deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle, resulting in inefficient oxygenation of the blood and increased workload on the heart.

The severity of an aortopulmonary septal defect can vary depending on the size of the hole and the presence of other cardiac abnormalities. Symptoms may include difficulty breathing, poor feeding, and failure to thrive in infants. If left untreated, this condition can lead to serious complications such as heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and infective endocarditis. Treatment typically involves surgical closure of the defect, which is usually performed during the first year of life.

Echocardiography is a medical procedure that uses sound waves to produce detailed images of the heart's structure, function, and motion. It is a non-invasive test that can help diagnose various heart conditions, such as valve problems, heart muscle damage, blood clots, and congenital heart defects.

During an echocardiogram, a transducer (a device that sends and receives sound waves) is placed on the chest or passed through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart. The sound waves produced by the transducer bounce off the heart structures and return to the transducer, which then converts them into electrical signals that are processed to create images of the heart.

There are several types of echocardiograms, including:

* Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE): This is the most common type of echocardiogram and involves placing the transducer on the chest.
* Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE): This type of echocardiogram involves passing a specialized transducer through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart from a closer proximity.
* Stress echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram is performed during exercise or medication-induced stress to assess how the heart functions under stress.
* Doppler echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram uses sound waves to measure blood flow and velocity in the heart and blood vessels.

Echocardiography is a valuable tool for diagnosing and managing various heart conditions, as it provides detailed information about the structure and function of the heart. It is generally safe, non-invasive, and painless, making it a popular choice for doctors and patients alike.

Balloon occlusion is a medical procedure that involves the use of a small, deflated balloon at the end of a catheter, which can be inserted into a blood vessel or other tubular structure in the body. Once the balloon is in position, it is inflated with a fluid or gas to create a blockage or obstruction in the vessel. This can be used for various medical purposes, such as:

1. Controlling bleeding: By inflating the balloon in a blood vessel, doctors can temporarily stop the flow of blood to a specific area, allowing them to treat injuries or abnormalities that are causing excessive bleeding.
2. Vessel narrowing or blockage assessment: Balloon occlusion can be used to assess the severity of narrowing or blockages in blood vessels. By inflating the balloon and measuring the pressure differences upstream and downstream, doctors can determine the extent of the obstruction and plan appropriate treatment.
3. Embolization therapy: In some cases, balloon occlusion is used to deliver embolic agents (such as coils, particles, or glue) that block off blood flow to specific areas. This can be useful in treating conditions like tumors, arteriovenous malformations, or aneurysms.
4. Temporary vessel occlusion during surgery: During certain surgical procedures, it may be necessary to temporarily stop the flow of blood to a specific area. Balloon occlusion can be used to achieve this quickly and safely.
5. Assisting in the placement of stents or other devices: Balloon occlusion can help position and deploy stents or other medical devices by providing temporary support or blocking off blood flow during the procedure.

It is important to note that balloon occlusion procedures carry potential risks, such as vessel injury, infection, or embolism (the blockage of a blood vessel by a clot or foreign material). These risks should be carefully weighed against the benefits when considering this type of treatment.

Transposition of the Great Vessels is a congenital heart defect in which the two main vessels that carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body are switched in position. Normally, the aorta arises from the left ventricle and carries oxygenated blood to the body, while the pulmonary artery arises from the right ventricle and carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs. In transposition of the great vessels, the aorta arises from the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery arises from the left ventricle. This results in oxygen-poor blood being pumped to the body and oxygen-rich blood being recirculated back to the lungs, which can lead to serious health problems and is often fatal if not corrected through surgery soon after birth.

The atrial septum is the wall of tissue that divides the right and left atria, which are the upper chambers of the heart. This septum ensures that oxygen-rich blood in the left atrium is kept separate from oxygen-poor blood in the right atrium. Defects or abnormalities in the atrial septum, such as a hole or a gap, can result in various heart conditions, including septal defects and congenital heart diseases.

Prostheses: Artificial substitutes or replacements for missing body parts, such as limbs, eyes, or teeth. They are designed to restore the function, appearance, or mobility of the lost part. Prosthetic devices can be categorized into several types, including:

1. External prostheses: Devices that are attached to the outside of the body, like artificial arms, legs, hands, and feet. These may be further classified into:
a. Cosmetic or aesthetic prostheses: Primarily designed to improve the appearance of the affected area.
b. Functional prostheses: Designed to help restore the functionality and mobility of the lost limb.
2. Internal prostheses: Implanted artificial parts that replace missing internal organs, bones, or tissues, such as heart valves, hip joints, or intraocular lenses.

Implants: Medical devices or substances that are intentionally placed inside the body to replace or support a missing or damaged biological structure, deliver medication, monitor physiological functions, or enhance bodily functions. Examples of implants include:

1. Orthopedic implants: Devices used to replace or reinforce damaged bones, joints, or cartilage, such as knee or hip replacements.
2. Cardiovascular implants: Devices that help support or regulate heart function, like pacemakers, defibrillators, and artificial heart valves.
3. Dental implants: Artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to support dental prostheses, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures.
4. Neurological implants: Devices used to stimulate nerves, brain structures, or spinal cord tissues to treat various neurological conditions, like deep brain stimulators for Parkinson's disease or cochlear implants for hearing loss.
5. Ophthalmic implants: Artificial lenses that are placed inside the eye to replace a damaged or removed natural lens, such as intraocular lenses used in cataract surgery.

Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital heart defect that consists of four components: ventricular septal defect (a hole between the lower chambers of the heart), pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary valve and outflow tract), overriding aorta (the aorta lies directly over the ventricular septal defect), and right ventricular hypertrophy (thickening of the right ventricular muscle). This condition results in insufficient oxygenation of the blood, leading to cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes) and other symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and poor growth. Treatment typically involves surgical repair, which is usually performed during infancy or early childhood.

Heart failure is a pathophysiological state in which the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to meet the metabolic demands of the body or do so only at the expense of elevated filling pressures. It can be caused by various cardiac disorders, including coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. Heart failure is often classified based on the ejection fraction (EF), which is the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle during each contraction. A reduced EF (less than 40%) is indicative of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), while a preserved EF (greater than or equal to 50%) is indicative of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). There is also a category of heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) for those with an EF between 40-49%.

Echocardiography, Doppler, color is a type of ultrasound test that uses sound waves to create detailed moving images of the heart and its blood vessels. In this technique, color Doppler is used to visualize the direction and speed of blood flow through the heart and great vessels. The movement of the red blood cells causes a change in frequency of the reflected sound waves (Doppler shift), which can be used to calculate the velocity and direction of the blood flow. By adding color to the Doppler image, it becomes easier for the interpreting physician to understand the complex three-dimensional motion of blood through the heart. This test is often used to diagnose and monitor various heart conditions, including valve disorders, congenital heart defects, and cardiac muscle diseases.

The fetal heart is the cardiovascular organ that develops in the growing fetus during pregnancy. It starts to form around 22 days after conception and continues to develop throughout the first trimester. By the end of the eighth week of gestation, the fetal heart has developed enough to pump blood throughout the body.

The fetal heart is similar in structure to the adult heart but has some differences. It is smaller and more compact, with a four-chambered structure that includes two atria and two ventricles. The fetal heart also has unique features such as the foramen ovale, which is a hole between the right and left atria that allows blood to bypass the lungs, and the ductus arteriosus, a blood vessel that connects the pulmonary artery to the aorta and diverts blood away from the lungs.

The fetal heart is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood from the placenta to the rest of the body and returning deoxygenated blood back to the placenta for re-oxygenation. The rate of the fetal heartbeat is faster than that of an adult, typically ranging from 120 to 160 beats per minute. Fetal heart rate monitoring is a common method used during pregnancy and childbirth to assess the health and well-being of the developing fetus.

Pulmonary atresia is a congenital heart defect where the pulmonary valve, which controls blood flow from the right ventricle to the lungs, doesn't form properly and instead of being open, there is a membranous obstruction or atresia. This results in an absence of communication between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.

The right ventricle is often small and underdeveloped due to this condition, and blood flow to the lungs can be severely limited. In some cases, there may be additional heart defects present, such as a ventricular septal defect (a hole between the two lower chambers of the heart) or patent ductus arteriosus (an abnormal connection between the pulmonary artery and the aorta).

Pulmonary atresia can range from mild to severe, and treatment options depend on the specific anatomy and physiology of each individual case. Treatment may include medications, catheter-based procedures, or open-heart surgery, and in some cases, a heart transplant may be necessary.

Heart injuries, also known as cardiac injuries, refer to any damage or harm caused to the heart muscle, valves, or surrounding structures. This can result from various causes such as blunt trauma (e.g., car accidents, falls), penetrating trauma (e.g., gunshot wounds, stabbing), or medical conditions like heart attacks (myocardial infarction) and infections (e.g., myocarditis, endocarditis).

Some common types of heart injuries include:

1. Contusions: Bruising of the heart muscle due to blunt trauma.
2. Myocardial infarctions: Damage to the heart muscle caused by insufficient blood supply, often due to blocked coronary arteries.
3. Cardiac rupture: A rare but life-threatening condition where the heart muscle tears or breaks open, usually resulting from severe trauma or complications from a myocardial infarction.
4. Valvular damage: Disruption of the heart valves' function due to injury or infection, leading to leakage (regurgitation) or narrowing (stenosis).
5. Pericardial injuries: Damage to the pericardium, the sac surrounding the heart, which can result in fluid accumulation (pericardial effusion), inflammation (pericarditis), or tamponade (compression of the heart by excess fluid).
6. Arrhythmias: Irregular heart rhythms caused by damage to the heart's electrical conduction system.

Timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial for managing heart injuries, as they can lead to severe complications or even be fatal if left untreated.

Heart disease is a broad term for a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. It's often used to refer to conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease. It occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become hardened and narrowed due to the buildup of cholesterol and other substances, which can lead to chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or a heart attack.

2. Heart failure: This condition occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.

3. Arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms, which can be too fast, too slow, or irregular. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, and fainting.

4. Valvular heart disease: This involves damage to one or more of the heart's four valves, which control blood flow through the heart. Damage can be caused by various conditions, including infection, rheumatic fever, and aging.

5. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, viral infections, and drug abuse.

6. Pericardial disease: This involves inflammation or other problems with the sac surrounding the heart (pericardium). It can cause chest pain and other symptoms.

7. Congenital heart defects: These are heart conditions that are present at birth, such as a hole in the heart or abnormal blood vessels. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.

8. Heart infections: The heart can become infected by bacteria, viruses, or parasites, leading to various symptoms and complications.

It's important to note that many factors can contribute to the development of heart disease, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions. Regular check-ups and a healthy lifestyle can help reduce the risk of developing heart disease.

Heart valves are specialized structures in the heart that ensure unidirectional flow of blood through its chambers during the cardiac cycle. There are four heart valves: the tricuspid valve and the mitral (bicuspid) valve, located between the atria and ventricles, and the pulmonic (pulmonary) valve and aortic valve, located between the ventricles and the major blood vessels leaving the heart.

The heart valves are composed of thin flaps of tissue called leaflets or cusps, which are supported by a fibrous ring. The aortic and pulmonic valves have three cusps each, while the tricuspid and mitral valves have three and two cusps, respectively.

The heart valves open and close in response to pressure differences across them, allowing blood to flow forward into the ventricles during diastole (filling phase) and preventing backflow of blood into the atria during systole (contraction phase). A properly functioning heart valve ensures efficient pumping of blood by the heart and maintains normal blood circulation throughout the body.

'Abnormalities, Multiple' is a broad term that refers to the presence of two or more structural or functional anomalies in an individual. These abnormalities can be present at birth (congenital) or can develop later in life (acquired). They can affect various organs and systems of the body and can vary greatly in severity and impact on a person's health and well-being.

Multiple abnormalities can occur due to genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. Chromosomal abnormalities, gene mutations, exposure to teratogens (substances that cause birth defects), and maternal infections during pregnancy are some of the common causes of multiple congenital abnormalities.

Examples of multiple congenital abnormalities include Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, and VATER/VACTERL association. Acquired multiple abnormalities can result from conditions such as trauma, infection, degenerative diseases, or cancer.

The medical evaluation and management of individuals with multiple abnormalities depend on the specific abnormalities present and their impact on the individual's health and functioning. A multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals is often involved in the care of these individuals to address their complex needs.

Prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure where an artificial device or component, known as a prosthesis, is placed inside the body to replace a missing or damaged body part. The prosthesis can be made from various materials such as metal, plastic, or ceramic and is designed to perform the same function as the original body part.

The implantation procedure involves making an incision in the skin to create a pocket where the prosthesis will be placed. The prosthesis is then carefully positioned and secured in place using screws, cement, or other fixation methods. In some cases, tissue from the patient's own body may be used to help anchor the prosthesis.

Once the prosthesis is in place, the incision is closed with sutures or staples, and the area is bandaged. The patient will typically need to undergo rehabilitation and physical therapy to learn how to use the new prosthesis and regain mobility and strength.

Prosthesis implantation is commonly performed for a variety of reasons, including joint replacement due to arthritis or injury, dental implants to replace missing teeth, and breast reconstruction after mastectomy. The specific procedure and recovery time will depend on the type and location of the prosthesis being implanted.

The heart atria are the upper chambers of the heart that receive blood from the veins and deliver it to the lower chambers, or ventricles. There are two atria in the heart: the right atrium receives oxygen-poor blood from the body and pumps it into the right ventricle, which then sends it to the lungs to be oxygenated; and the left atrium receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs and pumps it into the left ventricle, which then sends it out to the rest of the body. The atria contract before the ventricles during each heartbeat, helping to fill the ventricles with blood and prepare them for contraction.

Pulmonary Valve Stenosis is a cardiac condition where the pulmonary valve, located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery, has a narrowed opening. This stenosis (narrowing) can cause obstruction of blood flow from the right ventricle to the lungs. The narrowing can be caused by a fusion of the valve leaflets, thickened or calcified valve leaflets, or rarely, a dysplastic valve.

The severity of Pulmonary Valve Stenosis is classified based on the gradient pressure across the valve, which is measured during an echocardiogram. A mild stenosis has a gradient of less than 30 mmHg, moderate stenosis has a gradient between 30-59 mmHg, and severe stenosis has a gradient of 60 mmHg or higher.

Mild Pulmonary Valve Stenosis may not require treatment, while more severe cases may need to be treated with balloon valvuloplasty or surgical valve replacement. If left untreated, Pulmonary Valve Stenosis can lead to right ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, and other complications.

An endocardial cushion defect is a type of congenital heart defect that affects the development of the heart's septum and valves. The endocardial cushions are a pair of tissue formations in the developing heart that eventually become part of the atrial and ventricular septums (the walls that divide the right and left chambers of the heart) as well as the tricuspid and mitral valves (which control blood flow between the chambers).

Endocardial cushion defects occur when these tissues fail to fuse properly during fetal development, resulting in abnormal openings or malformations of the septum and/or valves. This can lead to various heart-related symptoms and complications, such as:

* A hole between the right and left atria (atrial septal defect) or ventricles (ventricular septal defect)
* Improper functioning of the tricuspid or mitral valve, leading to leakage or regurgitation of blood
* Increased risk of infection in the heart (endocarditis) due to abnormal blood flow patterns

Endocardial cushion defects can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention, such as surgery or medication, to correct. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, fatigue, poor feeding, and slow growth in infants and children. In some cases, endocardial cushion defects may not cause any noticeable symptoms until later in life.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

A heart aneurysm, also known as a ventricular aneurysm, is a localized bulging or ballooning of the heart muscle in the left ventricle, which is the main pumping chamber of the heart. This condition typically occurs following a myocardial infarction (heart attack), where blood flow to a portion of the heart muscle is blocked, leading to tissue death and weakness in the heart wall. As a result, the weakened area may stretch and form a sac-like bulge or aneurysm.

Heart aneurysms can vary in size and may cause complications such as blood clots, arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats), or heart failure. In some cases, they may be asymptomatic and discovered during routine imaging tests. The diagnosis of a heart aneurysm is typically made through echocardiography, cardiac MRI, or cardiac CT scans. Treatment options depend on the size, location, and symptoms of the aneurysm and may include medications, surgical repair, or implantation of a device to support heart function.

The tricuspid valve is the heart valve that separates the right atrium and the right ventricle in the human heart. It is called "tricuspid" because it has three leaflets or cusps, which are also referred to as flaps or segments. These cusps are named anterior, posterior, and septal. The tricuspid valve's function is to prevent the backflow of blood from the ventricle into the atrium during systole, ensuring unidirectional flow of blood through the heart.

The pulmonary artery is a large blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation. It divides into two main branches, the right and left pulmonary arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels called arterioles, and then into a vast network of capillaries in the lungs where gas exchange occurs. The thin walls of these capillaries allow oxygen to diffuse into the blood and carbon dioxide to diffuse out, making the blood oxygen-rich before it is pumped back to the left side of the heart through the pulmonary veins. This process is crucial for maintaining proper oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs.

Heart block is a cardiac condition characterized by the interruption of electrical impulse transmission from the atria (the upper chambers of the heart) to the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). This disruption can lead to abnormal heart rhythms, including bradycardia (a slower-than-normal heart rate), and in severe cases, can cause the heart to stop beating altogether. Heart block is typically caused by damage to the heart's electrical conduction system due to various factors such as aging, heart disease, or certain medications.

There are three types of heart block: first-degree, second-degree, and third-degree (also known as complete heart block). Each type has distinct electrocardiogram (ECG) findings and symptoms. Treatment for heart block depends on the severity of the condition and may include monitoring, medication, or implantation of a pacemaker to regulate the heart's electrical activity.

Aortic stenosis, subvalvular is a medical condition that refers to the narrowing or obstruction of the outflow tract below the aortic valve in the heart. This abnormal narrowing can be caused by various factors such as a congenital heart defect, a tissue growth, or scarring from previous procedures. As a result, the left ventricle must work harder to pump blood through the narrowed opening, which can lead to thickening of the heart muscle (hypertrophy) and decreased cardiac output. Symptoms may include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, and dizziness or fainting spells. Severe subvalvular aortic stenosis can lead to serious complications such as heart failure or even sudden death, and may require surgical intervention to correct the problem.

Aortic coarctation is a narrowing of the aorta, the largest blood vessel in the body that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. This condition usually occurs in the part of the aorta that is just beyond where it arises from the left ventricle and before it divides into the iliac arteries.

In aortic coarctation, the narrowing can vary from mild to severe, and it can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the severity of the narrowing and the age of the individual. In newborns and infants with severe coarctation, symptoms may include difficulty breathing, poor feeding, and weak or absent femoral pulses (located in the groin area). Older children and adults with mild to moderate coarctation may not experience any symptoms until later in life, when high blood pressure, headaches, nosebleeds, leg cramps, or heart failure develop.

Aortic coarctation is typically diagnosed through physical examination, imaging tests such as echocardiography, CT angiography, or MRI, and sometimes cardiac catheterization. Treatment options include surgical repair or balloon dilation (also known as balloon angioplasty) to open the narrowed section of the aorta. If left untreated, aortic coarctation can lead to serious complications such as high blood pressure, heart failure, stroke, and rupture or dissection of the aorta.

Pulmonary subvalvular stenosis is a rare cardiac condition that refers to the narrowing or obstruction of the pulmonary valve or the outflow tract below it, within the right ventricle of the heart. This results in restricted blood flow from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery and subsequently to the lungs.

The narrowing can be caused by various factors such as a membranous shelf-like structure (dysplasia), a fibrous ring, or a tunnel-like narrowing of the outflow tract (tunneling). The severity of the stenosis may vary from mild to severe, and symptoms can range from shortness of breath, fatigue, and chest pain to more serious complications like heart failure or arrhythmias.

Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests such as echocardiography, cardiac MRI, or cardiac catheterization. Treatment options depend on the severity of the stenosis and may include monitoring, medications, or invasive procedures such as balloon dilation or surgical repair.

Ventricular Septal Rupture (VSR) is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when there is a hole or tear in the ventricular septum, which is the muscular wall that separates the left and right ventricles of the heart. This separation is crucial for maintaining the proper flow of blood through the heart and lungs.

In VSR, blood from the high-pressure left ventricle flows into the low-pressure right ventricle through the abnormal opening, causing a mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. As a result, the body may not receive enough oxygen-rich blood to meet its needs, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid buildup in the lungs and other parts of the body.

Ventricular septal rupture is most commonly seen as a complication of acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), where the muscle tissue of the ventricular septum becomes necrotic and weakened, leading to the formation of a hole or tear. Other causes of VSR include congenital heart defects, trauma, and certain infections such as endocarditis.

Treatment for VSR typically involves surgical repair of the defect, often using a patch or other materials to close the opening. In some cases, medication may be used to help manage symptoms and improve cardiac function while awaiting surgery. The prognosis for patients with VSR depends on various factors, including the size and location of the rupture, the patient's overall health and age, and the timeliness and success of treatment.

Persistent Truncus Arteriosus is a rare congenital heart defect that is characterized by the failure of the truncus arteriosus to divide into the separate pulmonary artery and aorta during fetal development. This results in a single large vessel, the truncus arteriosus, which gives rise to both the systemic and pulmonary circulations.

The truncus arteriosus contains a single semilunar valve, instead of the two separate semilunar valves (pulmonary and aortic) found in a normal heart. Additionally, there is often a ventricular septal defect (VSD), a hole in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart, present.

This condition leads to mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood within the truncus arteriosus, resulting in cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes) and decreased oxygen delivery to the body. Symptoms typically appear soon after birth and may include difficulty breathing, poor feeding, rapid heart rate, and failure to thrive.

Persistent truncus arteriosus is usually treated with surgical repair in infancy or early childhood to separate the pulmonary and systemic circulations, close the VSD, and reconstruct the great vessels as needed.

Angiocardiography is a medical procedure used to examine the heart and blood vessels, particularly the chambers of the heart and the valves between them. It involves injecting a contrast agent into the bloodstream and taking X-ray images as the agent flows through the heart. This allows doctors to visualize any abnormalities such as blockages, narrowing, or leakage in the heart valves or blood vessels.

There are different types of angiocardiography, including:

* Left heart catheterization (LHC): A thin tube called a catheter is inserted into a vein in the arm or groin and threaded through to the left side of the heart to measure pressure and oxygen levels.
* Right heart catheterization (RHC): Similar to LHC, but the catheter is threaded through to the right side of the heart to measure pressure and oxygen levels there.
* Selective angiocardiography: A catheter is used to inject the contrast agent into specific blood vessels or chambers of the heart to get a more detailed view.

Angiocardiography can help diagnose and evaluate various heart conditions, including congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, and valvular heart disease. It is an invasive procedure that carries some risks, such as bleeding, infection, and damage to blood vessels or heart tissue. However, it can provide valuable information for diagnosing and treating heart conditions.

Heart transplantation is a surgical procedure where a diseased, damaged, or failing heart is removed and replaced with a healthy donor heart. This procedure is usually considered as a last resort for patients with end-stage heart failure or severe coronary artery disease who have not responded to other treatments. The donor heart typically comes from a brain-dead individual whose family has agreed to donate their loved one's organs for transplantation. Heart transplantation is a complex and highly specialized procedure that requires a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, anesthesiologists, perfusionists, nurses, and other support staff. The success rates for heart transplantation have improved significantly over the past few decades, with many patients experiencing improved quality of life and increased survival rates. However, recipients of heart transplants require lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the donor heart, which can increase the risk of infections and other complications.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Cardiovascular surgical procedures refer to a range of surgeries performed on the heart and blood vessels to treat or manage various cardiovascular conditions. These surgeries can be open or minimally invasive, and they aim to correct structural abnormalities, improve blood flow, or replace damaged or diseased parts of the cardiovascular system.

Some common types of cardiovascular surgical procedures include:

1. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): This surgery involves taking a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body and using it to create a detour around a blocked or narrowed coronary artery, improving blood flow to the heart muscle.
2. Heart valve repair or replacement: When one or more heart valves become damaged or diseased, they may not open or close properly, leading to reduced blood flow or leakage of blood backward through the valve. In these cases, surgeons may repair or replace the affected valve with a mechanical or biological prosthetic valve.
3. Aneurysm repair: An aneurysm is a weakened area in the wall of an artery that can bulge and potentially rupture, causing severe bleeding. Surgeons can repair an aneurysm by reinforcing the weakened area with a graft or by replacing the affected section of the blood vessel.
4. Heart transplant: In cases where heart failure is irreversible and all other treatment options have been exhausted, a heart transplant may be necessary. This procedure involves removing the damaged heart and replacing it with a healthy donor heart.
5. Ventricular assist devices (VADs): These are mechanical pumps that can be implanted to help support heart function in patients with advanced heart failure who are not candidates for heart transplants. VADs can help improve blood flow, reduce symptoms, and increase the patient's quality of life.
6. Minimally invasive procedures: Advances in technology have led to the development of several minimally invasive cardiovascular surgical procedures, such as robotic-assisted heart surgery, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). These techniques typically involve smaller incisions, reduced blood loss, shorter hospital stays, and faster recovery times compared to traditional open-heart surgeries.

Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a congenital heart defect in which both great vessels (the aorta and the pulmonary artery) arise from the right ventricle. In a normal heart, the aorta arises from the left ventricle and the pulmonary artery arises from the right ventricle.

In DORV, there is a communication between the two ventricles (a ventricular septal defect), which allows oxygen-rich blood to mix with oxygen-poor blood. The location of this ventricular septal defect and the relationship of the great vessels to each other determine the physiology and the clinical manifestations of DORV.

DORV is a complex congenital heart defect that can range from mild to severe, and it often requires surgical intervention to improve blood flow and oxygenation. The prognosis for individuals with DORV depends on various factors, including the specific type of DORV, associated cardiac anomalies, and the timing and success of treatment.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) is a congenital heart defect in which the ductus arteriosus, a normal fetal blood vessel that connects the pulmonary artery and the aorta, fails to close after birth. The ductus arteriosus allows blood to bypass the lungs while the fetus is still in the womb, but it should close shortly after birth as the newborn begins to breathe and oxygenate their own blood.

If the ductus arteriosus remains open or "patent," it can result in abnormal blood flow between the pulmonary artery and aorta. This can lead to various cardiovascular complications, such as:

1. Pulmonary hypertension (high blood pressure in the lungs)
2. Congestive heart failure
3. Increased risk of respiratory infections

The severity of the symptoms and the need for treatment depend on the size of the PDA and the amount of blood flow that is shunted from the aorta to the pulmonary artery. Small PDAs may close on their own over time, while larger PDAs typically require medical intervention, such as medication or surgical closure.

Hemodynamics is the study of how blood flows through the cardiovascular system, including the heart and the vascular network. It examines various factors that affect blood flow, such as blood volume, viscosity, vessel length and diameter, and pressure differences between different parts of the circulatory system. Hemodynamics also considers the impact of various physiological and pathological conditions on these variables, and how they in turn influence the function of vital organs and systems in the body. It is a critical area of study in fields such as cardiology, anesthesiology, and critical care medicine.

Ebstein anomaly is a congenital heart defect that affects the tricuspid valve, which is the valve between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart. In Ebstein anomaly, the tricuspid valve is abnormally formed and positioned, causing it to leak blood back into the right atrium. This can lead to various symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin). Treatment for Ebstein anomaly may include medication, surgery, or a combination of both. It is important to note that the severity of the condition can vary widely among individuals, and some people with Ebstein anomaly may require more intensive treatment than others.

The heart ventricles are the two lower chambers of the heart that receive blood from the atria and pump it to the lungs or the rest of the body. The right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs, while the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. Both ventricles have thick, muscular walls to generate the pressure necessary to pump blood through the circulatory system.

Cyanosis is a medical term that refers to the bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to an insufficient amount of oxygen in the blood. This occurs when the level of deoxygenated hemoglobin (the form of hemoglobin that has released its oxygen) in the blood is increased, causing a blue or purple tint to appear, especially in the lips, fingertips, and nail beds.

Cyanosis can be central or peripheral. Central cyanosis affects the entire body and results from low levels of oxygen in the arterial blood, often due to heart or lung conditions that impair oxygen exchange. Peripheral cyanosis is localized to the extremities, usually caused by poor circulation or cold exposure, which can lead to sluggish blood flow and slow oxygen uptake in the tissues.

It's important to note that cyanosis may not always be visually apparent, particularly in individuals with darker skin tones. In these cases, other signs of hypoxia (low oxygen levels) should be considered for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) is a type of cardiac ultrasound that uses advanced technologies to create a real-time, detailed 3D image of the heart. This imaging technique provides a more comprehensive view of the heart's structure and function compared to traditional 2D echocardiography. By visualizing the heart from multiple angles, 3DE can help physicians better assess complex cardiac conditions, plan treatments, and monitor their effectiveness.

In a 3DE examination, a transducer (a handheld device that emits and receives sound waves) is placed on the chest to capture ultrasound data. This data is then processed by specialized software to create a 3D model of the heart. The procedure is non-invasive and typically takes less than an hour to complete.

Three-dimensional echocardiography has several clinical applications, including:

1. Evaluation of cardiac morphology and function in congenital heart disease
2. Assessment of valvular structure and function, such as mitral or aortic valve regurgitation or stenosis
3. Guidance during interventional procedures like transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR)
4. Quantification of left ventricular volumes, ejection fraction, and mass
5. Assessment of right ventricular size and function
6. Detection and monitoring of cardiac tumors or other masses
7. Pre-surgical planning for complex heart surgeries

Overall, 3DE offers a more accurate and detailed view of the heart, allowing healthcare providers to make informed decisions about patient care and improve outcomes.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Induced heart arrest, also known as controlled cardiac arrest or planned cardiac arrest, is a deliberate medical intervention where cardiac activity is temporarily stopped through the use of medications or electrical disruption. This procedure is typically carried out during a surgical procedure, such as open-heart surgery, where the heart needs to be stilled to allow surgeons to work on it safely.

The most common method used to induce heart arrest is by administering a medication called potassium chloride, which stops the heart's electrical activity. Alternatively, an electrical shock may be delivered to the heart to achieve the same effect. Once the procedure is complete, the heart can be restarted using various resuscitation techniques, such as defibrillation or medication administration.

It's important to note that induced heart arrest is a carefully monitored and controlled medical procedure carried out by trained healthcare professionals in a hospital setting. It should not be confused with sudden cardiac arrest, which is an unexpected and often unpredictable event that occurs outside of a medical setting.

Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a medical procedure that temporarily takes over the functions of the heart and lungs during major heart surgery. It allows the surgeon to operate on a still, bloodless heart.

During CPB, the patient's blood is circulated outside the body with the help of a heart-lung machine. The machine pumps the blood through a oxygenator, where it is oxygenated and then returned to the body. This bypasses the heart and lungs, hence the name "cardiopulmonary bypass."

CPB involves several components, including a pump, oxygenator, heat exchanger, and tubing. The patient's blood is drained from the heart through cannulas (tubes) and passed through the oxygenator, where it is oxygenated and carbon dioxide is removed. The oxygenated blood is then warmed to body temperature in a heat exchanger before being pumped back into the body.

While on CPB, the patient's heart is stopped with the help of cardioplegia solution, which is infused directly into the coronary arteries. This helps to protect the heart muscle during surgery. The surgeon can then operate on a still and bloodless heart, allowing for more precise surgical repair.

After the surgery is complete, the patient is gradually weaned off CPB, and the heart is restarted with the help of electrical stimulation or medication. The patient's condition is closely monitored during this time to ensure that their heart and lungs are functioning properly.

While CPB has revolutionized heart surgery and allowed for more complex procedures to be performed, it is not without risks. These include bleeding, infection, stroke, kidney damage, and inflammation. However, with advances in technology and technique, the risks associated with CPB have been significantly reduced over time.

A heart murmur is an abnormal sound heard during a heartbeat, which is caused by turbulent blood flow through the heart. It is often described as a blowing, whooshing, or rasping noise. Heart murmurs can be innocent (harmless and not associated with any heart disease) or pathological (indicating an underlying heart condition). They are typically detected during routine physical examinations using a stethoscope. The classification of heart murmurs includes systolic, diastolic, continuous, and functional murmurs, based on the timing and auscultatory location. Various heart conditions, such as valvular disorders, congenital heart defects, or infections, can cause pathological heart murmurs. Further evaluation with diagnostic tests like echocardiography is often required to determine the underlying cause and appropriate treatment.

Cardiovascular abnormalities refer to structural or functional anomalies in the heart or blood vessels. These abnormalities can be present at birth (congenital) or acquired later in life. They can affect the heart's chambers, valves, walls, or blood vessels, leading to various complications such as heart failure, stroke, or even death if left untreated.

Examples of congenital cardiovascular abnormalities include:

1. Septal defects - holes in the walls separating the heart's chambers (atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect)
2. Valvular stenosis or insufficiency - narrowing or leakage of the heart valves
3. Patent ductus arteriosus - a persistent opening between the aorta and pulmonary artery
4. Coarctation of the aorta - narrowing of the aorta
5. Tetralogy of Fallot - a combination of four heart defects, including ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta, pulmonary stenosis, and right ventricular hypertrophy

Examples of acquired cardiovascular abnormalities include:

1. Atherosclerosis - the buildup of plaque in the arteries, leading to narrowing or blockage
2. Cardiomyopathy - disease of the heart muscle, causing it to become enlarged, thickened, or stiffened
3. Hypertension - high blood pressure, which can damage the heart and blood vessels over time
4. Myocardial infarction (heart attack) - damage to the heart muscle due to blocked blood supply
5. Infective endocarditis - infection of the inner lining of the heart chambers and valves

These abnormalities can be diagnosed through various tests, such as echocardiography, electrocardiogram (ECG), stress testing, cardiac catheterization, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options depend on the type and severity of the abnormality and may include medications, medical procedures, or surgery.

The ventricular septum is the thick, muscular wall that separates the left and right ventricles, which are the lower chambers of the heart. Its main function is to prevent the oxygen-rich blood in the left ventricle from mixing with the oxygen-poor blood in the right ventricle.

A congenital heart defect called a ventricular septal defect (VSD) can occur when there is an abnormal opening or hole in the ventricular septum, allowing blood to flow between the two ventricles. This can result in various symptoms and complications, depending on the size of the defect and the amount of blood that passes through it. VSDs are typically diagnosed and treated by pediatric cardiologists or cardiac surgeons.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

The pulmonary valve, also known as the pulmonic valve, is a semilunar valve located at the exit of the right ventricle of the heart and the beginning of the pulmonary artery. It has three cusps or leaflets that prevent the backflow of blood from the pulmonary artery into the right ventricle during ventricular diastole, ensuring unidirectional flow of blood towards the lungs for oxygenation.

Tricuspid valve insufficiency, also known as tricuspid regurgitation, is a cardiac condition in which the tricuspid valve located between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart does not close properly, allowing blood to flow back into the right atrium during contraction of the right ventricle. This results in a portion of the blood being pumped inefficiently, which can lead to volume overload of the right side of the heart and potentially result in symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and fluid retention. The condition can be congenital or acquired, with common causes including dilated cardiomyopathy, infective endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, and trauma.

Fluoroscopy is a type of medical imaging that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the internal structures of the body. A continuous X-ray beam is passed through the body part being examined, and the resulting fluoroscopic images are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the medical professional to view the structure and movement of the internal organs and bones in real time.

Fluoroscopy is often used to guide minimally invasive procedures such as catheterization, stent placement, or joint injections. It can also be used to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, including gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal injuries, and cardiovascular diseases.

It is important to note that fluoroscopy involves exposure to ionizing radiation, and the risks associated with this exposure should be carefully weighed against the benefits of the procedure. Medical professionals are trained to use the lowest possible dose of radiation necessary to obtain the desired diagnostic information.

The myocardium is the middle layer of the heart wall, composed of specialized cardiac muscle cells that are responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. It forms the thickest part of the heart wall and is divided into two sections: the left ventricle, which pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body, and the right ventricle, which pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

The myocardium contains several types of cells, including cardiac muscle fibers, connective tissue, nerves, and blood vessels. The muscle fibers are arranged in a highly organized pattern that allows them to contract in a coordinated manner, generating the force necessary to pump blood through the heart and circulatory system.

Damage to the myocardium can occur due to various factors such as ischemia (reduced blood flow), infection, inflammation, or genetic disorders. This damage can lead to several cardiac conditions, including heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathy.

Cineangiography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the blood flow in the heart and cardiovascular system. It involves the injection of a contrast agent into the bloodstream while X-ray images are taken in quick succession, creating a movie-like sequence that shows the movement of the contrast through the blood vessels and chambers of the heart. This technique is often used to diagnose and evaluate various heart conditions, such as coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, and congenital heart defects.

The procedure typically involves threading a catheter through a blood vessel in the arm or leg and guiding it to the heart. Once in place, the contrast agent is injected, and X-ray images are taken using a specialized X-ray machine called a fluoroscope. The images captured during cineangiography can help doctors identify areas of narrowing or blockage in the coronary arteries, abnormalities in heart valves, and other cardiovascular problems.

Cineangiography is an invasive procedure that carries some risks, such as bleeding, infection, and reactions to the contrast agent. However, it can provide valuable information for diagnosing and treating heart conditions, and may be recommended when other diagnostic tests have been inconclusive.

Eisenmenger Complex is a term used in cardiology to describe a congenital heart defect characterized by the presence of a large ventricular septal defect (a hole in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart) or a patent ductus arteriosus (an abnormal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery and the aorta) along with severe pulmonary hypertension.

In this condition, the high pressure in the pulmonary arteries leads to reversal of blood flow from the lungs to the rest of the body, resulting in cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to lack of oxygen in the blood) and other symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and digital clubbing.

The name "Eisenmenger Complex" comes from the German physician Victor Eisenmenger, who first described the condition in 1897. It is a severe and life-threatening congenital heart defect that typically requires surgical intervention to improve symptoms and prolong survival.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Doppler echocardiography is a type of ultrasound test that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce detailed images of the heart and its blood vessels. It measures the direction and speed of blood flow in the heart and major blood vessels leading to and from the heart. This helps to evaluate various conditions such as valve problems, congenital heart defects, and heart muscle diseases.

In Doppler echocardiography, a small handheld device called a transducer is placed on the chest, which emits sound waves that bounce off the heart and blood vessels. The transducer then picks up the returning echoes, which are processed by a computer to create moving images of the heart.

The Doppler effect is used to measure the speed and direction of blood flow. This occurs when the frequency of the sound waves changes as they bounce off moving objects, such as red blood cells. By analyzing these changes, the ultrasound machine can calculate the velocity and direction of blood flow in different parts of the heart.

Doppler echocardiography is a non-invasive test that does not require any needles or dyes. It is generally safe and painless, although patients may experience some discomfort from the pressure applied by the transducer on the chest. The test usually takes about 30 to 60 minutes to complete.

Pulmonary circulation refers to the process of blood flow through the lungs, where blood picks up oxygen and releases carbon dioxide. This is a vital part of the overall circulatory system, which delivers nutrients and oxygen to the body's cells while removing waste products like carbon dioxide.

In pulmonary circulation, deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation returns to the right atrium of the heart via the superior and inferior vena cava. The blood then moves into the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve and gets pumped into the pulmonary artery when the right ventricle contracts.

The pulmonary artery divides into smaller vessels called arterioles, which further branch into a vast network of tiny capillaries in the lungs. Here, oxygen from the alveoli diffuses into the blood, binding to hemoglobin in red blood cells, while carbon dioxide leaves the blood and is exhaled through the nose or mouth.

The now oxygenated blood collects in venules, which merge to form pulmonary veins. These veins transport the oxygen-rich blood back to the left atrium of the heart, where it enters the systemic circulation once again. This continuous cycle enables the body's cells to receive the necessary oxygen and nutrients for proper functioning while disposing of waste products.

Fetal diseases are medical conditions or abnormalities that affect a fetus during pregnancy. These diseases can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. They can range from mild to severe and may impact various organ systems in the developing fetus. Examples of fetal diseases include congenital heart defects, neural tube defects, chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, and infectious diseases such as toxoplasmosis or rubella. Fetal diseases can be diagnosed through prenatal testing, including ultrasound, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or delivery of the fetus, depending on the nature and severity of the disease.

Situs Inversus is a congenital condition in which the major visceral organs are situated in mirror-image positions to their normal locations. Instead of being on the left side, the heart and its large blood vessels are on the right side, while the liver is on the left side and the lungs are reversed. The stomach, spleen, and pancreas may also be affected. It's important to note that this condition is generally asymptomatic and often goes unnoticed unless there are complications or associated abnormalities.

There are two types of Situs Inversus: total (complete reversal of all organs) and partial (reversal of only some organs). Total Situs Inversus is also sometimes referred to as "mirror-image dextrocardia" because the heart, which is usually on the left side, is located on the right side in a mirrored position.

While Situs Inversus itself does not typically cause health problems, people with this condition may have an increased risk for certain medical conditions, such as congenital heart defects or primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), which can lead to chronic respiratory infections and infertility.

Dextrocardia is a medical condition in which the heart is positioned on the right side of the chest instead of the left side. This is a congenital condition, meaning it is present at birth. In people with dextrocardia, the heart's structure and function are usually normal, but the orientation of the heart within the chest is reversed.

There are two main types of dextrocardia:

1. Dextrocardia without visceral situs inversus: In this type, the heart is on the right side of the chest, but the other organs in the chest and abdomen are in their normal positions. This is a rare condition and can be associated with other congenital heart defects.
2. Dextrocardia with visceral situs inversus: In this type, the heart is on the right side of the chest, and the other organs in the chest and abdomen are mirrored or reversed from their normal positions. This is a less common form of dextrocardia and is often referred to as "situs inversus totalis."

It's important to note that while dextrocardia itself is not a life-threatening condition, people with this condition may have other heart defects or medical issues that require treatment. If you or someone you know has been diagnosed with dextrocardia, it's essential to consult with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and management.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21. It is characterized by intellectual and developmental disabilities, distinctive facial features, and sometimes physical growth delays and health problems. The condition affects approximately one in every 700 babies born in the United States.

Individuals with Down syndrome have varying degrees of cognitive impairment, ranging from mild to moderate or severe. They may also have delayed development, including late walking and talking, and may require additional support and education services throughout their lives.

People with Down syndrome are at increased risk for certain health conditions, such as congenital heart defects, respiratory infections, hearing loss, vision problems, gastrointestinal issues, and thyroid disorders. However, many individuals with Down syndrome live healthy and fulfilling lives with appropriate medical care and support.

The condition is named after John Langdon Down, an English physician who first described the syndrome in 1866.

Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS) is a congenital heart defect in which the left side of the heart is underdeveloped. This includes the mitral valve, left ventricle, aortic valve, and aorta. The left ventricle is too small or absent, and the aorta is narrowed or poorly formed. As a result, blood cannot be adequately pumped to the body. Oxygen-rich blood from the lungs mixes with oxygen-poor blood in the heart, and the body does not receive enough oxygen-rich blood. HLHS is a serious condition that requires immediate medical attention and often surgical intervention.

The superior vena cava is a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the upper half of the body to the right atrium of the heart. It is formed by the union of the left and right brachiocephalic veins (also known as the internal jugular and subclavian veins) near the base of the neck. The superior vena cava runs posteriorly to the sternum and enters the upper right portion of the right atrium, just posterior to the opening of the inferior vena cava. It plays a crucial role in the circulatory system by allowing blood returning from the head, neck, upper limbs, and thorax to bypass the liver before entering the heart.

Prenatal ultrasonography, also known as obstetric ultrasound, is a medical diagnostic procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of the developing fetus, placenta, and amniotic fluid inside the uterus. It is a non-invasive and painless test that is widely used during pregnancy to monitor the growth and development of the fetus, detect any potential abnormalities or complications, and determine the due date.

During the procedure, a transducer (a small handheld device) is placed on the mother's abdomen and moved around to capture images from different angles. The sound waves travel through the mother's body and bounce back off the fetus, producing echoes that are then converted into electrical signals and displayed as images on a screen.

Prenatal ultrasonography can be performed at various stages of pregnancy, including early pregnancy to confirm the pregnancy and detect the number of fetuses, mid-pregnancy to assess the growth and development of the fetus, and late pregnancy to evaluate the position of the fetus and determine if it is head down or breech. It can also be used to guide invasive procedures such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling.

Overall, prenatal ultrasonography is a valuable tool in modern obstetrics that helps ensure the health and well-being of both the mother and the developing fetus.

The mitral valve, also known as the bicuspid valve, is a two-leaflet valve located between the left atrium and left ventricle in the heart. Its function is to ensure unidirectional flow of blood from the left atrium into the left ventricle during the cardiac cycle. The mitral valve consists of two leaflets (anterior and posterior), the chordae tendineae, papillary muscles, and the left atrial and ventricular myocardium. Dysfunction of the mitral valve can lead to various heart conditions such as mitral regurgitation or mitral stenosis.

Heart valve diseases are a group of conditions that affect the function of one or more of the heart's four valves (tricuspid, pulmonic, mitral, and aortic). These valves are responsible for controlling the direction and flow of blood through the heart. Heart valve diseases can cause the valves to become narrowed (stenosis), leaky (regurgitation or insufficiency), or improperly closed (prolapse), leading to disrupted blood flow within the heart and potentially causing symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, and irregular heart rhythms. The causes of heart valve diseases can include congenital defects, age-related degenerative changes, infections, rheumatic heart disease, and high blood pressure. Treatment options may include medications, surgical repair or replacement of the affected valve(s), or transcatheter procedures.

Pulmonary hypertension is a medical condition characterized by increased blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries, which are the blood vessels that carry blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs. This results in higher than normal pressures in the pulmonary circulation and can lead to various symptoms and complications.

Pulmonary hypertension is typically defined as a mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) greater than or equal to 25 mmHg at rest, as measured by right heart catheterization. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies pulmonary hypertension into five groups based on the underlying cause:

1. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH): This group includes idiopathic PAH, heritable PAH, drug-induced PAH, and associated PAH due to conditions such as connective tissue diseases, HIV infection, portal hypertension, congenital heart disease, and schistosomiasis.
2. Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease: This group includes conditions that cause elevated left atrial pressure, such as left ventricular systolic or diastolic dysfunction, valvular heart disease, and congenital cardiovascular shunts.
3. Pulmonary hypertension due to lung diseases and/or hypoxia: This group includes chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), interstitial lung disease, sleep-disordered breathing, alveolar hypoventilation disorders, and high altitude exposure.
4. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH): This group includes persistent obstruction of the pulmonary arteries due to organized thrombi or emboli.
5. Pulmonary hypertension with unclear and/or multifactorial mechanisms: This group includes hematologic disorders, systemic disorders, metabolic disorders, and other conditions that can cause pulmonary hypertension but do not fit into the previous groups.

Symptoms of pulmonary hypertension may include shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, lightheadedness, and syncope (fainting). Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies, and invasive testing such as right heart catheterization. Treatment depends on the underlying cause but may include medications, oxygen therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation, and, in some cases, surgical intervention.

Coronary vessel anomalies refer to abnormalities in the structure, origin, or course of the coronary arteries or veins. These vessels are responsible for delivering oxygenated blood to the heart muscle. Some common types of coronary vessel anomalies include:

1. Anomalous Origin of the Coronary Artery (AOCA): This occurs when one or both of the coronary arteries originate from an abnormal location in the aorta. The left coronary artery may arise from the right sinus of Valsalva, while the right coronary artery may arise from the left sinus of Valsalva. This can lead to ischemia (reduced blood flow) and potentially life-threatening complications such as sudden cardiac death.
2. Coronary Artery Fistula: A fistula is an abnormal connection between a coronary artery and another chamber or vessel in the heart. Blood flows directly from the high-pressure coronary artery into a low-pressure chamber, bypassing the capillaries and leading to a steal phenomenon where oxygenated blood is diverted away from the heart muscle.
3. Coronary Artery Aneurysm: An aneurysm is a localized dilation or bulging of the coronary artery wall. This can lead to complications such as thrombosis (blood clot formation), embolism (blockage caused by a clot that travels to another location), or rupture, which can be life-threatening.
4. Myocardial Bridge: In this condition, a segment of the coronary artery passes between the muscle fibers of the heart, instead of running along its surface. This can cause compression of the artery during systole (contraction) and lead to ischemia.
5. Kawasaki Disease: Although not strictly an anomaly, Kawasaki disease is a pediatric illness that can result in coronary artery aneurysms and other complications if left untreated.

Coronary vessel anomalies may be asymptomatic or present with symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, palpitations, or syncope (fainting). Diagnosis typically involves imaging techniques such as coronary angiography, computed tomography (CT) angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography. Treatment depends on the specific anomaly and may involve medications, percutaneous interventions, or surgical correction.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Phonocardiography is a non-invasive medical procedure that involves the graphical representation and analysis of sounds produced by the heart. It uses a device called a phonocardiograph to record these sounds, which are then displayed as waveforms on a screen. The procedure is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic techniques, such as electrocardiography (ECG), to help diagnose various heart conditions, including valvular heart disease and heart murmurs.

During the procedure, a specialized microphone called a phonendoscope is placed on the chest wall over the area of the heart. The microphone picks up the sounds generated by the heart's movements, such as the closing and opening of the heart valves, and transmits them to the phonocardiograph. The phonocardiograph then converts these sounds into a visual representation, which can be analyzed for any abnormalities or irregularities in the heart's function.

Phonocardiography is a valuable tool for healthcare professionals, as it can provide important insights into the health and functioning of the heart. By analyzing the waveforms produced during phonocardiography, doctors can identify any potential issues with the heart's valves or other structures, which may require further investigation or treatment. Overall, phonocardiography is an essential component of modern cardiac diagnostics, helping to ensure that patients receive accurate and timely diagnoses for their heart conditions.

Cardiac volume refers to the amount of blood contained within the heart chambers at any given point in time. It is a measure of the volume of blood that is being moved by the heart during each cardiac cycle, which includes both systole (contraction) and diastole (relaxation) phases.

There are several types of cardiac volumes that are commonly measured or estimated using medical imaging techniques such as echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These include:

1. End-diastolic volume (EDV): This is the volume of blood in the heart chambers at the end of diastole, when the heart chambers are fully filled with blood.
2. End-systolic volume (ESV): This is the volume of blood in the heart chambers at the end of systole, when the heart chambers have contracted and ejected most of the blood.
3. Stroke volume (SV): This is the difference between the EDV and ESV, and represents the amount of blood that is pumped out of the heart with each beat.
4. Cardiac output (CO): This is the product of the stroke volume and heart rate, and represents the total amount of blood that is pumped by the heart in one minute.

Abnormalities in cardiac volumes can indicate various heart conditions such as heart failure, valvular heart disease, or cardiomyopathy.

Pulmonary veins are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. There are four pulmonary veins in total, two from each lung, and they are the only veins in the body that carry oxygen-rich blood. The oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins is then pumped by the left ventricle to the rest of the body through the aorta. Any blockage or damage to the pulmonary veins can lead to various cardiopulmonary conditions, such as pulmonary hypertension and congestive heart failure.

Myocardial contraction refers to the rhythmic and forceful shortening of heart muscle cells (myocytes) in the myocardium, which is the muscular wall of the heart. This process is initiated by electrical signals generated by the sinoatrial node, causing a wave of depolarization that spreads throughout the heart.

During myocardial contraction, calcium ions flow into the myocytes, triggering the interaction between actin and myosin filaments, which are the contractile proteins in the muscle cells. This interaction causes the myofilaments to slide past each other, resulting in the shortening of the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscle contraction) and ultimately leading to the contraction of the heart muscle.

Myocardial contraction is essential for pumping blood throughout the body and maintaining adequate circulation to vital organs. Any impairment in myocardial contractility can lead to various cardiac disorders, such as heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias.

Iatrogenic disease refers to any condition or illness that is caused, directly or indirectly, by medical treatment or intervention. This can include adverse reactions to medications, infections acquired during hospitalization, complications from surgical procedures, or injuries caused by medical equipment. It's important to note that iatrogenic diseases are unintended and often preventable with proper care and precautions.

Spontaneous remission in a medical context refers to the disappearance or significant improvement of symptoms of a disease or condition without any specific treatment being administered. In other words, it's a situation where the disease resolves on its own, without any apparent cause. While spontaneous remission can occur in various conditions, it is relatively rare and not well understood. It's important to note that just because a remission occurs without treatment doesn't mean that medical care should be avoided, as many conditions can worsen or lead to complications if left untreated.

The Sinus of Valsalva are three pouch-like dilations or outpouchings located at the upper part (root) of the aorta, just above the aortic valve. They are named after Antonio Maria Valsalva, an Italian anatomist and physician. These sinuses are divided into three parts:

1. Right Sinus of Valsalva: It is located to the right of the ascending aorta and usually gives rise to the right coronary artery.
2. Left Sinus of Valsalva: It is situated to the left of the ascending aorta and typically gives rise to the left coronary artery.
3. Non-coronary Sinus of Valsalva: This sinus is located in between the right and left coronary sinuses, and it does not give rise to any coronary arteries.

These sinuses play a crucial role during the cardiac cycle, particularly during ventricular contraction (systole). The pressure difference between the aorta and the ventricles causes the aortic valve cusps to be pushed into these sinuses, preventing the backflow of blood from the aorta into the ventricles.

Anatomical variations in the size and shape of the Sinuses of Valsalva can occur, and certain conditions like congenital heart diseases (e.g., aortic valve stenosis or bicuspid aortic valve) may affect their structure and function. Additionally, aneurysms or ruptures of the sinuses can lead to severe complications, such as cardiac tamponade, endocarditis, or stroke.

Heart auscultation is a medical procedure in which a healthcare professional uses a stethoscope to listen to the sounds produced by the heart. The process involves placing the stethoscope on various locations of the chest wall to hear different areas of the heart.

The sounds heard during auscultation are typically related to the opening and closing of the heart valves, as well as the turbulence created by blood flow through the heart chambers. These sounds can provide important clues about the structure and function of the heart, allowing healthcare professionals to diagnose various cardiovascular conditions such as heart murmurs, valvular disorders, and abnormal heart rhythms.

Heart auscultation is a key component of a physical examination and requires proper training and experience to interpret the findings accurately.

Prosthesis design is a specialized field in medical device technology that involves creating and developing artificial substitutes to replace a missing body part, such as a limb, tooth, eye, or internal organ. The design process typically includes several stages: assessment of the patient's needs, selection of appropriate materials, creation of a prototype, testing and refinement, and final fabrication and fitting of the prosthesis.

The goal of prosthesis design is to create a device that functions as closely as possible to the natural body part it replaces, while also being comfortable, durable, and aesthetically pleasing for the patient. The design process may involve collaboration between medical professionals, engineers, and designers, and may take into account factors such as the patient's age, lifestyle, occupation, and overall health.

Prosthesis design can be highly complex, particularly for advanced devices such as robotic limbs or implantable organs. These devices often require sophisticated sensors, actuators, and control systems to mimic the natural functions of the body part they replace. As a result, prosthesis design is an active area of research and development in the medical field, with ongoing efforts to improve the functionality, comfort, and affordability of these devices for patients.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

A syndrome, in medical terms, is a set of symptoms that collectively indicate or characterize a disease, disorder, or underlying pathological process. It's essentially a collection of signs and/or symptoms that frequently occur together and can suggest a particular cause or condition, even though the exact physiological mechanisms might not be fully understood.

For example, Down syndrome is characterized by specific physical features, cognitive delays, and other developmental issues resulting from an extra copy of chromosome 21. Similarly, metabolic syndromes like diabetes mellitus type 2 involve a group of risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that collectively increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

It's important to note that a syndrome is not a specific diagnosis; rather, it's a pattern of symptoms that can help guide further diagnostic evaluation and management.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

'Alloys' is not a medical term. It is a term used in materials science and engineering to describe a mixture or solid solution composed of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal. The components are typically present in significant amounts (>1% by weight). The properties of alloys, such as their strength, durability, and corrosion resistance, often differ from those of the constituent elements.

While not directly related to medicine, some alloys do have medical applications. For example, certain alloys are used in orthopedic implants, dental restorations, and other medical devices due to their desirable properties such as biocompatibility, strength, and resistance to corrosion.

Four-dimensional echocardiography (4D echo) is a type of ultrasound imaging that captures the movement and function of the heart in three dimensions over time. It uses advanced software to create a real-time 3D image of the heart, allowing cardiologists to visualize and analyze its structure and motion from various angles. This technique provides detailed information about the size, shape, and function of the heart chambers, valves, and surrounding structures, which can help in the diagnosis and management of various heart conditions.

In 4D echo, the fourth dimension refers to time, as it allows for the analysis of motion and change over time. This technique provides more comprehensive information compared to traditional two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography, which only captures a single plane of the heart at a time. Four-dimensional echocardiography is a valuable tool in the field of cardiology, as it can help clinicians make more informed decisions about patient care and treatment planning.

A prolapse is a medical condition where an organ or tissue in the body slips from its normal position and drops down into a lower part of the body. This usually occurs when the muscles and ligaments that support the organ become weak or stretched. The most common types of prolapses include:

* Uterine prolapse: When the uterus slips down into or protrudes out of the vagina.
* Rectal prolapse: When the rectum (the lower end of the colon) slips outside the anus.
* Bladder prolapse (cystocele): When the bladder drops into the vagina.
* Small bowel prolapse (enterocele): When the small intestine bulges into the vagina.

Prolapses can cause various symptoms, such as discomfort, pain, pressure, and difficulty with urination or bowel movements. Treatment options depend on the severity of the prolapse and may include lifestyle changes, physical therapy, medication, or surgery.

Congenital abnormalities, also known as birth defects, are structural or functional anomalies that are present at birth. These abnormalities can develop at any point during fetal development, and they can affect any part of the body. They can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both.

Congenital abnormalities can range from mild to severe and may include structural defects such as heart defects, neural tube defects, and cleft lip and palate, as well as functional defects such as intellectual disabilities and sensory impairments. Some congenital abnormalities may be visible at birth, while others may not become apparent until later in life.

In some cases, congenital abnormalities may be detected through prenatal testing, such as ultrasound or amniocentesis. In other cases, they may not be diagnosed until after the baby is born. Treatment for congenital abnormalities varies depending on the type and severity of the defect, and may include surgery, therapy, medication, or a combination of these approaches.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Heterotaxy syndrome is a rare and complex congenital disorder characterized by the abnormal lateralization or arrangement of internal organs in the chest and abdomen. In this condition, the normal left-right (LR) asymmetry of the thoracic and abdominal organs is disrupted, resulting in either complete or partial reversal of the usual LR orientation. The term "heterotaxy" literally means "different arrangement."

Heterotaxy syndrome can be further classified into two main types:

1. **Ivemark's syndrome** (or left atrial isomerism): In this type, there is a mirror-image reversal of the normal LR organization of the thoracic and abdominal organs. This results in both sides of the body having structures that are typically found on the left side (left atrial isomerism). Common features include:
* Complete heart block or complex congenital heart defects, such as transposition of the great arteries, double outlet right ventricle, and total anomalous pulmonary venous return.
* Bilateral bilobed lungs with a central location of the liver (situs ambiguus).
* Bronchial malformations, including bilateral eparterial bronchi.
* Gastrointestinal tract abnormalities, such as intestinal malrotation and biliary atresia.
* Increased incidence of situs inversus totalis (complete mirror-image reversal of the normal LR arrangement).

2. **Right atrial isomerism** (or asplenia syndrome): In this type, there is a lack of normal LR organization, and both sides of the body have structures that are typically found on the right side (right atrial isomerism). Common features include:
* Complex congenital heart defects, such as single ventricle, double outlet right ventricle, pulmonary stenosis or atresia, and total anomalous pulmonary venous return.
* Absent or multiple spleens (polysplenia) with varying degrees of functional asplenia.
* Bilateral trilobed lungs with a right-sided location of the liver (situs ambiguus).
* Bronchial malformations, including bilateral hyperarterial bronchi.
* Gastrointestinal tract abnormalities, such as intestinal malrotation and biliary atresia.
* Increased incidence of congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

Both situs ambiguus and heterotaxy syndrome are associated with increased morbidity and mortality due to the complex congenital heart defects, gastrointestinal tract abnormalities, and immunological dysfunction in cases of asplenia or hyposplenia. Early diagnosis and management by a multidisciplinary team are crucial for improving outcomes in these patients.

Aortic valve prolapse is a cardiac condition in which the aortic valve leaflets bulge or billow into the left ventricle during systole, the phase of the heart cycle when the ventricles contract to pump blood out of the heart. The aortic valve typically has three leaflets that open and close to regulate the flow of blood between the left ventricle and the aorta. In aortic valve prolapse, one or more of these leaflets become floppy, allowing blood to leak back into the left ventricle, a condition known as aortic regurgitation.

Aortic valve prolapse can be congenital or acquired. Some people are born with abnormalities in the aortic valve that make it more prone to prolapse, while others may develop the condition due to degenerative changes in the valve tissue over time. Certain factors, such as Marfan syndrome, bicuspid aortic valve, and infective endocarditis, can increase the risk of aortic valve prolapse.

The symptoms of aortic valve prolapse can vary depending on the severity of the condition. Mild cases may not cause any noticeable symptoms, while more severe cases can lead to shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, and irregular heart rhythms. Treatment for aortic valve prolapse may include monitoring, medication, or surgical repair or replacement of the aortic valve.

Post-infarction heart rupture is a serious and potentially fatal complication that can occur after a myocardial infarction (heart attack). It is defined as the disruption or tearing of the heart muscle (myocardium) in the area that was damaged by the heart attack. This condition typically occurs within 1 to 7 days following a heart attack, and it's more common in elderly patients and those with large infarctions.

There are three main types of post-infarction heart rupture:

1. Ventricular free wall rupture: This is the most common type, where there is a tear in the left ventricular wall, leading to rapid bleeding into the pericardial sac (the space surrounding the heart). This can cause cardiac tamponade, which is a life-threatening situation characterized by increased pressure in the pericardial sac, compromising cardiac filling and reducing cardiac output.

2. Ventricular septal rupture: In this case, there is a tear in the interventricular septum (the wall separating the left and right ventricles), leading to a communication between the two chambers. This results in a shunt of blood from the high-pressure left ventricle to the low-pressure right ventricle, causing a sudden increase in pulmonary congestion and reduced systemic output.

3. Papillary muscle rupture: The papillary muscles are finger-like projections that attach the heart valves (mitral and tricuspid) to the ventricular walls. Rupture of these muscles can lead to severe mitral or tricuspid regurgitation, causing acute pulmonary edema and reduced cardiac output.

Symptoms of post-infarction heart rupture may include chest pain, shortness of breath, palpitations, hypotension, tachycardia, and signs of cardiogenic shock (such as cold sweats, weak pulse, and altered mental status). Diagnosis is typically made using echocardiography, CT angiography, or MRI. Treatment usually involves emergency surgical intervention to repair the rupture and stabilize the patient's hemodynamic condition.

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is a medical procedure that records the electrical activity of the heart. It provides a graphic representation of the electrical changes that occur during each heartbeat. The resulting tracing, called an electrocardiogram, can reveal information about the heart's rate and rhythm, as well as any damage to its cells or abnormalities in its conduction system.

During an ECG, small electrodes are placed on the skin of the chest, arms, and legs. These electrodes detect the electrical signals produced by the heart and transmit them to a machine that amplifies and records them. The procedure is non-invasive, painless, and quick, usually taking only a few minutes.

ECGs are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various heart conditions, including arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, heart attacks, and electrolyte imbalances. They can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of certain medications or treatments.

A heart valve prosthesis is a medical device that is implanted in the heart to replace a damaged or malfunctioning heart valve. The prosthetic valve can be made of biological tissue (such as from a pig or cow) or artificial materials (such as carbon or polyester). Its function is to allow for the proper directional flow of blood through the heart, opening and closing with each heartbeat to prevent backflow of blood.

There are several types of heart valve prostheses, including:

1. Mechanical valves: These are made entirely of artificial materials and have a longer lifespan than biological valves. However, they require the patient to take blood-thinning medication for the rest of their life to prevent blood clots from forming on the valve.
2. Bioprosthetic valves: These are made of biological tissue and typically last 10-15 years before needing replacement. They do not require the patient to take blood-thinning medication, but there is a higher risk of reoperation due to degeneration of the tissue over time.
3. Homografts or allografts: These are human heart valves that have been donated and preserved for transplantation. They have similar longevity to bioprosthetic valves and do not require blood-thinning medication.
4. Autografts: In this case, the patient's own pulmonary valve is removed and used to replace the damaged aortic valve. This procedure is called the Ross procedure and has excellent long-term results, but it requires advanced surgical skills and is not widely available.

The choice of heart valve prosthesis depends on various factors, including the patient's age, overall health, lifestyle, and personal preferences.

Jacobsen Distal 11q Deletion Syndrome, also known as Jacobsen Syndrome or 11q terminal deletion disorder, is a rare genetic condition caused by a deletion of the distal portion of the long arm (q) of chromosome 11. The size of the deleted segment can vary significantly among individuals with this syndrome, which results in a range of symptoms and severity.

The medical definition of Jacobsen Distal 11q Deletion Syndrome is:

A contiguous gene deletion syndrome resulting from a chromosomal deletion of the distal region of the long arm of chromosome 11 (11q). The typical deletion size varies from 7 to 20 megabases, with breakpoints usually located between q23 and q25. Characteristic features include developmental delay, intellectual disability, distinctive facial dysmorphisms, growth retardation, congenital heart defects, skeletal abnormalities, gastrointestinal issues, and thrombocytopenia (low platelet count). The severity of the symptoms depends on the extent and location of the deletion. In some cases, additional chromosomal abnormalities or variants may contribute to the phenotype.

It is essential to note that this medical definition is a general guideline, and individual presentations can vary significantly. For an accurate diagnosis and personalized prognosis, consult with a certified medical professional or genetic counselor.

Mitral valve insufficiency, also known as mitral regurgitation, is a cardiac condition in which the mitral valve located between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart does not close properly, causing blood to flow backward into the atrium during contraction of the ventricle. This leads to an increased volume load on the left heart chamber and can result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. The condition can be caused by various factors including valve damage due to degenerative changes, infective endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, or trauma. Treatment options include medication, mitral valve repair, or replacement surgery depending on the severity and underlying cause of the insufficiency.

Heart function tests are a group of diagnostic exams that are used to evaluate the structure and functioning of the heart. These tests help doctors assess the pumping efficiency of the heart, the flow of blood through the heart, the presence of any heart damage, and the overall effectiveness of the heart in delivering oxygenated blood to the rest of the body.

Some common heart function tests include:

1. Echocardiogram (Echo): This test uses sound waves to create detailed images of the heart's structure and functioning. It can help detect any damage to the heart muscle, valves, or sac surrounding the heart.
2. Nuclear Stress Test: This test involves injecting a small amount of radioactive substance into the patient's bloodstream and taking images of the heart while it is at rest and during exercise. The test helps evaluate blood flow to the heart and detect any areas of reduced blood flow, which could indicate coronary artery disease.
3. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): This test uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the heart's structure and function. It can help detect any damage to the heart muscle, valves, or other structures of the heart.
4. Electrocardiogram (ECG): This test measures the electrical activity of the heart and helps detect any abnormalities in the heart's rhythm or conduction system.
5. Exercise Stress Test: This test involves walking on a treadmill or riding a stationary bike while being monitored for changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and ECG readings. It helps evaluate exercise capacity and detect any signs of coronary artery disease.
6. Cardiac Catheterization: This is an invasive procedure that involves inserting a catheter into the heart to measure pressures and take samples of blood from different parts of the heart. It can help diagnose various heart conditions, including heart valve problems, congenital heart defects, and coronary artery disease.

Overall, heart function tests play an essential role in diagnosing and managing various heart conditions, helping doctors provide appropriate treatment and improve patient outcomes.

A feasibility study is a preliminary investigation or analysis conducted to determine the viability of a proposed project, program, or product. In the medical field, feasibility studies are often conducted before implementing new treatments, procedures, equipment, or facilities. These studies help to assess the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed intervention, as well as its potential benefits and risks.

Feasibility studies in healthcare typically involve several steps:

1. Problem identification: Clearly define the problem that the proposed project, program, or product aims to address.
2. Objectives setting: Establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives for the study.
3. Literature review: Conduct a thorough review of existing research and best practices related to the proposed intervention.
4. Methodology development: Design a methodology for data collection and analysis that will help answer the research questions and achieve the study's objectives.
5. Resource assessment: Evaluate the availability and adequacy of resources, including personnel, time, and finances, required to carry out the proposed intervention.
6. Risk assessment: Identify potential risks and challenges associated with the implementation of the proposed intervention and develop strategies to mitigate them.
7. Cost-benefit analysis: Estimate the costs and benefits of the proposed intervention, including direct and indirect costs, as well as short-term and long-term benefits.
8. Stakeholder engagement: Engage relevant stakeholders, such as patients, healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers, to gather their input and support for the proposed intervention.
9. Decision-making: Based on the findings of the feasibility study, make an informed decision about whether or not to proceed with the proposed project, program, or product.

Feasibility studies are essential in healthcare as they help ensure that resources are allocated efficiently and effectively, and that interventions are evidence-based, safe, and beneficial for patients.

Foreign-body migration is a medical condition that occurs when a foreign object, such as a surgical implant, tissue graft, or trauma-induced fragment, moves from its original position within the body to a different location. This displacement can cause various complications and symptoms depending on the type of foreign body, the location it migrated to, and the individual's specific physiological response.

Foreign-body migration may result from insufficient fixation or anchoring of the object during implantation, inadequate wound healing, infection, or an inflammatory reaction. Symptoms can include pain, swelling, redness, or infection at the new location, as well as potential damage to surrounding tissues and organs. Diagnosis typically involves imaging techniques like X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs to locate the foreign body, followed by a surgical procedure to remove it and address any resulting complications.

Surgical equipment refers to the specialized tools and instruments used by medical professionals during surgical procedures. These devices are designed to assist in various aspects of surgery, such as cutting, grasping, retraction, clamping, and suturing. Surgical equipment can be categorized into several types based on their function and use:

1. Cutting instruments: These include scalpels, scissors, and surgical blades designed to cut through tissues with precision and minimal trauma.

2. Grasping forceps: Forceps are used to hold, manipulate, or retrieve tissue, organs, or other surgical tools. Examples include Babcock forceps, Kelly forceps, and Allis tissue forceps.

3. Retractors: These devices help to expose deeper structures by holding open body cavities or tissues during surgery. Common retractors include Weitlaner retractors, Army-Navy retractors, and self-retaining retractors like the Bookwalter system.

4. Clamps: Used for occluding blood vessels, controlling bleeding, or approximating tissue edges before suturing. Examples of clamps are hemostats, bulldog clips, and Satinsky clamps.

5. Suction devices: These tools help remove fluids, debris, and smoke from the surgical site, improving visibility for the surgeon. Examples include Yankauer suctions and Frazier tip suctions.

6. Needle holders: Specialized forceps designed to hold suture needles securely during the process of suturing or approximating tissue edges.

7. Surgical staplers: Devices that place linear staple lines in tissues, used for quick and efficient closure of surgical incisions or anastomoses (joining two structures together).

8. Cautery devices: Electrosurgical units that use heat generated by electrical current to cut tissue and coagulate bleeding vessels.

9. Implants and prosthetics: Devices used to replace or reinforce damaged body parts, such as artificial joints, heart valves, or orthopedic implants.

10. Monitoring and navigation equipment: Advanced tools that provide real-time feedback on patient physiology, surgical site anatomy, or instrument positioning during minimally invasive procedures.

These are just a few examples of the diverse range of instruments and devices used in modern surgery. The choice of tools depends on various factors, including the type of procedure, patient characteristics, and surgeon preference.

Catheterization is a medical procedure in which a catheter (a flexible tube) is inserted into the body to treat various medical conditions or for diagnostic purposes. The specific definition can vary depending on the area of medicine and the particular procedure being discussed. Here are some common types of catheterization:

1. Urinary catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter through the urethra into the bladder to drain urine. It is often performed to manage urinary retention, monitor urine output in critically ill patients, or assist with surgical procedures.
2. Cardiac catheterization: A procedure where a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel, usually in the groin or arm, and guided to the heart. This allows for various diagnostic tests and treatments, such as measuring pressures within the heart chambers, assessing blood flow, or performing angioplasty and stenting of narrowed coronary arteries.
3. Central venous catheterization: A catheter is inserted into a large vein, typically in the neck, chest, or groin, to administer medications, fluids, or nutrition, or to monitor central venous pressure.
4. Peritoneal dialysis catheterization: A catheter is placed into the abdominal cavity for individuals undergoing peritoneal dialysis, a type of kidney replacement therapy.
5. Neurological catheterization: In some cases, a catheter may be inserted into the cerebrospinal fluid space (lumbar puncture) or the brain's ventricular system (ventriculostomy) to diagnose or treat various neurological conditions.

These are just a few examples of catheterization procedures in medicine. The specific definition and purpose will depend on the medical context and the particular organ or body system involved.

Cardiac myocytes are the muscle cells that make up the heart muscle, also known as the myocardium. These specialized cells are responsible for contracting and relaxing in a coordinated manner to pump blood throughout the body. They differ from skeletal muscle cells in several ways, including their ability to generate their own electrical impulses, which allows the heart to function as an independent rhythmical pump. Cardiac myocytes contain sarcomeres, the contractile units of the muscle, and are connected to each other by intercalated discs that help coordinate contraction and ensure the synchronous beating of the heart.

The endocardium is the innermost layer of tissue that lines the chambers of the heart and the valves between them. It is a thin, smooth membrane that is in contact with the blood within the heart. This layer helps to maintain the heart's internal environment, facilitates the smooth movement of blood through the heart, and provides a protective barrier against infection and other harmful substances. The endocardium is composed of simple squamous epithelial cells called endothelial cells, which are supported by a thin layer of connective tissue.

Myocardial infarction (MI), also known as a heart attack, is a medical condition characterized by the death of a segment of heart muscle (myocardium) due to the interruption of its blood supply. This interruption is most commonly caused by the blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot formed on the top of an atherosclerotic plaque, which is a buildup of cholesterol and other substances in the inner lining of the artery.

The lack of oxygen and nutrients supply to the heart muscle tissue results in damage or death of the cardiac cells, causing the affected area to become necrotic. The extent and severity of the MI depend on the size of the affected area, the duration of the occlusion, and the presence of collateral circulation.

Symptoms of a myocardial infarction may include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, nausea, lightheadedness, and sweating. Immediate medical attention is necessary to restore blood flow to the affected area and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. Treatment options for MI include medications, such as thrombolytics, antiplatelet agents, and pain relievers, as well as procedures such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

Ventricular outflow obstruction is a term used in cardiology to describe a condition where there is an obstruction or narrowing in the flow of blood as it exits the heart's ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). This obstruction can occur due to various reasons such as congenital heart defects, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or calcification of the aortic valve.

In a normal heart, the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the aorta through the aortic valve, and the right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood into the pulmonary artery through the pulmonic valve. Any obstruction in these outflow tracts can lead to increased pressure within the ventricles, which can result in various symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, dizziness, or fatigue.

The severity of the obstruction and the resulting symptoms can vary depending on the location and extent of the narrowing. Treatment options may include medications, surgical procedures, or catheter-based interventions to alleviate the obstruction and improve blood flow.

Minimally invasive surgical procedures are a type of surgery that is performed with the assistance of specialized equipment and techniques to minimize trauma to the patient's body. This approach aims to reduce blood loss, pain, and recovery time as compared to traditional open surgeries. The most common minimally invasive surgical procedure is laparoscopy, which involves making small incisions (usually 0.5-1 cm) in the abdomen or chest and inserting a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) to visualize the internal organs.

The surgeon then uses long, slender instruments inserted through separate incisions to perform the necessary surgical procedures, such as cutting, coagulation, or suturing. Other types of minimally invasive surgical procedures include arthroscopy (for joint surgery), thoracoscopy (for chest surgery), and hysteroscopy (for uterine surgery). The benefits of minimally invasive surgical procedures include reduced postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays, quicker return to normal activities, and improved cosmetic results. However, not all surgeries can be performed using minimally invasive techniques, and the suitability of a particular procedure depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the nature and extent of the surgical problem, and the surgeon's expertise.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

Kingella is a genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillary bacteria that are part of the normal flora in the human mouth, upper respiratory tract, and intestines. There are three species of medical importance: K. kingae, K. denitrificans, and K. negevensis.

K. kingae is an emerging cause of invasive diseases, particularly in children under 5 years old. It can cause septicemia, bacteremia, pneumonia, endocarditis, arthritis, and osteomyelitis. K. denitrificans and K. negevensis are less commonly associated with human infections, but they have been isolated from cases of bacteremia, meningitis, and respiratory tract infections.

The diagnosis of Kingella infections typically involves the isolation and identification of the organism from clinical specimens such as blood, synovial fluid, or cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics that are active against gram-negative bacteria, such as ceftriaxone or azithromycin.

Right Ventricular Function refers to the ability of the right ventricle (RV) of the heart to receive and eject blood during the cardiac cycle. The right ventricle is one of the four chambers of the heart and is responsible for pumping deoxygenated blood from the body to the lungs for re-oxygenation.

Right ventricular function can be assessed by measuring various parameters such as:

1. Right Ventricular Ejection Fraction (RVEF): It is the percentage of blood that is ejected from the right ventricle during each heartbeat. A normal RVEF ranges from 45-75%.
2. Right Ventricular Systolic Function: It refers to the ability of the right ventricle to contract and eject blood during systole (contraction phase). This can be assessed by measuring the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) or tissue Doppler imaging.
3. Right Ventricular Diastolic Function: It refers to the ability of the right ventricle to relax and fill with blood during diastole (relaxation phase). This can be assessed by measuring the right ventricular inflow pattern, tricuspid valve E/A ratio, or deceleration time.
4. Right Ventricular Afterload: It refers to the pressure that the right ventricle must overcome to eject blood into the pulmonary artery. Increased afterload can impair right ventricular function.

Abnormalities in right ventricular function can lead to various cardiovascular conditions such as pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, and arrhythmias.

Left ventricular function refers to the ability of the left ventricle (the heart's lower-left chamber) to contract and relax, thereby filling with and ejecting blood. The left ventricle is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. Its function is evaluated by measuring several parameters, including:

1. Ejection fraction (EF): This is the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle with each heartbeat. A normal ejection fraction ranges from 55% to 70%.
2. Stroke volume (SV): The amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in one contraction. A typical SV is about 70 mL/beat.
3. Cardiac output (CO): The total volume of blood that the left ventricle pumps per minute, calculated as the product of stroke volume and heart rate. Normal CO ranges from 4 to 8 L/minute.

Assessment of left ventricular function is crucial in diagnosing and monitoring various cardiovascular conditions such as heart failure, coronary artery disease, valvular heart diseases, and cardiomyopathies.

Thoracotomy is a surgical procedure that involves making an incision on the chest wall to gain access to the thoracic cavity, which contains the lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, and other vital organs. The incision can be made on the side (lateral thoracotomy), back (posterolateral thoracotomy), or front (median sternotomy) of the chest wall, depending on the specific surgical indication.

Thoracotomy is performed for various indications, including lung biopsy, lung resection, esophagectomy, heart surgery, and mediastinal mass removal. The procedure allows the surgeon to directly visualize and access the organs within the thoracic cavity, perform necessary procedures, and control bleeding if needed.

After the procedure, the incision is typically closed with sutures or staples, and a chest tube may be placed to drain any accumulated fluid or air from the pleural space around the lungs. The patient will require postoperative care and monitoring in a hospital setting until their condition stabilizes.

Aortic valve insufficiency, also known as aortic regurgitation or aortic incompetence, is a cardiac condition in which the aortic valve does not close properly during the contraction phase of the heart cycle. This allows blood to flow back into the left ventricle from the aorta, instead of being pumped out to the rest of the body. As a result, the left ventricle must work harder to maintain adequate cardiac output, which can lead to left ventricular enlargement and heart failure over time if left untreated.

The aortic valve is a trileaflet valve that lies between the left ventricle and the aorta. During systole (the contraction phase of the heart cycle), the aortic valve opens to allow blood to be pumped out of the left ventricle into the aorta and then distributed to the rest of the body. During diastole (the relaxation phase of the heart cycle), the aortic valve closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the left ventricle.

Aortic valve insufficiency can be caused by various conditions, including congenital heart defects, infective endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, Marfan syndrome, and trauma. Symptoms of aortic valve insufficiency may include shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, palpitations, and edema (swelling). Diagnosis is typically made through physical examination, echocardiography, and other imaging studies. Treatment options depend on the severity of the condition and may include medication, surgery to repair or replace the aortic valve, or a combination of both.

Stroke volume is a term used in cardiovascular physiology and medicine. It refers to the amount of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle of the heart during each contraction (systole). Specifically, it is the difference between the volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of diastole (when the ventricle is filled with blood) and the volume at the end of systole (when the ventricle has contracted and ejected its contents into the aorta).

Stroke volume is an important measure of heart function, as it reflects the ability of the heart to pump blood effectively to the rest of the body. A low stroke volume may indicate that the heart is not pumping efficiently, while a high stroke volume may suggest that the heart is working too hard. Stroke volume can be affected by various factors, including heart disease, high blood pressure, and physical fitness level.

The formula for calculating stroke volume is:

Stroke Volume = End-Diastolic Volume - End-Systolic Volume

Where end-diastolic volume (EDV) is the volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of diastole, and end-systolic volume (ESV) is the volume of blood in the left ventricle at the end of systole.

The postoperative period is the time following a surgical procedure during which the patient's response to the surgery and anesthesia is monitored, and any complications or adverse effects are managed. This period can vary in length depending on the type of surgery and the individual patient's needs, but it typically includes the immediate recovery phase in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) or recovery room, as well as any additional time spent in the hospital for monitoring and management of pain, wound healing, and other aspects of postoperative care.

The goals of postoperative care are to ensure the patient's safety and comfort, promote optimal healing and rehabilitation, and minimize the risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or other postoperative issues. The specific interventions and treatments provided during this period will depend on a variety of factors, including the type and extent of surgery performed, the patient's overall health and medical history, and any individualized care plans developed in consultation with the patient and their healthcare team.

Congenital Upper Extremity Deformities refer to physical abnormalities or malformations of the upper limb (arm, elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand) that are present at birth. These deformities can vary greatly in severity, complexity, and impact on function and appearance. They may result from genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both during fetal development. Examples of congenital upper extremity deformities include:

1. Radial club hand: A condition where the radius bone in the forearm is underdeveloped or absent, causing the hand to turn outward and the wrist to bend inward.
2. Club foot of the arm: Also known as congenital vertical talus, this deformity affects the ankle and foot, causing them to point upwards. In the upper extremity, it can lead to limited mobility and function.
3. Polydactyly: The presence of extra fingers or toes, which can be fully formed or rudimentary.
4. Syndactyly: Fusion or webbing of fingers or toes.
5. Radial longitudinal deficiency: A spectrum of radial ray anomalies that includes radial club hand and other associated malformations.
6. Ulnar longitudinal deficiency: Underdevelopment or absence of the ulna bone, which can lead to deformities in the forearm, wrist, and hand.
7. Amniotic band syndrome: A condition where fibrous bands in the amniotic sac entangle and restrict the growth of fetal parts, including the upper limbs.
8. Cleidocranial dysplasia: A genetic disorder characterized by underdeveloped or absent collarbones, delayed closing of the skull bones, and other skeletal abnormalities, including shortened or deformed upper extremities.
9. Arthrogryposis: A group of conditions characterized by joint contractures and stiffness, which can affect any part of the body, including the upper extremities.

Treatment for congenital upper extremity deformities typically involves a combination of surgical interventions, physical therapy, bracing, or prosthetics to improve function, appearance, and quality of life.

A sternotomy is a surgical procedure that involves making an incision through the sternum, also known as the breastbone. This type of incision allows surgeons to access the thoracic cavity, which contains the heart and lungs. Sternotomies are often performed during open-heart surgery or other procedures that require access to the heart or major blood vessels. After the procedure, the sternum is typically wired or stapled back together to allow for proper healing.

Myocardial ischemia is a condition in which the blood supply to the heart muscle (myocardium) is reduced or blocked, leading to insufficient oxygen delivery and potential damage to the heart tissue. This reduction in blood flow typically results from the buildup of fatty deposits, called plaques, in the coronary arteries that supply the heart with oxygen-rich blood. The plaques can rupture or become unstable, causing the formation of blood clots that obstruct the artery and limit blood flow.

Myocardial ischemia may manifest as chest pain (angina pectoris), shortness of breath, fatigue, or irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias). In severe cases, it can lead to myocardial infarction (heart attack) if the oxygen supply is significantly reduced or cut off completely, causing permanent damage or death of the heart muscle. Early diagnosis and treatment of myocardial ischemia are crucial for preventing further complications and improving patient outcomes.

"Device Removal" in a medical context generally refers to the surgical or nonsurgical removal of a medical device that has been previously implanted in a patient's body. The purpose of removing the device may vary, depending on the individual case. Some common reasons for device removal include infection, malfunction, rejection, or when the device is no longer needed.

Examples of medical devices that may require removal include pacemakers, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), artificial joints, orthopedic hardware, breast implants, cochlear implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs). The procedure for device removal will depend on the type of device, its location in the body, and the reason for its removal.

It is important to note that device removal carries certain risks, such as bleeding, infection, damage to surrounding tissues, or complications related to anesthesia. Therefore, the decision to remove a medical device should be made carefully, considering both the potential benefits and risks of the procedure.

Cardiomyopathies are a group of diseases that affect the heart muscle, leading to mechanical and/or electrical dysfunction. The American Heart Association (AHA) defines cardiomyopathies as "a heterogeneous group of diseases of the myocardium associated with mechanical and/or electrical dysfunction that usually (but not always) exhibit inappropriate ventricular hypertrophy or dilatation and frequently lead to heart failure."

There are several types of cardiomyopathies, including:

1. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM): This is the most common type of cardiomyopathy, characterized by an enlarged left ventricle and impaired systolic function, leading to heart failure.
2. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM): In this type, there is abnormal thickening of the heart muscle, particularly in the septum between the two ventricles, which can obstruct blood flow and increase the risk of arrhythmias.
3. Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM): This is a rare form of cardiomyopathy characterized by stiffness of the heart muscle, impaired relaxation, and diastolic dysfunction, leading to reduced filling of the ventricles and heart failure.
4. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC): In this type, there is replacement of the normal heart muscle with fatty or fibrous tissue, primarily affecting the right ventricle, which can lead to arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.
5. Unclassified cardiomyopathies: These are conditions that do not fit into any of the above categories but still significantly affect the heart muscle and function.

Cardiomyopathies can be caused by genetic factors, acquired conditions (e.g., infections, toxins, or autoimmune disorders), or a combination of both. The diagnosis typically involves a comprehensive evaluation, including medical history, physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and sometimes genetic testing. Treatment depends on the type and severity of the condition but may include medications, lifestyle modifications, implantable devices, or even heart transplantation in severe cases.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Cardiomegaly is a medical term that refers to an enlarged heart. It can be caused by various conditions such as high blood pressure, heart valve problems, cardiomyopathy, or fluid accumulation around the heart (pericardial effusion). Cardiomegaly can be detected through imaging tests like chest X-rays or echocardiograms. Depending on the underlying cause, treatment options may include medications, lifestyle changes, or in some cases, surgery. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

A stab wound is a type of penetrating trauma to the body caused by a sharp object such as a knife or screwdriver. The injury may be classified as either a stabbing or a puncture wound, depending on the nature of the object and the manner in which it was inflicted. Stab wounds typically involve a forceful thrusting motion, which can result in damage to internal organs, blood vessels, and other structures.

The depth and severity of a stab wound depend on several factors, including the type and length of the weapon used, the angle and force of the strike, and the location of the wound on the body. Stab wounds to vital areas such as the chest or abdomen can be particularly dangerous due to the risk of internal bleeding and infection.

Immediate medical attention is required for stab wounds, even if they appear minor at first glance. Treatment may involve wound cleaning, suturing, antibiotics, and in some cases, surgery to repair damaged tissues or organs. In severe cases, stab wounds can lead to shock, organ failure, and even death if left untreated.

Suture techniques refer to the various methods used by surgeons to sew or stitch together tissues in the body after an injury, trauma, or surgical incision. The main goal of suturing is to approximate and hold the edges of the wound together, allowing for proper healing and minimizing scar formation.

There are several types of suture techniques, including:

1. Simple Interrupted Suture: This is one of the most basic suture techniques where the needle is passed through the tissue at a right angle, creating a loop that is then tightened to approximate the wound edges. Multiple stitches are placed along the length of the incision or wound.
2. Continuous Locking Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed continuously through the tissue in a zigzag pattern, with each stitch locking into the previous one. This creates a continuous line of sutures that provides strong tension and support to the wound edges.
3. Running Suture: Similar to the continuous locking suture, this technique involves passing the needle continuously through the tissue in a straight line. However, instead of locking each stitch, the needle is simply passed through the previous loop before being tightened. This creates a smooth and uninterrupted line of sutures that can be easily removed after healing.
4. Horizontal Mattress Suture: In this technique, two parallel stitches are placed horizontally across the wound edges, creating a "mattress" effect that provides additional support and tension to the wound. This is particularly useful in deep or irregularly shaped wounds.
5. Vertical Mattress Suture: Similar to the horizontal mattress suture, this technique involves placing two parallel stitches vertically across the wound edges. This creates a more pronounced "mattress" effect that can help reduce tension and minimize scarring.
6. Subcuticular Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed just below the surface of the skin, creating a smooth and barely visible line of sutures. This is particularly useful in cosmetic surgery or areas where minimizing scarring is important.

The choice of suture technique depends on various factors such as the location and size of the wound, the type of tissue involved, and the patient's individual needs and preferences. Proper suture placement and tension are crucial for optimal healing and aesthetic outcomes.

The Fontan procedure is a type of open-heart surgery used to treat specific types of complex congenital (present at birth) heart defects. It's typically performed on children with single ventricle hearts, where one of the heart's lower chambers (the right or left ventricle) is underdeveloped or missing.

In a normal heart, oxygen-poor (blue) blood returns from the body to the right atrium, then flows through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. The right ventricle pumps the blue blood to the lungs, where it picks up oxygen and turns red. Oxygen-rich (red) blood then returns from the lungs to the left atrium, flows through the mitral valve into the left ventricle, and the left ventricle pumps it out to the body through the aorta.

However, in a single ventricle heart, the underdeveloped or missing ventricle cannot effectively pump blood to the lungs and the body simultaneously. The Fontan procedure aims to separate the blue and red blood circulation to improve oxygenation of the body's tissues.

The Fontan procedure involves two stages:

1. In the first stage, usually performed in infancy, a shunt or a band is placed around the pulmonary artery (the blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the lungs) to control the amount of blood flowing into the lungs. This helps prevent lung congestion due to excessive blood flow.
2. The second stage, the Fontan procedure itself, takes place when the child is between 18 months and 4 years old. During this surgery, the surgeon creates a connection between the inferior vena cava (the large vein that returns blue blood from the lower body to the heart) and the pulmonary artery. This allows oxygen-poor blood to flow directly into the lungs without passing through the underdeveloped ventricle.

The Fontan procedure significantly improves the quality of life for many children with single ventricle hearts, although they may still face long-term complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and protein-losing enteropathy (a condition where the body loses too much protein in the stool). Regular follow-up care with a pediatric cardiologist is essential to monitor their health and manage any potential issues.

Gestational age is the length of time that has passed since the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) in pregnant women. It is the standard unit used to estimate the age of a pregnancy and is typically expressed in weeks. This measure is used because the exact date of conception is often not known, but the start of the last menstrual period is usually easier to recall.

It's important to note that since ovulation typically occurs around two weeks after the start of the LMP, gestational age is approximately two weeks longer than fetal age, which is the actual time elapsed since conception. Medical professionals use both gestational and fetal age to track the development and growth of the fetus during pregnancy.

Pulmonary wedge pressure, also known as pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) or left heart filling pressure, is a measurement obtained during right heart catheterization. It reflects the pressure in the left atrium, which is an estimate of the diastolic pressure in the left ventricle. Normal PCWP ranges from 4 to 12 mmHg. Increased pulmonary wedge pressure can indicate heart failure or other cardiac disorders that affect the left side of the heart.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a type of cardiomyopathy characterized by the enlargement and weakened contraction of the heart's main pumping chamber (the left ventricle). This enlargement and weakness can lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. DCM can be caused by various factors including genetics, viral infections, alcohol and drug abuse, and other medical conditions like high blood pressure and diabetes. It is important to note that this condition can lead to heart failure if left untreated.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) is a medical condition where the foramen ovale, an opening between the left and right atria of the heart in a fetus, does not close completely after birth. This results in a small flap-like opening that allows blood to pass from the right atrium to the left atrium. While this condition is typically harmless in itself, it can potentially allow blood clots to pass from the right side of the heart to the left, which could then travel to the brain and cause a stroke. Patent Foramen Ovale is usually an incidental finding during tests for other conditions.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

The aorta is the largest artery in the human body, which originates from the left ventricle of the heart and carries oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. It can be divided into several parts, including the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta. The ascending aorta gives rise to the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. The aortic arch gives rise to the brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries, which supply blood to the head, neck, and upper extremities. The descending aorta travels through the thorax and abdomen, giving rise to various intercostal, visceral, and renal arteries that supply blood to the chest wall, organs, and kidneys.

Coronary artery disease, often simply referred to as coronary disease, is a condition in which the blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of fatty deposits called plaques. This can lead to chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or in severe cases, a heart attack.

The medical definition of coronary artery disease is:

A condition characterized by the accumulation of atheromatous plaques in the walls of the coronary arteries, leading to decreased blood flow and oxygen supply to the myocardium (heart muscle). This can result in symptoms such as angina pectoris, shortness of breath, or arrhythmias, and may ultimately lead to myocardial infarction (heart attack) or heart failure.

Risk factors for coronary artery disease include age, smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, and a family history of the condition. Lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet, and managing stress can help reduce the risk of developing coronary artery disease. Medical treatments may include medications to control blood pressure, cholesterol levels, or irregular heart rhythms, as well as procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.

Developmental gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the activation or repression of specific genes during embryonic and fetal development. These regulatory mechanisms ensure that genes are expressed at the right time, in the right cells, and at appropriate levels to guide proper growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis of an organism.

Developmental gene expression regulation is a complex and dynamic process involving various molecular players, such as transcription factors, chromatin modifiers, non-coding RNAs, and signaling molecules. These regulators can interact with cis-regulatory elements, like enhancers and promoters, to fine-tune the spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development.

Dysregulation of developmental gene expression can lead to various congenital disorders and developmental abnormalities. Therefore, understanding the principles and mechanisms governing developmental gene expression regulation is crucial for uncovering the etiology of developmental diseases and devising potential therapeutic strategies.

Bacterial endocarditis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation and infection of the inner layer of the heart, known as the endocardium. This infection typically occurs when bacteria enter the bloodstream and attach themselves to damaged or abnormal heart valves or other parts of the endocardium. The bacteria can then multiply and cause the formation of vegetations, which are clusters of infected tissue that can further damage the heart valves and lead to serious complications such as heart failure, stroke, or even death if left untreated.

Bacterial endocarditis is a relatively uncommon but potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt medical attention. Risk factors for developing bacterial endocarditis include pre-existing heart conditions such as congenital heart defects, artificial heart valves, previous history of endocarditis, or other conditions that damage the heart valves. Intravenous drug use is also a significant risk factor for this condition.

Symptoms of bacterial endocarditis may include fever, chills, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, shortness of breath, chest pain, and a new or changing heart murmur. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, blood cultures, and imaging tests such as echocardiography. Treatment usually involves several weeks of intravenous antibiotics to eradicate the infection, and in some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart valves.

A catheter is a flexible tube that can be inserted into the body to treat various medical conditions or to perform certain medical procedures. Catheters are used to drain fluids, deliver medications, or provide access to different parts of the body for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. They come in various sizes and materials, depending on their intended use.

In a general sense, catheters can be classified into two main categories:

1. **External catheters:** These are applied to the outside of the body and are commonly used for urinary drainage. For example, a condom catheter is an external collection device that fits over the penis to drain urine into a bag. Similarly, a Texas or Foley catheter can be used in females, where a small tube is inserted into the urethra and inflated with a balloon to keep it in place.
2. **Internal catheters:** These are inserted into the body through various openings or surgical incisions. They have different applications based on their placement:
* **Urinary catheters:** Used for bladder drainage, similar to external catheters but inserted through the urethra.
* **Vascular catheters:** Inserted into veins or arteries to administer medication, fluids, or to perform diagnostic tests like angiography.
* **Cardiovascular catheters:** Used in procedures such as cardiac catheterization to diagnose and treat heart conditions.
* **Neurological catheters:** Placed in the cerebrospinal fluid spaces of the brain or spinal cord for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, like draining excess fluid or delivering medication.
* **Gastrointestinal catheters:** Used to provide enteral nutrition, drain fluids, or perform procedures within the gastrointestinal tract.

Proper care and maintenance of catheters are crucial to prevent infection and other complications. Patients with indwelling catheters should follow their healthcare provider's instructions for cleaning, handling, and monitoring the catheter site.

Heart neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the heart tissue. They can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign tumors, such as myxomas and rhabdomyomas, are typically slower growing and less likely to spread, but they can still cause serious complications if they obstruct blood flow or damage heart valves. Malignant tumors, such as angiosarcomas and rhabdomyosarcomas, are fast-growing and have a higher risk of spreading to other parts of the body. Symptoms of heart neoplasms can include shortness of breath, chest pain, fatigue, and irregular heart rhythms. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.

"Failure to Thrive" is a medical term used to describe a condition in infants and children who are not growing and gaining weight as expected. It is typically defined as significant deviation from normal growth patterns, such as poor weight gain or loss, slow increase in length/height, and delayed developmental milestones. The condition can have various causes, including medical, psychological, social, and environmental factors. Early identification and intervention are crucial to address the underlying cause and promote healthy growth and development.

Vectorcardiography (VCG) is a type of graphical recording that depicts the vector magnitude and direction of the electrical activity of the heart over time. It provides a three-dimensional view of the electrical activation pattern of the heart, as opposed to the one-dimensional view offered by a standard electrocardiogram (ECG).

In VCG, the electrical potentials are recorded using a special array of electrodes placed on the body surface. These potentials are then mathematically converted into vectors and plotted on a vector loop or a series of loops that represent different planes of the heart's electrical activity. The resulting tracing provides information about the magnitude, direction, and timing of the electrical activation of the heart, which can be helpful in diagnosing various cardiac arrhythmias, ischemic heart disease, and other cardiac conditions.

Overall, vectorcardiography offers a more detailed and comprehensive view of the heart's electrical activity than traditional ECG, making it a valuable tool in clinical cardiology.

Angiography is a medical procedure in which an x-ray image is taken to visualize the internal structure of blood vessels, arteries, or veins. This is done by injecting a radiopaque contrast agent (dye) into the blood vessel using a thin, flexible catheter. The dye makes the blood vessels visible on an x-ray image, allowing doctors to diagnose and treat various medical conditions such as blockages, narrowing, or malformations of the blood vessels.

There are several types of angiography, including:

* Cardiac angiography (also called coronary angiography) - used to examine the blood vessels of the heart
* Cerebral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels of the brain
* Peripheral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels in the limbs or other parts of the body.

Angiography is typically performed by a radiologist, cardiologist, or vascular surgeon in a hospital setting. It can help diagnose conditions such as coronary artery disease, aneurysms, and peripheral arterial disease, among others.

Atrioventricular (AV) block is a disorder of the electrical conduction system of the heart that causes a delay or interruption in the transmission of electrical signals from the atria (the upper chambers of the heart) to the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). This results in an abnormal heart rhythm, also known as an arrhythmia.

There are three degrees of AV block:

1. First-degree AV block: In this type of AV block, there is a delay in the conduction of electrical signals from the atria to the ventricles, but all signals are eventually conducted. This condition may not cause any symptoms and is often discovered during a routine electrocardiogram (ECG).
2. Second-degree AV block: In this type of AV block, some electrical signals from the atria are not conducted to the ventricles. There are two types of second-degree AV block: Mobitz type I and Mobitz type II. Mobitz type I is characterized by a progressive prolongation of the PR interval (the time between the electrical activation of the atria and ventricles) until a QRS complex (which represents the electrical activation of the ventricles) is dropped. Mobitz type II is characterized by a constant PR interval with occasional non-conducted P waves.
3. Third-degree AV block: In this type of AV block, no electrical signals are conducted from the atria to the ventricles. The atria and ventricles beat independently of each other, resulting in a slow heart rate (bradycardia) and an irregular rhythm. This condition can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

The causes of AV block include aging, heart disease, medications, and certain medical conditions such as hypothyroidism and Lyme disease. Treatment depends on the severity of the condition and may include medication, a pacemaker, or surgery.

Left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) is a condition characterized by the impaired ability of the left ventricle of the heart to pump blood efficiently during contraction. The left ventricle is one of the four chambers of the heart and is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood to the rest of the body.

LVD can be caused by various underlying conditions, such as coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, or hypertension. These conditions can lead to structural changes in the left ventricle, including remodeling, hypertrophy, and dilation, which ultimately impair its contractile function.

The severity of LVD is often assessed by measuring the ejection fraction (EF), which is the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle during each contraction. A normal EF ranges from 55% to 70%, while an EF below 40% is indicative of LVD.

LVD can lead to various symptoms, such as shortness of breath, fatigue, fluid retention, and decreased exercise tolerance. It can also increase the risk of complications, such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiac arrest. Treatment for LVD typically involves managing the underlying cause, along with medications to improve contractility, reduce fluid buildup, and control heart rate. In severe cases, devices such as implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) or left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) may be required.

Musculoskeletal abnormalities refer to structural and functional disorders that affect the musculoskeletal system, which includes the bones, muscles, cartilages, tendons, ligaments, joints, and other related tissues. These abnormalities can result from genetic factors, trauma, overuse, degenerative processes, infections, or tumors. They may cause pain, stiffness, limited mobility, deformity, weakness, and susceptibility to injuries. Examples of musculoskeletal abnormalities include osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, scoliosis, kyphosis, lordosis, fractures, dislocations, tendinitis, bursitis, myopathies, and various congenital conditions.

Interventional ultrasonography is a medical procedure that involves the use of real-time ultrasound imaging to guide minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. This technique combines the advantages of ultrasound, such as its non-ionizing nature (no radiation exposure), relatively low cost, and portability, with the ability to perform precise and targeted procedures.

In interventional ultrasonography, a specialized physician called an interventional radiologist or an interventional sonographer uses high-frequency sound waves to create detailed images of internal organs and tissues. These images help guide the placement of needles, catheters, or other instruments used during the procedure. Common interventions include biopsies (tissue sampling), fluid drainage, tumor ablation, and targeted drug delivery.

The real-time visualization provided by ultrasonography allows for increased accuracy and safety during these procedures, minimizing complications and reducing recovery time compared to traditional surgical approaches. Additionally, interventional ultrasonography can be performed on an outpatient basis, further contributing to its appeal as a less invasive alternative in many clinical scenarios.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Right ventricular dysfunction is a condition characterized by the impaired ability of the right ventricle (one of the two pumping chambers in the heart) to fill with blood during the diastolic phase or eject blood during the systolic phase. This results in reduced cardiac output from the right ventricle, which can lead to various complications such as fluid accumulation in the body, particularly in the abdomen and lower extremities, and ultimately congestive heart failure if left untreated.

Right ventricular dysfunction can be caused by various factors, including damage to the heart muscle due to a heart attack, high blood pressure in the lungs (pulmonary hypertension), chronic lung diseases, congenital heart defects, viral infections, and certain medications. Symptoms of right ventricular dysfunction may include shortness of breath, fatigue, swelling in the legs, ankles, or abdomen, and a decreased tolerance for physical activity.

Diagnosis of right ventricular dysfunction typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging tests such as echocardiography, cardiac MRI, or CT scan, and other diagnostic procedures such as electrocardiogram (ECG) or cardiac catheterization. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but may include medications to reduce fluid buildup, improve heart function, and manage symptoms, as well as lifestyle modifications such as reducing salt intake and increasing physical activity levels. In severe cases, more invasive treatments such as surgery or implantable devices like pacemakers or ventricular assist devices may be necessary.

Congenital Lower Extremity Deformities refer to abnormal structures or development in the lower limbs (including thighs, legs, and feet) that are present at birth. These deformities can vary greatly in severity, from mild differences in shape or position to severe defects that significantly limit mobility or function.

Congenital lower extremity deformities can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences during pregnancy, or a combination of both. Some common examples include:

1. Congenital Talipes Equinovarus (Clubfoot): A deformity where the foot is turned inward and downward at birth.
2. Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH): A condition where the hip joint does not form properly, leading to instability or dislocation.
3. Congenital Femoral Deficiency: A rare condition where there is a deficiency or absence of the femur (thigh bone) or abnormal development of the hip joint.
4. Fibular Hemimelia: A congenital absence or shortening of the fibula bone, which can lead to foot and ankle deformities.
5. Tibial Hemimelia: A rare condition where there is a partial or complete absence of the tibia bone, leading to significant leg length discrepancies and joint instability.

Treatment for congenital lower extremity deformities can range from non-surgical interventions such as bracing, casting, or physical therapy to surgical procedures aimed at correcting the deformity and improving function.

"Drug-induced abnormalities" refer to physical or physiological changes that occur as a result of taking medication or drugs. These abnormalities can affect various organs and systems in the body and can range from minor symptoms, such as nausea or dizziness, to more serious conditions, such as liver damage or heart rhythm disturbances.

Drug-induced abnormalities can occur for several reasons, including:

1. Direct toxicity: Some drugs can directly damage cells and tissues in the body, leading to abnormalities.
2. Altered metabolism: Drugs can interfere with normal metabolic processes in the body, leading to the accumulation of harmful substances or the depletion of essential nutrients.
3. Hormonal imbalances: Some drugs can affect hormone levels in the body, leading to abnormalities.
4. Allergic reactions: Some people may have allergic reactions to certain drugs, which can cause a range of symptoms, including rashes, swelling, and difficulty breathing.
5. Interactions with other drugs: Taking multiple medications or drugs at the same time can increase the risk of drug-induced abnormalities.

It is important for healthcare providers to monitor patients closely for signs of drug-induced abnormalities and to adjust medication dosages or switch to alternative treatments as necessary. Patients should also inform their healthcare providers of any symptoms they experience while taking medication, as these may be related to drug-induced abnormalities.

I must clarify that the term "pedigree" is not typically used in medical definitions. Instead, it is often employed in genetics and breeding, where it refers to the recorded ancestry of an individual or a family, tracing the inheritance of specific traits or diseases. In human genetics, a pedigree can help illustrate the pattern of genetic inheritance in families over multiple generations. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical definition.

An exercise test, also known as a stress test or an exercise stress test, is a medical procedure used to evaluate the heart's function and response to physical exertion. It typically involves walking on a treadmill or pedaling a stationary bike while being monitored for changes in heart rate, blood pressure, electrocardiogram (ECG), and sometimes other variables such as oxygen consumption or gas exchange.

During the test, the patient's symptoms, such as chest pain or shortness of breath, are also closely monitored. The exercise test can help diagnose coronary artery disease, assess the severity of heart-related symptoms, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for heart conditions. It may also be used to determine a person's safe level of physical activity and fitness.

There are different types of exercise tests, including treadmill stress testing, stationary bike stress testing, nuclear stress testing, and stress echocardiography. The specific type of test used depends on the patient's medical history, symptoms, and overall health status.

Systolic murmurs are heart sounds that occur during systole, which is the phase of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles contract and pump blood out to the body. These murmurs are often heard as blowing, whooshing, or rustling sounds, and they can vary in intensity, pitch, and duration.

Systolic murmurs can be caused by a variety of conditions, including valvular heart disease (such as stenosis or regurgitation), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, mitral valve prolapse, and patent ductus arteriosus. In some cases, systolic murmurs may be innocent or functional, meaning that they are not associated with any underlying heart disease and are harmless.

The location, timing, and quality of the murmur can provide important clues about the underlying cause and severity of the condition. For example, a harsh, loud murmur heard best at the upper left sternal border may suggest aortic stenosis, while a high-pitched, blowing murmur heard best at the apex of the heart may indicate mitral regurgitation.

Overall, systolic murmurs are an important clinical sign that should be evaluated carefully in order to diagnose and manage any underlying heart conditions.

Absorbable implants are medical devices that are designed to be placed inside the body during a surgical procedure, where they provide support, stabilization, or other functions, and then gradually break down and are absorbed by the body over time. These implants are typically made from materials such as polymers, proteins, or ceramics that have been engineered to degrade at a controlled rate, allowing them to be resorbed and eliminated from the body without the need for a second surgical procedure to remove them.

Absorbable implants are often used in orthopedic, dental, and plastic surgery applications, where they can help promote healing and support tissue regeneration. For example, absorbable screws or pins may be used to stabilize fractured bones during the healing process, after which they will gradually dissolve and be absorbed by the body. Similarly, absorbable membranes may be used in dental surgery to help guide the growth of new bone and gum tissue around an implant, and then be resorbed over time.

It's important to note that while absorbable implants offer several advantages over non-absorbable materials, such as reduced risk of infection and improved patient comfort, they may also have some limitations. For example, the mechanical properties of absorbable materials may not be as strong as those of non-absorbable materials, which could affect their performance in certain applications. Additionally, the degradation products of absorbable implants may cause local inflammation or other adverse reactions in some patients. As with any medical device, the use of absorbable implants should be carefully considered and discussed with a qualified healthcare professional.

Aortic valve stenosis is a cardiac condition characterized by the narrowing or stiffening of the aortic valve, which separates the left ventricle (the heart's main pumping chamber) from the aorta (the large artery that carries oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body). This narrowing or stiffening prevents the aortic valve from opening fully, resulting in reduced blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta and the rest of the body.

The narrowing can be caused by several factors, including congenital heart defects, calcification (hardening) of the aortic valve due to aging, or scarring of the valve due to rheumatic fever or other inflammatory conditions. As a result, the left ventricle must work harder to pump blood through the narrowed valve, which can lead to thickening and enlargement of the left ventricular muscle (left ventricular hypertrophy).

Symptoms of aortic valve stenosis may include chest pain or tightness, shortness of breath, fatigue, dizziness or fainting, and heart palpitations. Severe aortic valve stenosis can lead to serious complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, or even sudden cardiac death. Treatment options may include medications to manage symptoms, lifestyle changes, or surgical intervention such as aortic valve replacement.

DiGeorge syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the deletion of a small piece of chromosome 22. It is also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. The symptoms and severity can vary widely among affected individuals, but often include birth defects such as congenital heart disease, poor immune system function, and palatal abnormalities. Characteristic facial features, learning disabilities, and behavioral problems are also common. Some people with DiGeorge syndrome may have mild symptoms while others may be more severely affected. The condition is typically diagnosed through genetic testing. Treatment is focused on managing the specific symptoms and may include surgery, medications, and therapy.

Cardiac output is a measure of the amount of blood that the heart pumps in one minute. It is calculated by multiplying the stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle during each contraction) by the heart rate (the number of times the heart beats per minute). Low cardiac output refers to a condition in which the heart is not able to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. This can occur due to various reasons such as heart failure, heart attack, or any other conditions that weaken the heart muscle. Symptoms of low cardiac output may include fatigue, shortness of breath, and decreased mental status. Treatment for low cardiac output depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or medical devices to help support heart function.

Cor triatriatum is a very rare congenital heart defect where the left atrium of the heart is partitioned by a fibromuscular membrane into two chambers. This results in obstruction of blood flow from the left atrium to the left ventricle, which can lead to various cardiac complications such as pulmonary hypertension and heart failure if not treated promptly. It is usually diagnosed and managed surgically during infancy or early childhood.

Vascular resistance is a measure of the opposition to blood flow within a vessel or a group of vessels, typically expressed in units of mmHg/(mL/min) or sometimes as dynes*sec/cm^5. It is determined by the diameter and length of the vessels, as well as the viscosity of the blood flowing through them. In general, a decrease in vessel diameter, an increase in vessel length, or an increase in blood viscosity will result in an increase in vascular resistance, while an increase in vessel diameter, a decrease in vessel length, or a decrease in blood viscosity will result in a decrease in vascular resistance. Vascular resistance is an important concept in the study of circulation and cardiovascular physiology because it plays a key role in determining blood pressure and blood flow within the body.

Discrete subaortic stenosis is a medical condition that refers to a narrowing (stenosis) in the outflow tract below the aortic valve of the heart. This narrowing is usually caused by a fibrous ring or a discrete ridge of tissue that partially obstructs the flow of blood from the left ventricle into the aorta.

Discrete subaortic stenosis can cause various symptoms, including shortness of breath, chest pain, fatigue, and syncope (fainting). In severe cases, it can lead to heart failure or even sudden death. The condition is often diagnosed using echocardiography, which can help evaluate the severity of the narrowing and any associated abnormalities.

Treatment for discrete subaortic stenosis typically involves surgical intervention to remove the obstructive tissue and relieve the obstruction. In some cases, a mechanical valve may be implanted to replace the damaged aortic valve. Regular follow-up care is necessary to monitor for any potential complications or recurrence of the narrowing.

Subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE) is a type of infective endocarditis that typically has a more indolent course compared to acute bacterial endocarditis. It is caused by organisms that are less virulent and have a higher affinity for damaged heart valves or endocardium.

The most common causative organisms of SBE include Streptococcus viridans, Streptococcus bovis, and enterococci. The infection often develops over a period of weeks to months, with nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, fever, weight loss, and night sweats.

SBE can lead to serious complications, including heart failure, valvular damage, embolic events, and even death if left untreated. Treatment typically involves prolonged courses of intravenous antibiotics, with surgical intervention reserved for cases with severe valvular damage or uncontrolled infection.

Preventive measures include appropriate management of underlying heart conditions, prophylactic antibiotic therapy in high-risk individuals undergoing dental or invasive procedures, and good oral hygiene.

Trisomy is a genetic condition where there is an extra copy of a particular chromosome, resulting in 47 chromosomes instead of the typical 46 in a cell. This usually occurs due to an error in cell division during the development of the egg, sperm, or embryo.

Instead of the normal pair, there are three copies (trisomy) of that chromosome. The most common form of trisomy is Trisomy 21, also known as Down syndrome, where there is an extra copy of chromosome 21. Other forms include Trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and Trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome), which are associated with more severe developmental issues and shorter lifespans.

Trisomy can also occur in a mosaic form, where some cells have the extra chromosome while others do not, leading to varying degrees of symptoms depending on the proportion of affected cells.

Paradoxical embolism is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot or other material (embolus) from a vein passes through an abnormal connection between the right and left sides of the heart and lodges in an artery in the systemic circulation. This is considered "paradoxical" because the embolus originates from the venous system but bypasses the lungs and travels directly to the arterial system.

Under normal circumstances, blood flows from the body's veins into the right atrium of the heart, then through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle, where it is pumped through the pulmonary artery into the lungs for oxygenation. The now oxygen-rich blood returns to the left atrium via the pulmonary veins, passes through the mitral valve into the left ventricle, and is then pumped out to the body's arteries.

However, in certain conditions such as a patent foramen ovale (PFO) or an atrial septal defect (ASD), there can be an abnormal communication between the right and left atria. This allows for the possibility of a paradoxical embolism to occur when a clot or other material from the venous system passes through this connection into the arterial system, bypassing filtration and oxygenation in the lungs.

Paradoxical embolism can lead to serious consequences, such as stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or tissue damage in various organs, depending on where the embolus lodges. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the paradoxical embolism and may include anticoagulation therapy, surgical closure of the abnormal connection, or other interventions as necessary.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

The endocardial cushions are a part of the embryonic heart that contributes to the formation of the atrioventricular septum and the valves between the chambers of the heart. They are composed of mesenchymal tissue, which is a type of connective tissue that contains cells called mesenchymal stem cells. During fetal development, these cushions grow and fuse together to form the atrioventricular septum, which separates the upper chambers (atria) from the lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The endocardial cushions also give rise to the valves that regulate blood flow between the chambers of the heart. Defects in the development of the endocardial cushions can lead to congenital heart defects, such as atrial septal defect and ventricular septal defect.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Systole is the phase of the cardiac cycle during which the heart muscle contracts to pump blood out of the heart. Specifically, it refers to the contraction of the ventricles, the lower chambers of the heart. This is driven by the action of the electrical conduction system of the heart, starting with the sinoatrial node and passing through the atrioventricular node and bundle branches to the Purkinje fibers.

During systole, the pressure within the ventricles increases as they contract, causing the aortic and pulmonary valves to open and allowing blood to be ejected into the systemic and pulmonary circulations, respectively. The duration of systole is typically shorter than that of diastole, the phase during which the heart muscle relaxes and the chambers fill with blood.

In clinical settings, the terms "systolic" and "diastolic" are often used to describe blood pressure measurements, with the former referring to the pressure exerted on the artery walls when the ventricles contract and eject blood, and the latter referring to the pressure when the ventricles are relaxed and filling with blood.

Tricuspid atresia is a congenital heart defect where the tricuspid valve, which regulates blood flow between the right atrium and right ventricle, fails to develop properly. As a result, there is no direct pathway for blood to move from the right atrium to the right ventricle and then to the lungs for oxygenation.

In this condition, blood from the body returning to the heart enters the right atrium but cannot flow through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. Instead, it flows through an opening in the interatrial septum (atrial septal defect) into the left atrium and then into the left ventricle. The left ventricle pumps this blood to the body and a portion of it goes to the lungs via a patent ductus arteriosus or other collateral vessels.

Tricuspid atresia is often associated with other heart defects, such as transposition of the great arteries, pulmonary stenosis, or total anomalous pulmonary venous return. Symptoms can vary depending on the severity and associated defects but may include cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin), shortness of breath, fatigue, and poor growth. Treatment typically involves surgical interventions to create a path for blood to flow to the lungs and establish proper oxygenation.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Heart valve prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure where an artificial heart valve is inserted to replace a damaged or malfunctioning native heart valve. This can be necessary for patients with valvular heart disease, including stenosis (narrowing) or regurgitation (leaking), who do not respond to medical management and are at risk of heart failure or other complications.

There are two main types of artificial heart valves used in prosthesis implantation: mechanical valves and biological valves. Mechanical valves are made of synthetic materials, such as carbon and metal, and can last a long time but require lifelong anticoagulation therapy to prevent blood clots from forming. Biological valves, on the other hand, are made from animal or human tissue and typically do not require anticoagulation therapy but may have a limited lifespan and may need to be replaced in the future.

The decision to undergo heart valve prosthesis implantation is based on several factors, including the patient's age, overall health, type and severity of valvular disease, and personal preferences. The procedure can be performed through traditional open-heart surgery or minimally invasive techniques, such as robotic-assisted surgery or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Recovery time varies depending on the approach used and individual patient factors.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

An artificial heart is a mechanical device designed to replace the function of one or both ventricles of the natural human heart. It can be used as a temporary or permanent solution for patients with end-stage heart failure who are not candidates for heart transplantation. There are different types of artificial hearts, such as total artificial hearts and ventricular assist devices (VADs), which can help to pump blood throughout the body. These devices are typically composed of titanium and polyurethane materials and are powered by external electrical systems. They are designed to mimic the natural heart's action, helping to maintain adequate blood flow and oxygenation to vital organs.

Perfusion, in medical terms, refers to the process of circulating blood through the body's organs and tissues to deliver oxygen and nutrients and remove waste products. It is a measure of the delivery of adequate blood flow to specific areas or tissues in the body. Perfusion can be assessed using various methods, including imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and perfusion scintigraphy.

Perfusion is critical for maintaining proper organ function and overall health. When perfusion is impaired or inadequate, it can lead to tissue hypoxia, acidosis, and cell death, which can result in organ dysfunction or failure. Conditions that can affect perfusion include cardiovascular disease, shock, trauma, and certain surgical procedures.

An arterio-arterial fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between two arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Under normal circumstances, arteries do not directly communicate with each other; instead, they supply blood to capillaries, which then deliver the blood to veins.

An arterio-arterial fistula can result from various causes, including congenital defects, trauma, or as a complication of medical procedures such as arterial catheterization or surgical interventions. The presence of an arterio-arterial fistula may lead to several hemodynamic consequences, depending on the size, location, and chronicity of the communication. These can include altered blood flow patterns, increased pressure in the affected arteries, and potential cardiac complications due to volume overload.

Symptoms of an arterio-arterial fistula may vary widely, from being asymptomatic to experiencing palpitations, shortness of breath, fatigue, or even congestive heart failure in severe cases. The diagnosis typically involves imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT angiography, or MRI angiography to visualize the abnormal communication and assess its hemodynamic impact. Treatment options may include observation, endovascular interventions, or surgical repair, depending on the individual case.

Atrial fibrillation (A-tre-al fi-bru-la'shun) is a type of abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria, the upper chambers of the heart. In this condition, the electrical signals that coordinate heartbeats don't function properly, causing the atria to quiver instead of contracting effectively. As a result, blood may not be pumped efficiently into the ventricles, which can lead to blood clots, stroke, and other complications. Atrial fibrillation is a common type of arrhythmia and can cause symptoms such as palpitations, shortness of breath, fatigue, and dizziness. It can be caused by various factors, including heart disease, high blood pressure, age, and genetics. Treatment options include medications, electrical cardioversion, and surgical procedures to restore normal heart rhythm.

In medical terms, constriction refers to the narrowing or tightening of a body part or passageway. This can occur due to various reasons such as spasms of muscles, inflammation, or abnormal growths. It can lead to symptoms like difficulty in breathing, swallowing, or blood flow, depending on where it occurs. For example, constriction of the airways in asthma, constriction of blood vessels in hypertension, or constriction of the esophagus in certain digestive disorders.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Electrocardiographic Changes in Atrial Septal Defects:Ostium Secundum versus Ostium Primum defect. Am Heart J 58:689, 1959. ... Patients with atrial Septal Defects may have atrial fibrillation, atrial tachycardia, or atrial flutter, but these abnormal ... The ostium primum atrial septal defect is a defect in the atrial septum at the level of the tricuspid and mitral valves. This ... A defect in the ostium primum is occasionally classified as an atrial septal defect, but it is more commonly classified as an ...
Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Congenital heart defects). ... A sinus venosus atrial septal defect is a type of atrial septal defect primarily associated with the sinus venosus. They ... September 2005). "Sinus venosus atrial septal defect: long-term postoperative outcome for 115 patients". Circulation. 112 (13 ... of atrial septal defects. They can occur near the superior vena cava or inferior vena cava, but the former are more common. ...
Asymptomatic atrial septal defects; In the heart the right ventricular (RV) can have a volume overload which ultimately ... Geva, Professor Tal (2014). "Atrial septal defects". The Lancet. 383 (9932): 1921-1932. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62145-5. PMID ... Angina pectoris Heart failure: Exercise intolerance is a primary symptom of chronic diastolic heart failure. Cardiac arrhythmia ... inappropriate rapid heart rate or tachycardia (having a faster heart rate than normal), increasing muscle weakness or muscle ...
Bedford, D. E.; Papp, C.; Parkinson, J. (1 January 1941). "Atrial Septal Defect". Heart. 3 (1): 37-68. doi:10.1136/hrt.3.1.37. ... With J. Maurice Campbell, Bedford was the co-editor of the British Heart Journal from 1939 to 1947 when he resigned. He served ... Bedford, D. E. (1 October 1951). "The Ancient Art of Feeling the Pulse". Heart. 13 (4): 423-437. doi:10.1136/hrt.13.4.423. PMC ... Cowan, John (January 1939). "Some notes on the Cardiac Club". Br Heart J. 1 (1): 97-104. doi:10.1136/hrt.1.1.97. PMC 503409. ...
"Atrial Septal Defect". Commonly Asked Questions About Children and Heart Disease. October 29, 2012. Retrieved April 9, 2014. ... Congenital heart defects, Diseases of the aorta, Valvular heart disease). ... Other congenital heart defects are associated with bicuspid aortic valve at various frequencies, including coarctation of the ... If these become severe enough, they may require heart surgery. The heart is put under more stress in order to either pump more ...
... (ASD) is a congenital heart defect in which blood flows between the atria (upper chambers) of the heart. ... If the defect involves two or more of the septal zones, then the defect is termed a mixed atrial septal defect. Due to the ... If the atrial septal defect is causing the right ventricle to enlarge a secundum atrial septal defect should generally be ... Heart of human embryo of about 35 days Atrial septal defect with left-to-right shunt Illustration depicting atrial septal ...
Repair of atrial and ventricular septal defects. • Repair of Fallot's Tetralogy • PDA • Surgery for Coarctation of aorta • PA ... The first open heart surgery was performed on 29 October 2007 and by March 2008 over 50 open heart operations were conducted ... Right Heart bypass in uni ventricular heart • Surgery for peripheral artery disease The department is led by a professor, an ... The cardiology department provides diagnostic and therapeutic services to patients with heart diseases. The department has a ...
"Congenital Heart Defects - Facts about Atrial Septal Defects , CDC". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 2020 ... right ventricular hypertrophy and atrial septal defect. It occurs in 1.2% of all congenital heart defects. A 1960 case report ... "Atrial septal defect (ASD) - Symptoms and causes". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2020-04-14. Wang YQ, Chen RK, Ye WW, et al. (1999). " ... However, the tetralogy has a ventricular septal defect instead of an atrial one, and it also involves an overriding aorta ...
... ætiology of atrial septal defect". British Heart Journal. 23 (5): 477-493. doi:10.1136/hrt.23.5.477. PMC 1017820. PMID 13690259 ... with Catherine Neill and S. Suzman: Campbell, M.; Neill, C.; Suzman, S. (15 June 1957). "The prognosis of atrial septal defect ... Maurice Campbell: first editor of Heart". Heart. 89 (12): 1379-1381. doi:10.1136/heart.89.12.1379. PMC 1767969. PMID 14617535 ... "The natural history of ventricular septal defect". British Heart Journal. 20 (1): 97-116. doi:10.1136/hrt.20.1.97. PMC 492796. ...
... or atrial septal defect (ASD). A PFO is lack of closure of the foramen ovale. At first, this produces a left-to-right heart ... Heart murmur Ventricular septal defect murmur in 14 year old female's heart, heard from the mitral valve area. Problems playing ... The other type of heart murmur is due to a structural defect in the heart itself. Defects may be due to narrowing of one or ... Atrial septal defect will present with a systolic crescendo-decrescendo murmur. It is best heard at the left upper sternal ...
Jude Medical, used to close atrial septal defects, has also been used to occlude the left atrial appendage. This can be ... April 2014). "Percutaneous left atrial appendage occlusion for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: an update". Open Heart ... These small iatrogenic atrial septal defects usually disappear within six months. Once the position is confirmed, the implant ... As with all Cardia devices (such as: Atrial Septal Defect Closure Device or Patent Foramen Ovale Closure Device), the Ultraseal ...
"ostium primum atrial septal defect". GPnotebook. Diagram of Ostium Secundum Atrial Septal Defect at Mayo Clinic This article ... Overview at um.edu.mt Diagram at lww.com MedEd at Loyola GrossAnatomy/thorax0/Heart_Development/Atria.html - "Atrial ... This is the second most common type of atrial septal defect and is commonly seen in Down syndrome. Typically this defect will ... Failure of the septum primum to fuse with the endocardial cushion can lead to an ostium primum atrial septal defect. ...
... including both ventricular and atrial septal aneurysms. There are congenital atrial septal aneurysms, a rare heart defect. The ... Aneurysms can arise in the heart itself following a heart attack, ... The heart, including coronary artery aneurysms, ventricular aneurysms, aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva, and aneurysms following ... Lucille Ball, who died from an aortic rupture in the abdominal area days after having undergone apparently successful heart ...
Congenital heart defects include patent ductus arteriosus, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, and tetralogy of ... Around a 5% increase in the incidence of ventricular septal defects, atrial septal defects, and patent ductus arteriosus in ... Rubella can also lead to atrial and ventricular septal defects in the heart. If exposed to rubella in the second trimester, the ... The types with the greatest death are congenital heart defects (323,000), followed by neural tube defects (69,000). Many ...
Limb defects Ventricular septal defect (VSD), atrial septal defects, and tetralogy of Fallot are the most common congenital ... Congenital heart defects are divided into two main groups: cyanotic heart defects and non-cyanotic heart defects, depending on ... Congenital heart defects are known by a number of names including congenital heart anomaly, congenital heart disease, heart ... Aortic stenosis Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy Atrial septal defect (ASD) Atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD ...
... mutations of Nkx2.5 result in some of the most common congenital heart defects. These include atrial and ventricular septal ... This gene is named after the character Tin Woodman who lacks a heart, as flies with nonfunctional tinman genes have cardiac ... It contributes to the looping of the heart during fetal cardiac development, but has also been found to contribute to the ... Evans SM, Yan W, Murillo MP, Ponce J, Papalopulu N (November 1995). "tinman, a Drosophila homeobox gene required for heart and ...
... pulmonary hypertension and ventricular septal defects. The wide and fixed splitting of S2 occurs in atrial septal defect. ... Heart murmur Ventricular septal defect murmur in 14 year old Rachel Morrison's heart, heard from the mitral valve area. ... Normal heart sounds are associated with heart valves closing: The first heart sound, or S1, forms the "lub" of "lub-dub" and is ... The fourth heart sound, or S4 when audible in an adult is called a presystolic gallop or atrial gallop. This gallop is produced ...
An Atrial septal defect is a relatively common heart malformation that occurs when the interatrial septum fails to develop ... ISBN 978-0-7295-3752-0. Diagram of Ostium Secundum Atrial Septal Defect at Mayo Clinic "ostium primum atrial septal defect". ... This is the second most common type of atrial septal defect and is commonly seen in Down syndrome. Typically, this defect will ... Persistence of the ostium secundum is the most common atrial septal defect. Additionally, in a subset of the population, the ...
Patients with NKX2-5 mutations commonly present AV conduction block and atrial septal defects (ASD). Recently, postnatal roles ... Scientists See Root Of 2 Heart Defects". Wall Street Journal. Fugate E. "Developing Genetic Therapies for Congenital Heart ... but not limited to atrial septal defects. NKX2-5 is expressed in precursor cardiac cells and this expression is necessary in ... In NKX2-5 gene knock out mice, subjects were found to have induced congenital heart defects by leading to differentially ...
"Electrocardiographic changes in atrial septal defects: Ostium secundum defect versus ostium primum (endocardial cushion) defect ... There he established cardiac catheterizations and founded Canada's first heart defibrillation unit. He taught paramedics at the ... "Considerations involved in the selection for surgery of patients with ventricular septal defects". The American Journal of ... where he established cardiac catheterizations and founded Canada's first heart defibrillation unit. He was one of the ...
... wherefore it is an azyanotic heart defect). Newborns with small foramen secundum atrial septal defects have been shown to ... Foramen secundum atrial septal defects are the most common atrial septal defects. This defect can arise as a result of defects ... Congenital Heart Diseases. 20 October 2011. Argenziano M, Oz MC, Kohmoto T, et al. Totally endoscopic atrial septal defect ... American Heart Journal. January 2006; 151(1):228-34 Gessner MD, Neish MD, et al. Ostium Secundum Atrial Septal Defects ...
A heart abnormality, atrial septal defect, was also apparent but required no intervention. At age three years, intellectual ... and ventricular septal defect. The opening in the ductus arteriosus associated with PDA had been surgically repaired in the ... Abnormalities of the heart, and other skeletal malformations may also be present. The syndrome was initially described by ... Leal, G. F.; Silva, E. O.; Duarte, A. R.; Campos, J. F. (Apr 2008). "Blepharophimosis, blepharoptosis, defects of the anterior ...
Specific examples include Truncus Arteriosus, sinus venosus atrial septal defect, and heterotaxy syndrome. Society for ... They proposed a new approach to formalize anatomic descriptions of congenital heart disease, which forms the basis of much of ... She was internationally known for her contributions to the pathology of congenital heart disease. Stella Van Praagh was born in ... Van Praagh, Richard (2019). "The Story of Dr Stella (1972 - 2006)". World Journal for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery. ...
The main concern with an atrial septal defect, is it can cause the right side of the heart to become overworked. This is ... Atrial septal defect (ASD) Ventricular septal defect (VSD) Atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA ... In Raghib syndrome these additional defects include an absent coronary sinus along with an atrial septal defect. The persistent ... Lastly, a common aspect of Raghib syndrome is an atrial septal defect. This is when there is a hole in the septum dividing the ...
"Inheritance of persistent foramen ovale and atrial septal defects and the relation to familial migraine with aura". Heart. 90 ( ... "Clopidogrel reduces migraine with aura after transcatheter closure of persistent foramen ovale and atrial septal defects". ... "Intense Migraines Secondary to Percutaneous Closure of Atrial Septal Defects". Journal of Interventional Cardiology. 18 (3): ... Collins, Lois M. (October 3, 2007). "Utah company's new stent may help repair heart defects". Deseret News. Salt Lake City, ...
Most individuals with CDK13-related disorder have congenital heart defects, typically an atrial or ventricular septal defect. ... Atrial or ventricular septal defects are usually treated with observation but can be surgically corrected in severe cases. ... CDK13-related disorder, also known as congenital heart defects, dysmorphic facial features and intellectual developmental ... when they were identified in 7 individuals from a large cohort of 1,891 patients with congenital heart defects in a study by ...
The most common is atrial septal defect--a hole between the two upper chambers of the heart. This defect typically does not ... and heart defects, and treating these problems appropriately to optimize the health and well-being of the child. Children with ... Approximately one third of the affected children have anatomical heart defects. ... Although the organ defects caused by LYK5 deficiency can not be prevented or reversed, Pretzel syndrome can nonetheless be ...
Patent ductus arteriosus is the most common defect. Septal defects (ventricular septal defects and atrial septal defects) are ... However, there is no pathognomatic heart defect associated with the condition. ...
In 2009, at age 6, Lucas underwent heart surgery to treat an atrial septal defect. Her older brother Jake Lucas is also a ...
Heart: A heart murmur that frequently disappears by one year of age. Ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, tetralogy ... At the time, nobody was aware of the full range of possible birth defects from FAS or its rate of prevalence. In 1978, within ... Alcohol is a teratogen (causes birth defects) and there is no known safe amount of alcohol to consume while pregnant and there ... The only states that have registered birth defects in Australian youth are Western Australia, New South Wales, Victoria and ...
What is Atrial Septal Defect?. An atrial septal defect is a birth defect of the heart in which there is a hole in the wall ( ... The causes of heart defects such as atrial septal defect among most babies are unknown. Some babies have heart defects because ... A health care provider may recommend the atrial septal defect be closed for a child with a large atrial septal defect, even if ... An atrial septal defect (pronounced EY-tree-uhl SEP-tuhl DEE-fekt) is a birth defect of the heart in which there is a hole in ...
Because most defects are closed, we are unlikely ever to know the true natural history of patients with an atrial septal defect ... The era of transcatheter closure of secundum atrial septal defects is now well established but confusion reigns regarding ideal ... 2 Hospital mortality after surgical repair of atrial septal defects during the early years was about 3%3 and for many years it ... Such defects usually measure 10 mm or more in diameter and occupy one third or more of the length of the atrial septum in ...
... and specificity in the diagnosis of the non-fenestrated atrial septal defect and provides quantitative information about defect ... but not in two with a fenestrated defect, and in the upper atrial septum in three of four patients with a sinus venosus defect ... right to left shunting in 15 of 29 patients and a negative contrast effect in eight of 29 patients with an atrial septal defect ... contrast injection into the left atrium showed significant left to right shunting in all patients with atrial septal defect; ...
Atrial septal defect is characterized by a defect in the interatrial septum allowing pulmonary venous return from the left ... Atrial septal defect (ASD) is one of the more commonly recognized congenital cardiac anomalies presenting in adulthood. ... lesions-atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, and coarctation of the aorta. Congenit Heart Dis. 2015 Sep. 10(5):466- ... encoded search term (Atrial Septal Defect) and Atrial Septal Defect What to Read Next on Medscape ...
Electrocardiographic Changes in Atrial Septal Defects:Ostium Secundum versus Ostium Primum defect. Am Heart J 58:689, 1959. ... Patients with atrial Septal Defects may have atrial fibrillation, atrial tachycardia, or atrial flutter, but these abnormal ... The ostium primum atrial septal defect is a defect in the atrial septum at the level of the tricuspid and mitral valves. This ... A defect in the ostium primum is occasionally classified as an atrial septal defect, but it is more commonly classified as an ...
... hole in the heart - is a type of congenital heart defect. Most ASDs are diagnosed and treated successfully. ... Atrial septal defect (ASD) - also known as a ... What Is an Atrial Septal Defect?. An atrial septal defect (ASD ... What Happens in an Atrial Septal Defect?. In an atrial septal defect, theres an opening in the wall (septum) between the atria ... How Are Atrial Septal Defects Diagnosed?. After hearing the heart murmur that suggests a hole in the atrial septum, a doctor ...
The GORE CARDIOFORM atrial septal defect (ASD) Occluder (GCA) is composed of a platinum-filled nitinol wire frame covered with ... 1 Yorkshire Heart Centre, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds, UK.. *2 Blalock-Taussig-Thomas Pediatric and Congenital Heart Center ... A novel device for atrial septal defect occlusion (GORE CARDIOFORM) EuroIntervention. 2023 Nov 17;19(9):782-788. doi: 10.4244/ ... The GORE CARDIOFORM atrial septal defect (ASD) Occluder (GCA) is composed of a platinum-filled nitinol wire frame covered with ...
... is a heart defect that is present at birth (congenital). ... Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a heart defect that is present at ... Atrial septal defects are defined as primum or secundum. *The primum defects are linked to other heart defects of the ... Some people with atrial septal defects may be able to have this procedure, depending on the size and location of the defect. ... Congenital heart defect - ASD; Birth defect heart - ASD; Primum ASD; Secundum ASD ...
"Heart Septal Defects, Atrial" by people in this website by year, and whether "Heart Septal Defects, Atrial" was a major or ... Heart Septal Defects, Atrial*Heart Septal Defects, Atrial. *Atrial Septal Defects. *Atrial Septal Defect ... "Heart Septal Defects, Atrial" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Heart Septal Defects, Atrial" by people in Profiles. ...
... is a hole between two chambers of the heart. Learn the signs, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment options. ... Atrial septal defects are one of the most common heart defects.. When an atrial septal defect is present, blood flows through ... Atrial Septal Defect Closure Results. Surgical closure of atrial septal defects doesnt have problems in 99 percent of cases. ... Open-Heart Surgery. Although an atrial septal defect may be closed by open-heart surgery, this approach is not as common as it ...
Filed Under: Heart Valves Tagged With: Atrial septal defect, congenital heart disease, Dyspnea, Echocardiography, EKG, Heart ... Atrial septal defect, congenital heart disease, Echocardiography, heart disease, Heart failure, Mitral regurgitation, Mitral ... Archives for Atrial septal defect. Echocardiography - Part 1 - What is an echocardiogram. August 12, 2013. by Dr. Julian Booker ... ABOUT MY HEART. MyHeart is a group of physicians dedicated to empowering patients to take control of their health. Read by over ...
An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a small hole between the two upper cavities of the heart, which is naturally found in all of ... Atrial septal defect (ASD) closure with devices. Home / Atrial septal defect (ASD) closure with devices ... Comparison between transcatheter and surgical closure of secundum atrial septal defect in children and adults: results of a ... Heart injury has been reported in approximately 0.1%. Central defects with good rims have almost zero chances of embolization ...
An atrial septal defect is often confused with a functional murmur, but the conditions can usually be differentiated based on ... Pathologic causes of systolic murmurs include atrial and ventricular septal defects, pulmonary or aortic outflow tract ... but most children do not have heart disease. An appropriate history and a properly conducted physical examination can identify ... children at increased risk for significant heart disease. ... An atrial septal defect is often confused with a functional ...
Atrial septal defect is caused by an opening in the septum. Learn more about the diagnosis and treatment options for ASD from ... What does the heart murmur of an atrial septal defect sound like? Many atrial septal defects make no detectable abnormal sounds ... How is Atrial Septal Defect Treated? Treatment Treatment for an atrial septal defect is entirely based on the size and location ... How is Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) Diagnosed? Diagnosis Common types of atrial septal defects are difficult to detect during ...
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Information about the SNOMED CT code 89222008 representing Pericarditis associated with atrial septal defect. ... Heart disease 56265001. Structural disorder of heart 128599005. Cardiac septal defects 253273004. Atrial septal defect 70142008 ... Pericarditis associated with atrial septal defect 89222008. SNOMED CT Concept 138875005. Clinical finding 404684003. ... Pericarditis associated with atrial septal defect 89222008. SNOMED CT code. SNOMED code. 89222008. ...
... Atrial Septal Defect (ASD). An Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) is a hole in the wall between the two upper ... Read more about Atrial Septal Defect (ASD).. Heart Defect. Congenital heart defects arise when an infants heart fails to form ... Tetralogy of Fallot affects the blood flow in the heart and is made up of four different heart defects: VSD Pulmonary stenosis ... Defects can occur in the formation of the chambers of the heart or in the valves that facilitate blood flow as the hear... Read ...
... including Atrial Septal Defect (ASD), Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD), Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS), and Tetralogy of ... Cove Point contains comprehensive information on all congenital heart defects, ... Fallot (ToF). Cove Point also includes adult congenital heart disease information on exercise and pregnancy concerns as well as ... The Cove Point Foundation Congenital Heart Resource Center is the worlds largest resource for information on pediatric and ...
... including Atrial Septal Defect (ASD), Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD), Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS), and Tetralogy of ... Cove Point contains comprehensive information on all congenital heart defects, ... Fallot (ToF). Cove Point also includes adult congenital heart disease information on exercise and pregnancy concerns as well as ... The Cove Point Foundation Congenital Heart Resource Center is the worlds largest resource for information on pediatric and ...
Atrial and Ventricular Septal Defects - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... A septal defect is a hole in the wall (septum) that separates the heart into the left and right sides. Atrial septal defects ... Atrial and ventricular septal defects are holes in the walls that separate the left and right sides of the heart ... Atrial septal defects (ASD) are holes between the upper chambers of the heart (the atria). ...
... such as continued patency of the ductus arteriosus or the presence of a septal defect, which may allow either decompression of ... In hypoplastic left heart syndrome, the left-sided heart chambers, including the aorta, are underdeveloped. Infants born with ... Abnormalities of the heart chambers may be serious and even life-threatening. ... Atrial septal defect is a noncyanotic type of congenital heart disease and usually is not associated with serious disability ...
Many patients diagnosed with congenital heart disease progress into adulthood with unique complications that may require ... Congenital heart disease is a common birth defect in the United States. ... Atrial septal defects. Treatment for arrhythmia may include medication, a pacemaker or surgical treatment. ... Heart Arrhythmia. Arrhythmias, or irregular heart rhythms, may develop over time in patients with congenital heart disease. ...
Percutaneous catheter device closure of atrial septal defects, ventricular septal defects, patent foramen ovale, and patent ... MemberCouncil on Epidemiology, American Heart Association. * MemberCouncil on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, American ...
Duodenal atresia; small atrial septal heart defect. Pulmonary atresia; Large ventral septal heart defect; large patent ductus ...
Journal of Structural Heart Disease is the official journal of the PICS Foundation, the organization that runs the largest ... Percutaneous Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale or Atrial Septal Defect in the Presence of Thrombophilia. Structural Heart Disease ... Percutaneous Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale or Atrial Septal Defect in the Presence of Thrombophilia Subrata Kar, DO1, Nabil ... or atrial septal defect (ASD) closure.. Methods: A retrospective observational study was performed including 147 patients with ...
... be a subgroup of patients who have severe migraine associated with a large right-to-left shunt in whom closure of the atrial ... Heart Septal Defects, Atrial / complications * Heart Septal Defects, Atrial / therapy* * Hemodynamics / physiology ... or to close a large atrial septal defect in four) could be contacted. 21 (57%) had a history of migraine before the procedure ( ... undertook a structured interview with individuals who had had transcatheter closure of an atrial septal defect or patent ...
Is your dog susceptible to Atrial Septal Defects (ASD)? Find out how to treat it, what it costs, and whether pet insurance ... In the case of atrial septal defects (ASDs), the resulting "hole in the heart" occurs between the right and left atriums, both ... In atrial septal defects, the blood tends to get "shunted" from the right side to the left as a result of the relatively high ... Should the heart fail to form properly in an animal embryo, a break in the wall separating two of the chambers of the heart may ...
... and atrial septal defects (ASD).. Dr. Koltes research interest is in cardiovascular outcomes and quality of care. Specifically ... Koltes clinical interest is in the management of coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, and other structural heart ... Mass General Heart Center. 55 Fruit St.. Boston, MA 02114 Phone: 866-644-8910. ... He then completed additional fellowship training in interventional cardiology and structural heart disease interventions at ...
Since this congenital heart disease mostly presents in a ... an evidence-based approach to thoroughly discuss Atrial septal ... Atrial Septal Defects Diagnosis and Management Edited By Ajith Ananthakrishna Pillai, Vidhyakar Balasubramanian Copyright 2021 ... This book is a comprehensive review of atrial septal defects, focusing especially on ostium secundum ASDs. The authors have ... Serves as a useful guide to clinical cardiologists aiming to specialize in atrial septal defects and professionals entering the ...
Our young patients receive their care from pediatric heart specialists -- surgeons, cardiologists and an entire team that ... Randall Childrens Hospital offers a leading program in pediatric heart treatment. ... Complex heart conditions we treat *Arrythmias. *Aortic valve disorders. *Atrial septal defect (ASD) repair ... The Childrens Heart Program at Randall Childrens Hospital treats all ages and stages of heart care. Like adult-focused heart ...
  • An atrial septal defect (pronounced EY-tree-uhl SEP-tuhl DEE-fekt) is a birth defect of the heart in which there is a hole in the wall (septum) that divides the upper chambers (atria) of the heart. (cdc.gov)
  • Such defects usually measure 10 mm or more in diameter and occupy one third or more of the length of the atrial septum in echocardiographic four chamber sections. (bmj.com)
  • Echo free areas along the septum were identified in 23 of 25 patients with a secundum defect, but not in two with a fenestrated defect, and in the upper atrial septum in three of four patients with a sinus venosus defect. (bmj.com)
  • ASD is characterized by a defect in the interatrial septum allowing pulmonary venous return from the left atrium to pass directly to the right atrium. (medscape.com)
  • Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital cardiac disorder caused by the spontaneous malformation of the interatrial septum. (medscape.com)
  • Ostium primum ASD: These defects are caused by incomplete fusion of septum primum with the endocardial cushion. (medscape.com)
  • In most cases, the defect lies superior in the atrial septum near the entry of superior vena cava. (medscape.com)
  • The ostium primum atrial septal defect is a defect in the atrial septum at the level of the tricuspid and mitral valves. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is sometimes known as an endocardial cushion defect because it often involves the endocardial cushion, which is the portion of the heart where the atrial septum meets the ventricular septum and the mitral valve meets the tricuspid valve. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an atrial septal defect, there's an opening in the wall (septum) between the atria. (kidshealth.org)
  • ASDs can be in different places on the atrial septum and can vary in size. (kidshealth.org)
  • After hearing the heart murmur that suggests a hole in the atrial septum, a doctor may refer a child to a pediatric cardiologist , a doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating heart disease in kids and teens. (kidshealth.org)
  • The primum defects are linked to other heart defects of the ventricular septum and mitral valve . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. (sdsu.edu)
  • An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a hole in that septum. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Depending on the size and the area of the septum involved, many atrial septal defects may be closed by a device being put in during a cardiac catheterization. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • It covers the ASD by attaching to the atrial septum. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Atrial Septal Defects are divided into three different types on the basis of the position of the hole (or holes) in the atrial septum. (congenital.org)
  • In this kind of defect, the hole is located in the lower part of the atrial septum, near the tricuspid valve, which opens into the right ventricle. (congenital.org)
  • In this case, the hole is located near the center of the atrial septum. (congenital.org)
  • A septal defect is a hole in the wall (septum) that separates the heart into the left and right sides. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Defects in the atrial septum may be small or large and occur most commonly in the midportion in the area prenatally occupied by the aperture called the foramen ovale. (britannica.com)
  • Defects lower on the atrial septum may involve the atrioventricular valves and may be associated with incompetence of these valves. (britannica.com)
  • In its most extreme form, there may be virtually no septum between the two atrial chambers. (britannica.com)
  • Defects in the interventricular septum , the partition that separates the lower chambers of the heart, may be small or large, single or multiple, and may exist within any part of the ventricular septum. (britannica.com)
  • In this condition there is a ventricular septal defect, pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the opening to the pulmonary artery), deviation of the aorta to override the ventricular septum above the ventricular septal defect, and right ventricular hypertrophy (thickening of the muscle of the right ventricle). (britannica.com)
  • ASD is a hole in the heart wall (called the septum) that separates the left atrium and the right atrium. (rchsd.org)
  • An ostium secundum atrial septal defect is an abnormally large opening in the atrial septum at the site of the foramen ovale and the ostium secundum. (medscape.com)
  • After birth, with onset of pulmonary blood flow and elevation of left atrial pressure, the septum primum is pushed against the septum secundum, effectively closing the ostium secundum. (medscape.com)
  • A secundum atrial septal defect can result from inadequate formation of the septum secundum so that it does not completely cover the ostium secundum. (medscape.com)
  • HN - 2008 BX - Lateral Sinus MH - Atrial Septum UI - D054087 MN - A07.541.459.249 MS - The thin membrane-like muscular structure separating the right and the left upper chambers (HEART ATRIA) of a heart. (bvsalud.org)
  • The era of transcatheter closure of secundum atrial septal defects is now well established but confusion reigns regarding ideal occlusion devices and indications for their use. (bmj.com)
  • Comparison between transcatheter and surgical closure of secundum atrial septal defect in children and adults: results of a multicenter nonrandomized trial. (childrenshearts.gr)
  • A secundum atrial septal defect is usually bordered by the edge of the fossa ovalis and the exposed circumference of ostium secundum. (medscape.com)
  • Although heart failure from secundum atrial septal defect rarely occurs in children, this complication can often occur in adults. (medscape.com)
  • Spontaneous closure of a small secundum atrial septal defect does occur and is usually documented when the initial diagnosis is made early in infancy. (medscape.com)
  • Some of these individuals could be classified as having a small secundum atrial septal defect. (medscape.com)
  • A 2-dimensional echocardiographic picture taken from subxiphoid window showing a large secundum atrial septal defect (arrow) in a 7-year-old boy with Holt-Oram syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • citation needed] Patients with atrial Septal Defects may have atrial fibrillation, atrial tachycardia, or atrial flutter, but these abnormal heart rhythms are not usually seen until the affected individual grows older. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adults who have had rhythm problems such as atrial flutter or atrial fibrillation may need regular evaluation. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • A lot of them had atrial fibrillation, a lot of them were on anticoagulation to start with," observed Firas Zahr, MD, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, as part of his presentation of the study at Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics (TCT) 2021 , held virtually as well as onsite in Orlando, Florida. (medscape.com)
  • Adults also demonstrate a propensity for atrial dysrhythmias, including atrial flutter and fibrillation, presumably caused by chronic right atrial dilation. (medscape.com)
  • this is a novel mutation, in that it is associated with a gain-of-function mechanism and is associated with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and no structural heart disease. (medscape.com)
  • Closure of the hole may be done during cardiac catheterization or open-heart surgery . (cdc.gov)
  • Usually, though, if an ASD hasn't closed on its own by the time a child starts school, the cardiologist will recommend fixing the hole, either with cardiac catheterization or heart surgery. (kidshealth.org)
  • Cardiac catheterization - also called percutaneous repair, where a cardiologist implants an umbrella device in the heart wall to close the hole. (nyp.org)
  • A cardiac catheterization is a medical procedure that provides information about the heart structures and function. (rchsd.org)
  • These expert cardiologists use advanced diagnostic techniques like echocardiography, stress tests, and cardiac catheterization to evaluate the heart and determine the most appropriate course of action. (apollohospitals.com)
  • Endocardial cushion defects are associated with abnormalities of the atrioventricular valves (the mitral valve and the tricuspid valve). (wikipedia.org)
  • ASD may not need treatment if there are few or no symptoms, or if the defect is small and is not associated with other abnormalities. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A procedure has been developed to close the defect (if no other abnormalities are present) without open heart surgery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pathologic causes of systolic murmurs include atrial and ventricular septal defects, pulmonary or aortic outflow tract abnormalities, and patent ductus arteriosus. (aafp.org)
  • Abnormalities of the heart chambers may be serious and even life-threatening. (britannica.com)
  • Survival often depends on the presence of associated compensatory abnormalities, such as continued patency of the ductus arteriosus or the presence of a septal defect, which may allow either decompression of a chamber under elevated pressure or beneficial compensatory intracardiac shunting either from right to left or from left to right. (britannica.com)
  • Small defects are among the most common congenital cardiovascular abnormalities and may be less life-threatening, since many such defects close spontaneously. (britannica.com)
  • These may be caused by conduction abnormalities from prior surgical incisions or scarring of heart tissue after repair operations. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Treatment for ASD varies according to the size of the defects and the presence of other heart abnormalities. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • If defects are closed in children younger than 8 years, the prognosis is excellent, with rare short-term or long-term cardiac abnormalities. (medscape.com)
  • The results of cross sectional echocardiography, intracardiac contrast echocardiography, and balloon sizing techniques and conventional haemodynamic assessment were correlated in 40 consecutive patients evaluated for an isolated left to right shunt at atrial level. (bmj.com)
  • Cross sectional echocardiography has high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of the non-fenestrated atrial septal defect and provides quantitative information about defect diameter. (bmj.com)
  • Echocardiography is the main method used to confirm that an atrial septal defect exists. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • One study 3 showed that direct referral for echocardiography was an expensive way to evaluate children with heart murmurs. (aafp.org)
  • After these dogs have been flagged as possible sufferers of the problem, diagnosis is best achieved through simple chest X-rays (which almost always demonstrate an enlargement in the right side of the heart) and echocardiography (ultrasound of the heart) with doppler (demonstrating the flow of blood) to elucidate the abnormal change in the dimensions of the heart and the blood flow through it. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • Fetal echocardiography to give parents and doctors time to plan for the birth of a child with heart disease. (legacyhealth.org)
  • The high prevalence of congenital heart disease may justify routine echocardiography screening. (who.int)
  • He performs percutaneous coronary interventions, transcatheter valve replacement and repair, and transcatheter closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) and atrial septal defects (ASD). (massgeneral.org)
  • In a study in Atlanta, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that 13 of every 10,000 babies born had an atrial septal defect. (cdc.gov)
  • An ASD that isn't treated in childhood can lead to health problems later, including an abnormal heart rhythm (an atrial arrhythmia ) and problems in how well the heart pumps blood. (kidshealth.org)
  • One device embolisation occurred, and 15 patients (12% of GCA implantations) developed new onset arrhythmia - this was not related to patient age, defect diameter or device oversizing but was positively associated with device size. (nih.gov)
  • An arrhythmia is an abnormal heartbeat usually caused by an electrical "short circuit" in the heart. (rchsd.org)
  • Children with ASDs are born with the defect. (kidshealth.org)
  • ASDs happen during fetal development of the heart. (kidshealth.org)
  • If ASDs are large enough to cause the right heart chambers to get larger, repair is recommended. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Heart surgery - All primum ASDs, coronary sinus defects and the majority of sinus venosus ASDs require surgical treatment, in which the cardiac surgeon makes an incision in the chest and closes the atrial septal defect with stitches or with a patch of the patient's own tissue (or a man-made material). (nyp.org)
  • ASDs may be closed by patching or suturing during open heart surgery. (congenital.org)
  • An alternative to open heart surgery in the treatment of ASDs is the use of devices that are introduced into the heart with the use of a catheter during a catheterization procedure. (congenital.org)
  • In the case of atrial septal defects (ASDs), the resulting "hole in the heart" occurs between the right and left atriums, both of which are instrumental in pumping blood into the lungs and the rest of the body, respectively. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • This book is a comprehensive review of atrial septal defects, focusing especially on ostium secundum ASDs. (routledge.com)
  • One of the most common ways an atrial septal defect is found is by detecting a murmur when listening to a person's heart with a stethoscope. (cdc.gov)
  • The increased blood flow to the lungs creates a swishing sound, known as a heart murmur . (kidshealth.org)
  • The murmur, along with other specific heart sounds, often is the first tip-off to a doctor that a child has an ASD. (kidshealth.org)
  • A murmur means that blood is not flowing through the heart smoothly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hearing a murmur on a physical exam is the most common reason an atrial septal defect is suspected. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • An atrial septal defect is often confused with a functional murmur, but the conditions can usually be differentiated based on specific physical findings. (aafp.org)
  • However, this examination must be performed on any child who has a heart murmur or historical features that indicate the presence of heart disease or abnormal cardiac function. (aafp.org)
  • When ASD is not detected before birth, and in patients of all ages, a heart murmur (a whooshing sound) that the doctor hears through a stethoscope may be the first sign of the condition. (nyp.org)
  • Why do atrial septal defects cause the heart murmur? (nyp.org)
  • A heart murmur is an abnormal sound that occurs from turbulent blood flow in the heart. (nyp.org)
  • Dogs with symptoms of ASD are often identified by the significant heart murmur their veterinarian detects on physical examination. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • My Doctor Said I Have a Heart Murmur. (utah.edu)
  • If your doctor told you that you have a heart murmur, you're probably wondering what that means. (utah.edu)
  • Will I always have a heart murmur? (utah.edu)
  • A consultant neurologist, who was unaware of information about residual shunt, undertook a structured interview with individuals who had had transcatheter closure of an atrial septal defect or patent foramen ovale to assess how the procedure affected migraine symptoms. (nih.gov)
  • Tetralogy of Fallot affects the blood flow in the heart and is made up of four different heart defects: VSD Pulmonary stenosis: A narrowing of the pulmonary valve and main pulmonary artery. (rainbowkids.com)
  • The heart defects in the study with this link include tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary valve stenosis, and atrial septal defects. (cdc.gov)
  • Depending on the size of the defect, size of the shunt, and associated anomalies, this can result in a spectrum of disease ranging from no significant cardiac sequelae to right-sided volume overload, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and even atrial arrhythmias. (medscape.com)
  • With a small atrial septal defect, the chance of the ASD closing on its own may be as high as 80 percent in the first 18 months of life. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • In the case of small atrial septal defects in young children, a cardiologist may recommend a "wait and see" approach with regular evaluation since some of these defects close on their own in the first year or two. (nyp.org)
  • citation needed] A defect in the ostium primum is occasionally classified as an atrial septal defect, but it is more commonly classified as an atrioventricular septal defect. (wikipedia.org)
  • Q21.2 Sources Pryor R, Woodwork MB, Blount SG: Electrocardiographic Changes in Atrial Septal Defects:Ostium Secundum versus Ostium Primum defect. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first type of ASD is known as ostium primum defect, or simply, primum (number 1 in the diagram). (congenital.org)
  • Dr. Kolte's clinical interest is in the management of coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease, and other structural heart diseases in adults. (massgeneral.org)
  • He has mentored many students in the field of Interventional Cardiology over past 12 years and has a vast experience in Complex Coronary Interventions and Nonsurgical Management of Congenital and Structural Heart Diseases in both paediatric and adult population. (routledge.com)
  • Perform minimally invasive, catheter-based procedures to treat coronary artery, valve, peripheral and carotid artery diseases, especially for patients who cannot undergo traditional open-heart surgery due to their general health conditions. (baptisthealthsystem.com)
  • The enlargement of the left ventricle usually occurs in patients with hypertension or coronary heart disease. (valleybaptist.net)
  • 5) Behavior Questionnaire elicited data on behavior which may be associated with coronary heart disease for examined persons ages 25-74. (cdc.gov)
  • Coronary sinus, normally located between the LEFT ATRIUM and LEFT VENTRICLE on the posterior surface of the heart, can serve as an anatomical reference for cardiac procedures. (bvsalud.org)
  • Increased pre-cordial activity occurs in patients with an atrial septal defect, a moderate or large ventricular septal defect or significant patent ductus arteriosus. (aafp.org)
  • [ 4 ] An autopsy revealed a large ventricular septal defect (VSD) and an overriding aorta. (medscape.com)
  • inferior vena caval injection produced right to left shunting in 15 of 29 patients and a negative contrast effect in eight of 29 patients with an atrial septal defect, although neither correlated quantitatively with defect diameter or magnitude of the left to right shunt. (bmj.com)
  • The two kinds of sinus venosus defect are distinguished by whether the hole is near the entry point of the superior vena cava (SVC) (superior vena caval type - 3 in diagram) or of the inferior vena cava (IVC) (inferior vena caval type - 4 in diagram). (congenital.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to assess whether pre-existing thrombophilia predisposes patients to adverse events after percutaneous patent foramen ovale (PFO) or atrial septal defect (ASD) closure. (structuralheartdisease.org)
  • This radiograph reveals an enlarged right heart and pulmonary artery dilatation in a 24-year-old woman with an unrestricted patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and Eisenmenger syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • 2 Hospital mortality after surgical repair of atrial septal defects during the early years was about 3% 3 and for many years it has been less than 1%, with correspondingly low complication rates. (bmj.com)
  • The poor correlation between defect size and the measured shunt suggests that the latter may not be the best criterion for surgical management and that size could be an important factor likely to influence both the long term prognosis and the decision for closure. (bmj.com)
  • Surgical closure of atrial septal defects doesn't have problems in 99 percent of cases. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Surgical repairs may deteriorate over time and patients with congenital heart disease may develop acquired cardiovascular diseases and - the combination of these two requires specialized care. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Adults who have had surgical procedures as a child to correct or treat a congenital heart defect require follow-up care because these surgical treatments may deteriorate over time and can become less effective. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Patients who did not receive treatment for congenital heart disease as a child may require surgical or medical treatment to manage their condition as adults. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Heart surgery, and pre-operative and post-operative care for surgical patients. (legacyhealth.org)
  • Your surgical team will connect you to a heart-lung machine that keeps blood circulating during the operation. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • If your child had open-heart surgery, a surgical cut was made through the breastbone or the side of the chest. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In 2017, NewYork-Presbyterian physicians performed nearly 500 catheter-based, surgical, and electrophysiology implant procedures for adult patients with congenital heart disease. (nyp.org)
  • Specialize in surgical procedures on the lungs, heart, esophagus and other organs found from the collarbone to the diaphragm. (baptisthealthsystem.com)
  • In most cases, only the anterior or septal leaflet of the mitral valve is displaced, and it is commonly cleft. (medscape.com)
  • If an atrial septal defect is suspected, a specialist will need to confirm the diagnosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Treatment for an atrial septal defect depends on the age of diagnosis, the number of or seriousness of symptoms, size of the hole, and presence of other conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • When an atrial septal defect is suspected, a specialist may be able to confirm the diagnosis and can provide additional assessment before, and immediately after the birth. (nyp.org)
  • The definitive test to confirm an atrial septal defect diagnosis is an echocardiogram, in which sound waves (ultrasound) are used to provide images of the heart in motion. (nyp.org)
  • It also depends on how enlarged your heart is at the moment of diagnosis. (valleybaptist.net)
  • Hospitalizations that included at least one discharge diagnosis with a birth defect ICD-9-CM code meeting these definitions were considered "birth defect-associated" hospitalizations. (medscape.com)
  • Eligible birth defect codes found in any diagnosis field (i.e., primary or any of 24 reported secondary fields) were analyzed for all birth defects combined, for categories of birth defects broadly defined by organ system, [ 4 ] and for individual defects. (medscape.com)
  • Congenital heart disease is the most common form of birth defect in the United States. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • This study has made key contributions toward understanding the causes of birth defects and identifying potential risks for having a baby with a birth defect. (cdc.gov)
  • NBDPS has made key contributions toward understanding the risk of having a baby with a birth defect when specific medications are used just before and during pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • Gastroschisis is a birth defect of the abdominal (belly) wall. (cdc.gov)
  • Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common type of birth defect, affecting about one in every 100 babies born in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC used the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) 2013 National Inpatient Sample (NIS), a 20% stratified sample of discharges from nonfederal community hospitals, to estimate the annual cost of birth defect-associated hospitalizations in the United States, both for persons of all ages and by age group. (medscape.com)
  • Birth defect-associated hospitalizations had disproportionately high costs, accounting for 3.0% of all hospitalizations and 5.2% of total hospital costs. (medscape.com)
  • The estimated annual cost of birth defect-associated hospitalizations in the United States in 2013 was $22.9 billion. (medscape.com)
  • Estimates of the cost of birth defect-associated hospitalizations offer important information about the impact of birth defects among persons of all ages on the overall health care system and can be used to prioritize prevention, early detection, and care. (medscape.com)
  • for persons aged ≥1 year, this was not considered a birth defect. (medscape.com)
  • An atrial septal defect is one type of congenital heart defect. (cdc.gov)
  • An atrial septal defect (ASD) - sometimes called a hole in the heart - is a type of congenital heart defect in which there is an abnormal opening in the dividing wall between the upper filling chambers of the heart (the atria). (kidshealth.org)
  • In this procedure, a thin, flexible tube (a catheter) is inserted into a blood vessel in the leg that leads to the heart. (kidshealth.org)
  • A catheter containing a balloon is introduced into the heart and the balloon is inflated to measure the diameter of the ASD. (congenital.org)
  • The catheter enters from the groin or forearm, and continues into the heart via the Vena Cava. (congenital.org)
  • The catheter is the use of a small tube to treat heart problems. (legacyhealth.org)
  • We also offer hybrid procedures, where surgeons and cardiologists work together on babies too sick to endure open-heart surgery or too small for most catheter-based procedures. (legacyhealth.org)
  • While catheter ablation is commonly performed to treat atrial arrhythmias in ACHD, factors for predicting recurrence have not been adequately defined. (nyp.org)
  • A retrospective study conducted by Columbia researchers looked at catheter ablations for atrial arrhythmias performed in 125 patients with ACHD at NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia over a 10-year period between January 2005 and February 2015. (nyp.org)
  • The past and current success of surgery cannot be ignored when evaluating current fashions, and although it is true that routine closure is not of proved benefit to all patients there is a general consensus among cardiologists and surgeons that when an atrial septal defect gives rise to right ventricular dilatation it should be closed. (bmj.com)
  • General adult cardiologists may be less familiar with patients diagnosed with heart failure and a congenital heart disease because heart failure associated with a congenital heart disease frequently presents differently, with symptoms that are unique compared to the rest of the population. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Serves as a useful guide to clinical cardiologists aiming to specialize in atrial septal defects and professionals entering the field. (routledge.com)
  • Our young patients receive their care from pediatric heart specialists -- surgeons, cardiologists and an entire team that provides everything the patient and family need. (legacyhealth.org)
  • Percutaneous Interventions for Congenital Heart Disease is written for pediatric cardiologists specializing in interventional cardiology and need a step-by-step guide to carrying out procedures, as well as adult cardiologists. (routledge.com)
  • An essential text on how to perform interventional cardiology for congenital heart disease in both the pediatric and adult patient, this expertly written work will help to overcome barriers between pediatric and adult cardiologists, and pave the way for new cardiovascular interventionalists. (routledge.com)
  • Cardiologists, as medical professionals specialising in Cardiology , are vital in providing comprehensive care for individuals with heart-related concerns. (apollohospitals.com)
  • Medications are not used to treat atrial septal defects, but they may be given to address certain symptoms or related complications. (nyp.org)
  • Many patients diagnosed with congenital heart disease require specialized care, and even patients who had their condition repaired in childhood require follow-up care because they are prone to unique complications that require treatment. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Women diagnosed with congenital heart disease planning to have children are encouraged to see a physician specialized in adult congenital heart disease to evaluate the risks and potential complications of pregnancy. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • What are the risks or complications of minimally invasive heart surgery? (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Minimally invasive heart surgery has a lower risk of complications than open-heart surgery. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • With small ASD, left atrial pressure may exceed right atrial pressure by several millimeters of mercury, whereas with large ASD, mean atrial pressures are nearly identical. (medscape.com)
  • In hypoplastic left heart syndrome, the left-sided heart chambers, including the aorta, are underdeveloped. (britannica.com)
  • The most common test is an echocardiogram which is an ultrasound of the heart. (cdc.gov)
  • An echocardiogram is a test that uses sound waves to create a moving picture of the heart. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A Doppler study done as part of the echocardiogram allows the health care provider to assess the amount of shunting of blood between the heart chambers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An echocardiogram is a type of sonogram which means that it uses sound waves to take pictures of your heart and related structures. (myheart.net)
  • Imaging is more difficult in adults with a standard echocardiogram test, so the ultrasound camera may also be passed down the esophagus to image the heart from behind. (nyp.org)
  • Sinus venosus ASD: Abnormal fusion between the embryologic sinus venosus and the atrium causes these defects. (medscape.com)
  • The third type of ASD is known as a sinus venosus defect, in which the hole is located near one of the two places where the vena cava (the vein that carries blood from the body to the heart) enters the right atrium. (congenital.org)
  • As a baby's heart develops during pregnancy, there are normally several openings in the wall dividing the upper chambers of the heart (atria). (cdc.gov)
  • Fixed splitting of the second heart sound (S2) occurs because of equal filling of the left and right atria during all phases of the respiratory cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atrial septal defects (ASD) are holes between the upper chambers of the heart (the atria). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Atrial septal defects are located between the heart's upper chambers (atria). (msdmanuals.com)
  • A hole between the upper heart chambers, or the atria. (vejthani.com)
  • The two chambers at the top of the heart are called the atria. (rchsd.org)
  • The atria are the chambers that fill with the blood returning to the heart from the body and lungs. (rchsd.org)
  • Typically, there is a large hole between the upper chambers of the heart (the atria) and, often, an additional hole between the lower chambers of the heart (the ventricles). (rchsd.org)
  • In the early embryo heart, the atria comprise a common chamber. (medscape.com)
  • Endocardial cushion defects are the most common congenital heart defect that is associated with Down syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Congenital heart defects arise when an infant's heart fails to form properly in the womb. (rainbowkids.com)
  • Atrial septal defect is a noncyanotic type of congenital heart disease and usually is not associated with serious disability during childhood. (britannica.com)
  • A child with this cyanotic form of congenital heart disease can survive beyond infancy, but few survive to adulthood without surgery. (britannica.com)
  • In many complex forms of congenital heart disease, the aorta and pulmonary artery do not originate from their normal areas of the ventricles. (britannica.com)
  • How does congenital heart disease affect adults? (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Patients with congenital heart problems can develop acquired heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases as they age, which can be more complicated to treat than for adults without a congenital heart disease (CHD). (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • It is recommended that adults diagnosed with congenital heart disease seek treatment from specialized physicians, to prevent heart failure and to treat it should it develop. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Pulmonary hypertension is more common in patients diagnosed with congenital heart diseases than in the general population. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Adults diagnosed with congenital heart disease may require different and unique interventions to manage their pulmonary hypertension, and may require routine treatment and appointments with a specialized pulmonologist. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Arrhythmias , or irregular heart rhythms, may develop over time in patients with congenital heart disease. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Women diagnosed with congenital heart disease may face more risks during their pregnancy than others. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Pregnancy may not be recommended for women with some forms of congenital heart disease. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The Johns Hopkins Adult Congenital Heart Disease Center provides lifelong heart care for patients diagnosed with congenital heart diseases. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Exercising and training for adults and children with congenital heart disease may be difficult depending on the patient's defect, medical history and current condition. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • BONAGURA, J. D. and LEHMKUHL, L. B. (1999) Congenital heart disease. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • BOON, J. A. (1998) Congenital heart disease. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • Since this congenital heart disease mostly presents in adulthood, it becomes imperative to understand the embryology, pathophysiology and anatomy in detail, for effective management of these patients. (routledge.com)
  • Dr. VanLoozen enjoys all aspects of pediatric cardiology, however his passion involves treating complex congenital heart disease using minimally invasive, transcatheter techniques. (cookchildrens.org)
  • Their analysis, published in the November 19, 2018 online issue of Congenital Heart Disease , revealed that body mass index and Fontan status were the only variables associated with recurrence, with BMI indicating a more significant risk independent of Fontan status. (nyp.org)
  • Long-term management by adult congenital heart disease specialists, with the use of chocardiography and CT or MRI, is recommended for all patients with D-TGA. (nyp.org)
  • A congenital heart defect is a cardiac condition that affects the structure of the heart of children since birth. (vejthani.com)
  • There are many types of congenital heart defects. (vejthani.com)
  • Although there are unknown causes to congenital heart defects, there are some risk factors for these diseases. (vejthani.com)
  • A baby tends to develop a congenital heart defect in the first six weeks of pregnancy, during the development of the heart and major blood vessels. (vejthani.com)
  • People with congenital heart disease or heart valve problems are most at risk of getting bacterial endocarditis. (rchsd.org)
  • Maternal occupational pesticide exposure and risk of congenital heart defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. (cdc.gov)
  • Background: Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are common birth defects, affecting approximately 1% of live births. (cdc.gov)
  • focuses on adult congenital heart disease, caused by a group of developmental defects that result in heart malformations and thus disrupt normal heart function. (jax.org)
  • One million kids are born with congenital heart disease each year. (jax.org)
  • Fatma was born with a congenital heart condition known as an atrial septal defect. (who.int)
  • [ 10 ] The grandfather presented with phocomelia of arms, with three digits on each hand, congenital heart defect, and narrow shoulders. (medscape.com)
  • His son presented with cardiac conduction disturbance with no congenital heart or skeletal defect. (medscape.com)
  • College of Wisconsin, current era from 28 patients with septal defects who factor HEY2 in formalin fixed tissue taken from a Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA underwent cardiac surgery and who were enrolled in our collection of hearts with atrial septal defects congenital heart disease tissue bank. (cdc.gov)
  • Objectives: To determine the usefulness of cardiovascular physical examination (CPE) as a screening tool in a lowresource setting for detecting congenital heart disease (CHD) in newborns delivered at the Maternity Unit of Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH), Accra, Ghana. (bvsalud.org)
  • An advanced pediatric cardiovascular center for children born with heart disease. (legacyhealth.org)
  • Whether you are interested in a preventive heart screening, a consultation, or treatment for an existing cardiovascular condition, rest assured that you will receive the highest quality of care from our heart and vascular physicians. (ohiohealth.com)
  • Cardiovascular disease is a group of problems that occur when the heart and blood vessels aren't working properly. (rchsd.org)
  • The heart and circulatory system (also called the cardiovascular system) make up the network that delivers blood to the body's tissues. (rchsd.org)
  • Cardiology is a branch of medicine that specialises in studying, diagnosing, and treating diseases and conditions affecting the heart and cardiovascular system. (apollohospitals.com)
  • It is characterized by intellectual disabilities and the Greek warrior helmet appearance of the nose and forehead, as well as multiple other defects (skeletal, cardiovascular, and urogenital). (medscape.com)
  • An atrial septal defect is present at birth, but many babies do not have any signs or symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • A health care provider may recommend the atrial septal defect be closed for a child with a large atrial septal defect, even if there are few symptoms, to prevent problems later in life. (cdc.gov)
  • What Are the Signs & Symptoms of an Atrial Septal Defect? (kidshealth.org)
  • A person with no other heart defect, or a small defect (less than 5 millimeters) may not have any symptoms, or symptoms may not occur until middle age or later. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The health care provider will check how large and severe an ASD is based on the symptoms, physical exam, and the results of heart tests. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Surgery to close the defect is recommended if the defect causes a large amount of shunting, the heart is swollen, or symptoms occur. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Important factors include the size of the defect, the amount of extra blood flowing through the opening, the size of the right side of the heart, and whether the person has any symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In most children, atrial septal defects cause no symptoms. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • This can cause congestive heart failure symptoms. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • No treatment until symptoms are noted is the typical approach for this condition, though medical management through heart drugs may be necessary in moderately to severely affected dogs. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • The symptoms of an enlarged heart sometimes don't show unless the condition worsens. (valleybaptist.net)
  • Eisenmenger syndrome was initially described in 1897, when Victor Eisenmenger reported on a patient with symptoms of dyspnea and cyanosis from infancy who subsequently developed heart failure and succumbed to massive hemoptysis. (medscape.com)
  • Atrial septal defect (ASD) is one of the more commonly recognized congenital cardiac anomalies presenting in adulthood. (medscape.com)
  • As an example, adults diagnosed with CHD often develop right-sided heart failure (in adults without CHD, heart failure is commonly on the left side). (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Pediatric ASD is commonly called a hole in the heart in children. (childrenscolorado.org)
  • This includes closing heart defects, stent placement or ballooning of stenotic lesions/valves and transcatheter valve replacement. (cookchildrens.org)
  • Repair your heart, replace a heart valve , place a device or remove tumors. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The Providence Heart Institute has a robust, multi-disciplinary valve clinic and structural heart program that is the most experienced and largest in the state of Montana. (providence.org)
  • Valve disease can eventually lead to heart failure or HF . (utah.edu)
  • To complicate matters even more, Yanez developed heart valve disease and needed a new valve in addition to a liver. (utah.edu)
  • Heart valve disease interferes with the opening/closing mechanism of a valve. (vejthani.com)
  • This means it is harder for blood to flow through the valve, and the heart is forced to work harder to pump the blood. (vejthani.com)
  • Specialize in diagnosing and treating heart valve problems that may result in the heart having to pump harder to supply enough blood throughout the body. (baptisthealthsystem.com)
  • The enlargement of the heart is not a disease itself, but instead a symptom of a heart defect which makes the heart work harder, such as heart valve problems or high blood pressure. (valleybaptist.net)
  • The aortic valve is one of two valves that control the flow of blood as it leaves the heart. (rchsd.org)
  • Instead of two separate valves allowing flow into the heart, there is one large common valve that might be quite malformed. (rchsd.org)
  • This infection in the heart happens when bacteria travel through the blood and get stuck on a heart valve. (rchsd.org)
  • Although unusual, obstructive pulmonary vascular disease may occur in adults with an atrial septal defect. (medscape.com)
  • Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. (sdsu.edu)
  • A complete atrioventricular septal defect (CAVSD) is one where there are defects in all structures formed by the endocardial cushions. (childrenscolorado.org)
  • This defect - also known as endocardial cushion defect or atrioventricular septal defect - is caused by a poorly formed central area of the heart. (rchsd.org)
  • The physical exam may also show signs of heart failure in some adults. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This view is much closer to the wall where the atrial septal defect occurs and is the best test for assessing an atrial septal defect in adults. (nyp.org)
  • A small defect may be associated with problems in young adults, although deterioration can occur in later life. (britannica.com)
  • The defect in the wall can be easily identified in children, and the blood flowing abnormally between the chambers of the heart may also be viewed using this technology. (nyp.org)
  • An Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) is a hole in the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart. (rainbowkids.com)
  • Defects can occur in the formation of the chambers of the heart or in the valves that facilitate blood flow as the hear. (rainbowkids.com)
  • Ventricular septal defects (VSD) are holes between the lower chambers of the heart (the ventricles). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Should the heart fail to form properly in an animal embryo, a break in the wall separating two of the chambers of the heart may remain open. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • Cardiac MRI shows Ebstein's anomaly with apical displacement of the septal leaflet resulting in severe tricuspid regurgitation. (nyp.org)
  • Learn about partial & complete Atrioventricular Canal Defects (AVCD) in children & treatment options at Children's Colorado focused on positive outcomes. (childrenscolorado.org)
  • Dr Michael Mitchell, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, defects (ASD, n = 13), ventricular septal defects (VSD, NKX2-5 sequence variants were found in .95% of Department of Surgery, Medical n = 5), and atrioventricular canal defects (AVCD, n = 10). (cdc.gov)
  • In contrast, the correlation between defect diameter and pulmonary to systemic blood flow ratio was poor, mainly because of highly variable shunting in patients with an anatomically large defect. (bmj.com)
  • The magnitude of the left-to-right shunt across the atrial septal defect (ASD) depends on the defect size, the relative compliance of the ventricles, and the relative resistance in both the pulmonary and systemic circulation. (medscape.com)
  • Valvular heart disease happens when your heart's valves do not work correctly. (utah.edu)
  • The Valvular Heart Disease Program at U of U Health provides cutting edge treatment from multi-specialty, high certified providers. (utah.edu)
  • Likely some augmentation occurs during atrial contraction. (medscape.com)
  • Small defects often create loud murmurs but, because there is limited flow of blood from left to right, no significant change in the circulation occurs. (britannica.com)
  • Occurs when some or all pulmonary veins are connected to a wrong area or areas of the heart. (vejthani.com)
  • Methods: We examined maternal occupational exposure to fungicides , insecticides , and herbicides for 3328 infants with CHDs and 2988 unaffected control infants of employed mothers using data for 1997 through 2002 births from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based multisite case-control study. (cdc.gov)