Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Heart Rate, Fetal: The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Electrocardiography, Ambulatory: Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.Baroreflex: A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Heart Valves: Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Heart Block: Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Tachycardia: Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Cardiovascular System: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Rest: Freedom from activity.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Heart Arrest, Induced: A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Sinoatrial Node: The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Autonomic Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Arrhythmia, Sinus: Irregular HEART RATE caused by abnormal function of the SINOATRIAL NODE. It is characterized by a greater than 10% change between the maximum and the minimum sinus cycle length or 120 milliseconds.Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Metoprolol: A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Supine Position: The posture of an individual lying face up.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Tilt-Table Test: A standard and widely accepted diagnostic test used to identify patients who have a vasodepressive and/or cardioinhibitory response as a cause of syncope. (From Braunwald, Heart Disease, 7th ed)Atenolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Fetal Monitoring: Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Heart Failure, Systolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial contraction during SYSTOLE leading to defective cardiac emptying.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Heart Arrest: Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Heart, Artificial: A pumping mechanism that duplicates the output, rate, and blood pressure of the natural heart. It may replace the function of the entire heart or a portion of it, and may be an intracorporeal, extracorporeal, or paracorporeal heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Heart Septum: This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.Valsalva Maneuver: Forced expiratory effort against a closed GLOTTIS.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Benzazepines: Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Respiratory Rate: The number of times an organism breathes with the lungs (RESPIRATION) per unit time, usually per minute.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Autonomic Nerve Block: Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.Rheumatic Heart Disease: Cardiac manifestation of systemic rheumatological conditions, such as RHEUMATIC FEVER. Rheumatic heart disease can involve any part the heart, most often the HEART VALVES and the ENDOCARDIUM.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Heart Valve Prosthesis: A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC BETA-1 RECEPTORS.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Pulse: The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Cardiotocography: Monitoring of FETAL HEART frequency before birth in order to assess impending prematurity in relation to the pattern or intensity of antepartum UTERINE CONTRACTION.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Sympathomimetics: Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.Sympatholytics: Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Heart Failure, Diastolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial relaxation during DIASTOLE leading to defective cardiac filling.Pacemaker, Artificial: A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.American Heart Association: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Cardiac Complexes, Premature: A group of cardiac arrhythmias in which the cardiac contractions are not initiated at the SINOATRIAL NODE. They include both atrial and ventricular premature beats, and are also known as extra or ectopic heartbeats. Their frequency is increased in heart diseases.Blood Circulation: The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Parasympatholytics: Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Ventricular Premature Complexes: A type of cardiac arrhythmia with premature contractions of the HEART VENTRICLES. It is characterized by the premature QRS complex on ECG that is of abnormal shape and great duration (generally >129 msec). It is the most common form of all cardiac arrhythmias. Premature ventricular complexes have no clinical significance except in concurrence with heart diseases.Arterial Pressure: The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Atrioventricular Node: A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Atrial Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Digoxin: A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Ventricular Fibrillation: A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Hypotension, Orthostatic: A significant drop in BLOOD PRESSURE after assuming a standing position. Orthostatic hypotension is a finding, and defined as a 20-mm Hg decrease in systolic pressure or a 10-mm Hg decrease in diastolic pressure 3 minutes after the person has risen from supine to standing. Symptoms generally include DIZZINESS, blurred vision, and SYNCOPE.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Muscarinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.Ganglionic Blockers: Agents having as their major action the interruption of neural transmission at nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Because their actions are so broad, including blocking of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, their therapeutic use has been largely supplanted by more specific drugs. They may still be used in the control of blood pressure in patients with acute dissecting aortic aneurysm and for the induction of hypotension in surgery.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Heart Septal Defects: Abnormalities in any part of the HEART SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communication between the left and the right chambers of the heart. The abnormal blood flow inside the heart may be caused by defects in the ATRIAL SEPTUM, the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM, or both.Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: A condition caused by underdevelopment of the whole left half of the heart. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the left cardiac chambers (HEART ATRIUM; HEART VENTRICLE), the AORTA, the AORTIC VALVE, and the MITRAL VALVE. Severe symptoms appear in early infancy when DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS closes.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Practolol: A beta-1 adrenergic antagonist that has been used in the emergency treatment of CARDIAC ARRYTHMIAS.Anaerobic Threshold: The oxygen consumption level above which aerobic energy production is supplemented by anaerobic mechanisms during exercise, resulting in a sustained increase in lactate concentration and metabolic acidosis. The anaerobic threshold is affected by factors that modify oxygen delivery to the tissues; it is low in patients with heart disease. Methods of measurement include direct measure of lactate concentration, direct measurement of bicarbonate concentration, and gas exchange measurements.Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Galvanic Skin Response: A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.Ventricular Dysfunction: A condition in which HEART VENTRICLES exhibit impaired function.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Carbazoles: Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.

Graphic monitoring of labour. (1/19128)

The parturograph is a composite record designed for the monitoring of fetal and maternal well-being and the progress of labour. It permits the early recognition of abnormalities and pinpoints the patients who would benefit most from intervention. Observations are made from the time of admission of the mother to the caseroom and recorded graphically. Factors assessed include fetal heart rate, maternal vital signs and urine, cervical dilatation, descent of the presenting fetal part, and frequency, duration and intensity of uterine contractions.  (+info)

Reduction in baroreflex cardiovascular responses due to venous infusion in the rabbit. (2/19128)

We studied reflex bradycardia and depression of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) during left aortic nerve (LAN) stimulation before and after volume infusion in the anesthetized rabbit. Step increases in mean right atrial pressure (MRAP) to 10 mm Hg did not result in a significant change in heart rate or MAP. After volume loading, responses to LAN stimulation were not as great and the degree of attenuation was propoetional to the level of increased MRAP. A change in responsiveness was observed after elevation of MRAP by only 1 mm Hg, corresponding to less than a 10% increase in average calculated blood volume. after an increase in MRAP of 10 mm Hg, peak responses were attenuated by 44% (heart rate) and 52% (MAP), and the initial slopes (rate of change) were reduced by 46% (heart rate) and 66% (MAP). Comparison of the responses after infusion with blood and dextran solutions indicated that hemodilution was an unlikely explanation for the attenuation of the reflex responses. Total arterial baroreceptor denervation (ABD) abolished the volume-related attenuation was still present following bilateral aortic nerve section or vagotomy. It thus appears that the carotid sinus responds to changes inblood volume and influences the reflex cardiovascular responses to afferent stimulation of the LAN. On the other hand, cardiopulmonary receptors subserved by vagal afferents do not appear to be involved.  (+info)

Quantification of baroreceptor influence on arterial pressure changes seen in primary angiotension-induced hypertension in dogs. (3/19128)

We studied the role of the sino-aortic baroreceptors in the gradual development of hypertension induced by prolonged administration of small amounts of angiotensin II (A II) in intact dogs and dogs with denervated sino-aortic baroreceptors. Short-term 1-hour infusions of A II(1.0-100 ng/kg per min) showed that conscious denervated dogs had twice the pressor sensitivity of intact dogs. Long-term infusions of A II at 5.0 ng/kg per min (2-3 weeks) with continuous 24-hour recordings of arterial pressure showed that intact dogs required 28 hours to reach the same level of pressure attained by denervated dogs during the 1st hour of infusion. At the 28th hour the pressure in both groups was 70% of the maximum value attained by the 7th day of infusion. Both intact and denervated dogs reached nearly the same plateau level of pressure, the magnitude being directly related both the the A II infusion rate and the daily sodium intake. Cardiac output in intact dogs initially decreased after the onset of A II infusion, but by the 5th day of infusion it was 38% above control, whereas blood volume was unchanged. Heart rate returned to normal after a reduction during the 1st day of infusion in intact dogs. Plasma renin activity could not be detected after 24 hours of A II infusion in either intact or denervated dogs. The data indicate that about 35% of the hypertensive effect of A II results from its acute pressor action, and an additional 35% of the gradual increase in arterial pressure is in large measure a result of baroreceptor resetting. We conclude that the final 30% increase in pressure seems to result from increased cardiac output, the cause of which may be decreased vascular compliance. since the blood volume remains unaltered.  (+info)

Evaluation of the force-frequency relationship as a descriptor of the inotropic state of canine left ventricular myocardium. (4/19128)

The short-term force-frequency characteristics of canine left ventricular myocardium were examined in both isolated and intact preparations by briefly pertubing the frequency of contraction with early extrasystoles. The maximum rate of rise of isometric tension (Fmas) of the isolated trabeculae carneae was potentiated by the introduction of extrasystoles. The ratio of Fmas of potentiated to control beats (force-frequency ratio) was not altered significantly by a change in muscle length. However, exposure of the trabeculae to isoproterenol (10(-7)M) significantly changed the force-frequency ratio obtained in response to a constant frequency perturbation. Similar experiments were performed on chronically instrumented conscious dogs. Left ventricular minor axis diameter was measured with implanted pulse-transit ultrasonic dimension transducers, and intracavitary pressure was measured with a high fidelity micromanometer. Atrial pacing was performed so that the end-diastolic diameters of the beats preceding and following the extrasystole could be made identical. Large increases in the maximum rate of rise of pressure (Pmas) were seen in the contraction after the extrasystole. The ratio of Pmax of the potentiated beat to that of the control beat was not changed by a 9% increase in the end-diastolic diameter, produced by saline infusion. Conversely, isoproterenol significantly altered this relationship in the same manner as in the isolated muscle. Thus, either in vitro or in situ, left ventricular myocardium exhibits large functional changes in response to brief perturbations in rate. The isoproterenol and length data indicate that the force-frequency ratio reflects frequency-dependent changes in the inotropic state, independent of changes in length.  (+info)

Site of myocardial infarction. A determinant of the cardiovascular changes induced in the cat by coronary occlusion. (5/19128)

The influence of site of acute myocardial infarction on heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance (TPR), cardiac rhythm, and mortality was determined in 58 anesthetized cats by occlusion of either the left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex or right coronary artery. LAD occlusion resulted in immediate decrease in cardiac output, heart rate, and blood pressure, an increase in TPR, and cardiac rhythm changes including premature ventricular beats, ventricular tachycardia, and occasionally ventricular fibrillation. The decrease in cardiac output and increase in TPR persisted in the cats surviving a ventricular arrhythmia. In contrast, right coronary occlusion resulted in a considerably smaller decrease in cardiac output. TPR did not increase, atrioventricular condition disturbances were common, and sinus bradycardia and hypotension persisted in the cats recovering from an arrhythmia. Left circumflex ligation resulted in cardiovascular changes intermediate between those produced by occlusion of the LAD or the right coronary artery. Mortality was similar in each of the three groups. We studied the coronary artery anatomy in 12 cats. In 10, the blood supply to the sinus node was from the right coronary artery and in 2, from the left circumflex coronary artery. The atrioventricular node artery arose from the right in 9 cats, and from the left circumflex in 3. The right coronary artery was dominant in 9 cats and the left in 3. In conclusion, the site of experimental coronary occlusion in cats is a major determinant of the hemodynamic and cardiac rhythm changes occurring after acute myocardial infarction. The cardiovascular responses evoked by ligation are related in part to the anatomical distribution of the occluded artery.  (+info)

Hierarchy of ventricular pacemakers. (6/19128)

To characterize the pattern of pacemaker dominance in the ventricular specialized conduction system (VSCS), escape ventricular pacemakers were localized and quantified in vivo and in virto, in normal hearts and in hearts 24 hours after myocardial infarction. Excape pacemaker foci were localized in vivo during vagally induced atrial arrest by means of electrograms recorded from the His bundle and proximal bundle branches and standard electrocardiographic limb leads. The VSCS was isolated using a modified Elizari preparation or preparations of each bundle branch. Peacemakers were located by extra- and intracellular recordings. Escape pacemaker foci in vivo were always in the proximal conduction system, usually the left bundle branch. The rate was 43+/-11 (mean+/-SD) beats/min. After beta-adrenergic blockade, the mean rate fell to 31+/-10 beats/min, but there were no shifts in pacemaker location. In the infarcted hearts, pacemakers were located in the peripheral left bundle branch. The mean rate was 146+/-20 beats/min. In isolated normal preparations, the dominant pacemakers usually were in the His bundle, firing at a mean rate of 43+/-10 beats/min. The rates of pacemakers diminished with distal progression. In infarcted hearts, the pacemakers invariably were in the infarct zone. The mean firing rates were not influenced by beta-adrenergic blockade. The results indicate that the dominant pacemakers are normally in the very proximal VSCS, but after myocardial infarction pacemaker dominance is shifted into the infarct. Distribution of pacemaker dominance is independent of sympathetic influence.  (+info)

Perioperative growth hormone treatment and functional outcome after major abdominal surgery: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. (7/19128)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of perioperative human growth hormone (hGH) treatment on physical performance and fatigue in younger patients undergoing a major abdominal operation in a normal postoperative regimen with oral nutrition. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Muscle wasting and functional impairment follow major abdominal surgery. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing ileoanal J-pouch surgery were randomized to hGH (12 IU/day) or placebo treatment from 2 days before to 7 days after surgery. Measurements were performed 2 days before and 10, 30, and 90 days after surgery. RESULTS: The total muscle strength of four limb muscle groups was reduced by 7.6% in the hGH group and by 17.1% in the placebo group at postoperative day 10 compared with baseline values. There was also a significant difference between treatment groups in total muscle strength at day 30, and at the 90-day follow-up total muscle strength was equal to baseline values in the hGH group, but still significantly 5.9% below in the placebo group. The work capacity decreased by approximately 20% at day 10 after surgery, with no significant difference between treatment groups. Both groups were equally fatigued at day 10 after surgery, but at day 30 and 90 the hGH patients were less fatigued than the placebo patients. During the treatment period, patients receiving hGH had reduced loss of limb lean tissue mass, and 3 months after surgery the hGH patients had regained more lean tissue mass than placebo patients. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative hGH treatment of younger patients undergoing major abdominal surgery preserved limb lean tissue mass, increased postoperative muscular strength, and reduced long-term postoperative fatigue.  (+info)

Heart rate and subsequent blood pressure in young adults: the CARDIA study. (8/19128)

The objective of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that baseline heart rate (HR) predicts subsequent blood pressure (BP) independently of baseline BP. In the multicenter longitudinal Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study of black and white men and women initially aged 18 to 30 years, we studied 4762 participants who were not current users of antihypertensive drugs and had no history of heart problems at the baseline examination (1985-1986). In each race-sex subgroup, we estimated the effect of baseline HR on BP 2, 5, 7, and 10 years later by use of repeated measures regression analysis, adjusting for baseline BP, age, education, body fatness, physical fitness, fasting insulin, parental hypertension, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, oral contraceptive use, and change of body mass index from baseline. The association between baseline HR and subsequent systolic BP (SBP) was explained by multivariable adjustment. However, HR was an independent predictor of subsequent diastolic BP (DBP) regardless of initial BP and other confounders in white men, white women, and black men (0.7 mm Hg increase per 10 bpm). We incorporated the part of the association that was already present at baseline by not adjusting for baseline DBP: the mean increase in subsequent DBP was 1.3 mm Hg per 10 bpm in white men, white women, and black men. A high HR may be considered a risk factor for subsequent high DBP in young persons.  (+info)

  • Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions (beats) of the heart per minute (bpm). (wikipedia.org)
  • Heart rate is determined by the number of heartbeats per unit of time, typically expressed as beats per minute (BPM), it can vary with as the body's need for oxygen changes, such as during exercise or sleep. (news-medical.net)
  • And the more you drink, the faster your heart beats. (hon.ch)
  • Measuring how fast your heart beats during exercise doesn't give an easy-to-understand baseline of your fitness. (tomtom.com)
  • Heart rate is the number of times your heart beats per minute. (healthline.com)
  • According to the American Heart Association (AHA) , the average resting heart rate is between 60 and 100 beats per minute. (healthline.com)
  • The AHA notes that physically active people, such as athletes, may have a resting heart rate as low as 40 beats per minute. (healthline.com)
  • Heart rate, also known as pulse, is the number of times a person's heart beats per minute. (livescience.com)
  • Normal heart rate varies from person to person, but a normal range for adults is 60 to 100 beats per minute, according to the Mayo Clinic. (livescience.com)
  • A well-trained athlete may have a resting heart rate of 40 to 60 beats per minute, according to the American Heart Association (AHA). (livescience.com)
  • Blood pressure is the measurement of the force of the blood against the walls of arteries, while pulse rate is the number of times your heart beats per minute. (livescience.com)
  • For adults 18 and older, a normal resting heart rate is between 60 and 100 beats per minute (bpm), depending on the person's physical condition and age. (livescience.com)
  • Your heart rate, or pulse, is the measurement of heart beats per minute, or how hard the heart is working to circulate blood throughout your body. (wikihow.com)
  • A normal resting heart rate should be between 60 and 100 beats per minute (bpm). (wikihow.com)
  • A normal resting heart rate for adults ranges from 60 to 100 beats per minute. (mayoclinic.org)
  • For example, a well-trained athlete might have a normal resting heart rate closer to 40 beats per minute. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Consult your doctor if your resting heart rate is consistently above 100 beats a minute (tachycardia) or if you're not a trained athlete and your resting heart rate is below 60 beats a minute (bradycardia) - especially if you have other signs or symptoms, such as fainting, dizziness or shortness of breath. (mayoclinic.org)
  • But heart-rate training uses - yes, you guessed it - your heart rate or beats per minute (bpm) as a guide to hitting a certain running intensity. (runnersworld.com)
  • The omega-3 fatty acids improve heart function by providing greater variability between beats, therefore reducing the risk of arrhythmia and/or sudden death. (news-medical.net)
  • A heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults is called bradycardia. (heart.org)
  • If your heart rate remains above or below a chosen beats per minute (BPM) while you appear to have been inactive for a period of 10 minutes, your Apple Watch can notify you. (apple.com)
  • AFib occurs when the heart beats in an irregular pattern. (apple.com)
  • People with resting heart rates of over 100 beats per minute (bpm) have a 78 percent greater risk of developing heart disease. (wikihow.com)
  • If your heart beats too quickly when resting, it could signal that you're in poor physical shape or that you're significantly stressed out. (wikihow.com)
  • Vagal maneuvers are ways to treat a fast heart rate of more than 100 beats per minute that starts in the upper chambers of your heart, the atria. (webmd.com)
  • Early beats in the atria speed up your heart rate. (webmd.com)
  • Generally speaking, a person's resting heart rate is normal if it's between 60 and 100 beats per minute," says Dr. Brian Mikolasko, a medical director at the Warren Alpert School of Medicine at Brown University. (runnersworld.com)
  • Up to 1 month, heart rate ranges from 70 to 190 beats per minute. (runnersworld.com)
  • Whereas a resting heart rate of 42 or even 38 beats per minute can be typical for a well-trained endurance runner or triathlete, that would be pretty low for someone who is a casual exerciser. (runnersworld.com)
  • Because the normal range of a resting heart rate is between 60 to 100 bpm, a resting heart rate under 60 beats per minute is considered slow, often referred to as bradycardia. (runnersworld.com)
  • Mikolasko recommends checking in with a physician if your resting heart rate sits below 60 beats per minute consistently, just to be safe. (runnersworld.com)
  • This is how many times in a minute your heart beats. (bellaonline.com)
  • So if you were 43, your maximum heart rate would be 220 - 43 = 177 beats per minute. (bellaonline.com)
  • For example, for a 50-year-old person, the estimated maximum age-related heart rate would be calculated as 220 - 50 years = 170 beats per minute (bpm). (cdc.gov)
  • For example, for a 35-year-old person, the estimated maximum age-related heart rate would be calculated as 220 - 35 years = 185 beats per minute (bpm). (cdc.gov)
  • Your resting heart rate is the number of times your heart beats per minute while it's at rest. (heart.org)
  • Best taken after a good night's sleep, before getting out of bed, the average resting heart rate is 60-80 beats per minute, but it's usually lower for physically fit people. (heart.org)
  • The number of times your heart beats in one minute can tell a physician a lot about your health, including cardiovascular functioning, presence of infections and a snapshot of your overall fitness level. (livestrong.com)
  • Before getting out of bed after an evening of sleep, the heart beats an average of 60 to 80 times per minute, according to the American Heart Association. (livestrong.com)
  • A trained athlete may have a morning heart rate as low as 40 beats per minute, explains physical medicine and rehabilitation specialist Edward R. Laskowski, M.D., with the Mayo Clinic. (livestrong.com)
  • By counting the number of times your pulse beats -- on the underside of your wrist -- for 10 seconds and multiplying it by 6, you have your morning heart rate. (livestrong.com)
  • Heart beats in a normal heart begin after electricity generated in the atria by the sinoatrial node spread through the heart and cause contraction of the heart muscle and pumping of blood. (dailystrength.org)
  • Your pulse is your heart rate, or the number of times your heart beats in one minute. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • A recent study by researchers at the Cleveland Clinic's Heart and Vascular Institute found that some of the most popular fitness trackers reported measurements off by as much as 40 beats per minute. (yahoo.com)
  • Between heart beats, there's less absorption of green light, and during heart beats, there's more. (yahoo.com)
  • After a minute, the Moov HR reported a reading not only a reading higher than the Fitbit, but significantly closer to Yuan's historical, EKG-recorded heart rate: At one point, 118 beats per minute versus the Fitbit's 78. (yahoo.com)
  • The term "heart rate" refers to the number of times your heart beats per minute. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The average healthy heart rate is around 70 to 80 beats per minute. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Normal heart rate recovery is defined as a decrease in your pulse of 15 to 25 beats per minute. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Abnormal heart rate recovery is usually defined as a decrease of 12 or fewer beats per minute. (ehow.co.uk)
  • When your heart beats too slowly, it is not supplying the body with sufficient oxygen. (medtronic.com)
  • Having bradycardia (say "bray-dee-KAR-dee-uh") means that your heart beats very slowly. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • For most people, a heart rate of 60 to 100 beats a minute while at rest is considered normal. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • If your heart beats less than 60 times a minute, it is slower than normal. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Healthy young adults and athletes often have heart rates of less than 60 beats a minute. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • In severe forms of bradycardia, the heart beats so slowly that it doesn't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Tachycardia is a common type of heart rhythm disorder (arrhythmia) in which the heart beats faster than normal while at rest. (emaxhealth.com)
  • A plot of this averaged RR interval list (called a PVC tachogram) not only confirmed their observation that heart rate sped up for a few beats after a PVC, but highlighted another less obvious feature, that heart rate then slows down beyond what it was before the PVC, before returning to the original heart rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • When Kenny Souza would ride and run in a race, his rate wouldn't vary but a couple beats in each discipline. (active.com)
  • What I hope to impart is that it isn't set in stone that your heart rates must be 10 or 15 beats lower while on the bike vs. running. (active.com)
  • Usually it is calculated as the number of contractions ( heart beats ) of the heart in one minute and expressed as "beats per minute" (bpm). (bionity.com)
  • For most people, resting heart rate is 60-100 beats per minute. (fitbit.com)
  • It might be good enough to measure a resting heart rate, but at 210 beats per minute, thats only 7.5 samples per beat, not enough to reliably measure heart rate during rigorous movement. (medium.com)
  • A healthy heart beats 60 to 100 times per minute, which is necessary to supply oxygen-rich blood to the body. (medtronic.com)
  • Those with bradycardia experience a heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute, often resulting in dizziness, shortness of breath, and even fainting spells. (medtronic.com)
  • At 86 beats per minute, his heart is working a little harder to pump blood and oxygen to his muscles. (npr.org)
  • As he climbs a flight of stairs to get to the third-floor classroom, his heart rate nearly reaches 100 beats a minute. (npr.org)
  • For Karch, a fit man in his 60s, 100 beats puts him at the low end of the target heart rate zone. (npr.org)
  • HRV (Heart Rate Variability) is the variation of time between individual heart beats. (kickstarter.com)
  • For example, someone with an average heart rate of 60 beats per minute may not have heartbeat intervals that are exactly 1.0 seconds apart. (kickstarter.com)
  • But when response to treatment is measured by a reduction in heart rate of three beats per minute or more only 7% of patients would not receive benefit from the procedure, Ukena said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Among patients who had lower baseline heart rates, the effect on heart rate reduction was muted in the group with a heart rate of 61 beats per minute to 70 beats per minute but was still significantly lower than baseline - 3.1 beats per minute at 3 months ( P =0.008) and 2.5 beats per minute at 6 months ( P =0.035). (medpagetoday.com)
  • Among those with heart rate less than 60 beats per minute at baseline heart rate increased modestly - 2.7 beats per minute at 3 months ( P =0.035) and 2.5 beats per minute at 6 months ( P =0.113). (medpagetoday.com)
  • MONDAY, March 19, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- You might think that glass of wine or beer helps you relax at the end of a long day, but researchers report that it actually makes your heart race. (hon.ch)
  • Drinking alcohol raises your heart rate, according to research presented at EHRA 2018 Congress, organized by the European Society of Cardiology in Spain. (emaxhealth.com)
  • By utilizing an Infrared sensor, the device -- which straps onto one's goggles and rests on the temple bone -- can continually monitor heart rate and communicate it audibly to the swimmer via bone conduction in customizable intervals. (engadget.com)
  • Featuring FINIS' patented bone-conduction technology and a unique infrared heart rate sensor, the AquaPulse will be available in May 2009 for $139.99 at sport retailers' world wide and at WWW.FINISINC.COM. (engadget.com)
  • The FINIS AquaPulse uses an accurate infrared sensor that clips to the earlobe in order to pick up the swimmer's heart rate. (engadget.com)
  • Permanent or temporary changes to your skin, such as some tattoos, can also impact heart rate sensor performance," the company wrote on its website. (nypost.com)
  • Students connect a Vernier EKG Sensor to leads attached under the dorsal carapace of the crayfish, near the heart. (vernier.com)
  • The obvious solution was to introduce a follow-up with a built-in heart sensor, but Moov's three founders, Nikola Hu, Tony Yuan, and Meng Li, wanted a solution that wouldn't be susceptible to the same biological interference as wrist-bound models. (yahoo.com)
  • Equipped with hardware, such as accelerometer and heart rate sensor, wearables enable measuring physical activities and heart rate. (springer.com)
  • This heart monitor employs patented optical sensor technology for highly accurate monitoring and measurement. (scosche.com)
  • Our five heart rate zones are designed to show you what impact your workouts deliver. (tomtom.com)
  • The target heart rate zones noted below are based on what is equal to 50 to 85 percent of the average maximum heart rate for each stated age, and the average maximum heart rate is based on the calculation of 220 minus years of age. (healthline.com)
  • As with Charge 2, you'll be able to see real-time heart rate zones on the Alta 2 screen as well as in the Fitbit app. (cio.com)
  • One of these zones is the fat-burning zone , which is achieved at a lower heart rate with the goal being to stay there for a longer duration of time, such as 30 to 60 minutes," Corey said. (popsugar.com)
  • There are many different formulas that you can use to calculate your maximum heart rate (MHR) and find your personal heart-rate training zones. (runnersworld.com)
  • Moov's developed new AI-guided workout sessions - "intensity-based coaching and target zones," it calls them - around the headband's heart rate measuring capabilities. (yahoo.com)
  • User settable heart rate zones with audible and visual alerts. (mec.ca)
  • Displays heart rate zones during activity. (mec.ca)
  • Something strange has happened to my entire Heart Rate range, all the zones. (bikeforums.net)
  • Heart-rate data from the field test given to athletes (see below) correlates strongly with power data from the same test, which means that for riders without power meters, I can use heart rate to determine ideal intensity levels (or zones) for their training. (bicycling.com)
  • If you don't know your heart rate zones , your power data is just a number without context. (bicycling.com)
  • Then, use the higher of the two average heart rates to calculate your ideal training zones, as indicated by the chart below. (bicycling.com)
  • Your field-test heart rate will not the same as your lab-measured anaerobic threshold heart rate, so keep in mind that the heart rate zones based on calculations from this field test are specific to this test only. (bicycling.com)
  • During workouts, use Fitbit's heart rate zones to gauge how much effort you're exerting and see if you should dial it up or dial it back. (fitbit.com)
  • RHYTHM24™ boasts a 24-hour battery life, an IP68 sweatproof/waterproof rating, five changeable training/use zones/modes and two multi-modes,an LED battery indicator and on-board data recording. (scosche.com)
  • According to the AHA , moderate-intensity workouts should be closer to the lower end of the target heart rate range that correlates with your age. (healthline.com)
  • Within the higher end of the range is the target heart rate for high-intensity, vigorous workouts. (healthline.com)
  • Whatever your goals for your workouts - whether to lose weight , build endurance, or sculpt lean muscle - tracking your heart rate can help ensure that they're as effective as possible. (popsugar.com)
  • Thanks to technology that's both more affordable and more accessible than ever, heart-rate training is becoming increasingly popular today, says Joel French, senior director of science, fitness and wellness for Orangetheory Fitness, a group-fitness studio that offers heart rate-based interval workouts. (runnersworld.com)
  • After several years of moderately brisk (never strenuous, but challenging -- never paid attention to 'target range') exercise every day to control my BG, I finally decided to use a heart rate monitor during my workouts -- mostly on the treadmill, and found that my resting heart rate was in the 60s. (diabetesdaily.com)
  • Begin a cardio session and an onscreen, animated figure will guide you through a series of timed workouts, during which your current heart rate will display in the top-left corner of the screen. (yahoo.com)
  • By measuring how hard your heart is working-both all day and during workouts-you get a better measure of total calories burned. (fitbit.com)
  • Tracking heart rate during workouts can help you maintain the right intensity, find a sweet spot for pace or avoid overtraining. (fitbit.com)
  • In its aim to offer a wearable device for every conceivable user profile, Fitbit has announced Alta HR . The company says it's "the world's slimmest wrist-based, continuous heart rate tracking device. (cio.com)
  • A slim, light wearable that tracks heart rate is good news, in my opinion. (cio.com)
  • Next year the company plans to release a wearable device that can monitor heart rate and muscle activity, vice president Ben Schlatka says. (popularmechanics.com)
  • El-Amrawy F, Nounou MI (2015) Are currently available wearable devices for activity tracking and heart rate monitoring accurate, precise, and medically beneficial? (springer.com)
  • After a recent frustration with my batteries dying I did a review of how different wearable are measuring heart rate. (medium.com)
  • If you have coronary heart disease, a congenital heart defect, or other heart conditions, your doctor may advise you not to do it. (webmd.com)
  • Since the 1970s, national attention on the dangers of cigarette smoking and uncontrolled high blood pressure has led to a significant decline in deaths from coronary heart disease and heart attack, but 'heart disease' includes other conditions which have not decreased as much, said Dr. Donald A. Barr of Stanford University School of Medicine in California, who wrote an editorial accompanying the new study. (foxnews.com)
  • Heart failure) is projected to increase over the next couple of decades, while coronary heart disease is expected to decline,' he said. (foxnews.com)
  • Combining heart failure and coronary heart disease under the global term 'heart disease' combines good news with not so good news,' Barr said. (foxnews.com)
  • The Framingham Heart Study is a prospective epidemiological study established in 1948 to evaluate potential risk factors for coronary heart disease. (ahajournals.org)
  • Nervous influence over the heartrate is centralized within the two paired cardiovascular centres of the medulla oblongata . (wikipedia.org)
  • Thousands of people can take heart as new research from the University of South Australia shows a dairy-enhanced Mediterranean diet will significantly increase health outcomes for those at risk of cardiovascular disease - and it's even more effective than a low-fat diet. (news-medical.net)
  • These new statistics, announced at the American Heart Association's Annual Conference on Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology and Prevention, were calculated through a computer simulation of heart disease among adults in the U.S. (webmd.com)
  • If you've been diagnosed with a heart problem or if you have any other risk factors of cardiovascular disease , talk to a doctor before you start exercising and trying to establish a training heart rate range. (healthline.com)
  • If you're taking medication therapy for a heart or other cardiovascular condition, ask your doctor whether you should use a lower target heart rate zone for exercising. (healthline.com)
  • The new research - which will be presented at the American Heart Association's (AHA) Scientific Sessions 2017 , held in Anaheim, CA - brings us one step closer to understanding these health effects, with a focus on their impact on the cardiovascular system. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Heart rate is a good indicator of two things: your overall cardiovascular fitness and how hard you're working," Corey Phelps, an NASM-certified personal trainer and creator of Cultivate365 , an online fitness and mental health platform for women, told POPSUGAR. (popsugar.com)
  • Next is the aerobic zone, which is achieved at 70 to 80 percent of your max heart rate - this one really begins to challenge your cardiovascular fitness, making it ideal for a moderately paced run or other exercises intended to improve your strength and endurance, Corey explained. (popsugar.com)
  • Now for the second problem: Using heart ranges to define narrow training objectives like the "fat-burning zone," or the "cardio training zone," as if in one zone all you are doing is using fat exclusively and the other zone is the only place you find cardiovascular improvements. (acefitness.org)
  • Generally, a lower heart rate at rest implies more efficient heart function and better cardiovascular fitness. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Taking a daily supplement of fish or soy oil may help reduce the risk of suffering an adverse cardiovascular event, such as arrhythmia or sudden death, specially in persons with known cardiovascular disease or at increased risk for it, such as those with lipid disorders, advanced age, hypertension, a history of smoking, and family history of heart disease. (news-medical.net)
  • 5 Previous studies have shown a strong association between HR and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates. (ahajournals.org)
  • Heart rate variability (HRV) can detect cardiac autonomic impairment in diabetic individuals before traditional cardiovascular autonomic function tests such as the Ewing battery ( 11 - 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The ARIC study is a multicenter prospective study of the natural history and etiology of atherosclerotic and cardiovascular disease event rates in four U.S. communities. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Resting heart rate can be a great indicator of the changes to cardiovascular health, so you can see if you're improving over time. (fitbit.com)
  • She found that employees with managers who were bullying, secretive or uncommunicative were 60 percent more likely to develop cardiovascular disease, eventually leading an increased number of heart attacks, than those who worked for compassionate leaders. (observer.com)
  • The device on the strap uses electrical signals to read your heart rate during exercise. (heartratewatchcompany.com)
  • It can lead to efficient use of your time while determining the right heart rate zone to maintain during exercise. (heartratewatchcompany.com)
  • These include average heart rate over exercise period, time in a specific heart rate zone, calories burned, breathing rate, built-in speed and distance, and detailed logging that can be downloaded to a computer. (wikipedia.org)
  • I want to track my heart rate at the 'Max HR' & immediately after exercise (and save the reading with the tag that says 'after sport' or 'Max HR'). But when I see an ad instead of the monitor, I often accidentally press the wrong thing. (apple.com)
  • Your heart rate drops faster after exercise when you're fit. (tomtom.com)
  • My concern is that my heart rate is always low like between 70-125,even if I exercise a lot. (medhelp.org)
  • Your doctor can help determine the best target heart rate for you, or you can use general target zone guidelines to determine your target exercise heart rate based on your age. (healthline.com)
  • If you feel this guide doesn't fit your personal exercise heart rate target for moderate or vigorous exercise, your doctor will be able to work with you on an individual basis to help determine the target heart rate range that is best for you. (healthline.com)
  • You will see articles that will explain young altheletes may have a low heart rate which is normal for them but these are the road warriors that take exercise seriously - the runners, the bikers, the triathalon people. (healingwell.com)
  • When people exercise in their "target heart zone," they gain the most benefits and improve their heart's health. (livescience.com)
  • In these cases you should gradually lower your resting heart rate through exercise. (wikihow.com)
  • To use it to your advantage, you first have to calculate your maximum heart rate - that's the maximum number of times your heart should beat per minute during exercise - by subtracting your age from 220. (popsugar.com)
  • The overreaction to these problems has taken the form of proposing that heart-rate training doesn't matter when it comes to measuring exercise intensity, especially with the rise in popularity of high-intensity interval training, where the directive is a straightforward "go as hard as you can. (acefitness.org)
  • Not everyone needs to use heart rate to measure intensity, as their goals may not be that specific or their starting health status may not be questionable enough to warrant needing a definitive intensity range to ensure safety when starting an exercise program. (acefitness.org)
  • Know your target heart rates for exercise, losing weight and health. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Exercise more efficiently and spend less time getting the desired results with the revolutionary Polar FT7 heart rate monitor with accurate calorie counter. (prweb.com)
  • Donald Kirkendall, an exercise physiologist at the University of North Carolina, will never forget the time he put a heart-rate monitor on a member of the United States rowing team and asked the man to row as hard as he could for six minutes. (nytimes.com)
  • There is a need, a clinical and societal need, to estimate the maximum heart rate,'' said Dr. Douglas Seals, an exercise physiologist at the University of Colorado. (nytimes.com)
  • But if the heart rate formula is wrong, these exercise prescriptions are misguided. (nytimes.com)
  • They were trying to determine how strenuously heart disease patients could exercise. (nytimes.com)
  • Best measured before you start moving around first thing in the morning, a resting heart rate is much different than what you'll see during exercise. (runnersworld.com)
  • The American Heart Association (AHA) states that the maximum heart rate during exercise should be roughly equal to 220 bpm minus the age of the person, which is one very basic method to estimate your max. (runnersworld.com)
  • For my age it was calculated that I should be reaching 144 in order to burn fat, but it is impossible to keep my heart rate this low when I exercise. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Your heart rate adapts to your daily activities -- including exercise and rest -- making the first reading of the morning indicative of your overall health after an extended period of rest. (livestrong.com)
  • This data lets you know if you're overtrained and how the heart adapts to your body's need for oxygen during exercise. (livestrong.com)
  • Does Exercise Lower the Heart Rate? (livestrong.com)
  • When you exercise , focus on breathing instead of your heart rate. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Unless you are a truly elite athlete, worrying about your heart rate to the point where you are adjusting everything every few minutes really makes exercise less enjoyable. (nationaljewish.org)
  • Heidi's students develop experiments, using the crayfish, to investigate variations in heart rate due to environmental changes such as depth of water, temperature, exposure to air, exercise, and social response. (vernier.com)
  • I signed up to get an answer to a question about heart rate and exercise. (diabetesdaily.com)
  • The more you exercise on a regular basis, the more you should see both your resting heart and your recovery rate drop. (diabetesdaily.com)
  • Data review includes total exercise time, average heart rate, and time in zone for timed sessions. (mec.ca)
  • To find your recovery heart rate, first take and record your pre-exercise heart rate. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Your heart rate will be monitored during your exercise session. (ehow.co.uk)
  • You then take your recovery heart rate every 15 seconds for the first minute, then once every minute until it returns to your pre-exercise level. (ehow.co.uk)
  • This is your recovery heart rate: the amount of time it took for your heart to recover from exercise. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Your heart rate should return to pre-exercise level within 10 to 15 minutes after exercise. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Compared with power, heart rate (HR) is less precise, but you can still use it to exercise more effectively. (bicycling.com)
  • MHR is used as a base number to calculate target heart rate for exercise (see below). (bionity.com)
  • During the test, the intensity of exercise is periodically increased (if a treadmill is being used, through increase in speed or slope of the treadmill) until the subject can no longer continue, or until certain changes in heart function are detected in the ECG (at which point the subject is directed to stop). (bionity.com)
  • It's too low to accurately measure high heart rates during an exercise. (medium.com)
  • Exercise physiologists have figured out a heart rate range that is safe for most people during exercise. (howstuffworks.com)
  • It's just that keeping your heart rate in the target range during regular aerobic exercise has been shown to be safe and effective for increasing your aerobic fitness. (howstuffworks.com)
  • As we start to move, the muscles call on the heart to deliver oxygen," explains Bob Karch, an exercise researcher at American University. (npr.org)
  • Calculate your resting and exercise target heart rate ranges by typing your age and gender into the top of this Web page ). (npr.org)
  • It's generally not recommended to exercise above 85 percent of your maximum heart rate. (npr.org)
  • Heart rate goes up during strenuous activity, but a vigorous workout may only modestly increase blood pressure. (livescience.com)
  • Knowing your heart rate during workout sessions can help know whether you are doing too much or not enough, the AHA says. (livescience.com)
  • Then you'll take a percentage of that number, which varies based on the workout, and that will become your target heart rate zone. (popsugar.com)
  • If you prefer a quicker, more intense workout, such as high-intensity interval training , Stan Dutton, an NASM-certified trainer and coach for the personal training platform Ladder , recommends getting your heart rate up to 80 to 90 percent of your max for short bursts, then recovering until it drops below 60 percent again. (popsugar.com)
  • Once you've created a balanced workout plan , use the chart below to help determine your target heart rate for each specific workout. (popsugar.com)
  • There is the target heart rate--which is the rate to which you want to raise your pulse in order to make your workout effective. (ehow.co.uk)
  • In that vein, your heart rate can also tell you whether you should continue with your workout. (bicycling.com)
  • One key to optimizing your workout is getting your heart rate in the target zone. (npr.org)
  • subjects with congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, and those taking cardioactive medications were excluded. (ahajournals.org)
  • Subjects were excluded if they met any of the following criteria: (1) history or clinical evidence of myocardial infarction or congestive heart failure, (2) atrial fibrillation, (3) diabetes mellitus, (4) use of antihypertensive or cardioactive medication at the index examination, and (5) technically inadequate ambulatory ECG recordings. (ahajournals.org)
  • The diagnoses of myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure were established by a committee of 3 physicians who evaluated records from the Framingham Heart Study clinic examinations, interim hospitalizations, and visits to personal physicians in accordance with published criteria. (ahajournals.org)
  • HRT can also be used to predict death in patients with congestive heart failure from a lethal arrhythmia. (wikipedia.org)
  • A low heart rate in somebody who is having dizziness and lightheadedness may indicate that they have an abnormality that needs to be looked at," Bauman said. (livescience.com)
  • But if you have a very low pulse, or frequent bouts of unexplained fast heart rates, particularly if these are coupled with dizziness, speak to a doctor. (wikihow.com)
  • Routinely high or extremely low morning heart rates accompanied by dizziness, fainting or shortness of breath suggest health problems. (livestrong.com)
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Fetal Heart Rate Baseline. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Also, the nurse from L&D who checked fetal heart rate before and after surgery found heart beat on mid left side. (babycenter.com)
  • The researchers define heart rate variability as the variation in the time interval between heartbeats. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The phenomenon that is the focus of this report is the oscillation in the interval between consecutive heartbeats as well as the oscillations between consecutive instantaneous heart rates. (ahajournals.org)
  • Build up until you're performing at your maximum, safe heart rate for the last interval, then you can cool down. (wikihow.com)
  • Nerve-Express, originally designed for the Navy in the 1980s, measures the change in a patient's heart rate and R-R interval, indicating the state of a patient's autonomic nervous system (ANS). (prweb.com)
  • The researchers investigated the association between blood alcohol concentration and four electrocardiogram parameters: excitation (heart rate), conduction (PR interval, QRS complex), and repolarization (QT interval). (emaxhealth.com)
  • What is the adequate sampling interval of the ECG signal for heart rate variability analysis in the time domain? (springer.com)
  • Watch whichever device you use to track your heart rate: if you've recovered from the prior day's training, your heart rate will increase smoothly as you begin an interval, and you'll reach your target within 30 to 45 seconds. (bicycling.com)
  • Note that this study suggests that renal sympathetic denervation in addition to lowering systolic blood pressure is associated with a decline in heart rate and prolongation of the PR interval. (medpagetoday.com)
  • But if doctors underestimate how fast the person's heart can beat, they may stop the test too soon, Dr. Seals noted. (nytimes.com)
  • Rogers shows in his study that one version of his creation, when placed on a study volunteer's chest, can measure the person's heart electrical activity just as well as an electrocardiogram (EKG). (popularmechanics.com)
  • To play the game, you wear a patch that transmits your heart rate to an iPhone app. (fastcompany.com)
  • Athletes, take note: Higher resting heart rates aren't just a problem for the less fit, according to new Danish research. (reference.com)
  • Athletes and people who are very fit can have resting heat rate of 40 bpm. (livescience.com)
  • The resting heart rate of well trained endurance athletes can be between 40 and 60 bpm. (wikihow.com)
  • For the past decade, heart rate training has been utilized by the top athletes in all sports in order to improve their training levels. (engadget.com)
  • Physically active adults (and athletes) often have a resting heart rate slower than 60 BPM but it doesn't cause problems and is normal for them. (heart.org)
  • however, this rate varies among people and can be significantly lower in athletes. (bionity.com)
  • Hi, It is possible that, given your age and regular work-outs, your cardiac conditioning is fairly good and you simply need more exertion to raise your heart rate adequately(the more fit you are, often the slower your heart rate). (medhelp.org)
  • A lowered heart rate an a higher perceived exertion are both signs that your body needs a little more time off the bike. (bicycling.com)
  • Maximum heart rate (also called MHR, or HR max ) is the highest number of times your heart can contract in one minute, or the heart rate that a person could achieve during maximal physical exertion. (bionity.com)
  • During rest, both centers provide slight stimulation to the heart, contributing to autonomic tone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heart rate variability (HRV) calculated from both short-term and longer-term electrocardiograms is an ideal window into such autonomic activity for two reasons: one, heart rate is sensitive to autonomic activity in the entire body, and two, recording electrocardiograms is inexpensive and non-invasive unlike other techniques currently available for autonomic assessment, such as microneurography and metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scanning. (routledge.com)
  • Edited by an engineer, a cardiologist, and a neurologist, and featuring contributions by widely published international researchers, this interdisciplinary book begins by reviewing the many signal processing techniques developed to extract autonomic activity information embedded in heart-rate records. (routledge.com)
  • Heart rate variability (HRV) measured by power spectral analysis provides quantitative phenotypic markers of autonomic nervous system activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • Heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of autonomic nervous system activity, which reflects an individual's ability to adapt to physiological and environmental changes. (springer.com)
  • Despite evidence that salt intake is linked to high blood pressure and heart disease, Americans have continued to increase their salt intake during the last few decades, according to the researchers. (webmd.com)
  • The researchers found that being exposed to both ENDS aerosols and mainstream cigarette smoke quickly slowed down the rodents' heart rate. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In collaboration with researchers from the University of Kentucky, Heidi Anderson, AP Biology teacher at Paul Laurence Dunbar High School in Lexington, KY, has developed an inquiry-based investigation of heart rate. (vernier.com)
  • Over the last 40 years, heart disease rates have dropped in the U.S. overall, but the changes varied widely by region, with the highest rates of the disease shifting from the Northeast to the South, researchers say. (foxnews.com)
  • The researchers used data on heart disease deaths among people age 35 and over in the U.S. collected in two year intervals, between 1973 and 2010, from more than 3,000 counties of the 48 contiguous states. (foxnews.com)
  • While the rates of infection were on the rise, soon after the NICE guidance came in rates increased significantly over what would have been expected, say the researchers. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Everyone's maximum heart rate is different, and also our resting heart rates vary based on our age and training level. (apple.com)
  • A person's target heart rate zone is between 50 percent and 85 percent of his or her maximum heart rate, according to the AHA. (livescience.com)
  • Most commonly, maximum heart rate is calculated by subtracting your age from 220. (livescience.com)
  • Any formula including any version of 220 - Age for maximum heart rate calculation is going to be a mess for the same reason that selling a single shoe size to everyone is going to be a problem. (acefitness.org)
  • Not every 50-year-old has the same fitness level, and maximum heart rate is determined by more than just the number of years you have been alive. (acefitness.org)
  • A critical part of maintaining a healthy lifestyle is to know what your maximum heart rate is. (bellaonline.com)
  • How do you determine your maximum heart rate? (bellaonline.com)
  • Every person has a maximum heart rate - their body's maximum value to not exceed. (bellaonline.com)
  • So, that being said, here is how to figure out YOUR personal maximum heart rate. (bellaonline.com)
  • For moderate-intensity physical activity , your target heart rate should be between 64% and 76% 1 , 2 of your maximum heart rate. (cdc.gov)
  • You can estimate your maximum heart rate based on your age. (cdc.gov)
  • For vigorous-intensity physical activity , your target heart rate should be between 77% and 93% 1 , 2 of your maximum heart rate. (cdc.gov)
  • Maximum heart rate is generally calculated by subtracting your age from 220. (diabetesdaily.com)
  • Maximum heart rate is only a vague number that someone worked out once. (exrx.net)
  • Get precise heart rate info without the constriction of a chest strap. (mec.ca)
  • This study evaluates heart rate monitoring with four different device types: a specialized sports device with chest strap, a fitness tracker, a smart watch, and a smartphone using photoplethysmography. (springer.com)
  • Tracks heart rate automatically and continuously, without any button-pushing and without an uncomfortable chest strap. (fitbit.com)
  • Due to individuals having a constant blood volume, one of the physiological ways to deliver more oxygen to an organ is to increase heart rate to permit blood to pass by the organ more often. (wikipedia.org)
  • If it is significantly darker, due the pulse causing a temporary increase in the amount of blood that is travelling through the measured area, that is counted as a heart pulse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heart attacks happen when there is a loss of blood flow to the heart, usually caused by a blockage or build up. (reference.com)
  • Heart failure is a medical condition that occurs when the heart doesn't pump blood as well as it should. (reference.com)
  • To measure your heart rate, gently press the tips of your index and middle fingers over this blood vessel in your wrist. (healthline.com)
  • Note that certain medications that are taken to reduce blood pressure can also lower your resting and maximum heart rates, with the latter affecting your calculation for target zone rate. (healthline.com)
  • All you hear is high blood pressure and fast heart rate. (healingwell.com)
  • When your pulse is low, it means your heart rate is low, and that means your heart is having to work harder to pump your blood. (healingwell.com)
  • Some people confuse high blood pressure with a high heart rate. (livescience.com)
  • Many medications people take especially medication for blood pressure, such as the beta blockers, will lower your heart rate," Bauman said. (livescience.com)
  • The idea is to look for signs, like chest pain or a sudden drop in the heart rate, indicating that the heart is not getting enough blood. (nytimes.com)
  • In another study ( McCraty 2009 ) that enrolled 75 correctional officers, those individuals randomized to a group that received training in emotional self-regulation and HRV biofeedback reported significant reductions in overall stress, had a more positive outlook, and had significant reductions in physiological indices of stress including reduced cortisol levels, reduced resting heart rate and blood pressure. (psychologytoday.com)
  • If left untreated, AFib can lead to heart failure or blood clots that may lead to stroke. (apple.com)
  • Considered as context for a slew of other markers-like blood pressure, stress, and sleep deprivation-heart rate typically lowers at rest compared to during any sort of activity, and it varies from person to person. (runnersworld.com)
  • Roberts explains that a lower heart rate will deliver the same blood volume in a trained resting heart as the higher heart rate in an untrained heart. (runnersworld.com)
  • Age- and stress-related illnesses are often linked to a person's poor HRV reading, including but not limited to diabetes, heart disease, anxiety, and high blood pressure, and this diagnostic test can indicate a cause and potential road to wellness for sufferers of these conditions. (prweb.com)
  • High blood pressure medications are used to block these receptors and so reduce the heart rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Pulse Oximeter app is for use by sports users who are interested in knowing their blood oxygenation level (SpO2) and Heart Rate. (apple.com)
  • The forehead, by comparison, has far better blood profusion - the ease with which heart pumps blood through capillaries. (yahoo.com)
  • Comparable data for heart failure, which is a different process not due to clogging of blood vessels but due to the heart wearing out as a result of diabetes, obesity and underlying high blood pressure, has not been coming down as fast, Barr told Reuters Health by phone. (foxnews.com)
  • Optical heartrate sensors measure changes in blood volume under the skin, and work best when worn snuggly, 1 to 3 finger-widths above your wrist bone. (mec.ca)
  • As the heart muscle pumps blood out to the body, it first contracts to push the blood out and then relaxes. (ehow.co.uk)
  • When the heart pumps blood through the body, you can feel a pulsing in some of the blood vessels close to the surface of the skin. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Some medicines for treating heart problems or high blood pressure, such as beta-blockers , antiarrhythmics , and digoxin. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Faint, if a slow heart rate causes a drop in blood pressure. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • You may also have blood tests to find out if another problem is causing your slow heart rate. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • The goal of treatment is to raise your heart rate so your body gets the blood it needs. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • This results in a pulse (blood pressure) weaker than expected and triggers normal homeostatic mechanisms that try to compensate by constricting arteries and increasing heart rate (the turbulence onset part of HRT). (wikipedia.org)
  • The compensatory constriction of the arteries and increased heart rate frequently cause blood pressure to oveshoot normal values (overcompensates), and activate the baroreflex in reverse. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whether the single beat blood pressure increase after a compensatory pause occurs in both normal and compromised hearts as well is at present uncertain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure to acrolein or PG:VG aerosol increased blood pressure in mice before the heart rate began to drop. (eurekalert.org)
  • While sugar provides you with energy, high blood sugar levels accompanied with high cholesterol can lead to heart disease. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Blood sugar levels affect the heart when the levels are at extremes, either very high or very low. (ehow.co.uk)
  • A higher level of blood sugar raises the blood pressure and heart rate. (ehow.co.uk)
  • If you have low blood sugar levels you will experience a rapid heart rate and a drowsy, irritable weak feeling. (ehow.co.uk)
  • MIAMI -- Renal denervation aimed at reducing refractory blood pressure provides some patients with an additional benefit -- a reduction in heart rate. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Abnormalities of heart rate sometimes indicate disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • This section discusses target heart rates for healthy persons and are inappropriately high for most persons with coronary artery disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • If Americans reduced their salt intake by just 1 gram per day, there would be 250,000 fewer new cases of heart disease and 200,000 fewer deaths in a decade. (webmd.com)
  • The study found that a 3-gram per day reduction in salt among all Americans would result in 6% fewer new cases of heart disease and 3% fewer deaths. (webmd.com)
  • Among African-Americans, there would be a 10% reduction in new cases of heart disease and a 6% reduction in deaths. (webmd.com)
  • Doctors use the formula when they test patients for heart disease, asking them to walk on treadmills while the speed and incline are gradually increased until their heart rates reach 85 percent of the predicted maximums. (nytimes.com)
  • The common formula was devised in 1970 by Dr. William Haskell, then a young physician in the federal Public Health Service and his mentor, Dr. Samuel Fox, who led the service's program on heart disease. (nytimes.com)
  • Most were under 55 and some were smokers or had heart disease. (nytimes.com)
  • Abnormal HRV signifies that the body's stress response is not optimal resulting in potentially more harmful effects of chronic stress and increased risk of stress-related medical or mental disorders such as heart disease, depressed mood, generalized anxiety, panic disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ). (psychologytoday.com)
  • Since one in every four deaths in the United States-about 610,000 people annually-occurs as a result of heart disease, it's important to be in the know about yours. (runnersworld.com)
  • Heart Disease and Saturated Fat: Do the Dietary Guidelines Have It All Wrong? (medhelp.org)
  • Can Mental Stress Lead to Heart Disease? (medhelp.org)
  • Can depression and anxiety cause heart disease? (medhelp.org)
  • Heart disease' refers to several conditions including coronary artery disease, which can cause heart attack . (foxnews.com)
  • Despite the decline in deaths over time, heart disease is still the leading cause of death in the U.S., killing more than 600,000 people per year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (foxnews.com)
  • The consistent progression southward over the past few decades suggests that the pattern is not random - and could be attributed to geographic differences in prevention and treatment opportunities,' said lead author Michele Casper of the CDC's Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia. (foxnews.com)
  • Every county saw a decline in heart disease deaths. (foxnews.com)
  • The average decline across the U.S. was 61 percent, but some counties only saw a decline of 9 percent while others cut heart disease deaths by 83 percent. (foxnews.com)
  • At the beginning of the study, heart disease deaths were most common in the Northeast through Appalachia and into the Midwest. (foxnews.com)
  • There were still meaningful declines in heart disease deaths in the South, Casper noted. (foxnews.com)
  • Heart disease-related deaths are largely preventable, and with targeted public health efforts, it's possible to alleviate much of the heavy burden of this disease and close the geographic gap in declining heart disease death rates,' Casper said. (foxnews.com)
  • There are several categories of heart rate numbers, and paying attention to your heart rate can provide you with signals if you are beginning to have heart disease. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The earlier you catch heart disease, the better your chances are of preventing a heart attack or stroke. (ehow.co.uk)
  • These include coronary artery disease , heart attack , and infections such as endocarditis and myocarditis . (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • The American Heart Association is devoted to saving people from heart disease and stroke - the two leading causes of death in the world. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Dallas-based association is the nation's oldest and largest voluntary organization dedicated to fighting heart disease and stroke. (eurekalert.org)
  • It is hard for the immune system to fight and particularly dangerous in people who already have certain heart problems such as artificial valves or congenital heart disease. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Fitbit's new Alta HR tracker adds heart-rate tracking to its slim, stylish Alta wristband. (cio.com)
  • So, if you're considering a Fitbit tracker with heart rate monitoring, you now have another choice: Go slim and light with Alta HR. Or spend the same money for more features in a bigger package, with Charge 2. (cio.com)
  • On Wednesday, one of the arguable forerunners, Moov , took the wraps off the Moov HR , an activity tracker that measures heart rate with pinpoint accuracy. (yahoo.com)
  • Yuan performed a series of squats while wearing both the Moov HR and a Fitbit tracker, and both showed his heart rate climbing. (yahoo.com)
  • Here's how to wear your heart rate tracker. (fitbit.com)
  • It also features an instantaneous heart rate function. (engadget.com)
  • Continuous heart rate display. (mec.ca)
  • Uses ultra low-power battery technologies, so you get longer battery life-even with continuous heart rate readings. (fitbit.com)
  • It's also the only device out of the tested group that offers continuous heart rate monitoring for almost a week on a single charge. (medium.com)
  • It means that the heart's natural pacemaker isn't working right or that the electrical pathways of the heart are disrupted. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • If damage to the heart's electrical system causes your heart to beat too slowly, you will probably need to have a pacemaker . (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • I noticed every time I eat something really fatty or sweet for dinner I wake up in the morning with a fast heart rate for about 5 to 10 minutes. (yahoo.com)
  • Crazy Heart is in theaters beginning December 16th - just in time for Oscar season. (flavorwire.com)
  • Also, research has shown that dehydration, heat, altitude, time of day and natural variation between individuals can all influence heart rate by up to 20 per cent. (runnersworld.com)
  • Most record over time so you can see a graph, later on, of how your heart did during your chosen activity. (bellaonline.com)
  • And the Moov's companion smartphone app has been redesigned to match: It records the wearable's heart rate in real time, on a bar graph. (yahoo.com)
  • I don't have a power meter, so this is all based on speed and heart rate on the same segments I've ridden up to 300 time on Strava). (bikeforums.net)
  • The next time you pick up a drink, you might want to think twice, especially if you're prone to panic anxiety or heart arrhythmias. (emaxhealth.com)
  • That is, a PVC interrupts the normal cardiac cycle, so the ventricles of the heart haven't had time to fill up to their normal level, before contracting and pumping their contents out. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of us at the time were swimmers and runners, so we had never developed the necessary strength to push our hearts on the bike like we could running and swimming. (active.com)
  • At the same time, rates of the infection rose by an extra 35 cases a month. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Far from the metronome we might assume it to be, the healthiest heart beat follows a fractal pattern, with varying lengths of time separating each pulse. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • 8. A method as set forth in claim 1 , wherein said step of second processing comprises obtaining a heart rate signal reflecting a time series of heart rate values for said patient. (google.com)
  • Fitbit says it developed a "one-of-a-kind" chip that reduces the size and components required to read heart rates, resulting in a wristband that's 25 percent slimmer than Charge 2. (cio.com)
  • Continuous, automatic heart rate tracking right on your wrist-all from Fitbit. (fitbit.com)
  • Speak to your doctor if you are on any medications that might be affecting your heart rate, such as beta blockers. (wikihow.com)
  • By combining decades of research and experience with the latest technologies available, our team of medical doctors & scientists have perfected the interpretation of heart readings, providing an infinitely greater solution than other heart rate wearables available today. (kickstarter.com)
  • Unless you're an athlete or have been to the doctor for heart problems, you probably haven't thought much about your heart rate. (reference.com)
  • Realize that in each case the athlete was able to achieve a higher heart rate while performing work in his given specialty. (active.com)
  • The objective of this study was to compare the stress response of horses suffering from laminitis after short- and long-term treatment with the intent to evaluate power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) for pain monitoring. (mendeley.com)
  • 6. A method as set forth in claim 1 , wherein said step of second processing comprises performing a spectral analysis of said pleth signal to obtain said heart rate information. (google.com)
  • I also have a very fast recovery rate, so that when I finish exercising for, say 10 or 15 minutes -- my heart rate drops almost immediately back into the 80s where it started. (diabetesdaily.com)
  • If your heart rate drops below the optimal range for your specified age, height, and weight, a virtual fitness coach will verbally prompt you to up the intensity. (yahoo.com)
  • Zeller, the co-moderator of the TCT session, told MedPage Today , "It has been shown by other groups that following renal denervation heart rate drops. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Later units have used conductive smart fabric with built-in microprocessors that analyze the EKG signal to determine heart rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In old versions, when a heart beat is detected a radio signal is transmitted, which the receiver uses to determine the current heart rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • They'll also determine what your target heart rate should be and if you need to be monitored during physical activity. (healthline.com)
  • Set up a meeting with your doctor to determine the cause of your elevated heart rate. (wikihow.com)
  • That maximum value is then also used to determine your work-out values - how quickly your heart should be beating while you dance, kayak, or do whatever other activities you enjoy. (bellaonline.com)
  • One way of checking physical activity intensity is to determine whether your pulse or heart rate is within the target zone during physical activity. (cdc.gov)
  • Calculating your morning heart rate can help a physician or personal trainer determine your training target heart rate. (livestrong.com)
  • If you're unable to determine the cause of your increased heart rate or your burping, it's recommended you consult a doctor. (livestrong.com)
  • It consists of a brief speed-up in heart rate, followed by a slow decrease back to the baseline rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -We investigated the consequence of diabetes and pre-diabetic metabolic impairments on the 9-year change in heart rate variability (HRV) in a population-based cohort of 6,245 individuals aged 45-64 years at baseline and cross-sectional associations among 9,940 individuals. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • So it is plausible that the higher heart rate following alcohol consumption could lead to arrhythmias. (hon.ch)
  • And, the plastic heart rate module easily unsnaps from the soft strap, allowing for hassle-free laundry. (bicyclesportshop.com)