Heart Rate, Fetal
Autonomic Nervous System
Heart Defects, Congenital
Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Ventricular Function, Left
Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena
Heart Arrest, Induced
Autonomic Nervous System Diseases
Cardiac Output, Low
Cardiac Pacing, Artificial
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
Ventricular Dysfunction, Left
Myocardial Reperfusion Injury
Heart Failure, Systolic
Predictive Value of Tests
Blood Flow Velocity
Disease Models, Animal
Analysis of Variance
Autonomic Nerve Block
Rheumatic Heart Disease
Heart Valve Prosthesis
Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists
Death, Sudden, Cardiac
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta
Heart Failure, Diastolic
American Heart Association
Rats, Inbred SHR
Natriuretic Peptide, Brain
Cardiac Complexes, Premature
Reproducibility of Results
Ventricular Premature Complexes
Heart Conduction System
Physical Conditioning, Animal
Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular
Heart Septal Defects
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome
Galvanic Skin Response
Graphic monitoring of labour. (1/19128)The parturograph is a composite record designed for the monitoring of fetal and maternal well-being and the progress of labour. It permits the early recognition of abnormalities and pinpoints the patients who would benefit most from intervention. Observations are made from the time of admission of the mother to the caseroom and recorded graphically. Factors assessed include fetal heart rate, maternal vital signs and urine, cervical dilatation, descent of the presenting fetal part, and frequency, duration and intensity of uterine contractions. (+info)
Reduction in baroreflex cardiovascular responses due to venous infusion in the rabbit. (2/19128)We studied reflex bradycardia and depression of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) during left aortic nerve (LAN) stimulation before and after volume infusion in the anesthetized rabbit. Step increases in mean right atrial pressure (MRAP) to 10 mm Hg did not result in a significant change in heart rate or MAP. After volume loading, responses to LAN stimulation were not as great and the degree of attenuation was propoetional to the level of increased MRAP. A change in responsiveness was observed after elevation of MRAP by only 1 mm Hg, corresponding to less than a 10% increase in average calculated blood volume. after an increase in MRAP of 10 mm Hg, peak responses were attenuated by 44% (heart rate) and 52% (MAP), and the initial slopes (rate of change) were reduced by 46% (heart rate) and 66% (MAP). Comparison of the responses after infusion with blood and dextran solutions indicated that hemodilution was an unlikely explanation for the attenuation of the reflex responses. Total arterial baroreceptor denervation (ABD) abolished the volume-related attenuation was still present following bilateral aortic nerve section or vagotomy. It thus appears that the carotid sinus responds to changes inblood volume and influences the reflex cardiovascular responses to afferent stimulation of the LAN. On the other hand, cardiopulmonary receptors subserved by vagal afferents do not appear to be involved. (+info)
Quantification of baroreceptor influence on arterial pressure changes seen in primary angiotension-induced hypertension in dogs. (3/19128)We studied the role of the sino-aortic baroreceptors in the gradual development of hypertension induced by prolonged administration of small amounts of angiotensin II (A II) in intact dogs and dogs with denervated sino-aortic baroreceptors. Short-term 1-hour infusions of A II(1.0-100 ng/kg per min) showed that conscious denervated dogs had twice the pressor sensitivity of intact dogs. Long-term infusions of A II at 5.0 ng/kg per min (2-3 weeks) with continuous 24-hour recordings of arterial pressure showed that intact dogs required 28 hours to reach the same level of pressure attained by denervated dogs during the 1st hour of infusion. At the 28th hour the pressure in both groups was 70% of the maximum value attained by the 7th day of infusion. Both intact and denervated dogs reached nearly the same plateau level of pressure, the magnitude being directly related both the the A II infusion rate and the daily sodium intake. Cardiac output in intact dogs initially decreased after the onset of A II infusion, but by the 5th day of infusion it was 38% above control, whereas blood volume was unchanged. Heart rate returned to normal after a reduction during the 1st day of infusion in intact dogs. Plasma renin activity could not be detected after 24 hours of A II infusion in either intact or denervated dogs. The data indicate that about 35% of the hypertensive effect of A II results from its acute pressor action, and an additional 35% of the gradual increase in arterial pressure is in large measure a result of baroreceptor resetting. We conclude that the final 30% increase in pressure seems to result from increased cardiac output, the cause of which may be decreased vascular compliance. since the blood volume remains unaltered. (+info)
Evaluation of the force-frequency relationship as a descriptor of the inotropic state of canine left ventricular myocardium. (4/19128)The short-term force-frequency characteristics of canine left ventricular myocardium were examined in both isolated and intact preparations by briefly pertubing the frequency of contraction with early extrasystoles. The maximum rate of rise of isometric tension (Fmas) of the isolated trabeculae carneae was potentiated by the introduction of extrasystoles. The ratio of Fmas of potentiated to control beats (force-frequency ratio) was not altered significantly by a change in muscle length. However, exposure of the trabeculae to isoproterenol (10(-7)M) significantly changed the force-frequency ratio obtained in response to a constant frequency perturbation. Similar experiments were performed on chronically instrumented conscious dogs. Left ventricular minor axis diameter was measured with implanted pulse-transit ultrasonic dimension transducers, and intracavitary pressure was measured with a high fidelity micromanometer. Atrial pacing was performed so that the end-diastolic diameters of the beats preceding and following the extrasystole could be made identical. Large increases in the maximum rate of rise of pressure (Pmas) were seen in the contraction after the extrasystole. The ratio of Pmax of the potentiated beat to that of the control beat was not changed by a 9% increase in the end-diastolic diameter, produced by saline infusion. Conversely, isoproterenol significantly altered this relationship in the same manner as in the isolated muscle. Thus, either in vitro or in situ, left ventricular myocardium exhibits large functional changes in response to brief perturbations in rate. The isoproterenol and length data indicate that the force-frequency ratio reflects frequency-dependent changes in the inotropic state, independent of changes in length. (+info)
Site of myocardial infarction. A determinant of the cardiovascular changes induced in the cat by coronary occlusion. (5/19128)The influence of site of acute myocardial infarction on heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance (TPR), cardiac rhythm, and mortality was determined in 58 anesthetized cats by occlusion of either the left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex or right coronary artery. LAD occlusion resulted in immediate decrease in cardiac output, heart rate, and blood pressure, an increase in TPR, and cardiac rhythm changes including premature ventricular beats, ventricular tachycardia, and occasionally ventricular fibrillation. The decrease in cardiac output and increase in TPR persisted in the cats surviving a ventricular arrhythmia. In contrast, right coronary occlusion resulted in a considerably smaller decrease in cardiac output. TPR did not increase, atrioventricular condition disturbances were common, and sinus bradycardia and hypotension persisted in the cats recovering from an arrhythmia. Left circumflex ligation resulted in cardiovascular changes intermediate between those produced by occlusion of the LAD or the right coronary artery. Mortality was similar in each of the three groups. We studied the coronary artery anatomy in 12 cats. In 10, the blood supply to the sinus node was from the right coronary artery and in 2, from the left circumflex coronary artery. The atrioventricular node artery arose from the right in 9 cats, and from the left circumflex in 3. The right coronary artery was dominant in 9 cats and the left in 3. In conclusion, the site of experimental coronary occlusion in cats is a major determinant of the hemodynamic and cardiac rhythm changes occurring after acute myocardial infarction. The cardiovascular responses evoked by ligation are related in part to the anatomical distribution of the occluded artery. (+info)
Hierarchy of ventricular pacemakers. (6/19128)To characterize the pattern of pacemaker dominance in the ventricular specialized conduction system (VSCS), escape ventricular pacemakers were localized and quantified in vivo and in virto, in normal hearts and in hearts 24 hours after myocardial infarction. Excape pacemaker foci were localized in vivo during vagally induced atrial arrest by means of electrograms recorded from the His bundle and proximal bundle branches and standard electrocardiographic limb leads. The VSCS was isolated using a modified Elizari preparation or preparations of each bundle branch. Peacemakers were located by extra- and intracellular recordings. Escape pacemaker foci in vivo were always in the proximal conduction system, usually the left bundle branch. The rate was 43+/-11 (mean+/-SD) beats/min. After beta-adrenergic blockade, the mean rate fell to 31+/-10 beats/min, but there were no shifts in pacemaker location. In the infarcted hearts, pacemakers were located in the peripheral left bundle branch. The mean rate was 146+/-20 beats/min. In isolated normal preparations, the dominant pacemakers usually were in the His bundle, firing at a mean rate of 43+/-10 beats/min. The rates of pacemakers diminished with distal progression. In infarcted hearts, the pacemakers invariably were in the infarct zone. The mean firing rates were not influenced by beta-adrenergic blockade. The results indicate that the dominant pacemakers are normally in the very proximal VSCS, but after myocardial infarction pacemaker dominance is shifted into the infarct. Distribution of pacemaker dominance is independent of sympathetic influence. (+info)
Perioperative growth hormone treatment and functional outcome after major abdominal surgery: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. (7/19128)OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of perioperative human growth hormone (hGH) treatment on physical performance and fatigue in younger patients undergoing a major abdominal operation in a normal postoperative regimen with oral nutrition. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Muscle wasting and functional impairment follow major abdominal surgery. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing ileoanal J-pouch surgery were randomized to hGH (12 IU/day) or placebo treatment from 2 days before to 7 days after surgery. Measurements were performed 2 days before and 10, 30, and 90 days after surgery. RESULTS: The total muscle strength of four limb muscle groups was reduced by 7.6% in the hGH group and by 17.1% in the placebo group at postoperative day 10 compared with baseline values. There was also a significant difference between treatment groups in total muscle strength at day 30, and at the 90-day follow-up total muscle strength was equal to baseline values in the hGH group, but still significantly 5.9% below in the placebo group. The work capacity decreased by approximately 20% at day 10 after surgery, with no significant difference between treatment groups. Both groups were equally fatigued at day 10 after surgery, but at day 30 and 90 the hGH patients were less fatigued than the placebo patients. During the treatment period, patients receiving hGH had reduced loss of limb lean tissue mass, and 3 months after surgery the hGH patients had regained more lean tissue mass than placebo patients. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative hGH treatment of younger patients undergoing major abdominal surgery preserved limb lean tissue mass, increased postoperative muscular strength, and reduced long-term postoperative fatigue. (+info)
Heart rate and subsequent blood pressure in young adults: the CARDIA study. (8/19128)The objective of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that baseline heart rate (HR) predicts subsequent blood pressure (BP) independently of baseline BP. In the multicenter longitudinal Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study of black and white men and women initially aged 18 to 30 years, we studied 4762 participants who were not current users of antihypertensive drugs and had no history of heart problems at the baseline examination (1985-1986). In each race-sex subgroup, we estimated the effect of baseline HR on BP 2, 5, 7, and 10 years later by use of repeated measures regression analysis, adjusting for baseline BP, age, education, body fatness, physical fitness, fasting insulin, parental hypertension, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, oral contraceptive use, and change of body mass index from baseline. The association between baseline HR and subsequent systolic BP (SBP) was explained by multivariable adjustment. However, HR was an independent predictor of subsequent diastolic BP (DBP) regardless of initial BP and other confounders in white men, white women, and black men (0.7 mm Hg increase per 10 bpm). We incorporated the part of the association that was already present at baseline by not adjusting for baseline DBP: the mean increase in subsequent DBP was 1.3 mm Hg per 10 bpm in white men, white women, and black men. A high HR may be considered a risk factor for subsequent high DBP in young persons. (+info)
There are two main types of heart failure:
1. Left-sided heart failure: This occurs when the left ventricle, which is the main pumping chamber of the heart, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the lungs and other organs.
2. Right-sided heart failure: This occurs when the right ventricle, which pumps blood to the lungs, becomes weakened and is unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to congestion in the body's tissues and organs.
Symptoms of heart failure may include:
* Shortness of breath
* Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
* Swelling in the abdomen
* Weight gain
* Coughing up pink, frothy fluid
* Rapid or irregular heartbeat
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
Treatment for heart failure typically involves a combination of medications and lifestyle changes. Medications may include diuretics to remove excess fluid from the body, ACE inhibitors or beta blockers to reduce blood pressure and improve blood flow, and aldosterone antagonists to reduce the amount of fluid in the body. Lifestyle changes may include a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction techniques. In severe cases, heart failure may require hospitalization or implantation of a device such as an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or a left ventricular assist device (LVAD).
It is important to note that heart failure is a chronic condition, and it requires ongoing management and monitoring to prevent complications and improve quality of life. With proper treatment and lifestyle changes, many people with heart failure are able to manage their symptoms and lead active lives.
There are many different types of heart diseases, including:
1. Coronary artery disease: The buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, leading to chest pain or a heart attack.
2. Heart failure: When the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs, leading to fatigue, shortness of breath, and swelling in the legs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms, such as atrial fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia, which can cause palpitations, dizziness, and shortness of breath.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves, which can lead to blood leaking back into the chambers or not being pumped effectively.
5. Cardiomyopathy: Disease of the heart muscle, which can lead to weakened heart function and heart failure.
6. Heart murmurs: Abnormal sounds heard during a heartbeat, which can be caused by defects in the heart valves or abnormal blood flow.
7. Congenital heart disease: Heart defects present at birth, such as holes in the heart or abnormal blood vessels.
8. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): Damage to the heart muscle due to a lack of oxygen, often caused by a blockage in a coronary artery.
9. Cardiac tamponade: Fluid accumulation around the heart, which can cause compression of the heart and lead to cardiac arrest.
10. Endocarditis: Infection of the inner lining of the heart, which can cause fever, fatigue, and heart valve damage.
Heart diseases can be diagnosed through various tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, stress test, and blood tests. Treatment options depend on the specific condition and may include lifestyle changes, medication, surgery, or a combination of these.
Types of congenital heart defects include:
1. Ventricular septal defect (VSD): A hole in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart, allowing abnormal blood flow.
2. Atrial septal defect (ASD): A hole in the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart, also allowing abnormal blood flow.
3. Tetralogy of Fallot: A combination of four heart defects, including VSD, pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary valve), and abnormal development of the infundibulum (a part of the heart that connects the ventricles to the pulmonary artery).
4. Transposition of the great vessels: A condition in which the aorta and/or pulmonary artery are placed in the wrong position, disrupting blood flow.
5. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS): A severe defect in which the left side of the heart is underdeveloped, resulting in insufficient blood flow to the body.
6. Pulmonary atresia: A condition in which the pulmonary valve does not form properly, blocking blood flow to the lungs.
7. Truncus arteriosus: A rare defect in which a single artery instead of two (aorta and pulmonary artery) arises from the heart.
8. Double-outlet right ventricle: A condition in which both the aorta and the pulmonary artery arise from the right ventricle instead of the left ventricle.
Causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetics, environmental factors, and viral infections during pregnancy may play a role. Diagnosis is typically made through fetal echocardiography or cardiac ultrasound during pregnancy or after birth. Treatment depends on the type and severity of the defect and may include medication, surgery, or heart transplantation. With advances in medical technology and treatment, many children with congenital heart disease can lead active, healthy lives into adulthood.
There are several types of heart block, including:
1. First-degree heart block: This is the mildest form of heart block, where the electrical signals are delayed slightly but still reach the ventricles.
2. Second-degree heart block: In this type, some of the electrical signals may be blocked or delayed, causing the heart to beat irregularly.
3. Third-degree heart block: This is the most severe form of heart block, where all electrical signals are completely blocked, resulting in a complete halt of the heart's normal rhythm.
Heart block can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Coronary artery disease: A buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries can lead to a blockage that affects the electrical signals to the heart.
2. Heart attack: Damage to the heart muscle can cause scarring and disrupt the electrical signals.
3. Cardiomyopathy: Disease of the heart muscle can lead to heart block.
4. Heart valve problems: Dysfunctional heart valves can interfere with the electrical signals to the heart.
5. Electrolyte imbalances: Abnormal levels of potassium, magnesium, or other electrolytes can affect the heart's electrical activity.
6. Medications: Certain drugs, such as beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers, can slow down the heart's electrical signals.
7. Infections: Viral or bacterial infections can damage the heart and disrupt its electrical signals.
8. Genetic conditions: Certain inherited conditions, such as long QT syndrome, can affect the heart's electrical activity.
9. Autoimmune disorders: Conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus can damage the heart and disrupt its electrical signals.
Symptoms of heart block may include:
1. Slow or irregular heartbeat
4. Shortness of breath
5. Dizziness or lightheadedness
6. Chest pain or discomfort
7. Pain or discomfort in the arms, back, or jaw
Diagnosis of heart block is typically made with an electrocardiogram (ECG), which measures the electrical activity of the heart. Other tests that may be used to diagnose heart block include:
1. Echocardiography: An ultrasound test that uses sound waves to create images of the heart.
2. Stress test: A test that measures the heart's activity during exercise or other forms of physical stress.
3. Holter monitor: A portable device that records the heart's activity over a 24-hour period.
4. Event monitor: A portable device that records the heart's activity over a longer period of time, typically 1-2 weeks.
Treatment for heart block depends on the severity of the condition and may include:
1. Medications: Drugs such as beta blockers or pacemakers may be used to regulate the heart's rhythm and rate.
2. Pacemaker: A small device that is implanted in the chest to help regulate the heart's rhythm.
3. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT): A procedure that involves implanting a device that helps both ventricles of the heart beat together, improving the heart's pumping function.
4. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD): A device that is implanted in the chest to monitor the heart's rhythm and deliver an electric shock if it detects a potentially life-threatening arrhythmia.
In conclusion, heart block is a serious condition that can disrupt the normal functioning of the heart. It is important to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of heart block, and to seek medical attention immediately if they occur. With proper diagnosis and treatment, it is possible to manage heart block and improve the quality of life for those affected by the condition.
* Heart block: A condition where the electrical signals that control the heart's rhythm are blocked or delayed, leading to a slow heart rate.
* Sinus node dysfunction: A condition where the sinus node, which is responsible for setting the heart's rhythm, is not functioning properly, leading to a slow heart rate.
* Medications: Certain medications, such as beta blockers, can slow down the heart rate.
* Heart failure: In severe cases of heart failure, the heart may become so weak that it cannot pump blood effectively, leading to a slow heart rate.
* Electrolyte imbalance: An imbalance of electrolytes, such as potassium or magnesium, can affect the heart's ability to function properly and cause a slow heart rate.
* Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism (an underactive thyroid) or anemia, can cause bradycardia.
Bradycardia can cause symptoms such as:
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Shortness of breath
* Chest pain or discomfort
In some cases, bradycardia may not cause any noticeable symptoms at all.
If you suspect you have bradycardia, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment. They may perform tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG) or stress test to determine the cause of your slow heart rate and develop an appropriate treatment plan. Treatment options for bradycardia may include:
* Medications: Such as atropine or digoxin, to increase the heart rate.
* Pacemakers: A small device that is implanted in the chest to help regulate the heart's rhythm and increase the heart rate.
* Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT): A procedure that involves implanting a device that helps both ventricles of the heart beat together, improving the heart's pumping function.
It is important to note that bradycardia can be a symptom of an underlying condition, so it is important to address the underlying cause in order to effectively treat the bradycardia.
Myocardial ischemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking. It can also be triggered by physical exertion or stress.
There are several types of myocardial ischemia, including:
1. Stable angina: This is the most common type of myocardial ischemia, and it is characterized by a predictable pattern of chest pain that occurs during physical activity or emotional stress.
2. Unstable angina: This is a more severe type of myocardial ischemia that can occur without any identifiable trigger, and can be accompanied by other symptoms such as shortness of breath or vomiting.
3. Acute coronary syndrome (ACS): This is a condition that includes both stable angina and unstable angina, and it is characterized by a sudden reduction in blood flow to the heart muscle.
4. Heart attack (myocardial infarction): This is a type of myocardial ischemia that occurs when the blood flow to the heart muscle is completely blocked, resulting in damage or death of the cardiac tissue.
Myocardial ischemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and imaging studies such as echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options for myocardial ischemia include medications such as nitrates, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers, as well as lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, losing weight, and exercising regularly. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as coronary artery bypass grafting or angioplasty may be necessary.
There are several types of tachycardia, including:
1. Sinus tachycardia: This is the most common type and is caused by an increase in the rate of the normal sinus node. It is often seen in response to physical activity or stress.
2. Atrial fibrillation: This is a type of arrhythmia where the heart's upper chambers (atria) contract irregularly and rapidly, leading to a rapid heart rate.
3. Ventricular tachycardia: This is a type of arrhythmia where the heart's lower chambers (ventricles) contract rapidly, often with a rate above 100 bpm.
4. Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs): These are early or extra beats that originate in the ventricles, causing a rapid heart rate.
Tachycardia can cause a range of symptoms, including palpitations, shortness of breath, chest pain, and dizziness. In severe cases, it can lead to cardiac arrhythmias, heart failure, and even death.
Diagnosis of tachycardia typically involves a physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG), and other tests such as stress tests or echocardiography. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause, but may include medications to regulate the heart rate, cardioversion to restore a normal heart rhythm, or in severe cases, implantation of a pacemaker or defibrillator.
Coronary disease is often caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, obesity, and a lack of physical activity. It can also be triggered by other medical conditions, such as diabetes and kidney disease.
The symptoms of coronary disease can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:
* Chest pain or discomfort (angina)
* Shortness of breath
* Swelling of the legs and feet
* Pain in the arms and back
Coronary disease is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and cardiac imaging. Treatment for coronary disease may include lifestyle changes, medications to control symptoms, and surgical procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow to the heart.
Preventative measures for coronary disease include:
* Maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine
* Quitting smoking and limiting alcohol consumption
* Managing high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and other underlying medical conditions
* Reducing stress through relaxation techniques or therapy.
There are many different types of ANS diseases, including:
1. Dysautonomia: a general term that refers to dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system.
2. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS): a condition characterized by rapid heart rate and other symptoms that occur upon standing.
3. Neurocardiogenic syncope: a form of fainting caused by a sudden drop in blood pressure.
4. Multiple system atrophy (MSA): a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects the autonomic nervous system and other parts of the brain.
5. Parkinson's disease: a neurodegenerative disorder that can cause autonomic dysfunction, including constipation, urinary incontinence, and erectile dysfunction.
6. Dopamine deficiency: a condition characterized by low levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which can affect the ANS and other body systems.
7. Autonomic nervous system disorders associated with autoimmune diseases, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and lupus.
8. Trauma: physical or emotional trauma can sometimes cause dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system.
9. Infections: certain infections, such as Lyme disease, can affect the autonomic nervous system.
10. Genetic mutations: some genetic mutations can affect the functioning of the autonomic nervous system.
Treatment for ANS diseases depends on the specific condition and its underlying cause. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to regulate heart rate, blood pressure, or other bodily functions. Lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise and stress management techniques, can also be helpful in managing symptoms. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to correct anatomical abnormalities or repair damaged nerves.
There are different types of myocardial infarctions, including:
1. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI): This is the most severe type of heart attack, where a large area of the heart muscle is damaged. It is characterized by a specific pattern on an electrocardiogram (ECG) called the ST segment.
2. Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI): This type of heart attack is less severe than STEMI, and the damage to the heart muscle may not be as extensive. It is characterized by a smaller area of damage or a different pattern on an ECG.
3. Incomplete myocardial infarction: This type of heart attack is when there is some damage to the heart muscle but not a complete blockage of blood flow.
4. Collateral circulation myocardial infarction: This type of heart attack occurs when there are existing collateral vessels that bypass the blocked coronary artery, which reduces the amount of damage to the heart muscle.
Symptoms of a myocardial infarction can include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, lightheadedness, and fatigue. These symptoms may be accompanied by anxiety, fear, and a sense of impending doom. In some cases, there may be no noticeable symptoms at all.
Diagnosis of myocardial infarction is typically made based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG), cardiac enzyme tests, and imaging studies like echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.
Treatment of myocardial infarction usually involves medications to relieve pain, reduce the amount of work the heart has to do, and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. These may include aspirin, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and statins. In some cases, a procedure such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow to the affected area.
Prevention of myocardial infarction involves managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, and obesity. This can include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction, as well as medications to control these conditions. Early detection and treatment of heart disease can help prevent myocardial infarction from occurring in the first place.
When the sinus node is not functioning properly, it can lead to an arrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat. This can cause a variety of symptoms, including palpitations, shortness of breath, fatigue, and dizziness. In some cases, sinus arrhythmia can be caused by underlying medical conditions such as coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, or cardiomyopathy.
There are several types of sinus arrhythmia, including:
* Sinus tachycardia: a rapid heart rate due to an overactive sinus node. This can be caused by stress, anxiety, or physical exertion.
* Sinus bradycardia: a slow heart rate due to a decreased activity in the sinus node. This can be caused by certain medications, age, or underlying medical conditions.
* Sinus arrest: a complete cessation of sinus node activity, leading to a stop in the heartbeat. This is a rare condition and can be caused by a variety of factors, including electrolyte imbalances or certain medications.
Treatment for sinus arrhythmia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of symptoms. In some cases, no treatment may be necessary, while in other cases, medication or procedures such as cardioversion or catheter ablation may be required. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated sinus arrhythmia can lead to more serious complications such as stroke or heart failure.
Cardiac output is typically measured using invasive or non-invasive methods. Invasive methods involve inserting a catheter into the heart to directly measure cardiac output. Non-invasive methods include echocardiography, MRI, and CT scans. These tests can provide an estimate of cardiac output based on the volume of blood being pumped out of the heart and the rate at which it is being pumped.
There are several factors that can contribute to low cardiac output. These include:
1. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs, leading to fatigue and shortness of breath.
2. Anemia: A low red blood cell count can reduce the amount of oxygen being delivered to the body's tissues, leading to fatigue and weakness.
3. Medication side effects: Certain medications, such as beta blockers, can slow down the heart rate and reduce cardiac output.
4. Sepsis: A severe infection can lead to inflammation throughout the body, which can affect the heart's ability to pump blood effectively.
5. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): This occurs when the heart muscle is damaged due to a lack of oxygen, leading to reduced cardiac output.
Low cardiac output can cause a range of symptoms, including:
1. Fatigue and weakness
2. Dizziness and lightheadedness
3. Shortness of breath
4. Pale skin
5. Decreased urine output
6. Confusion and disorientation
The treatment of low cardiac output depends on the underlying cause. Treatment may include:
1. Medications to increase heart rate and contractility
2. Diuretics to reduce fluid buildup in the body
3. Oxygen therapy to increase oxygenation of tissues
4. Mechanical support devices, such as intra-aortic balloon pumps or ventricular assist devices
5. Surgery to repair or replace damaged heart tissue
6. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, to improve cardiovascular health.
Preventing low cardiac output involves managing any underlying medical conditions, taking medications as directed, and making lifestyle changes to improve cardiovascular health. This may include:
1. Monitoring and controlling blood pressure
2. Managing diabetes and other chronic conditions
3. Avoiding substances that can damage the heart, such as tobacco and excessive alcohol
4. Exercising regularly
5. Eating a healthy diet that is low in saturated fats and cholesterol
6. Maintaining a healthy weight.
There are several possible causes of dilated cardiomyopathy, including:
1. Coronary artery disease: This is the most common cause of dilated cardiomyopathy, and it occurs when the coronary arteries become narrowed or blocked, leading to a decrease in blood flow to the heart muscle.
2. High blood pressure: Prolonged high blood pressure can cause the heart muscle to become weakened and enlarged.
3. Heart valve disease: Dysfunctional heart valves can lead to an increased workload on the heart, which can cause dilated cardiomyopathy.
4. Congenital heart defects: Some congenital heart defects can lead to an enlarged heart and dilated cardiomyopathy.
5. Alcohol abuse: Chronic alcohol abuse can damage the heart muscle and lead to dilated cardiomyopathy.
6. Viral infections: Some viral infections, such as myocarditis, can cause inflammation of the heart muscle and lead to dilated cardiomyopathy.
7. Genetic disorders: Certain genetic disorders, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, can cause dilated cardiomyopathy.
8. Obesity: Obesity is a risk factor for developing dilated cardiomyopathy, particularly in younger people.
9. Diabetes: Diabetes can increase the risk of developing dilated cardiomyopathy, especially if left untreated or poorly controlled.
10. Age: Dilated cardiomyopathy is more common in older adults, with the majority of cases occurring in people over the age of 65.
It's important to note that many people with these risk factors will not develop dilated cardiomyopathy, and some people without any known risk factors can still develop the condition. If you suspect you or someone you know may have dilated cardiomyopathy, it's important to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
There are several potential causes of LVD, including:
1. Coronary artery disease: The buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries can lead to a heart attack, which can damage the left ventricle and impair its ability to function properly.
2. Heart failure: When the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs, it can lead to LVD.
3. Cardiomyopathy: This is a condition where the heart muscle becomes weakened or enlarged, leading to impaired function of the left ventricle.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves can disrupt the normal flow of blood and cause LVD.
5. Hypertension: High blood pressure can cause damage to the heart muscle and lead to LVD.
6. Genetic factors: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that predispose them to developing LVD.
7. Viral infections: Certain viral infections, such as myocarditis, can inflame and damage the heart muscle, leading to LVD.
8. Alcohol or drug abuse: Substance abuse can damage the heart muscle and lead to LVD.
9. Nutritional deficiencies: A diet lacking essential nutrients can lead to damage to the heart muscle and increase the risk of LVD.
Diagnosis of LVD typically involves a physical exam, medical history, and results of diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), echocardiograms, and stress tests. Treatment options for LVD depend on the underlying cause, but may include medications to improve cardiac function, lifestyle changes, and in severe cases, surgery or other procedures.
Preventing LVD involves taking steps to maintain a healthy heart and reducing risk factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, and obesity. This can be achieved through a balanced diet, regular exercise, stress management, and avoiding substance abuse. Early detection and treatment of underlying conditions that increase the risk of LVD can also help prevent the condition from developing.
There are many different types of cardiac arrhythmias, including:
1. Tachycardias: These are fast heart rhythms that can be too fast for the body's needs. Examples include atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia.
2. Bradycardias: These are slow heart rhythms that can cause symptoms like fatigue, dizziness, and fainting. Examples include sinus bradycardia and heart block.
3. Premature beats: These are extra beats that occur before the next regular beat should come in. They can be benign but can also indicate an underlying arrhythmia.
4. Supraventricular arrhythmias: These are arrhythmias that originate above the ventricles, such as atrial fibrillation and paroxysmal atrial tachycardia.
5. Ventricular arrhythmias: These are arrhythmias that originate in the ventricles, such as ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation.
Cardiac arrhythmias can be diagnosed through a variety of tests including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and holter monitors. Treatment options for cardiac arrhythmias vary depending on the type and severity of the condition and may include medications, cardioversion, catheter ablation, or implantable devices like pacemakers or defibrillators.
There are several causes of hypotension, including:
1. Dehydration: Loss of fluids and electrolytes can cause a drop in blood pressure.
2. Blood loss: Losing too much blood can lead to hypotension.
3. Medications: Certain medications, such as diuretics and beta-blockers, can lower blood pressure.
4. Heart conditions: Heart failure, cardiac tamponade, and arrhythmias can all cause hypotension.
5. Endocrine disorders: Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) and adrenal insufficiency can cause low blood pressure.
6. Vasodilation: A condition where the blood vessels are dilated, leading to low blood pressure.
7. Sepsis: Severe infection can cause hypotension.
Symptoms of hypotension can include:
1. Dizziness and lightheadedness
2. Fainting or passing out
3. Weakness and fatigue
4. Confusion and disorientation
5. Pale, cool, or clammy skin
6. Fast or weak pulse
7. Shortness of breath
8. Nausea and vomiting
If you suspect that you or someone else is experiencing hypotension, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment will depend on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include fluids, electrolytes, and medication to raise blood pressure. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Medical Term: Cardiomegaly
Definition: An abnormal enlargement of the heart.
Symptoms: Difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, fatigue, swelling of legs and feet, chest pain, and palpitations.
Causes: Hypertension, cardiac valve disease, myocardial infarction (heart attack), congenital heart defects, and other conditions that affect the heart muscle or cardiovascular system.
Diagnosis: Physical examination, electrocardiogram (ECG), chest x-ray, echocardiography, and other diagnostic tests as necessary.
Treatment: Medications such as diuretics, vasodilators, and beta blockers, lifestyle changes such as exercise and diet modifications, surgery or other interventions in severe cases.
Note: Cardiomegaly is a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent complications such as heart failure and death. If you suspect you or someone else may have cardiomegaly, seek medical attention immediately.
MRI can occur in various cardiovascular conditions, such as myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrest, and cardiac surgery. The severity of MRI can range from mild to severe, depending on the extent and duration of the ischemic event.
The pathophysiology of MRI involves a complex interplay of various cellular and molecular mechanisms. During ischemia, the heart muscle cells undergo changes in energy metabolism, electrolyte balance, and cell membrane function. When blood flow is restored, these changes can lead to an influx of calcium ions into the cells, activation of enzymes, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can damage the cells and their membranes.
The clinical presentation of MRI can vary depending on the severity of the injury. Some patients may experience chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Others may have more severe symptoms, such as cardiogenic shock or ventricular arrhythmias. The diagnosis of MRI is based on a combination of clinical findings, electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, and cardiac biomarkers.
The treatment of MRI is focused on addressing the underlying cause of the injury and managing its symptoms. For example, in patients with myocardial infarction, thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention may be used to restore blood flow to the affected area. In patients with cardiac arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and other life-saving interventions may be necessary.
Prevention of MRI is crucial in reducing its incidence and severity. This involves aggressive risk factor management, such as controlling hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, as well as smoking cessation and stress reduction. Additionally, patients with a history of MI should adhere to their medication regimen, which may include beta blockers, ACE inhibitors or ARBs, statins, and aspirin.
In conclusion, myocardial injury with ST-segment elevation (MRI) is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt recognition and treatment. While the clinical presentation can vary depending on the severity of the injury, early diagnosis and management are crucial in reducing morbidity and mortality. Prevention through aggressive risk factor management and adherence to medication regimens is also essential in preventing MRI.
There are several types of cardiomyopathies, each with distinct characteristics and symptoms. Some of the most common forms of cardiomyopathy include:
1. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM): This is the most common form of cardiomyopathy and is characterized by an abnormal thickening of the heart muscle, particularly in the left ventricle. HCM can lead to obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract and can increase the risk of sudden death.
2. Dilated cardiomyopathy: This type of cardiomyopathy is characterized by a decrease in the heart's ability to pump blood effectively, leading to enlargement of the heart and potentially life-threatening complications such as congestive heart failure.
3. Restrictive cardiomyopathy: This type of cardiomyopathy is characterized by stiffness of the heart muscle, which makes it difficult for the heart to fill with blood. This can lead to shortness of breath and fatigue.
4. Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC): This is a rare type of cardiomyopathy that occurs when the left ventricle does not properly compact, leading to reduced cardiac function and potentially life-threatening complications.
5. Cardiac amyloidosis: This is a condition in which abnormal proteins accumulate in the heart tissue, leading to stiffness and impaired cardiac function.
6. Right ventricular cardiomyopathy (RVCM): This type of cardiomyopathy is characterized by impaired function of the right ventricle, which can lead to complications such as pulmonary hypertension and heart failure.
7. Endocardial fibroelastoma: This is a rare type of cardiomyopathy that occurs when abnormal tissue grows on the inner lining of the heart, leading to reduced cardiac function and potentially life-threatening complications.
8. Cardiac sarcoidosis: This is a condition in which inflammatory cells accumulate in the heart, leading to impaired cardiac function and potentially life-threatening complications.
9. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM): This is a condition in which the heart muscle thickens, leading to reduced cardiac function and potentially life-threatening complications such as arrhythmias and sudden death.
10. Hypokinetic left ventricular cardiomyopathy: This type of cardiomyopathy is characterized by decreased contraction of the left ventricle, leading to reduced cardiac function and potentially life-threatening complications such as heart failure.
It's important to note that some of these types of cardiomyopathy are more common in certain populations, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy being more common in young athletes. Additionally, some types of cardiomyopathy may have overlapping symptoms or co-occurring conditions, so it's important to work with a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
The primary cause of systolic heart failure is typically related to damage or disease affecting the left ventricle, such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, or cardiomyopathy. Other contributing factors may include valvular heart disease, anemia, and thyroid disorders.
Diagnosis of systolic heart failure often involves a physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, and blood tests. Treatment options for systolic heart failure may include lifestyle modifications, medications to manage symptoms and slow progression of the disease, and in severe cases, implantable devices or surgical interventions such as left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) or heart transplantation.
Systolic heart failure is a serious medical condition that can significantly impact quality of life and longevity if left untreated or undertreated. Therefore, early diagnosis and aggressive management are essential to improve outcomes for patients with this condition.
There are two types of heart arrest:
1. Asystole - This is when the heart stops functioning completely and there is no electrical activity in the heart.
2. Pulseless ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation - This is when the heart is still functioning but there is no pulse and the rhythm is abnormal.
Heart arrest can be diagnosed through various tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), blood tests, and echocardiography. Treatment options for heart arrest include cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), defibrillation, and medications to restore a normal heart rhythm.
In severe cases of heart arrest, the patient may require advanced life support measures such as mechanical ventilation and cardiac support devices. The prognosis for heart arrest is generally poor, especially if it is not treated promptly and effectively. However, with proper treatment and support, some patients can recover and regain normal heart function.
There are two types of hypertension:
1. Primary Hypertension: This type of hypertension has no identifiable cause and is also known as essential hypertension. It accounts for about 90% of all cases of hypertension.
2. Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication. It accounts for about 10% of all cases of hypertension.
Some common causes of secondary hypertension include:
* Kidney disease
* Adrenal gland disorders
* Hormonal imbalances
* Certain medications
* Sleep apnea
* Cocaine use
There are also several risk factors for hypertension, including:
* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Family history of hypertension
* Lack of exercise
* High sodium intake
* Low potassium intake
Hypertension is often asymptomatic, and it can cause damage to the blood vessels and organs over time. Some potential complications of hypertension include:
* Heart disease (e.g., heart attacks, heart failure)
* Kidney disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease)
* Vision loss (e.g., retinopathy)
* Peripheral artery disease
Hypertension is typically diagnosed through blood pressure readings taken over a period of time. Treatment for hypertension may include lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, stress management), medications, or a combination of both. The goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
During ventricular remodeling, the heart muscle becomes thicker and less flexible, leading to a decrease in the heart's ability to fill with blood and pump it out to the body. This can lead to shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and feet.
Ventricular remodeling is a natural response to injury, but it can also be exacerbated by factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity. Treatment for ventricular remodeling typically involves medications and lifestyle changes, such as exercise and a healthy diet, to help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the condition. In some cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue.
The process of ventricular remodeling is complex and involves multiple cellular and molecular mechanisms. It is thought to be driven by a variety of factors, including changes in gene expression, inflammation, and the activity of various signaling pathways.
Overall, ventricular remodeling is an important condition that can have significant consequences for patients with heart disease. Understanding its causes and mechanisms is crucial for developing effective treatments and improving outcomes for those affected by this condition.
The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.
In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.
What is a Chronic Disease?
A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:
2. Heart disease
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
Impact of Chronic Diseases
The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.
Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.
Addressing Chronic Diseases
Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:
1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.
Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.
There are several types of heart injuries that can occur, including:
1. Myocardial infarction (heart attack): This occurs when the blood flow to the heart is blocked, causing damage to the heart muscle.
2. Cardiac tamponade: This occurs when fluid accumulates in the space between the heart and the sac that surrounds it, putting pressure on the heart and impeding its ability to function properly.
3. Myocarditis: This is an inflammation of the heart muscle that can be caused by a virus or bacteria.
4. Pericardial tamponade: This occurs when fluid accumulates in the space between the heart and the sac that surrounds it, putting pressure on the heart and impeding its ability to function properly.
5. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
6. Coronary artery disease: This occurs when the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart, become narrowed or blocked, leading to damage to the heart muscle.
7. Cardiac rupture: This is a rare and severe injury that occurs when the heart muscle tears or ruptures.
Symptoms of heart injuries can include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, and irregular heartbeat. Treatment options for heart injuries depend on the severity of the injury and can range from medications to surgery. In some cases, heart injuries may be fatal if not properly treated.
In conclusion, heart injuries are a serious medical condition that can have long-term consequences if not properly treated. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms of a heart injury are present.
Treatment for rheumatic heart disease typically involves antibiotics to prevent further damage and medications to manage symptoms such as high blood pressure, swelling, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged valves.
Prevention of rheumatic heart disease involves early diagnosis and treatment of rheumatic fever, as well as maintaining good cardiovascular health through a healthy diet, regular exercise, and not smoking.
Some common symptoms of rheumatic heart disease include:
* Shortness of breath
* Swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet
* Chest pain or discomfort
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Irregular heartbeat
Some common risk factors for developing rheumatic heart disease include:
* Previous exposure to group A streptococcus bacteria, which can cause rheumatic fever
* Family history of rheumatic heart disease
* Poor living conditions or overcrowding, which can increase the risk of exposure to group A streptococcus bacteria
* Malnutrition or a diet low in certain nutrients, such as vitamin D and iron.
1. Coronary artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart.
2. Heart failure: A condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms that can be too fast, too slow, or irregular.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves that control blood flow through the heart.
5. Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy): Disease of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure.
6. Congenital heart disease: Defects in the heart's structure and function that are present at birth.
7. Peripheral artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the arms, legs, and other organs.
8. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg.
9. Pulmonary embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, which can be caused by a blood clot or other debris.
10. Stroke: A condition in which there is a lack of oxygen to the brain due to a blockage or rupture of blood vessels.
Some examples of the use of 'Death, Sudden, Cardiac' in medical contexts include:
1. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major public health concern, affecting thousands of people each year in the United States alone. It is often caused by inherited heart conditions, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or long QT syndrome.
2. The risk of sudden cardiac death is higher for individuals with a family history of heart disease or other pre-existing cardiovascular conditions.
3. Sudden cardiac death can be prevented by prompt recognition and treatment of underlying heart conditions, as well as by avoiding certain risk factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, and an unhealthy diet.
4. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillators (AEDs) can be effective in restoring a normal heart rhythm during sudden cardiac death, especially when used promptly after the onset of symptoms.
There are different types of anoxia, including:
1. Cerebral anoxia: This occurs when the brain does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cognitive impairment, confusion, and loss of consciousness.
2. Pulmonary anoxia: This occurs when the lungs do not receive enough oxygen, leading to shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain.
3. Cardiac anoxia: This occurs when the heart does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cardiac arrest and potentially death.
4. Global anoxia: This is a complete lack of oxygen to the entire body, leading to widespread tissue damage and death.
Treatment for anoxia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide oxygen therapy, pain management, and other supportive care. In severe cases, anoxia can lead to long-term disability or death.
Prevention of anoxia is important, and this includes managing underlying medical conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory problems. It also involves avoiding activities that can lead to oxygen deprivation, such as scuba diving or high-altitude climbing, without proper training and equipment.
In summary, anoxia is a serious medical condition that occurs when there is a lack of oxygen in the body or specific tissues or organs. It can cause cell death and tissue damage, leading to serious health complications and even death if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term disability or death.
A type of heart failure that occurs when the heart muscle is weakened and cannot properly relax between beats, leading to a decrease in blood flow and an increase in pressure in the veins. In diastolic heart failure, the heart's ability to fill with blood during the relaxation phase (diastole) is impaired, but the heart's contraction strength remains relatively normal.
Symptoms of diastolic heart failure may include fatigue, shortness of breath, swelling in the legs and feet, and difficulty exercising. Diagnosis typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and results from tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, or blood tests.
Treatment for diastolic heart failure often includes lifestyle modifications, such as a low-sodium diet, regular exercise, and weight loss, as well as medications to manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. In severe cases, implantable devices such as pacemakers or cardioverter-defibrillators may be recommended.
Prognosis for diastolic heart failure is generally better than for systolic heart failure, as the heart's contraction strength remains relatively normal. However, if left untreated, diastolic heart failure can lead to complications such as heart valve problems, atrial fibrillation, and congestive heart failure.
Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.
There are several ways to measure body weight, including:
1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.
It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.
There are several types of premature complexes, including:
1. Premature atrial complex (PAC): An extra heartbeat that originates in the atria, usually due to a rapid or irregular heart rate.
2. Premature ventricular complex (PVC): An extra heartbeat that originates in the ventricles, which can be more serious than PACs and may require further evaluation.
3. Premature nodal rhythm: A condition where the AV node (the electrical pathway between the atria and ventricles) fires prematurely, causing a rapid heart rate.
PCCs can be diagnosed using electrocardiography (ECG), which records the electrical activity of the heart. Treatment options for PCCs depend on the underlying cause and may include medications to regulate the heart rhythm, cardioversion (a procedure that restores a normal heart rhythm using electrical shock), or catheter ablation (a minimally invasive procedure that destroys the abnormal electrical pathway).
VPCs can cause symptoms such as palpitations, shortness of breath, and dizziness. In some cases, they can lead to more serious arrhythmias and even sudden cardiac death. To diagnose VPCs, a healthcare provider may perform an electrocardiogram (ECG) or other tests to measure the heart's electrical activity. Treatment options for VPCs include medications to regulate the heart rhythm, implantable devices such as pacemakers or defibrillators, and in some cases, surgery to repair or replace a damaged heart valve.
Prevention of VPCs includes maintaining a healthy lifestyle, managing high blood pressure and other risk factors, and avoiding certain medications that can trigger these abnormal heartbeats. Early detection and treatment of underlying heart conditions can also help prevent VPCs from occurring. In summary, Ventricular Premature Complexes are abnormal heartbeats that can disrupt the normal heart rhythm and may be a sign of an underlying heart condition. Diagnosis and treatment options are available to manage this condition and prevent complications.
There are several risk factors for developing AF, including:
1. Age: The risk of developing AF increases with age, with the majority of cases occurring in people over the age of 65.
2. Hypertension (high blood pressure): High blood pressure can damage the heart and increase the risk of developing AF.
3. Heart disease: People with heart disease, such as coronary artery disease or heart failure, are at higher risk of developing AF.
4. Diabetes mellitus: Diabetes can increase the risk of developing AF.
5. Sleep apnea: Sleep apnea can increase the risk of developing AF.
6. Certain medications: Certain medications, such as thyroid medications and asthma medications, can increase the risk of developing AF.
7. Alcohol consumption: Excessive alcohol consumption has been linked to an increased risk of developing AF.
8. Smoking: Smoking is a risk factor for many cardiovascular conditions, including AF.
9. Obesity: Obesity is a risk factor for many cardiovascular conditions, including AF.
Symptoms of AF can include:
1. Palpitations (rapid or irregular heartbeat)
2. Shortness of breath
4. Dizziness or lightheadedness
5. Chest pain or discomfort
AF can be diagnosed with the help of several tests, including:
1. Electrocardiogram (ECG): This is a non-invasive test that measures the electrical activity of the heart.
2. Holter monitor: This is a portable device that records the heart's rhythm over a 24-hour period.
3. Event monitor: This is a portable device that records the heart's rhythm over a longer period of time, usually 1-2 weeks.
4. Echocardiogram: This is an imaging test that uses sound waves to create pictures of the heart.
5. Cardiac MRI: This is an imaging test that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed pictures of the heart.
Treatment for AF depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, such as:
1. Beta blockers: These medications slow the heart rate and reduce the force of the heart's contractions.
2. Antiarrhythmics: These medications help regulate the heart's rhythm.
3. Blood thinners: These medications prevent blood clots from forming and can help reduce the risk of stroke.
4. Calcium channel blockers: These medications slow the entry of calcium into the heart muscle cells, which can help slow the heart rate and reduce the force of the heart's contractions.
In some cases, catheter ablation may be recommended to destroy the abnormal electrical pathway causing AF. This is a minimally invasive procedure that involves inserting a catheter through a vein in the leg and guiding it to the heart using x-ray imaging. Once the catheter is in place, energy is applied to the abnormal electrical pathway to destroy it and restore a normal heart rhythm.
It's important to note that AF can increase the risk of stroke, so anticoagulation therapy may be recommended to reduce this risk. This can include medications such as warfarin or aspirin, or in some cases, implantable devices such as a left atrial appendage closure device.
In conclusion, atrial fibrillation is a common heart rhythm disorder that can increase the risk of stroke and heart failure. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, cardioversion, catheter ablation, or anticoagulation therapy. It's important to work closely with a healthcare provider to determine the best course of treatment for AF.
LVH can lead to a number of complications, including:
1. Heart failure: The enlarged left ventricle can become less efficient at pumping blood throughout the body, leading to heart failure.
2. Arrhythmias: The abnormal electrical activity in the heart can lead to irregular heart rhythms.
3. Sudden cardiac death: In some cases, LVH can increase the risk of sudden cardiac death.
4. Atrial fibrillation: The enlarged left atrium can lead to atrial fibrillation, a common type of arrhythmia.
5. Mitral regurgitation: The enlargement of the left ventricle can cause the mitral valve to become incompetent, leading to mitral regurgitation.
6. Heart valve problems: The enlarged left ventricle can lead to heart valve problems, such as mitral regurgitation or aortic stenosis.
7. Coronary artery disease: LVH can increase the risk of coronary artery disease, which can lead to a heart attack.
8. Pulmonary hypertension: The enlarged left ventricle can lead to pulmonary hypertension, which can further strain the heart and increase the risk of complications.
Evaluation of LVH typically involves a physical examination, medical history, electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, and other diagnostic tests such as stress test or cardiac MRI. Treatment options for LVH depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery or other interventions.
In Vfib, the electrical activity of the heart becomes disorganized, leading to a fibrillatory pattern of contraction. This means that the ventricles are contracting in a rapid, unsynchronized manner, rather than the coordinated, synchronized contractions that occur in normal heart function.
Vfib can be caused by a variety of factors, including coronary artery disease, heart attack, cardiomyopathy, and electrolyte imbalances. It can also be triggered by certain medications, such as digoxin, or by electrical shocks to the heart.
Symptoms of Vfib include palpitations, shortness of breath, chest pain, and loss of consciousness. If not treated promptly, Vfib can lead to cardiac arrest and death.
Treatment of Vfib typically involves electrical cardioversion, which involves delivering an electric shock to the heart to restore a normal heart rhythm. In some cases, medications may also be used to help regulate the heart rhythm. In more severe cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary to address any underlying causes of Vfib.
Overall, ventricular fibrillation is a serious medical condition that requires prompt treatment to prevent complications and ensure effective cardiac function.
There are several possible causes of orthostatic hypotension, including:
1. Deconditioning: This is a common cause of orthostatic hypotension in older adults who have been bedridden or hospitalized for prolonged periods.
2. Medication side effects: Certain medications, such as beta blockers and vasodilators, can cause orthostatic hypotension as a side effect.
3. Heart conditions: Conditions such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and structural heart defects can lead to orthostatic hypotension.
4. Neurological disorders: Certain neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke, can cause orthostatic hypotension.
5. Vasomotor instability: This is a condition where the blood vessels constrict or dilate rapidly, leading to a drop in blood pressure.
6. Anemia: A low red blood cell count can lead to a decrease in oxygen delivery to the body's tissues, causing orthostatic hypotension.
7. Dehydration: Dehydration can cause a drop in blood volume and lead to orthostatic hypotension.
8. Hypovolemia: This is a condition where there is a low volume of blood in the body, leading to a drop in blood pressure.
9. Sepsis: Sepsis can cause vasodilation and lead to orthostatic hypotension.
10. Other causes: Other causes of orthostatic hypotension include adrenal insufficiency, thyroid disorders, and certain genetic conditions.
Symptoms of orthostatic hypotension may include:
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Blurred vision
* Nausea and vomiting
If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. Your healthcare provider can perform a physical examination and order diagnostic tests to determine the underlying cause of your orthostatic hypotension. Treatment will depend on the specific cause, but may include medications to raise blood pressure, fluid replacement, and addressing any underlying conditions.
There are several types of heart septal defects, including:
1. Atrial septal defect (ASD): A hole in the wall between the two upper chambers (atria) of the heart.
2. Ventricular septal defect (VSD): A hole in the wall between the two lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart.
3. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA): A connection between the aorta and the pulmonary artery that should close shortly after birth but fails to do so.
4. Atresia: The absence of an opening between the two lower chambers (ventricles) of the heart, which can lead to a lack of oxygenation of the body.
Heart septal defects can be caused by genetic factors or environmental factors such as maternal viral infections during pregnancy. They are often diagnosed during infancy or early childhood, and treatment options may include medication, surgery, or catheter-based procedures to close the abnormal opening or hole.
Untreated heart septal defects can lead to complications such as heart failure, atrial arrhythmias, and lung damage. However, with timely and appropriate treatment, many individuals with heart septal defects can lead normal, active lives with minimal long-term effects.
Symptoms of HLHS may include:
1. Blue tint to the skin, lips, and nails (cyanosis)
2. Rapid breathing
4. Poor feeding or inability to gain weight
5. Weak or absent pulse in the left arm or leg
Diagnosis of HLHS is typically made prenatally by ultrasound examination, and may also be confirmed after birth by echocardiogram or other diagnostic tests.
Treatment for HLHS usually involves a series of surgeries and catheterizations to repair or replace the affected heart structures. These procedures may include:
1. Shunt procedure: A small tube is placed between the right and left sides of the heart to allow oxygenated blood to flow to the underdeveloped left side.
2. Bidirectional Glenn procedure: A surgical procedure that connects the pulmonary artery to the aortic valve, allowing blood to be pumped to both the lungs and the body.
3. Fontan procedure: A surgical procedure that redirects blood flow from the upper body to the lungs, bypassing the underdeveloped left ventricle.
4. Heart transplantation: In some cases, a heart transplant may be necessary if other procedures are not successful or if there is significant damage to the heart.
Early detection and treatment of HLHS are crucial to prevent complications and improve outcomes. Children with HLHS require close monitoring and frequent medical evaluations throughout their lives to manage any potential issues that may arise. With appropriate treatment, many individuals with HLHS can lead active and productive lives well into adulthood.
Heart neoplasms, also known as cardiac tumors, are abnormal growths that occur within the heart muscle or on the surface of the heart. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant heart tumors are rare but can be aggressive and potentially life-threatening.
Types of Heart Neoplasms:
1. Benign tumors: These include fibromas, lipomas, and teratomas, which are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body.
2. Malignant tumors: These include sarcomas, carcinomas, and lymphomas, which can be more aggressive and may spread to other parts of the body.
Causes and Risk Factors:
The exact cause of heart neoplasms is not fully understood, but several factors have been linked to an increased risk of developing these tumors. These include:
1. Genetic mutations: Some heart neoplasms may be caused by inherited genetic mutations.
2. Viral infections: Some viruses, such as human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1), have been linked to an increased risk of developing heart tumors.
3. Radiation exposure: Radiation therapy to the chest area can increase the risk of developing heart tumors.
4. Previous heart surgery: People who have had previous heart surgery may be at higher risk of developing heart neoplasms.
Symptoms and Diagnosis:
The symptoms of heart neoplasms can vary depending on the size and location of the tumor. They may include:
1. Chest pain or discomfort
2. Shortness of breath
5. Swelling in the legs, ankles, or feet
Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiograms (ECGs), echocardiograms, and cardiac imaging studies. A biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment and Prognosis:
The treatment of heart neoplasms depends on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include:
1. Watchful waiting: Small, benign tumors may not require immediate treatment and can be monitored with regular check-ups.
2. Surgery: Surgical removal of the tumor may be necessary for larger or more aggressive tumors.
3. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy drugs may be used to shrink the tumor before surgery or to treat any remaining cancer cells after surgery.
4. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used to treat heart neoplasms that are difficult to remove with surgery or that have returned after previous treatment.
The prognosis for heart neoplasms varies depending on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. In general, the earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the prognosis. However, some heart neoplasms can be aggressive and may have a poor prognosis despite treatment.
Heart neoplasms can cause a variety of complications, including:
1. Heart failure: Tumors that obstruct the heart's pumping activity can lead to heart failure.
2. Arrhythmias: Tumors can disrupt the heart's electrical activity and cause arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms).
3. Thrombus formation: Tumors can increase the risk of blood clots forming within the heart.
4. Septicemia: Bacterial infections can occur within the tumor, leading to septicemia (blood poisoning).
5. Respiratory failure: Large tumors can compress the lungs and lead to respiratory failure.
Heart neoplasms are rare but potentially life-threatening conditions that require prompt diagnosis and treatment. While some heart neoplasms are benign, others can be aggressive and may have a poor prognosis despite treatment. It is essential to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early detection and treatment can improve outcomes.
There are several types of ventricular dysfunction, including:
1. Left ventricular dysfunction: This occurs when the left ventricle, which is the main pumping chamber of the heart, becomes weakened or impaired. This can lead to reduced cardiac output and can increase the risk of heart failure.
2. Right ventricular dysfunction: This occurs when the right ventricle, which pumps blood into the lungs, becomes weakened or impaired. This can lead to pulmonary hypertension and other complications.
3. Biventricular dysfunction: This occurs when both the left and right ventricles become weakened or impaired. This can lead to severe cardiac impairment and increased risk of heart failure.
Ventricular dysfunction can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including echocardiography, stress testing, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options depend on the underlying cause of the dysfunction and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgical interventions. In some cases, implantable devices such as pacemakers or defibrillators may be recommended to help regulate the heart rhythm and improve function.
Angina pectoris is a medical condition that is characterized by recurring chest pain or discomfort due to reduced blood flow and oxygen supply to the heart muscle, specifically the myocardium. It is also known as stable angina or effort angina. The symptoms of angina pectoris typically occur during physical activity or emotional stress and are relieved by rest.
The term "angina" comes from the Latin word for "strangulation," which refers to the feeling of tightness or constriction in the chest that is associated with the condition. Angina pectoris can be caused by atherosclerosis, or the buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle. This buildup can lead to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques that can narrow the coronary arteries and reduce blood flow to the heart muscle, causing chest pain.
There are several types of angina pectoris, including:
1. Stable angina: This is the most common type of angina and is characterized by predictable and reproducible symptoms that occur during specific situations or activities, such as exercise or emotional stress.
2. Unstable angina: This type of angina is characterized by unpredictable and changing symptoms that can occur at rest or with minimal exertion. It is often a sign of a more severe underlying condition, such as a heart attack.
3. Variant angina: This type of angina occurs during physical activity, but the symptoms are not relieved by rest.
4. Prinzmetal's angina: This is a rare type of angina that occurs at rest and is characterized by a feeling of tightness or constriction in the chest.
The diagnosis of angina pectoris is typically made based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), stress test, and imaging studies. Treatment for angina pectoris usually involves lifestyle modifications, such as regular exercise, a healthy diet, and stress management, as well as medications to relieve symptoms and reduce the risk of complications. In some cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary to treat the underlying condition causing the angina.
There are several types of apnea that can occur during sleep, including:
1. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): This is the most common type of apnea and occurs when the airway is physically blocked by the tongue or other soft tissue in the throat, causing breathing to stop for short periods.
2. Central sleep apnea (CSA): This type of apnea occurs when the brain fails to send the proper signals to the muscles that control breathing, resulting in a pause in breathing.
3. Mixed sleep apnea (MSA): This type of apnea is a combination of OSA and CSA, where both central and obstructive factors contribute to the pauses in breathing.
4. Hypopneic apnea: This type of apnea is characterized by a decrease in breathing, but not a complete stop.
5. Hypercapnic apnea: This type of apnea is caused by an excessive buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood, which can lead to pauses in breathing.
The symptoms of apnea can vary depending on the type and severity of the condition, but may include:
* Pauses in breathing during sleep
* Waking up with a dry mouth or sore throat
* Morning headaches
* Difficulty concentrating or feeling tired during the day
* High blood pressure
* Heart disease
Treatment options for apnea depend on the underlying cause, but may include:
* Lifestyle changes, such as losing weight, avoiding alcohol and sedatives before bedtime, and sleeping on your side
* Oral appliances or devices that advance the position of the lower jaw and tongue
* Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, which involves wearing a mask during sleep to deliver a constant flow of air pressure into the airways
* Bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) therapy, which involves two levels of air pressure: one for inhalation and another for exhalation
* Surgery to remove excess tissue in the throat or correct physical abnormalities that are contributing to the apnea.
Sudden death is death that occurs unexpectedly and without warning, often due to a cardiac arrest or other underlying medical condition.
In the medical field, sudden death is defined as death that occurs within one hour of the onset of symptoms, with no prior knowledge of any serious medical condition. It is often caused by a cardiac arrhythmia, such as ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia, which can lead to cardiac arrest and sudden death if not treated promptly.
Other possible causes of sudden death include:
1. Heart disease: Coronary artery disease, heart failure, and other heart conditions can increase the risk of sudden death.
2. Stroke: A stroke can cause sudden death by disrupting blood flow to the brain or other vital organs.
3. Pulmonary embolism: A blood clot in the lungs can block blood flow and cause sudden death.
4. Trauma: Sudden death can occur as a result of injuries sustained in an accident or other traumatic event.
5. Drug overdose: Taking too much of certain medications or drugs can cause sudden death due to cardiac arrest or respiratory failure.
6. Infections: Sepsis, meningitis, and other severe infections can lead to sudden death if left untreated.
7. Genetic conditions: Certain inherited disorders, such as Long QT syndrome, can increase the risk of sudden death due to cardiac arrhythmias.
The diagnosis of sudden death often requires an autopsy and a thorough investigation into the individual's medical history and circumstances surrounding their death. Treatment and prevention strategies may include defibrillation, CPR, medications to regulate heart rhythm, and lifestyle modifications to reduce risk factors such as obesity, smoking, and high blood pressure.
The QT interval is a measure of the time it takes for the ventricles to recover from each heartbeat and prepare for the next one. In people with LQTS, this recovery time is prolonged, which can disrupt the normal rhythm of the heart and increase the risk of arrhythmias.
LQTS is caused by mutations in genes that encode proteins involved in the cardiac ion channels, which regulate the flow of ions into and out of the heart muscle cells. These mutations can affect the normal functioning of the ion channels, leading to abnormalities in the electrical activity of the heart.
Symptoms of LQTS can include palpitations, fainting spells, and seizures. In some cases, LQTS can be diagnosed based on a family history of the condition or after a sudden death in an otherwise healthy individual. Other tests, such as an electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, and stress test, may also be used to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment for LQTS typically involves medications that regulate the heart's rhythm and reduce the risk of arrhythmias. In some cases, an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) may be recommended to monitor the heart's activity and deliver an electric shock if a potentially life-threatening arrhythmia is detected. Lifestyle modifications, such as avoiding stimuli that trigger symptoms and taking precautions during exercise and stress, may also be recommended.
In summary, Long QT syndrome is a rare inherited disorder that affects the electrical activity of the heart, leading to an abnormal prolongation of the QT interval and an increased risk of irregular and potentially life-threatening heart rhythms. It is important for individuals with LQTS to be closely monitored by a healthcare provider and to take precautions to manage their condition and reduce the risk of complications.
Some common causes of syncope include:
1. Vasovagal response: This is the most common cause of syncope and is triggered by a sudden drop in blood pressure, usually due to sight of blood or injury.
2. Cardiac arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms can lead to a decrease in blood flow to the brain, causing syncope.
3. Heart failure: When the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs, syncope can occur.
4. Anemia: A low red blood cell count can cause decreased oxygen delivery to the brain, leading to syncope.
5. Dehydration: Lack of fluids and electrolytes can lead to a decrease in blood pressure, causing syncope.
6. Medication side effects: Certain medications can cause syncope as a side effect, such as vasodilators and beta-blockers.
7. Neurological disorders: Syncope can be a symptom of neurological conditions such as seizures, migraines, and stroke.
8. Psychological factors: Stress, anxiety, and panic attacks can also cause syncope.
Diagnosis of syncope is based on a thorough medical history and physical examination, as well as diagnostic tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, and blood tests. Treatment of syncope depends on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle modifications, medication, and in some cases, surgical intervention.
In summary, syncope is a symptom of a wide range of medical conditions that can be caused by cardiovascular, neurological, and psychological factors. A thorough diagnosis and appropriate treatment are necessary to determine the underlying cause and prevent complications.
Tachycardia, ventricular can be classified into several types based on its duration and the presence of other symptoms. These include:
1. Paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia (PVT): This is a rapid heart rate that occurs in episodes lasting less than 30 seconds and may be accompanied by palpitations, shortness of breath, or dizziness.
2. Sustained ventricular tachycardia: This is a rapid heart rate that persists for more than 30 seconds and may require medical intervention to return the heart to normal rhythm.
3. Ventricular fibrillation (VF): This is a life-threatening condition in which the ventricles are unable to pump blood effectively due to rapid, disorganized electrical activity.
Symptoms of tachycardia, ventricular may include:
* Palpitations or rapid heartbeat
* Shortness of breath
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Chest pain or discomfort
* Fatigue or weakness
Diagnosis of tachycardia, ventricular is typically made based on a physical examination, medical history, and results of diagnostic tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, or stress test. Treatment options may include medications to regulate heart rhythm, cardioversion to restore normal heart rhythm, and in some cases, implantation of a cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) to prevent sudden death.
In summary, tachycardia, ventricular is a rapid heart rate that originates in the ventricles and can be caused by a variety of conditions. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. With proper diagnosis and treatment, it is possible to manage the condition and improve quality of life.
The symptoms of myocarditis can vary depending on the severity of the inflammation and the location of the affected areas of the heart muscle. Common symptoms include chest pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and feet.
Myocarditis can be difficult to diagnose, as its symptoms are similar to those of other conditions such as coronary artery disease or heart failure. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and results of diagnostic tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, and blood tests.
Treatment of myocarditis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Mild cases may require only rest and over-the-counter pain medication, while more severe cases may require hospitalization and intravenous medications to manage inflammation and cardiac function. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue.
Prevention of myocarditis is important, as it can lead to serious complications such as heart failure and arrhythmias if left untreated. Prevention strategies include avoiding exposure to viruses and other infections, managing underlying medical conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure, and getting regular check-ups with a healthcare provider to monitor cardiac function.
In summary, myocarditis is an inflammatory condition that affects the heart muscle, causing symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Diagnosis can be challenging, but treatment options range from rest and medication to hospitalization and surgery. Prevention is key to avoiding serious complications and maintaining good cardiac health.
There are several types of heart septal defects, including atrial septal defects, ventricular septal defects, and mitral valve defects. Ventricular septal defects are the most common type and occur when there is an abnormal opening in the wall between the right and left ventricles.
Symptoms of heart septal defects can include shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and feet. In some cases, the defect may not cause any symptoms at all until later in life.
Diagnosis of heart septal defects is typically made using echocardiography, electrocardiography (ECG), or chest X-rays. Treatment options vary depending on the severity of the defect and can include medication to manage symptoms, surgery to repair the defect, or catheter procedures to close the opening. In some cases, heart septal defects may be treated with a procedure called balloon atrial septostomy, in which a balloon is inserted through a catheter into the abnormal opening and inflated to close it.
Prognosis for patients with heart septal defects depends on the severity of the defect and the presence of any other congenital heart defects. In general, early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, and endocardrial infection.
In summary, heart septal defects, ventricular type, are congenital heart defects that occur when there is an abnormal opening in the wall between the right and left ventricles of the heart. Symptoms can include shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and feet. Diagnosis is typically made using echocardiography, electrocardiography (ECG), or chest X-rays. Treatment options vary depending on the severity of the defect and can include medication, surgery, or catheter procedures. Prognosis is generally good for patients with heart septal defects if they receive early diagnosis and treatment.
Note: Sinus tachycardia is different from atrial fibrillation, which is another type of arrhythmia that can also cause a rapid heart rate. In atrial fibrillation, the heart's upper chambers (atria) contract in a disorganized and irregular manner, rather than in a regular and coordinated pattern like in sinus tachycardia.
The hallmark symptom of POTS is a rapid heart rate that occurs when an individual stands up from a lying or sitting position. This can cause symptoms such as lightheadedness, dizziness, and shortness of breath. Other common symptoms of POTS include fatigue, headaches, and brain fog.
The exact cause of POTS is not yet fully understood, but it is believed to be related to problems with the autonomic nervous system, such as abnormalities in the cardiovascular reflexes that regulate heart rate and blood pressure. The condition can be triggered by various factors, including genetic predisposition, viral infections, and trauma.
There is no cure for POTS, but various treatments are available to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. These may include lifestyle modifications such as increasing fluid and salt intake, taking medications to regulate heart rate and blood pressure, and using devices such as compression stockings to improve blood flow. In severe cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary.
POTS is a relatively rare condition, but it can have a significant impact on an individual's daily life and activities. It is important for individuals with POTS to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan and manage their symptoms effectively. With appropriate treatment and self-care, many individuals with POTS are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.
There are several possible causes of dizziness, including:
1. Inner ear problems: The inner ear is responsible for balance and equilibrium. Any disruption in the inner ear can cause dizziness.
2. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV): This is a condition that causes brief episodes of vertigo triggered by changes in head position.
3. Labyrinthitis: This is an inner ear infection that causes dizziness and hearing loss.
4. Vestibular migraine: This is a type of migraine that causes dizziness and other symptoms such as headaches.
5. Meniere's disease: This is a disorder of the inner ear that causes dizziness, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and hearing loss.
6. Medication side effects: Certain medications can cause dizziness as a side effect.
7. Low blood pressure: A sudden drop in blood pressure can cause dizziness.
8. Anxiety: Anxiety can cause dizziness and other symptoms such as rapid heartbeat and shortness of breath.
9. Heart problems: Certain heart conditions such as arrhythmias or heart failure can cause dizziness.
10. Dehydration: Dehydration can cause dizziness, especially if it is severe.
If you are experiencing dizziness, it is important to seek medical attention to determine the underlying cause and receive appropriate treatment. Your healthcare provider may perform a physical examination, take a detailed medical history, and order diagnostic tests such as a hearing assessment or imaging studies to help identify the cause of your dizziness. Treatment will depend on the underlying cause, but may include medications, vestibular rehabilitation therapy, or lifestyle changes.
Examples of acute diseases include:
1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.
Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
The exact cause of vasovagal syncope is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to an imbalance in the autonomic nervous system (which controls involuntary functions such as heart rate and blood pressure). It can be triggered by a variety of factors, including:
* Strong emotions such as fear or anxiety
* Pain or discomfort
* Intense physical activity
* Dehydration or low blood sugar
* Certain medications
During a vasovagal syncope episode, the person may experience symptoms such as:
* Dizziness or lightheadedness
* Blurred vision
* Nausea or vomiting
* Feeling of impending doom or loss of control
* Eventually, fainting or falling to the ground
Diagnosis of vasovagal syncope is typically made based on a combination of symptoms and physical examination findings. Tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG) or blood tests may be ordered to rule out other conditions that may be causing the symptoms. Treatment for vasovagal syncope usually involves addressing any underlying triggers, such as managing stress or avoiding certain stimuli that may cause the episodes. In some cases, medications such as beta blockers or antidepressants may be prescribed to help regulate the heart rate and blood pressure.
There are several types of heat stress disorders, including:
1. Heat exhaustion: This is a condition that occurs when the body loses too much water and salt, usually through excessive sweating, and is unable to cool itself effectively. Symptoms include dizziness, nausea, headaches, fatigue, and cool, clammy skin.
2. Heat stroke: This is a more severe condition that occurs when the body's temperature control system fails, causing the body temperature to rise rapidly. Symptoms include high fever (usually over 103°F), confusion, slurred speech, and seizures.
3. Heat rash: This is a common condition that occurs when the skin's sweat glands become blocked and swell, causing inflammation and discomfort.
4. Sunburn: This is a condition that occurs when the skin is exposed to too much ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or other sources, leading to redness, pain, and peeling skin.
5. Heat-related illnesses: These are conditions that occur when the body is unable to cool itself effectively in hot environments, leading to symptoms such as dizziness, nausea, headaches, and fatigue.
Heat stress disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including high temperatures, humidity, intense physical activity, and wearing heavy or dark clothing that traps heat. They can also be caused by certain medications, alcohol consumption, and certain medical conditions, such as diabetes or heart disease.
Treatment for heat stress disorders usually involves moving to a cooler location, drinking plenty of fluids, taking a cool bath or shower, and resting in a shaded area. In severe cases, medical attention may be necessary to treat symptoms such as dehydration, heat exhaustion, or heat stroke.
Prevention is key when it comes to heat stress disorders. This can be achieved by taking steps such as wearing lightweight, loose-fitting clothing, staying in shaded areas, and drinking plenty of fluids. It is also important to avoid strenuous activity during the hottest part of the day (usually between 11am and 3pm) and to take regular breaks to cool off in a shaded area.
Overall, heat stress disorders can be serious conditions that require prompt medical attention. By understanding the causes, symptoms, and prevention methods for these disorders, individuals can stay safe and healthy during the hot summer months.
Fibrosis can occur in response to a variety of stimuli, including inflammation, infection, injury, or chronic stress. It is a natural healing process that helps to restore tissue function and structure after damage or trauma. However, excessive fibrosis can lead to the loss of tissue function and organ dysfunction.
There are many different types of fibrosis, including:
* Cardiac fibrosis: the accumulation of scar tissue in the heart muscle or walls, leading to decreased heart function and potentially life-threatening complications.
* Pulmonary fibrosis: the accumulation of scar tissue in the lungs, leading to decreased lung function and difficulty breathing.
* Hepatic fibrosis: the accumulation of scar tissue in the liver, leading to decreased liver function and potentially life-threatening complications.
* Neurofibromatosis: a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of benign tumors (neurofibromas) made up of fibrous connective tissue.
* Desmoid tumors: rare, slow-growing tumors that are made up of fibrous connective tissue and can occur in various parts of the body.
Fibrosis can be diagnosed through a variety of methods, including:
* Biopsy: the removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope.
* Imaging tests: such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans to visualize the accumulation of scar tissue.
* Blood tests: to assess liver function or detect specific proteins or enzymes that are elevated in response to fibrosis.
There is currently no cure for fibrosis, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the condition. These may include:
* Medications: such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, or chemotherapy to reduce inflammation and slow down the growth of scar tissue.
* Lifestyle modifications: such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and maintaining a healthy diet to improve overall health and reduce the progression of fibrosis.
* Surgery: in some cases, surgical removal of the affected tissue or organ may be necessary.
It is important to note that fibrosis can progress over time, leading to further scarring and potentially life-threatening complications. Regular monitoring and follow-up with a healthcare professional are crucial to managing the condition and detecting any changes or progression early on.
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Maximal heart rate6
- Your maximal heart rate is also several beats per minute lower in the morning. (copacabanarunners.net)
- There are several means of calculating a maximal heart rate. (peertrainer.com)
- The most common equation is the Karvonen equation: 220-age=maximal heart rate. (peertrainer.com)
- Your trainer or physical therapist can also do a maximal heart rate test for you for a better estimate. (peertrainer.com)
- Look at this number in comparison to your maximal heart rate. (peertrainer.com)
- The normalised HRR data from a 5-min time window from maximal heart rate were fitted using single and double-exponential curves, to obtain, respectively, the time constants Tau and, Tau 1 and Tau 2. (who.int)
Beats per mi20
- For example, for a 50-year-old person, the estimated maximum age-related heart rate would be calculated as 220 - 50 years = 170 beats per minute (bpm). (cdc.gov)
- For example, for a 35-year-old person, the estimated maximum age-related heart rate would be calculated as 220 - 35 years = 185 beats per minute (bpm). (cdc.gov)
- Keeping a close eye on your heart rate can help you stay in the sweet spot, which, for an average 20-year-old, is between 100-170 beats per minute, according to the American Heart Association. (time.com)
- For example during your warm up, your heart rate will may be around 100 beats per minute. (ntcc.edu)
- Pro tennis player, Bjorn Borg had a resting heart rate of 35 beats per minute. (ntcc.edu)
- But Olympic track star Jim Ryan, also in great shape, had a resting heart rate of 75 beats per minute. (ntcc.edu)
- For example, if your recovery training zone is 80 to 100 beats per minute, and your actual heart rate is 120, you should decrease your intensity. (ntcc.edu)
- The difference in heart rate between running in the morning and afternoon is typically about 5 to 6 beats per minute, but can be as great as 10 beats per minute. (copacabanarunners.net)
- As the temperature increases from 60 degrees to 75 degrees, a runner s heart rate at a given speed increases by about 2 to 4 beats per minute. (copacabanarunners.net)
- When the temperature increases from 75 degrees to 90 degrees, you can expect your heart rate running at a given speed to increase by approximately 10 beats per minute. (copacabanarunners.net)
- To gain the same benefits as on a cool day, you should increase your heart rate zones by 2 to 4 beats per minute when the temperature is in the 70 s and the humidity is low. (copacabanarunners.net)
- A 1992 study by S. J. Montain and Ed Coyle, PhD, found that heart rate increases approximately 7 beats per minute for each 1% loss in bodyweight due to dehydration . (copacabanarunners.net)
- For example, if you weigh 150 pounds, when you lose 1.5 pounds due to dehydration your heart rate at a given running speed would increase by about 7 beats per minute. (copacabanarunners.net)
- Several studies have found that heart rate during running at a given pace varies by a few beats per minute from day-to-day. (copacabanarunners.net)
- Do not put too much emphasis on small changes of 2 to 3 beats per minute in heart rate found during one run. (copacabanarunners.net)
- For most people, a healthy resting heart rate (RHR) is between 50 and 90 beats per minute, but this number can vary depending on factors such as medication and your fitness level. (sutterhealth.org)
- One study showed that a RHR of more than 90 beats per minute was associated with higher heart disease death rates (doubled in men and tripled in women). (sutterhealth.org)
- You can assess this by measuring your heart rate recovery (HRR) - the difference between your beats per minute when exercising vigorously and your beats per minute one minute after stopping exercising. (sutterhealth.org)
- I've noticed that my resting heart rate will be around 55 beats per minute when I first get up in the quiet early morning, but it will jump up into the 80s when I'm trying to get the kids to school on time. (sutterhealth.org)
- The heart has a built-in mechanism of nerves that controls its own rhythm (to maintain a heart rate of around 70 to 80 beats per minute), but the brain, through the action of the autonomic nervous system and various hormones, can compel the heart to produce a wide range of heart rates based on the body's needs. (philmaffetone.com)
- The heart rate variability corresponds to the time intervals between consecutive heartbeats, such as an irregularity in the normal sinus heart rhythm whose variability is due to the control exercised by a complex system of mechanisms, including the respiratory control system, and provides information about the activity of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. (humankinetics.com)
- This review aims at summarizing the promising results, despite small amount, of the recent literature on the efficacy of heart rate variability biofeedback on the autonomic imbalance and psychophysical well-being of athletes as well as cognitive and motor performance. (humankinetics.com)
- the search of articles was conducted on Pubmed, Ibesc, Medline, Scielo, Cochrane and Lilacs databases using the keywords: heart rate, autonomic nervous system, obesity, child and sympathetic nervous system of health subject headings (MeSH). (bvsalud.org)
- In addition, HRR is an indicator of cardiac autonomic activity, since increased vagal activity and diminished sympathetic activity return the heart rate to resting conditions after exercise. (who.int)
- In this study, we hypothesised that the double-exponential fit would model the HRR more accurately than the single-exponential fit as it would capture the activity of both autonomic arms responsible for heart rate decay and investigated the outcome of these two models on the HRR data following a maximal exercise. (who.int)
Congestive Heart F3
- Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a condition in which the heart fails to work adequately as a pump that can deliver oxygen rich blood to the body. (medindia.net)
- Despite evidence that effective family support improves health behaviour and outcomes, the nature of the correlation between congestive heart failure (CHF) outcome and caregiver contribution has not been well studied. (who.int)
- This study evaluated the epidemiological correlation of education level of patients and their caregivers and readmission and mortality rates of congestive heart failure (CHF) patients. (who.int)
- Restorative sleep is associated with increased autonomous parasympathetic nervous system activity that might be improved by heart rate variability-biofeedback (HRV-BF) training. (frontiersin.org)
- Heart rate variability-biofeedback (HRV-BF) is a form of cardiorespiratory feedback training intervention during which an individual can actively influence autonomous unconscious body processes ( Lehrer and Gevirtz, 2014 ) and is often connected to 0.1 Hz breathing resulting from five seconds inspiration/five seconds expiration. (frontiersin.org)
- When exposed to a series of commonly used artificial nanoparticles, the heart reacted to certain types of particles with an increased heart rate, cardiac arrhythmia and modified ECG values that are typical for heart disease. (nanowerk.com)
- Acute cardiac failure rates are now 475 times the normal baseline rate in VAERS. (newstarget.com)
- The increase in cardiac output during gestation is the result of an increase in heart rate and stroke volume. (medscape.com)
- In late pregnancy, the cardiac output is increased due to the tachycardia rate. (medscape.com)
- Other agencies have proposed a three-pronged strategy for reducing the risk of on-duty heart attacks and cardiac arrests among fire fighters. (cdc.gov)
- Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. (cdc.gov)
- These declines--the largest single yearly change from 1970 through 1986--coincided with the discontinuation of ICDA-8 and the adoption of ICD-9-CM. As a result of the change in coding systems, many cases that would have been assigned codes 410-414 in ICDA-8 were assigned to ICD-9-CM codes 402 (hypertensive heart disease) and 429.2 (cardiovascular disease, unspecified) (7). (cdc.gov)
- Most of this risk is due to heart disease, but other causes of death also contribute to the risk. (sutterhealth.org)
- Studies show that if it drops by 12 or fewer beats in that one minute after exercise, you have a higher risk of death from heart disease. (sutterhealth.org)
- Heart disease-related deaths were those with underlying cause of death coded as I00-I09, I11, I13, and I20-I51 in the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision . (cdc.gov)
- In 2019, the age-adjusted death rate from heart disease among adults aged 45-64 years was 121.1 per 100,000 and was higher in rural counties (160.0) than urban counties (114.5). (cdc.gov)
- Among men, the age-adjusted death rate from heart disease was 221.4 in rural counties and 165.1 in urban counties. (cdc.gov)
- Among women, the age-adjusted death rate from heart disease was 99.5 in rural counties and 66.8 in urban counties. (cdc.gov)
- In the future, activity trackers could be used to detect the early stages of a disease, as a person's respiratory rate can indicate signs of an undetected medical problem. (sleepreviewmag.com)
- We've known that being unmarried or living alone unfortunately increases the risk of heart-related death and heart disease. (doctorshealthpress.com)
- If you have or are recovering from a major illness (heart disease, any operation or hospital stay, etc.), are in rehabilitation, are on any regular medication, or are in Stage 3 (chronic) overtraining (burnout), subtract an additional 10. (philmaffetone.com)
- Quitting is the way to reduce your risk of developing cancer, heart disease, stroke and other diseases. (who.int)
- The two most common ways to measure heart rate is by electrical and optical monitors. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Optical monitors measure a person's heart rate by shining LED light through a person's skin and measuring the heart rate through a person's blood vessels. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The fēnix ® 5/5S/5X Plus device has a wrist-based heart rate monitor and is also compatible with chest heart rate monitors (sold separately). (garmin.com)
- At the September 1999 Pre-Olympic Sport Science Congress in Brisbane, Australia, I met with Mike Lambert, PhD, who is one of the world s leading experts on using heart rate monitors during training and competition. (copacabanarunners.net)
- Unfortunately, most people use their heart-rate monitors only to see how high their heart rate gets during a workout, or evaluate resting heart rate in the morning. (philmaffetone.com)
- In the late 70s and early 80s I had in my office several bulky heart monitors, which I used for heart-rate evaluation. (philmaffetone.com)
- You can find more information about supported heart rate monitors here . (bosch-ebike.com)
- This is your body's heart rate at rest, or your pulse rate taken approximately one hour before your normal waking time. (ntcc.edu)
- Keeping an eye on your heart rate can give you a fairly accurate indication of your body's stress levels. (sutterhealth.org)
- The heart rate is a direct reflection of the body's oxygen need. (philmaffetone.com)
Wrist-based heart rate3
- If both wrist-based heart rate and chest heart rate data are available, your device uses the chest heart rate data. (garmin.com)
- A waterproof fitness watch with advanced wrist-based heart rate and integrated GPS, Polar Ignite offers you a full view of your day and guides you towards a more balanced life. (polar.com)
- A GPS running watch with wrist-based heart rate, advanced running features and Polar Running Program, Polar M430 is a top-level watch for runners who want more. (polar.com)
- The relationship between one heartbeat and the next is associated with heart rate variability, which reflects parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) function. (philmaffetone.com)
- The rates of internal hemorrhage, peripheral artery thrombosis, coronary artery occlusion are all over 300 times the baseline rate. (newstarget.com)
- The Halo View offers all the features you'd expect from an entry-level fitness tracker, including heart rate and blood oxygen monitoring, workout tracking, sleep monitoring, smartphone notifications, and skin temperature tracking. (techradar.com)
- This is the heart rate typically determined two minutes after the cardio portion of your workout is finished. (ntcc.edu)
- If you are out of shape, however, you're likely to be huffing and puffing after a workout, while your heart rate stays high for a longer time. (sutterhealth.org)
- In a solid cardio workout, where the heart rate stays evenly elevated for 20-90 minutes, the RPE should be around a 6 throughout. (peertrainer.com)
- This type of workout will increase stamina, strengthen the heart, challenge the muscles involved, and burn more calories. (peertrainer.com)
- A beautifully simple watch with personalized daily workout guidance, 24/7 heart rate and activity tracking, plus automatic sleep and recovery applications. (polar.com)
- Tachycardia rates are 7,973 times the baseline rate! (newstarget.com)
- Excluding changes in 1978-1979 and 1982-1983, rates for acute MI showed small average yearly increases from 1970 through 1986 of 5 hospitalizations per 100,000 men and 3 per 100,000 women. (cdc.gov)
- It increases the heart rate and also plays an important role in the central nervous system - a tip-off that nanoparticles might also have a damaging effect there. (nanowerk.com)
- Heart rate increases at high temperatures. (copacabanarunners.net)
- Your heart rate at a given running speed, therefore, increases. (copacabanarunners.net)
- A new study out of Finland has found that being unmarried increases the risk of heart attack in both men and women, whatever their age. (doctorshealthpress.com)
- Heart rate monitoring watches make life easier for anyone wanting to monitor their heart health or track their heart rate for maximum benefit during exercise. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Exercise , especially aerobic activities like running and walking , can help improve your heart health. (medicinenet.com)
- The only difference between recovery heart rate and resting heart rate is that your recovery measure is taken after exercise. (ntcc.edu)
- Many people are familiar with how fast their heart beats when they exercise, through the use of common monitoring devices," says Ronesh Sinha, M.D., an internal medicine physician at the Palo Alto Medical Foundation. (sutterhealth.org)
- If you are healthy and fit, your heart will recover quickly after exercise, promptly returning to a lower rate. (sutterhealth.org)
- Heart rate was monitored continuously using an automated monitor with four electrodes connected to thorax and abdomen of the participant and was recorded at the end of warm-up, each exercise stage, and each minute of recovery. (cdc.gov)
- At the end of warm-up and each exercise stage, participants were asked to rate their perceived exertion using the Borg scale. (cdc.gov)
- Joseph A, Kanthakumar P, Tharion E.. Exponential modelling of heart rate recovery after a maximal exercise. (who.int)
- Objectives: Heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise is clinically important as a predictor of mortality. (who.int)
- With their enhanced Langendorff heart, the researchers have now for the first time developed a measurement setup that can be used to analyze the effects of nanoparticles on a complete, intact organ without being influenced by the reactions of other organs. (nanowerk.com)
- The Gold Standard of Heart Rate Measurement. (polar.com)
- To date, a reliable measurement of respiratory rates over longer periods of time is only possible in clinics that have the right equipment. (sleepreviewmag.com)
- The current methods for the measurement of psychophysiological stress introduce the use of the heart rate variability as a useful index of the well-being of these people. (humankinetics.com)
- The 28-day mortality rates were between 60% and 168% higher in unmarried men, and 70%-175% higher in unmarried women. (doctorshealthpress.com)
- This single centre pilot study aimed to determine epidemiological correlations between education level and hospital readmission and mortality rates of CHF patients in a nonwestern country population. (who.int)
- The education levels of CHF patients and caregivers were not correlated with readmission or mortality rates. (who.int)
- What is a heart rate monitor? (medicalnewstoday.com)
- A heart rate monitor measures a person's heart rate in real-time and records the data for the user. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The monitor or transmitter detects a heartbeat and sends it to the receiver, which then displays the heart rate on a screen. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- But if you're looking for an alternative option, Under Armour and JBL may have the answer: The Under Armour Sport Wireless Heart Rate , a pair of Bluetooth earbuds that double as a heart rate monitor. (time.com)
- 3. Wear a heart rate monitor to sleep and glance at it just as you are starting to wake. (ntcc.edu)
- 2. This next method is found in The Heart Rate Monitor Book by Sally Edwards. (ntcc.edu)
- Obviously a heart rate monitor must be used and supervision by a medical professional should be observed. (ntcc.edu)
- Although some of the information is a bit technical, understanding these factors will allow you to use your heart rate monitor more effectively to optimize your training. (copacabanarunners.net)
- This means that if you monitor your heart rate religiously, you will find that some days it appears you are getting slightly fitter and other days it appears you are getting out of shape, when in fact, your fitness level may not be changing. (copacabanarunners.net)
- This important number is one of the simplest ways to monitor your heart health. (sutterhealth.org)
- Some hospitals have a breath and heart rate monitor that can determine the actual calories burned, but the average fitness center does not have such equipment. (peertrainer.com)
- Polar OH1 is an optical heart rate monitor that combines versatility, comfort and simplicity. (polar.com)
- A heart-rate monitor is the most important tool for developing optimal endurance and better fat-burning. (philmaffetone.com)
- I began using heart rate to evaluate all exercising patients, and by the early 1980s developed a formula that anyone could use with their heart monitor to help build an aerobic base. (philmaffetone.com)
- What can I do if my heart rate monitor does not connect to my Nyon? (bosch-ebike.com)
- Are your Nyon and the heart rate monitor sufficiently charged? (bosch-ebike.com)
- Is the heart rate monitor connected to another device, e.g. smartphone? (bosch-ebike.com)
- If you still cannot connect your heart rate monitor, reset the heart rate monitor using the manufacturer's instructions. (bosch-ebike.com)
- If this also does not help, it may be because your heart rate monitor is not supported. (bosch-ebike.com)
- Whereas most fitness trackers and smartwatches detect your heart rate via your wrist, the Sport Wireless earbuds do so with a sensor tucked into one of the buds themselves. (time.com)
- There's not enough battery life for that, the buds are a little too bulky to look good with street clothes, and the heart rate's glowing green sensor can make you look like Locutus of Borg if you're not careful to place the buds in your ear just so. (time.com)
- Widely regarded as the gold standard in wireless heart rate monitoring, this is the most accurate sensor in Polar's history. (polar.com)
- Among the component ICD codes of IHD, hospitalization rates for acute MI and chronic IHD were much greater for males than females, a characteristic of IHD as a whole. (cdc.gov)
- By contrast, other acute IHD and angina pectoris showed small differences in hospitalization rates by sex. (cdc.gov)
- Since 1983, acute MI hospitalization rates have increased slightly among both men and women despite a decrease in overall hospitalization rates (8). (cdc.gov)
- Rates for other acute IHD among both men and women were steady through 1982, after which they increased. (cdc.gov)
- Lungs get pounded with about three times the normal flow and, even when surgeries are done as early as possible to repair the defect, correct blood flow and protect the lungs, the 20 percent death rates from acute pulmonary hypertension have remained unchanged for a decade. (medindia.net)
- Acute myocardial infarction is 412 times the baseline rate! (newstarget.com)
- Plenty of fitness trackers can help you keep tabs on your heart rate while you're working out. (time.com)
- RPE is the rate of perceived exertion. (peertrainer.com)
- The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health, the Foundation Leducq and the American Heart Association. (medindia.net)
- See what your heart beat reveals about your health. (sutterhealth.org)
- Keeping track of your heart rate can give you insight into your fitness level, heart health and emotional health, Dr. Sinha says. (sutterhealth.org)
- Home » Heart Health » Could Rising Divorce Rates Up Heart Attack Risk? (doctorshealthpress.com)
- This is an important factor that professionals can use to assess heart health, and for athletes to evaluate recovery from training and racing. (philmaffetone.com)
- Significant associations were observed between activity permissive workstation adherence and improvements in several cardiometabolic biomarkers (weight, total fat mass, resting heart rate, body fat percentage) and work productivity outcomes (concentration at work, days missed because of health problems). (cdc.gov)
- You can estimate your maximum heart rate based on your age. (cdc.gov)
- To estimate your maximum age-related heart rate, subtract your age from 220. (cdc.gov)
- After a few months of training, you will be amazed that you will probably be able to estimate your heart rate within a couple of beats. (ntcc.edu)
- Kirsch used the VAERS under-reporting factor of forty-one to get a rough estimate of the current rate of heart damage in teenagers. (newstarget.com)
- Under the most conservative estimate, the rate of myocarditis among the boys in this school is 1 in 95. (newstarget.com)
- This conservative estimate is based off a 66 percent vaccination rate among the roughly 426 boys who attend the school. (newstarget.com)
- If you set heart rate training zones when properly hydrated and then become dehydrated during training, your pace will decrease as you become progressively more dehydrated. (copacabanarunners.net)
- One way of checking physical activity intensity is to determine whether your pulse or heart rate is within the target zone during physical activity. (cdc.gov)
- What factors determine your life expectancy with heart failure? (medicinenet.com)
- Multiply that number by 0.5 and 0.85 to determine your target heart rate range. (medlineplus.gov)
- Once you determine your resting heart rate and training heart rate, it will be easy to discover if you are working out too hard or too easy. (ntcc.edu)
- 1. An easy, relatively accurate way to determine your maximum heart rate (MHR) is by using this age-predicted formula: 220-age=MHR (for men), 226-age=MHR (for women). (ntcc.edu)
- Determine your recovery heart rate (RHR) by counting your pulse for one minute. (ntcc.edu)
- Similarly, if you use afternoon or evening heart rates to determine your training zones, and then train in the morning, you will train somewhat harder than planned. (copacabanarunners.net)
- If you measure your heart rate at your desired race pace during training, and use that heart rate to determine how fast to run during a race, then you will run quite a bit slower than planned, because with the excitement of the race, your heart rate will be elevated. (copacabanarunners.net)
- Now, to determine where your heart rate should be when you are exercising, you can approximate by using the 220-age formula and multiplying it by .75-.85. (peertrainer.com)
- For a more specific zone, determine your Heart Rate Reserve (HRR)= MHR-RHR. (peertrainer.com)
- Several studies have shown that deviations from a normal respiratory rate, which is about 12 to 18 times a minute, can be an indication of a serious illness. (sleepreviewmag.com)
- Nevertheless, the relevance of respiratory rates in the early detection of medical risks has garnered little attention," says Dr Jan Kantelhardt, a physicist at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, in a release. (sleepreviewmag.com)
- A comparison of the data from the sleep laboratory, published in Scientific Reports , showed that these minimal movements allow more precise conclusions to be drawn about the respiratory rate than the ECG recorded at the same time. (sleepreviewmag.com)
- The changes in hospitalization rates from 1970 through 1986 for IHD obscured important differences among component diseases, in the ratio and difference of hospitalization rates between men and women, and in the pattern of changes over time (Figure 2). (cdc.gov)
- Carbon - disulfide (75150) has been associated with heart and artery diseases. (cdc.gov)
- The lipid nano-particles from the vaccine infiltrate the heart and express spike proteins, causing the immune cells to attack the heart. (newstarget.com)
- Conclusion Control of ischaemic symptoms through heart rate modification in patients with angina is currently inadequate, both by primary referring physicians and cardiologists. (bmj.com)
- Many people are walking around with a resting heart rate that is too high, due to factors such as too much caffeine, dehydration, inactivity and persistent stress. (sutterhealth.org)
- For example, professional athletes will have a very low resting heart rate, which affects their numbers, and many young people have high resting heart rates due to inactivity and body weight, which greatly affects their numbers. (peertrainer.com)
- Using a so-called Langendorff heart - an isolated rodent heart flushed with a nutrient solution in place of blood - scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen and the TU Muenchen were for the first time able to show that nanoparticles have a clearly measurable effect on the heart. (nanowerk.com)
- Those extra heart beats over time can be taking years off your life. (sutterhealth.org)
- In a 10 mile time trial my heart rate average is 163ish with a peak of 175bpm. (training4cyclists.com)
- At the same time, being married and living together are linked with positive heart-related outcomes. (doctorshealthpress.com)
- Measurements include psychological and physiological measures [eg, heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure, C-reactive protein)] obtained at three time intervals. (cdc.gov)
- For moderate-intensity physical activity , your target heart rate should be between 64% and 76% 1 , 2 of your maximum heart rate. (cdc.gov)
- For vigorous-intensity physical activity , your target heart rate should be between 77% and 93% 1 , 2 of your maximum heart rate. (cdc.gov)
- This number represents how many times your heart should beat per minute at its maximum rate. (medlineplus.gov)
- If exercising at a moderate intensity, build up to exercising at 50% to 70% of your maximum heart rate for 2 hours and 30 minutes a week. (medlineplus.gov)
- If exercising at a vigorous intensity, build up to exercising at 70% to 85% of your maximum heart rate for 1 hour and 15 minutes a week. (medlineplus.gov)
- This is the maximum recommended number of times your heart can contract at any given minute. (ntcc.edu)
- The final number is your maximum heart rate. (ntcc.edu)
- At the moment you reached your limit, you achieved your maximum heart rate. (ntcc.edu)
- What is your highest maximum heart rate ever? (training4cyclists.com)
- Maximum heart rate is often calculated as 220 minus your age, but there is a standard deviation of about 10, which means that 95% of us would fit into a formula: 220 minus age +/- 20 beats. (training4cyclists.com)
- But back to the topic, what is your highest maximum heart rate ever? (training4cyclists.com)
- This "MAF 180 Formula" enables athletes to find the ideal maximum aerobic heart rate in which to base all aerobic training. (philmaffetone.com)
- The goal of each protocol is to elicit a heart rate that is approximately 75 percent of the age-predicted maximum (220-age) by the end of the test. (cdc.gov)
- If you're well rested and have a high score, the Fitbit app can suggest some intense workouts to get your heart pumping. (techradar.com)
- By correlating this mechanical efficiency with heart rate at various points before, during and after workouts, I found an ideal training heart rate-one which promoted optimal aerobic function without triggering significant anaerobic activity, excess stress, muscle imbalance or other problems. (philmaffetone.com)
- This shows that moderate-intensity physical activity for a 50-year-old person will require that the heart rate remains between 109 and 129 bpm during physical activity. (cdc.gov)
- The American Heart Association recommends at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity at least 5 days a week. (medicinenet.com)
- Although there have been improvements in treatments for heart failure, survival rates. (medicinenet.com)
- What are the survival rates for heart failure? (medicinenet.com)
- Survival rates are based on studies of large groups of people with certain diagnoses and generally presented as a 5-year survival rate, which is the percentage of people who lived for at least 5 years after diagnosis. (medicinenet.com)
- Trends in survival after a diagnosis of heart failure in the United Kingdom 2000-2017: population based cohort study. (medicinenet.com)
- A new study has found that a common nutritional supplement can help improve the survival rates of babies born with heart defects. (medindia.net)
- Dehydration causes an increase in heart rate. (copacabanarunners.net)
- Sodium azide is more harmful to the heart and the brain than to other organs, because the heart and the brain use a lot of oxygen. (cdc.gov)
- They have dramatic EKG changes, chest pain, early heart failure and need echo-cardiograms and medications to get through it. (newstarget.com)
- Aims To examine resting heart rate (HR) in a population presenting with stable angina in relation to prior and subsequent pharmacological treatment, comorbid conditions and clinical outcome. (bmj.com)
- Methods and results The European Heart Survey was a prospective, observational, cohort study of 3779 patients with stable angina newly presenting to cardiology services. (bmj.com)
- Funding The Euro Heart Survey of Angina received support from the Servier Foundation. (bmj.com)
- It is popular with people who like to measure their heart rate whilst exercising. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- What is the life expectancy of people with heart failure? (medicinenet.com)
- This means that about 76 out of 100 people who were diagnosed with heart failure could live for at least 5 years. (medicinenet.com)
- Recent research shows that taking a combination of medications for heart failure can improve life expectancy. (medicinenet.com)
- Participants are excluded from this component based on medical conditions, medications, physical limitations, limits on heart rate and blood pressure, and irregular heart rates. (cdc.gov)
- Your heart rate is a measure of how many times your heart beats in a minute. (sutterhealth.org)
- Stop exercising and immediately measure your heart rate, then again one minute later. (sutterhealth.org)
- Up to now, a standard electrocardiogram (ECG) has often been used to measure heart rates and rhythms, thus allowing conclusions to be drawn about breathing. (sleepreviewmag.com)
- Through this research, it became evident that using the heart rate to objectively measure body function was simple, accurate and useful, especially for athletes. (philmaffetone.com)
- The screening is done prior to the treadmill test using questions in the household interview, questions administered by the physician in the NHANES Mobile Examination Center (MEC) and aspects of the physician examination such as measurements of heart rate and blood pressure. (cdc.gov)
- Prognosis Following a Diagnosis of Heart Failure and the Role of Primary Care: A Review of the Literature. (medicinenet.com)
- Dr. Sinha recommends tracking your heart rate as well as keeping a journal of which activities are causing higher heart rates. (sutterhealth.org)
- Rates for chronic IHD among both men and women increased through 1976, remained relatively unchanged through 1981, and declined sharply thereafter. (cdc.gov)
- RSA) as well as the 180° phase relationship between heart rate and blood pressure, gas exchange efficiency at the alveoli and baroreflex activity are improved by HRV-BF with paced breathing ( Lehrer and Gevirtz, 2014 ). (frontiersin.org)
- When this happens your heart has to beat less times within each minute to sustain your normal body functions. (ntcc.edu)
- Several studies have confirmed that the higher your resting heart rate, the greater your risk of death. (sutterhealth.org)
- Conversely, very rapid breathing can be an early sign of heart problems. (sleepreviewmag.com)
- The researchers also plan to examine carnitine homeostasis in the blood of children with heart defects to see if it's disrupted. (medindia.net)
- About half the babies born with heart defects have excessive, continuous high pressure on their lungs from misdirected blood flow. (medindia.net)
- among women, rates ranged from a low of 570 in 1970 to a high of 718 in 1986. (cdc.gov)
- High humidity magnifies the effect of high temperatures on heart rate. (copacabanarunners.net)
- In more extreme conditions, such as a high humidity day over 80 degrees, you cannot accurately adjust your heart rate zones for the conditions. (copacabanarunners.net)
- The new study indicates that even without fixing the heart defect, high daily doses of carnitine in the first four weeks of life can prevent endothelial dysfunction. (medindia.net)
- Is your resting heart rate too high? (sutterhealth.org)
- This rate can be as low as 30 to 40 in those with great aerobic function to as high as 220 or higher in young athletes during all-out efforts. (philmaffetone.com)
- The HANES I sample was selected so that certain population groups thought to be at high risk of malnutrition (persons with low incomes, preschool children, women of childbearing age and the elderly) were oversampled at known rates. (cdc.gov)