Heart Murmurs: Heart sounds caused by vibrations resulting from the flow of blood through the heart. Heart murmurs can be examined by HEART AUSCULTATION, and analyzed by their intensity (6 grades), duration, timing (systolic, diastolic, or continuous), location, transmission, and quality (musical, vibratory, blowing, etc).Heart Auscultation: Act of listening for sounds within the heart.Phonocardiography: Graphic registration of the heart sounds picked up as vibrations and transformed by a piezoelectric crystal microphone into a varying electrical output according to the stresses imposed by the sound waves. The electrical output is amplified by a stethograph amplifier and recorded by a device incorporated into the electrocardiograph or by a multichannel recording machine.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Heart Sounds: The sounds heard over the cardiac region produced by the functioning of the heart. There are four distinct sounds: the first occurs at the beginning of SYSTOLE and is heard as a "lubb" sound; the second is produced by the closing of the AORTIC VALVE and PULMONARY VALVE and is heard as a "dupp" sound; the third is produced by vibrations of the ventricular walls when suddenly distended by the rush of blood from the HEART ATRIA; and the fourth is produced by atrial contraction and ventricular filling.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two lower chambers of the heart. Classification of ventricular septal defects is based on location of the communication, such as perimembranous, inlet, outlet (infundibular), central muscular, marginal muscular, or apical muscular defect.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Heart Septal Defects, Atrial: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.Heart Septal Defects: Abnormalities in any part of the HEART SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communication between the left and the right chambers of the heart. The abnormal blood flow inside the heart may be caused by defects in the ATRIAL SEPTUM, the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM, or both.Stethoscopes: Instruments intended to detect and study sound produced by the heart, lungs, or other parts of the body. (from UMDNS, 1999)Pamphlets: Printed publications usually having a format with no binding and no cover and having fewer than some set number of pages. They are often devoted to a single subject.Tricuspid Valve Stenosis: The pathologic narrowing of the orifice of the TRICUSPID VALVE. This hinders the emptying of RIGHT ATRIUM leading to elevated right atrial pressure and systemic venous congestion. Tricuspid valve stenosis is almost always due to RHEUMATIC FEVER.Dictionaries, MedicalHeart Failure, Diastolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial relaxation during DIASTOLE leading to defective cardiac filling.Tricuspid Valve: The valve consisting of three cusps situated between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Voice: The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.Sound: A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Surgery, Veterinary: A board-certified specialty of VETERINARY MEDICINE, requiring at least four years of special education, training, and practice of veterinary surgery after graduation from veterinary school. In the written, oral, and practical examinations candidates may choose either large or small animal surgery. (From AVMA Directory, 43d ed, p278)Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.AxisTeaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Patient Positioning: Moving a patient into a specific position or POSTURE to facilitate examination, surgery, or for therapeutic purposes.Mitral Valve: The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.Veterinarians: Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.Ductus Arteriosus, Patent: A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.Systolic Murmurs: Heart murmurs which are systolic in timing. They occur between the first and the second HEART SOUNDS, between the closure of MITRAL VALVE and TRICUSPID VALVE and the closure of semilunar aortic and pulmonary valves. Systolic murmurs include ejection murmurs and regurgitant murmurs.PennsylvaniaAnthozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.Prussia: Former state in north central Germany. Formally abolished March 1, 1947. Kingdom established 1701.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Blue Cross Blue Shield Insurance Plans: Prepaid health and hospital insurance plan.MichiganInsurance, Hospitalization: Health insurance providing benefits to cover or partly cover hospital expenses.Insurance, Physician Services: Insurance providing benefits for the costs of care by a physician which can be comprehensive or limited to surgical expenses or for care provided only in the hospital. It is frequently called "regular medical expense" or "surgical expense".MaineEchocardiography, Transesophageal: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Hospital Communication Systems: The transmission of messages to staff and patients within a hospital.Transducers: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Auscultation: Act of listening for sounds within the body.Biometric Identification: A method of differentiating individuals based on the analysis of qualitative or quantitative biological traits or patterns. This process which has applications in forensics and identity theft prevention includes DNA profiles or DNA fingerprints, hand fingerprints, automated facial recognition, iris scan, hand geometry, retinal scan, vascular patterns, automated voice pattern recognition, and ultrasound of fingers.

Prevalence and clinical significance of cardiac murmurs in neonates. (1/133)

AIM: To determine the prevalence and clinical significance of murmurs detected during routine neonatal examination. METHODS: In a two year prospective study, 7204 newborn babies underwent routine examination by senior house officers. All those with murmurs underwent echocardiographic examination. All babies presenting later in infancy were also identified, to ascertain the total prevalence of congenital heart disease in infancy. RESULTS: Murmurs were detected in 46 babies (0.6%) of whom 25 had a cardiac malformation. The most common diagnosis was a ventricular septal defect, although four babies had asymptomatic left heart outflow obstruction. A further 32 infants from the same birth cohort had a normal neonatal examination but were found to have a cardiac malformation before 12 months of age. CONCLUSIONS: The neonatal examination detects only 44% of cardiac malformations which present in infancy. If a murmur is heard there is a 54% chance of there being an underlying cardiac malformation. Parents and professionals should be aware that a normal neonatal examination does not preclude a clinically significant cardiac malformation. The detection of a murmur should prompt early referral to a paediatric cardiologist for diagnosis or appropriate reassurance.  (+info)

Heart murmurs in pediatric patients: when do you refer? (2/133)

Many normal children have heart murmurs, but most children do not have heart disease. An appropriate history and a properly conducted physical examination can identify children at increased risk for significant heart disease. Pathologic causes of systolic murmurs include atrial and ventricular septal defects, pulmonary or aortic outflow tract abnormalities, and patent ductus arteriosus. An atrial septal defect is often confused with a functional murmur, but the conditions can usually be differentiated based on specific physical findings. Characteristics of pathologic murmurs include a sound level of grade 3 or louder, a diastolic murmur or an increase in intensity when the patient is standing. Most children with any of these findings should be referred to a pediatric cardiologist.  (+info)

Cardiologic evaluation of children with suspected heart disease: experience of a public outpatient clinic in Brazil. (3/133)

CONTEXT: During initial evaluation of children on an outpatient basis, the index of suspected heart disease may be high, particularly if we consider that innocent murmur occurs in about 50% of the pediatric population. This is the most common cause of referral to the pediatric cardiologist. OBJECTIVE: To report on the experience of a public outpatient clinic in the southeastern region of Brazil. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of all patients submitted to cardiologic evaluation within a 39 month period. SETTING: Public pediatric cardiology outpatient clinic. PARTICIPANTS: 2675 consecutive children aged+info)

Apical systolic click and murmur associated with neurofibromatosis. (4/133)

In this report we describe a child who had an apical systolic click and murmur, as well as widespread cutaneous neurofibromatosis. We were not able to show an anatomical basis for the click and murmur.  (+info)

Accuracy of clinical assessment of heart murmurs by office based (general practice) paediatricians. (5/133)

AIM: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of physical examination by office based (general practice) paediatricians in the evaluation of heart murmurs. DESIGN: Each of 30 office based paediatricians blindly examined a random sample of children with murmurs (43% of which were pathological). Sensitivity and specificity were calculated and were related to paediatricians' characteristics. RESULTS: Mean (SD) sensitivity was 82 (24)% with a mean specificity of 72 (24)% in differentiating pathological from innocent murmurs, with further investigations requested for 54% of assessments. The addition of a referral strategy would have increased mean sensitivity to 87 (20)% and specificity to 98 (8)%. Diagnostic accuracy was not significantly related to the paediatricians' age, education or practice characteristics, but was related to referral practices and confidence in assessment. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnostic accuracy of clinical assessment of heart murmurs by office based paediatricians is suboptimal, and educational strategies are needed to improve accuracy and reduce unnecessary referrals and misdiagnosis.  (+info)

A 72 year old woman with ALCAPA. (6/133)

ALCAPA syndrome (anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery), which causes the left coronary artery to grow with an anomalous origin from the pulmonary artery, is a rare disease which may result in myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and sometimes death during the early infantile period. A 72 year old woman with ALCAPA syndrome is presented. The asymptomatic patient presented with a cardiac murmur which was discovered during a routine check up for a gynaecological intervention. Coronary cineangiography established the diagnosis. Although surgical correction is the usual treatment for such cases, medical treatment was preferred for this patient because she was asymptomatic without clinical signs of heart failure.  (+info)

Tricuspid aortic valve with partial commissural fusion: prelminary report of an apparently common cause of aortic ejection sounds with potential for serious sequelae, illustrated by two cases. (7/133)

We report the cases of 2 patients whose tricuspid aortic valves were found to have partial commissural fusion. Both patients experienced complications that were probably related to this abnormality: bacterial endocarditis in 1 instance and a lacunar stroke in the other. In order to illustrate the similarity of physical findings, we also describe the case of a 3rd patient, who had a typical bicuspid aortic valve. Tricuspid aortic valve with partial commissural fusion has been described in autopsy series and has been predicted to cause an ejection sound, but we could find no previously published description of this lesion in living patients. We wish to alert others to the possible presence of aortic commissural fusion, to its potential for serious and likely preventable sequelae, and to the ability of carefully performed transthoracic high-resolution digital echocardiography to demonstrate this condition when its characteristics are found on physical examination.  (+info)

The patient with a systolic murmur: severe aortic stenosis may be missed during cardiovascular examination. (8/133)

Significant aortic stenosis is prevalent amongst elderly people. It may be subclinical, manifesting only as a murmur, but can still cause unexpected death with little warning after symptoms develop. Recent studies have highlighted the unreliability of the classical clinical signs of severe aortic stenosis, leading to concern that some patients may not be referred appropriately for echocardiography. Here, we review the evidence for the accuracy of each sign. We suggest that the assessment of the patient with a systolic murmur should be reappraised, and offer guidelines toward improving the recognition of aortic stenosis in the community.  (+info)

  • With abnormal murmurs, patients may need an antibiotic before they go to the dentist to prevent infections that can affect the heart, but this isn't necessary for those with normal murmurs," said Dr. Bockoven. (akronchildrens.org)
  • The murmur in valvular AS decreases with standing and straining with Valsalva maneuver. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, if a murmur is detected when examining a dog that is more than 7 years old, that is small size (less than 10 kg or 22.04 lbs), a provisional diagnosis of chronic valvular endocardiosis can be made until the appropriate tests say otherwise . (animalwised.com)
  • The investigators hypothesized that increased education of health care providers and parents might be helpful in alleviating unnecessary anxiety and reducing the number of patients with innocent murmurs who are referred for further evaluation. (aafp.org)
  • Although not routinely recommended for every type of heart murmur, you may need to take antibiotics before and after some medical or dental procedures that could allow bacteria to enter your bloodstream. (doctors-hospital.net)
  • Primary care physicians frequently encounter children with heart murmurs. (aafp.org)
  • One study 3 showed that direct referral for echocardiography was an expensive way to evaluate children with heart murmurs. (aafp.org)
  • It depends upon what the cause of the murmur is from the list above. (uk.net)
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