Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Abnormalities, MultipleHeart Septal Defects, Ventricular: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two lower chambers of the heart. Classification of ventricular septal defects is based on location of the communication, such as perimembranous, inlet, outlet (infundibular), central muscular, marginal muscular, or apical muscular defect.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Heart Septal Defects: Abnormalities in any part of the HEART SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communication between the left and the right chambers of the heart. The abnormal blood flow inside the heart may be caused by defects in the ATRIAL SEPTUM, the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM, or both.Heart Septal Defects, Atrial: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Growth Differentiation Factor 1: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development. Evidence for this role is seen in MICE where loss of growth differentiation factor 1 function results in right-left isomerism of visceral organs. In HUMANS heterozygous loss of growth differentiation factor 1 function has been associated with CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS and TRANSPOSITION OF GREAT VESSELS.Heart Valves: Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Endocardial Cushion Defects: A spectrum of septal defects involving the ATRIAL SEPTUM; VENTRICULAR SEPTUM; and the atrioventricular valves (TRICUSPID VALVE; BICUSPID VALVE). These defects are due to incomplete growth and fusion of the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS which are important in the formation of two atrioventricular canals, site of future atrioventricular valves.Cardiovascular Abnormalities: Congenital, inherited, or acquired anomalies of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, including the HEART and BLOOD VESSELS.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Choanal Atresia: A congenital abnormality that is characterized by a blocked CHOANAE, the opening between the nose and the NASOPHARYNX. Blockage can be unilateral or bilateral; bony or membranous.Noonan Syndrome: A genetically heterogeneous, multifaceted disorder characterized by short stature, webbed neck, ptosis, skeletal malformations, hypertelorism, hormonal imbalance, CRYPTORCHIDISM, multiple cardiac abnormalities (most commonly including PULMONARY VALVE STENOSIS), and some degree of INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. The phenotype bears similarities to that of TURNER SYNDROME that occurs only in females and has its basis in a 45, X karyotype abnormality. Noonan syndrome occurs in both males and females with a normal karyotype (46,XX and 46,XY). Mutations in a several genes (PTPN11, KRAS, SOS1, NF1 and RAF1) have been associated the the NS phenotype. Mutations in PTPN11 are the most common. LEOPARD SYNDROME, a disorder that has clinical features overlapping those of Noonan Syndrome, is also due to mutations in PTPN11. In addition, there is overlap with the syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome due to mutations in NF1.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: A condition caused by underdevelopment of the whole left half of the heart. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the left cardiac chambers (HEART ATRIUM; HEART VENTRICLE), the AORTA, the AORTIC VALVE, and the MITRAL VALVE. Severe symptoms appear in early infancy when DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS closes.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.DiGeorge Syndrome: Congenital syndrome characterized by a wide spectrum of characteristics including the absence of the THYMUS and PARATHYROID GLANDS resulting in T-cell immunodeficiency, HYPOCALCEMIA, defects in the outflow tract of the heart, and craniofacial anomalies.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Coloboma: Congenital anomaly in which some of the structures of the eye are absent due to incomplete fusion of the fetal intraocular fissure during gestation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Tetralogy of Fallot: A combination of congenital heart defects consisting of four key features including VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECTS; PULMONARY STENOSIS; RIGHT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY; and a dextro-positioned AORTA. In this condition, blood from both ventricles (oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor) is pumped into the body often causing CYANOSIS.Cyanosis: A bluish or purplish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to an increase in the amount of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood or a structural defect in the hemoglobin molecule.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Heart Arrest, Induced: A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).Facies: The appearance of the face that is often characteristic of a disease or pathological condition, as the elfin facies of WILLIAMS SYNDROME or the mongoloid facies of DOWN SYNDROME. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Nuchal Translucency Measurement: A prenatal ultrasonography measurement of the soft tissue behind the fetal neck. Either the translucent area below the skin in the back of the fetal neck (nuchal translucency) or the distance between occipital bone to the outer skin line (nuchal fold) is measured.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Situs Inversus: A congenital abnormality in which organs in the THORAX and the ABDOMEN are opposite to their normal positions (situs solitus) due to lateral transposition. Normally the STOMACH and SPLEEN are on the left, LIVER on the right, the three-lobed right lung is on the right, and the two-lobed left lung on the left. Situs inversus has a familial pattern and has been associated with a number of genes related to microtubule-associated proteins.Heart Block: Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Craniofacial Abnormalities: Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the cranium and facial bones.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Neonatal Screening: The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.Transposition of Great Vessels: A congenital cardiovascular malformation in which the AORTA arises entirely from the RIGHT VENTRICLE, and the PULMONARY ARTERY arises from the LEFT VENTRICLE. Consequently, the pulmonary and the systemic circulations are parallel and not sequential, so that the venous return from the peripheral circulation is re-circulated by the right ventricle via aorta to the systemic circulation without being oxygenated in the lungs. This is a potentially lethal form of heart disease in newborns and infants.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.ArkansasMusculoskeletal Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities and deformities of the musculoskeletal system.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Endocardium: The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Truncus Arteriosus, Persistent: A congenital anomaly caused by the failed development of TRUNCUS ARTERIOSUS into separate AORTA and PULMONARY ARTERY. It is characterized by a single arterial trunk that forms the outlet for both HEART VENTRICLES and gives rise to the systemic, pulmonary, and coronary arteries. It is always accompanied by a ventricular septal defect.Heart Septum: This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.Tricuspid Atresia: Absence of the orifice between the RIGHT ATRIUM and RIGHT VENTRICLE, with the presence of an atrial defect through which all the systemic venous return reaches the left heart. As a result, there is left ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR) because the right ventricle is absent or not functional.Endocardial Cushions: A fetal heart structure that is the bulging areas in the cardiac septum between the HEART ATRIA and the HEART VENTRICLES. During development, growth and fusion of endocardial cushions at midline forms the two atrioventricular canals, the sites for future TRICUSPID VALVE and BICUSPID VALVE.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Aortic Coarctation: A birth defect characterized by the narrowing of the AORTA that can be of varying degree and at any point from the transverse arch to the iliac bifurcation. Aortic coarctation causes arterial HYPERTENSION before the point of narrowing and arterial HYPOTENSION beyond the narrowed portion.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Cleft Palate: Congenital fissure of the soft and/or hard palate, due to faulty fusion.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Limb Deformities, Congenital: Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Pulmonary Valve Stenosis: The pathologic narrowing of the orifice of the PULMONARY VALVE. This lesion restricts blood outflow from the RIGHT VENTRICLE to the PULMONARY ARTERY. When the trileaflet valve is fused into an imperforate membrane, the blockage is complete.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome: A syndrome caused by large deletions of the telomereic end of the short arm of CHROMOSOME 4 (4p) in Wolf-Hirchhorn syndrome critial regions (WHSCRs). Several candidate genes have been identified including WHSC1 and WHSCH2 which appear to be responsible for the core phenotype and in combination with other linked and unlinked genes determine the severity and inclusion of rarer phenotypes. Most cases have a characteristic cranio-facial defect often referred to as "Greek helmet face" - a combined result of MICROCEPHALY, broad forehead, prominent glabella, HYPERTELORISM, high arched eyebrows, short philtrum and micrognathia. In addition there is mental retardation, growth delays, EPILEPSY, and frequently a wide range of midline and skeletal defects, including HYPOSPADIAS; CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; CLEFT LIP; CLEFT PALATE; colobomata; CLUBFOOT; clinodactyly; SCOLIOSIS; and KYPHOSIS.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Dandy-Walker Syndrome: A congenital abnormality of the central nervous system marked by failure of the midline structures of the cerebellum to develop, dilation of the fourth ventricle, and upward displacement of the transverse sinuses, tentorium, and torcula. Clinical features include occipital bossing, progressive head enlargement, bulging of anterior fontanelle, papilledema, ataxia, gait disturbances, nystagmus, and intellectual compromise. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp294-5)Urogenital Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Genitalia: The external and internal organs related to reproduction.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Neural Crest: The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Ductus Arteriosus, Patent: A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.Arcus Senilis: A corneal disease in which there is a deposition of phospholipid and cholesterol in the corneal stroma and anterior sclera.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.GATA6 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Pulmonary Atresia: A congenital heart defect characterized by the narrowing or complete absence of the opening between the RIGHT VENTRICLE and the PULMONARY ARTERY. Lacking a normal PULMONARY VALVE, unoxygenated blood in the right ventricle can not be effectively pumped into the lung for oxygenation. Clinical features include rapid breathing, CYANOSIS, right ventricle atrophy, and abnormal heart sounds (HEART MURMURS).Mice, Inbred C57BLGenotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.Cleft Lip: Congenital defect in the upper lip where the maxillary prominence fails to merge with the merged medial nasal prominences. It is thought to be caused by faulty migration of the mesoderm in the head region.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2): A flavoprotein amine oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.1.1.171.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Skin Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the skin.Eye Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Neural Tube Defects: Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)Diseases in Twins: Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Vestibular Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH which contains part of the balancing apparatus. Patients with vestibular diseases show instability and are at risk of frequent falls.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Echocardiography, Doppler, Color: Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional: Echocardiography amplified by the addition of depth to the conventional two-dimensional ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY visualizing only the length and width of the heart. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging was first described in 1961 but its application to echocardiography did not take place until 1974. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Heart, Artificial: A pumping mechanism that duplicates the output, rate, and blood pressure of the natural heart. It may replace the function of the entire heart or a portion of it, and may be an intracorporeal, extracorporeal, or paracorporeal heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Consanguinity: The magnitude of INBREEDING in humans.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Heart Failure, Systolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial contraction during SYSTOLE leading to defective cardiac emptying.Microcephaly: A congenital abnormality in which the CEREBRUM is underdeveloped, the fontanels close prematurely, and, as a result, the head is small. (Desk Reference for Neuroscience, 2nd ed.)Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.GeorgiaBalloon Valvuloplasty: Widening of a stenosed HEART VALVE by the insertion of a balloon CATHETER into the valve and inflation of the balloon.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Pregnancy, High-Risk: Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Heart Rate, Fetal: The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Rheumatic Heart Disease: Cardiac manifestation of systemic rheumatological conditions, such as RHEUMATIC FEVER. Rheumatic heart disease can involve any part the heart, most often the HEART VALVES and the ENDOCARDIUM.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.S-Adenosylhomocysteine: 5'-S-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5'-thioadenosine. Formed from S-adenosylmethionine after transmethylation reactions.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Heart Arrest: Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Heart Valve Prosthesis: A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Folic Acid Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of FOLIC ACID in the diet. Many plant and animal tissues contain folic acid, abundant in green leafy vegetables, yeast, liver, and mushrooms but destroyed by long-term cooking. Alcohol interferes with its intermediate metabolism and absorption. Folic acid deficiency may develop in long-term anticonvulsant therapy or with use of oral contraceptives. This deficiency causes anemia, macrocytic anemia, and megaloblastic anemia. It is indistinguishable from vitamin B 12 deficiency in peripheral blood and bone marrow findings, but the neurologic lesions seen in B 12 deficiency do not occur. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Heart Failure, Diastolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial relaxation during DIASTOLE leading to defective cardiac filling.Coronary Vessel Anomalies: Malformations of CORONARY VESSELS, either arteries or veins. Included are anomalous origins of coronary arteries; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; CORONARY ANEURYSM; MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING; and others.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.American Heart Association: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Ductus Arteriosus: A fetal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta.Fontan Procedure: A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Collins, Lois M. (October 3, 2007). "Utah company's new stent may help repair heart defects". Deseret News. Salt Lake City, ... Waters, Jen (31 Jul 2007). "Easing Migraines.; Drugs, surgery help some; heart defect role studied". Washington Times. ... Cruickshank JM (2010). "Beta-blockers and heart failure". Indian Heart J. 62 (2): 101-10. PMID 21180298. "Amitriptyline: Side ... "Inheritance of persistent foramen ovale and atrial septal defects and the relation to familial migraine with aura". Heart ( ...
According to Egyptian doctors, the cause of Abdelwhab's death was a heart defect. National coach Hassan Shehata and the players ... Shaheen, Amr (August 21, 2006). "Heart defect kills Egypt defender". BBC Sport. Retrieved October 3, 2006. Mohamed Abdelwahab ...
Shaheen, Amr (31 August 2006). "Heart defect kills Egypt defender". BBC News. Retrieved 8 May 2010. "BBC SPORT - Football - Non ... "Player gets yellow card for fatal heart attack during match (UPDATE: No he didn't)". Yahoo Sports. 5 May 2010. "Archived copy ... "Naoki Matsuda dies after heart attack - ESPN Soccernet". Soccernet.espn.go.com. 2011-08-04. Retrieved 2011-11-15. "BBC Sport - ... Sample, Ian (4 July 2008). "Doctors call for heart checks on athletes". Guardian. Retrieved 8 February 2014. "FIFA PCMA" (PDF ...
Bever, Lindsey (May 2, 2017). "A tearful Jimmy Kimmel said his newborn had a congenital heart defect. Here's how it works". The ... The infant was born with a rare congenital heart defect, tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with pulmonary atresia, which was first ... Schoenberg, Nara (May 2, 2017). "Surgeon explains Kimmel baby's heart defect". The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 4, 2017. " ... "Jimmy Kimmel Reveals Newborn Son's Open Heart Surgery in Emotional Monologue". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the ...
"Heart defect scuppers Thuram's PSG move". Fédération Internationale de Football Association. 27 June 2008. Archived from the ...
During his medical, it was discovered he had a severe heart defect which had also ended his brother's life, forcing Thuram to ... "Thuram move ended by heart defect". BBC. 27 June 2008. Retrieved 11 August 2014. Dall, James (1 August 2008). "Thuram announces ... "Southampton bid for Hearts pair". BBC. 29 June 2006. Retrieved 6 August 2014. "Hearts get tough with absent pair". BBC. 3 July ... "Hearts demanding £5m for Webster". BBC. 17 March 2007. Retrieved 6 August 2014. "Hearts appeal for £5m after FIFA Webster ...
Another example of preliminary treatment is heart catheterization to evaluate the defect or defects of the heart; this ... Potential risk factors that can cause this congenital heart defect are those the pregnant mother may come in contact with, such ... "Facts about Pulmonary Atresia , Congenital Heart Defects , NCBDDD , CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2016-06-24. "Pulmonic Valve ... In a normal functioning heart, the opening to the pulmonary valve has three flaps that open and close In congenital heart ...
Taittinger was born with a heart defect. When she was three days old, she went through an open-heart surgery. This experience ... This association raises fund to heal children suffering from heart defect all around the world. In 2013, Taittinger came first ...
Siegel, Lee (29 May 1997). "Scientists Say Gene Causes Deafness, Heart Defect". Salt Lake Tribune. ,access-date= requires ,url ... functional heart disease with prolongation of the QT interval and sudden death. American Heart Journal, 1957; 54: 59 - 68. ...
Congenital Heart Defects, Simplified. Midwest EchoSolutions. pp. 63-. ISBN 978-0-9822709-0-5. Love, Barry A; Mehta, Davendra; ... Supporting ADULTS born with TGA that have had a Mustard, Senning, Rastelli or Nikaidoh Heart Procedure Congenital heart disease ... developed an alternative and simplified technique to the Senning procedure which was used to correct a congenital heart defect ... The defect causes blood from the lungs to flow back to the lungs and blood from the body to flow back to the body. This occurs ...
Congenital Heart Defects, Simplified. Midwest EchoSolutions. pp. 65-. ISBN 978-0-9822709-0-5. Retrieved 24 June 2011. Partners ... had observed that children with a cyanotic heart defect and a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) lived longer than those without ... is a surgical procedure used to increase pulmonary blood flow for palliation in duct dependent cyanotic heart defects like ... as was the 2003 public television documentary Partners of the Heart. Blalock Taussig Shunt - Right Subclavian artery to right ...
This congenital heart defect caused babies to "turn blue" due to the lack of oxygen flowing through the blood. Before this ... In this common congenital heart defect, the venous circulation drains into the right ventricle but from this chamber, blood is ... "The Mustard and Senning Procedure for Transposition of the Great Arteries (TGA)". Congenital Heart Defects UK. In the Footsteps ... Such children are born with their heart's outflow vessels transposed: the aorta emerges from the right side of the heart ...
... (born March 30, 1992 in La Jolla, California) is an American female golfer who suffers from a heart defect ... Spousta, Tom (2007-05-09). "Teen golfer Kline plays on despite heart defect". USA Today. Retrieved 2008-09-09. Sobel, Jason ( ...
Maris died of a heart defect in 2015. In 2016, Grayson was sent to Shedd Aquarium while SeaWorld Orlando's Aurek and Maple and ...
... butterfly defect' at the heart of globalisation". Financial Times. ISSN 0307-1766. Retrieved 2016-04-21. "To preserve the ... Martin's Press, 2016 "The Pursuit of Development: Economic Growth, Social Change and Ideas", OUP, 2016 "The Butterfly Defect: ...
Congenital Heart Diseases. 20 October 2011. Argenziano M, Oz MC, Kohmoto T, et al. Totally endoscopic atrial septal defect ... Foramen secundum atrial septal defects are the most common atrial septal defects. This defect can arise as a result of defects ... American Heart Journal. January 2006; 151(1):228-34 Gessner MD, Neish MD, et al. Ostium Secundum Atrial Septal Defects ... Do patients over 40 years of age benefit from surgical closure of atrial septal defects? 1 September 2000. Heart 2001; 85: 300- ...
The other conditions are ventricular septal defect which is a defect or hole in the wall of the heart between the two ... Heart conditions in the Sussex Spaniel can include pulmonary valve stenosis, which is the most common of the congenital heart ... "Pulmonic Stenosis: The Most Common Congenital Heart Defect". TerrificPets.com. Retrieved 2009-11-23. "The American ... The final results of this condition can be swelling of fluid in the chambers of the heart, thickening of the heart muscle known ...
... some untreated congenital heart defects; failed heart transplant) Superior mesenteric artery syndrome Drugs that affect blood ... Heart Disease (myocardial infarction- heart attack; acute or chronic congestive or other heart failure, ruptured or dissecting ... Acute collapse can result from heart failure causing the primary vessels of the heart to collapse, perhaps combined with ... Ghuran, A (2000). "Recreational drug misuse: issues for the cardiologist". Heart. 83 (6): 627-633. doi:10.1136/heart.83.6.627. ...
... he dies 3 months later from a heart defect.) Game 2 @ Boston Garden, Boston (May 1): Charlotte 99, Boston 98 (2OT) Game 3 @ ... He died less than three months later from a heart condition.[citation needed] After the Suns defeated the Sonics in Game 7 of ... he died in July of a heart attack. Sportswriter Bill Simmons called the 1993 post-season the best in NBA history. Champion: ...
He suffered and would die from a heart defect. He was born Jewish but converted to Christianity in 1840-1841 in order to pursue ...
Hennekam, R. C. M.; Van Noort, G.; De La Fuente, A. A. (1991). "Familial holoprosencephaly, heart defects, and polydactyly". ... Young, I. D.; Madders, D. J. (1987). "Unknown syndrome: holoprosencephaly, congenital heart defects, and polydactyly". Journal ... cardiac lesions and other heart defects. In one case in 1991 and another in 2000 the condition was found in siblings who were ... a spectrum of defects or malformations of the brain and face. Facial defects which may manifest in the eyes, nose, and upper ...
ISBN 1-4160-2450-6. Yuan SM, Jing H (2009). "Palliative procedures for congenital heart defects". Arch Cardiovasc Dis. 102 (6-7 ... Downs Heart Group. "Blalock, Glenn & Fontan Procedures - Down's Heart Group". Bonita F. Stanton; Kliegman, Robert; Nelson, ... It is also part of the surgical treatment path for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. This procedure has been largely replaced by ...
... congenital or acquired heart-valve defects; within 3 months of cerebrovascular events; pulmonary veno-occlusive disease; ... Serious adverse events reported with the use of inhaled iloprost include congestive heart failure, chest pain, supraventricular ... other serious adverse events reported with the use of Ventavis included congestive heart failure, chest pain, supraventricular ...
... congenital or acquired heart valve defects; increased risk of bleeding; a history of myocardial infarction in the past 6 months ... likely underlie its ability suppress hypertension and protect tissues such as the heart in this model as well as the heart, ...
... is a congenital heart defect in which the septal and posterior leaflets of the tricuspid valve are displaced ... towards the apex of the right ventricle of the heart. Its classified as a Critical congenital heart defect accounting for ...
Frontline Science: Defects in immune function in patients with sepsis are associated with PD-1 or PD-L1 expression and can be ... IL-10 Induces T Cell Exhaustion During Transplantation of Virus Infected Hearts. Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry. 2016, 38 ...
The role of the total artificial heart in the treatment of post-myocardial infarction ventricular septal defect. Journal of ... The role of the total artificial heart in the treatment of post-myocardial infarction ventricular septal defect. / Ashfaq, ... title = "The role of the total artificial heart in the treatment of post-myocardial infarction ventricular septal defect", ... T1 - The role of the total artificial heart in the treatment of post-myocardial infarction ventricular septal defect ...
About 1 in every 4 babies born with a heart defect has a critical congenital heart defect (critical CHD / critical congenital ... However, some heart defects are not found during pregnancy. In these cases, heart defects may be detected at birth or as the ... About 1 in every 4 babies born with a heart defect has a critical congenital heart defect (critical CHD, also known as critical ... Other heart defects can be just as severe as these seven and also require treatment soon after birth. However, pulse oximetry ...
The causes of heart defects such as atrial septal defect among most babies are unknown. Some babies have heart defects because ... What is Atrial Septal Defect?. An atrial septal defect is a birth defect of the heart in which there is a hole in the wall ( ... An atrial septal defect (pronounced EY-tree-uhl SEP-tuhl DEE-fekt) is a birth defect of the heart in which there is a hole in ... An atrial septal defect is one type of congenital heart defect. Congenital means present at birth. ...
... is a cardiac anomaly that refers to a combination of four related heart defects that commonly occur together. The four defects ... Patients are also at risk for slow heart rates after surgery due to heart block. Heart block may be caused by injury to or ... Ventricular septal defect (VSD) − a hole between the right and left pumping chambers of the heart ... Once congenital heart disease is suspected, echocardiography can rapidly and accurately demonstrate the four related defects ...
Congenital heart defects are divided into two main groups: cyanotic heart defects and non-cyanotic heart defects, depending on ... Congenital heart defects are known by a number of names including congenital heart anomaly, congenital heart disease, heart ... A congenital heart defect (CHD), also known as a congenital heart anomaly or congenital heart disease, is a problem in the ... Complications that can result from heart defects include heart failure.[2] The cause of a congenital heart defect is often ...
People with congenital heart defect may have worse functional exercise capacity A common congenital heart defect may reduce ... Childhood heart defect increases risk of arrhythmia, heart failure in adulthood Long-term morbidity as well as a lower level of ... A drug used to treat gout, probenecid, may improve heart function in individuals with a particular heart defect, according to ... Surgery can mend congenital heart defects shortly after birth, but those babies will carry a higher risk of heart failure ...
Taking Antidepressants During Pregnancy Could Double Babys Risk for Heart Defects. *by ...
Many treatments are available for the defects and their related health problems. ... Congenital heart defects involve abnormal or incomplete development of the heart. ... Heart defects can range from mild to severe.. What Causes a Congenital Heart Defect?. Congenital heart defects happen because ... Common Heart Defects. Common types of congenital heart defects, which can affect any part of the heart or its surrounding ...
... a congenital defect in which theres a hole in the hearts wall. One of the most telling symptoms of VSD is a heart murmur, ... complications and treatment of ventricular septal defect (VSD), ... Congenital Heart Disease. Congenital heart defects are heart ... "Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)." Adult Congenital Heart Association. "What Are Congenital Heart Defects?" National Heart, Lung ... "Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)." Adult Congenital Heart Association. "What Are Congenital Heart Defects?" National Heart, Lung ...
... the child suffering a heart defect up to fourfold, a new study shows. ... Anti-depressants can increase risk of heart defect. Taking commonly used antidepressants while pregnant can increase the ... "This study has added to existing evidence that there is a small increased risk to the foetus of developing a heart defect when ... the child suffering a heart defect up to fourfold, a new study shows. ...
There doctors confirmed that the baby had a rare congenital heart defect called Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome, also known as ... Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome is one of the top three heart defects requiring surgery in newborns. ... Congenital Heart Disease in Infants. Lenore Cameron founded a national congenital heart disease (CHD) support organization ... The reason that Im looking at the heart so long is because it doesnt look right. Somethings wrong with the babys heart." ...
Congenital heart defects are divided into two main groups: cyanotic heart defects and non-cyanotic heart defects, depending on ... Congenital heart defects are known by a number of names including congenital heart anomaly, congenital heart disease, heart ... Complications that can result from heart defects include heart failure. The cause of a congenital heart defect is often unknown ... Hypoplasia of the heart is generally a cyanotic heart defect. Obstruction defects occur when heart valves, arteries, or veins ...
Cyanotic heart defect is a group-type of congenital heart defect (CHD) that occurs due to deoxygenated blood bypassing the ... Acyanotic heart defect Page Elizabeth D Agabegi; Agabegi, Steven S. (2008). Step-Up to Medicine (Step-Up Series). Hagerstwon, ... It is caused by structural defects of the heart (i.e.: right-to-left, bidirectional shunting, malposition of the great arteries ... ISBN 0-7817-7153-6. Abou-Taleb, A., Abdelhamid, M. A., & Bahkeet, M. A. (2016). Clinical profile of cyanotic congenital heart ...
What are Congenital Heart Defects (CHDs)?. Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common type of birth defect. As medical ... CHDs can vary from mild (such as a small hole in the heart) to severe (such as missing or poorly formed parts of the heart). ... CHDs are present at birth and can affect the structure of a babys heart and the way it works. They can affect how blood flows ... Data Source: California Birth Defects Monitoring Program Registry, 2012-2016 (PDF), California Central Valley Counties (Fresno ...
AAP.org , English , Advocacy & Policy , AAP Health Initiatives , PEHDIC , Critical Congenital Heart Defect (CCHD) Technical ... Critical Congenital Heart Defect (CCHD) Technical Advisory Panel. Article Body. Background. In September 2011, the Secretary of ... AAP.org > Advocacy & Policy > AAP Health Initiatives > PEHDIC > Critical Congenital Heart Defect (CCHD) Technical Advisory ... recommended that screening for Critical Congenital Heart Defect (CCHD) be added to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel ( ...
A baby born with one or more heart defects has congenital heart disease. Surgery is needed if the defect ... Congenital heart defect corrective surgery fixes or treats a heart defect that a child is born with. ... Hypoplastic left heart repair:. *This is a very severe heart defect that is caused by a very poorly developed left heart. If it ... Congenital heart defect corrective surgery fixes or treats a heart defect that a child is born with. A baby born with one or ...
What are Congenital Heart Defects?. Congenital Heart Defects are problems with the hearts structure that are present at birth ... I was born with 3 congenital heart defects and have had 5 open heart surgeries so far. I am so happy to see that your story is ... How has your heart defect impacted your life?. Living with a critical CHD changes the way you see the world. Ive heard the ... Congenital Heart Defect Awareness Week. Its safe to say Kimmie Harding knows her way around OHSU. Shes been treated here for ...
Congenital Heart Defect Led to Runners DeathJason Kortekaas, a 17-year-old varsity cross-country runner at Victorville ... Congenital Heart Defect Led to Runners Death. Jason Kortekaas, a 17-year-old varsity cross-country runner at Victorville ... 10 after being in a coma for 11 days following his collapse during a race at Yucaipa High, died of a congenital heart defect, ... The report said "the most single abnormal finding from the autopsy is the enlarged heart. It weighed 425 grams and in the high- ...
my son has recently been diagnosed with an atrial septal defect it is 2.5cm he is 13 years old.....he gets a lot of chest pains ... An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a hole between the upper heart chambers. It allows blood from the left sided heart chambers to ... my son has recently been diagnosed with an atrial septal defect it is 2.5cm he is 13 years old.....he gets a lot of chest pains ... If an ASD is large enough, and the inefficient blood flow occurs for long periods of time, then the right sided heart chambers ...
Nutritional Supplements and Heart Health Fish oil, folic acid, vitamin C. Find out if these supplements are heart-healthy or ... Can Mental Stress Lead to Heart Disease? Can depression and anxiety cause heart disease? Get the facts in this Missouri ... reversible perfusion defect in anterior wall, fixed perfusion defect ininterior wall, normal perfusion in remaining myocardium ... reversible perfusion defect in anterior wall, fixed perfusion defect ininterior wall, normal perfusion in remaining myocardium ...
People who survive childhood heart defects may have an increased risk of developing dementia before age 65, a Danish study ... The most common type of heart defects were so-called atrial septal defects, a hole in the wall between the hearts upper ... Compared to people born with normal hearts, adult survivors of childhood heart defects were more than twice as likely to ... The dementia risk increased with the severity of heart defects. Mild to moderate defects were associated with 50 percent ...
Jensen and Mads Melbye Recurrence of Congenital Heart Defects in Families Print ISSN: 0009-7… ... heart defects, congenital Ⅲ epidemiology Ⅲ genetics Ⅲ heart septal defects Ⅲ population Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are a ... Heart defects with additional birth defects likely represent a large proportion of the syndromic heart defects. With restric- ... ular septal defect (VSD); (9) ASD and VSD; (10) complex defects; (11) conotruncal heart defect plus AVSD; (12) septal defect ...
They know he has a complicated set of heart defects and his early future will include close monitoring and staged surgeries. ... Its a program that aims to detect heart defects before a baby is born to be sure immediate and appropriate care is available. ... Kelso routinely takes parents expecting a child with a serious heart defect on a tour of the intensive care unit, so theyll ... They know he has a complicated set of heart defects and his early future will include close monitoring and staged surgeries. ...
There was no increased risk of birth defects in general or heart malformations specifically with amphetamines like Adderall, ... are more likely than those who dont to have babies with heart deformities and other birth defects, a recent study suggests. ... were 11 percent more likely to have a baby with birth defects and 28 percent more likely to have infants with heart ... Among children of women who were not taking stimulants for ADHD, 35 out of every 1,000 babies had birth defects, compared with ...
Can you name the Congenital heart defect Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to ... Science Quiz / Congenital heart defect. Random Science Quiz Can you name the Congenital heart defect. by rsolnick ...
  • JACKSONVILLE, Fla. - Callie Carver has been in and out of the hospital since she was just 3 months old, fighting a rare heart defect. (news4jax.com)
  • HANOVER, N.H. (AP) - An autopsy has determined that a rare heart defect killed a 20-year-old Dartmouth College cross country skier last weekend. (seacoastonline.com)
  • Kaden Livesay, now 4, was born with a rare heart defect. (healthday.com)
  • Within days, Renee was referred to a team of pediatric heart specialists at Children's Hospital in Boston, one of the leading pediatric hospitals in the country. (go.com)
  • There are many types of pediatric heart surgery . (medlineplus.gov)
  • She began seeing Dr. Laird, founder of Pediatric Heart Specialists and the same cardiologist who had performed her atrial septostomy when she was just 1 day old. (childrens.com)
  • Eventually Carrie started seeing Dr. Laird's son, Penn Laird II, M.D. , cardiologist at Pediatric Heart Specialists, about every other year for care. (childrens.com)
  • CHKD pediatric heart surgeons use minimally invasive procedures to correct heart defects whenever possible in order to reduce the risks associated with surgery. (chkd.org)
  • Our pediatric heart surgeons and interventional cardiologists perform a broad range of children's heart procedures and surgeries to provide the unique care your child needs. (dukehealth.org)
  • Our pediatric heart rhythm specialists (also called electrophysiologists) can offer pacemakers and defibrillators. (dukehealth.org)
  • Some ASDs occur in conjunction with other structural abnormalities of the heart, so your child's cardiologist will need to check for other associated heart problems. (medhelp.org)
  • The theme running through all of these vignettes was Strauss's idea that physicians must begin to think more as developmental biologists and less as technicians who simply focus on anatomic abnormalities of the heart. (cmaj.ca)
  • But now, preventive antibiotics are given only to some children with heart defects. (kidshealth.org)
  • Dr. Srivastava said the next step is to determine how common GATA4 mutations are in the general population of children with heart defects and use that information to devise clever approaches to prevention. (innovations-report.com)
  • Using a large Canadian database, researchers looked at the occurrence of infective endocarditis between 1988 and 2010 in 47,518 children with heart defects. (webwire.com)
  • Clinicians treating children with heart defects can help educate parents regarding infective endocarditis and its prevention, particularly in the highest risk groups identified in this study, said Dinela Rushani, co-author of the study from the Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health at McGill University. (webwire.com)
  • Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing of a portion of the aorta, and often seriously decreases the blood flow from the heart out to the lower portion of the body. (rchsd.org)
  • Instead, a single large valve forms that crosses the defect in the wall between the two sides of the heart. (heart.org)
  • Others are more serious and complex, such as a missing heart valve or heart chamber. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Instead of two separate valves allowing flow into the heart (tricuspid on the right and mitral valve on the left), there is one large common valve, which may be quite malformed. (rchsd.org)
  • White also pointed out that Billy Kimmel is one of the lucky kids with this condition, as he did not need to have an artificial valve inserted into his heart, which would have needed to be replaced in a later surgery. (menshealth.com)
  • Perhaps the most infamous recall case on record involves the Bjork-Shiley Convexo-Concave mechanical heart valve. (lawyersandsettlements.com)
  • At the time of the settlement there were an estimated 40,000 living heart valve recipients. (lawyersandsettlements.com)
  • When a critical device such as a heart valve is found to have a problem that could result in death or serious injury, FDA has an obligation to see that doctors and patients are notified so that they can consider the new information in deciding on a course of action," said FDA Commissioner David Kessler, MD at the time. (lawyersandsettlements.com)
  • At the origin of the aorta at the heart is the aortic valve . (medindia.net)
  • While a commonly reported statistic is 1 in 100 babies are born with a heart defect, that statistic does NOT include the most common CHD - bicuspid aortic valve. (voiceamerica.com)
  • EUGENE, Ore. -- May 5, 2016 -- A cell-to-cell signaling network that serves as a developmental timer could provide a framework for better understanding the mechanisms underlying human heart valve disease, say University of Oregon scientists. (eurekalert.org)
  • The research, which appeared in the journal Development , examined a process called Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in mice during heart valve development. (eurekalert.org)
  • Congenital heart valve defects are extremely common and can have considerable negative effects on human health, but their root causes are poorly understood," he said. (eurekalert.org)
  • Valve defects are frequently inherited within families, but, because valve development is a multistage process involving several cell types, researchers have had difficulty determining exactly when and where valve formation genes normally function during embryonic development. (eurekalert.org)
  • Although this signaling pathway has been suspected of having key roles in heart valve formation, the new research reveals more of its contributions. (eurekalert.org)
  • In addition to the possibility cell-signaling disruptions that affect developmental transitions may account for congenital valve defects, the UO researchers speculate that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling could serve a similar timing role in other developing organs and disease states. (eurekalert.org)
  • For one, it could point to improved diagnostics for congenital valve defects. (eurekalert.org)
  • Secondly, the knowledge of how nature controls the growth of valve cells could be applied to generate heart valve replacement tissue for therapeutic use in humans. (eurekalert.org)
  • Having a congenital heart defect increases the risk for complications, such as heart failure, endocarditis, atrial fibrillation, and heart valve problems. (healthwise.net)
  • This can be complicated by a second problem the Kimmel baby has - pulmonary atresia, a severely blocked heart valve, which prevents enough blood from reaching the lungs. (sungazette.com)
  • Kimmel said the open-heart operation was to open the blocked valve so there's better blood flow. (sungazette.com)
  • Ebstein's anomaly is a condition where the valve which directs blood through the right side of the heart doesn't work properly. (bhf.org.uk)
  • When Hannah was just nine years old, she had her first open heart surgery to repair her faulty valve, and to patch the hole in her heart. (bhf.org.uk)
  • Yet, according to a Science Translational Medicine study published today by UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh researchers, β-blockers could supplement surgery to regenerate infant heart muscle and mitigate the lasting effects of congenital heart disease. (news-medical.net)
  • For the current study, researchers examined data 10,632 cases of dementia diagnosed in Danish adults born with heart defects, mostly after 1960. (reuters.com)
  • A man who donated sperm in his 20s had an undetected genetic mutation linked to a heart disease that he passed on to nine of his 24 offspring, one of whom died from it, researchers said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Researchers say children born with heart defects are more likely to have difficulty in school, behavior issues, poor social skills, or language and speech problems because of a variety of developmental disorders affecting their brain function. (medicinenet.com)
  • In the review, researchers looked at the prevalence of developmental disorders in children born with heart defects. (medicinenet.com)
  • Researchers analyzed the medical records of more than 10,600 people in Denmark born with a heart defect between 1890 and 1982. (hon.ch)
  • While the study found a higher risk of dementia among adults born with heart defects, the results did not prove that heart defects cause dementia, the researchers said. (hon.ch)
  • The study is preliminary, and the potential impact of climate change on congenital heart disease is far from clear, the researchers say. (reuters.com)
  • This allowed researchers to examine tension generation and associated calcium cycling rates through heart muscle in a highly defined manner. (eurekalert.org)
  • The findings may give researchers further insights into the causes of congenital heart disease. (strokeassociation.org)
  • Researchers have known for decades that coxsackievirus B can lead to heart inflammation, and this new study adds to those findings, said Cnota. (strokeassociation.org)
  • Researchers at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center report that 15 embryonic stem cells injected into early embryos of mice whose hearts were genetically predisposed to develop a lethal defect, rescued the heart from developing the disorder by not only producing normal daughter cells that were incorporated into the defective embryonic heart but also by releasing biological factors into the nearby vicinity. (innovations-report.com)
  • Researchers at the School of Physics and Astronomy used cutting edge technology to build an advanced computational model of an anatomically correct sheep's heart. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Researchers aren't sure exactly what causes most of these defects, but they think genetics, certain medical conditions, some medications and environmental factors, such as smoking, may play a role. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In the Nature study, researchers from UT Southwestern and three Japanese medical institutions examined two large families: one in Dallas that spanned five generations and included 16 members suffering from congenital heart defects, and a family from Tokyo spanning four generations and with eight members with congenital heart defects. (innovations-report.com)
  • The analysis helps researchers find the responsible genes by comparing the genetic codes of patients suffering from heart defects with the codes of those who did not. (innovations-report.com)
  • Researchers from the Tokyo Women s Medical University, the Heart Institute of Japan and Kyusyu Kosei-Nenkin Hospital in Fukuoka also took part in the study. (innovations-report.com)
  • Chinese researchers compiled data from 125 studies involving more than 137,000 babies with congenital heart defects and nearly 9 million prospective parents. (healthcentral.com)
  • Researchers from the UC San Diego, School of Medicine and colleagues have identified a new gene, ETS-1, that is linked to human congenital heart defects. (ucsd.edu)
  • Through a combination of human genetics and functional studies in genetically engineered mice, the researchers were able to pinpoint ETS-1 as a gene for causing at least a subset of the heart defects that occur in 11q- and the general human population. (ucsd.edu)
  • Genetic mapping helped Grossfeld and fellow researchers pinpoint the region containing the ETS-1 gene,which is linked to congenital heart defects. (ucsd.edu)
  • The researchers are looking at the growing population of adults with heart defects to determine which defects are associated with the highest rates of infection as well as serious complications or death when an infection occurs. (webwire.com)