Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Forensic Toxicology: The application of TOXICOLOGY knowledge to questions of law.Forensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Drug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Glutaral: One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.Pericardial Effusion: Fluid accumulation within the PERICARDIUM. Serous effusions are associated with pericardial diseases. Hemopericardium is associated with trauma. Lipid-containing effusion (chylopericardium) results from leakage of THORACIC DUCT. Severe cases can lead to CARDIAC TAMPONADE.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Bioprosthesis: Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Pericardiectomy: Surgical excision (total or partial) of a portion of the pericardium. Pericardiotomy refers to incision of the pericardium.Pericarditis, Constrictive: Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM that is characterized by the fibrous scarring and adhesion of both serous layers, the VISCERAL PERICARDIUM and the PARIETAL PERICARDIUM leading to the loss of pericardial cavity. The thickened pericardium severely restricts cardiac filling. Clinical signs include FATIGUE, muscle wasting, and WEIGHT LOSS.Pericarditis: Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM from various origins, such as infection, neoplasm, autoimmune process, injuries, or drug-induced. Pericarditis usually leads to PERICARDIAL EFFUSION, or CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS.Cardiac Tamponade: Compression of the heart by accumulated fluid (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION) or blood (HEMOPERICARDIUM) in the PERICARDIUM surrounding the heart. The affected cardiac functions and CARDIAC OUTPUT can range from minimal to total hemodynamic collapse.Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Fixatives: Agents employed in the preparation of histologic or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all of the constituent elements. Great numbers of different agents are used; some are also decalcifying and hardening agents. They must quickly kill and coagulate living tissue.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Heart Valve Prosthesis: A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.Lymphatic Vessels: Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of LYMPH and LYMPHOCYTES.Retinal Vessels: The blood vessels which supply and drain the RETINA.Venae Cavae: The inferior and superior venae cavae.Penile Implantation: Surgical insertion of cylindric hydraulic devices for the treatment of organic ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.Heart Valves: Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Mediastinal Cyst: Cysts of one of the parts of the mediastinum: the superior part, containing the trachea, esophagus, thoracic duct and thymus organs; the inferior middle part, containing the pericardium; the inferior anterior part containing some lymph nodes; and the inferior posterior part, containing the thoracic duct and esophagus.Tissue Fixation: The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Pneumopericardium: Presence of air or gas in the space between the heart and the PERICARDIUM. The degree of respiratory distress depends on the amount of trapped air and circulation blocked in the systemic and pulmonary veins.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Heart Septum: This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Pericardiocentesis: Puncture and aspiration of fluid from the PERICARDIUM.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Scleral Diseases: General disorders of the sclera or white of the eye. They may include anatomic, embryologic, degenerative, or pigmentation defects.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Fascia Lata: CONNECTIVE TISSUE of the anterior compartment of the THIGH that has its origins on the anterior aspect of the iliac crest and anterior superior iliac spine, and its insertion point on the iliotibial tract. It plays a role in medial rotation of the THIGH, steadying the trunk, and in KNEE extension.Subcutaneous Tissue: Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.Heart Aneurysm: A localized bulging or dilatation in the muscle wall of a heart (MYOCARDIUM), usually in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Blood-filled aneurysms are dangerous because they may burst. Fibrous aneurysms interfere with the heart function through the loss of contractility. True aneurysm is bound by the vessel wall or cardiac wall. False aneurysms are HEMATOMA caused by myocardial rupture.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Aortic Valve: The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Sternotomy: Making an incision in the STERNUM.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Pleura: The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs (LUNG) and lining the THORACIC CAVITY. Pleura consist of two layers, the inner visceral pleura lying next to the pulmonary parenchyma and the outer parietal pleura. Between the two layers is the PLEURAL CAVITY which contains a thin film of liquid.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.Pericardial Window Techniques: Surgical construction of an opening or window in the pericardium. It is often called subxiphoid pericardial window technique.Heart Block: Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Glaucoma Drainage Implants: Devices, usually incorporating unidirectional valves, which are surgically inserted in the sclera to maintain normal intraocular pressure.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Pericytes: Unique slender cells with multiple processes extending along the capillary vessel axis and encircling the vascular wall, also called mural cells. Pericytes are imbedded in the BASEMENT MEMBRANE shared with the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessel. Pericytes are important in maintaining vessel integrity, angiogenesis, and vascular remodeling.Tricuspid Valve: The valve consisting of three cusps situated between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Myosarcoma: A general term for a malignant neoplasm derived from muscular tissue. (Stedman, 25th ed)Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mitral Valve: The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Polyethylene Terephthalates: Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Cardiac Volume: The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Heart Arrest, Induced: A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Mice, Inbred C57BLAorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Aortic Valve Insufficiency: Pathological condition characterized by the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to regurgitation. It is caused by diseases of the AORTIC VALVE or its surrounding tissue (aortic root).Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Atrial Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the RIGHT ATRIUM.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Abortion, Septic: Any type of abortion, induced or spontaneous, that is associated with infection of the UTERUS and its appendages. It is characterized by FEVER, uterine tenderness, and foul discharge.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Fistula: Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.Mesothelioma: A tumor derived from mesothelial tissue (peritoneum, pleura, pericardium). It appears as broad sheets of cells, with some regions containing spindle-shaped, sarcoma-like cells and other regions showing adenomatous patterns. Pleural mesotheliomas have been linked to exposure to asbestos. (Dorland, 27th ed)Lymphatic System: A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.Tissue Preservation: The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Hemangiosarcoma: A rare malignant neoplasm characterized by rapidly proliferating, extensively infiltrating, anaplastic cells derived from blood vessels and lining irregular blood-filled or lumpy spaces. (Stedman, 25th ed)Ventricular Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.Heart Valve Diseases: Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).Sternum: A long, narrow, and flat bone commonly known as BREASTBONE occurring in the midsection of the anterior thoracic segment or chest region, which stabilizes the rib cage and serves as the point of origin for several muscles that move the arms, head, and neck.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Pericarditis, Tuberculous: INFLAMMATION of the sac surrounding the heart (PERICARDIUM) due to MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS infection. Pericarditis can lead to swelling (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION), compression of the heart (CARDIAC TAMPONADE), and preventing normal beating of the heart.Chordae Tendineae: The tendinous cords that connect each cusp of the two atrioventricular HEART VALVES to appropriate PAPILLARY MUSCLES in the HEART VENTRICLES, preventing the valves from reversing themselves when the ventricles contract.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Hernia: Protrusion of tissue, structure, or part of an organ through the bone, muscular tissue, or the membrane by which it is normally contained. Hernia may involve tissues such as the ABDOMINAL WALL or the respiratory DIAPHRAGM. Hernias may be internal, external, congenital, or acquired.Teleradiology: The electronic transmission of radiological images from one location to another for the purposes of interpretation and/or consultation. Users in different locations may simultaneously view images with greater access to secondary consultations and improved continuing education. (From American College of Radiology, ACR Standard for Teleradiology, 1994, p3)Allantois: An extra-embryonic membranous sac derived from the YOLK SAC of REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. It lies between two other extra-embryonic membranes, the AMNION and the CHORION. The allantois serves to store urinary wastes and mediate exchange of gas and nutrients for the developing embryo.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Lymphangiogenesis: The formation of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.Atrial Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Lipoma: A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Receptor, TIE-2: A TIE receptor tyrosine kinase that is found almost exclusively on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. It is required for both normal embryonic vascular development (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PHYSIOLOGIC) and tumor angiogenesis (NEOVASCULARIZATION, PATHOLOGIC).Angiopoietin-1: The first to be discovered member of the angiopoietin family. It may play a role in increasing the sprouting and branching of BLOOD VESSELS. Angiopoietin-1 specifically binds to and stimulates the TIE-2 RECEPTOR. Several isoforms of angiopoietin-1 occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Mediastinum: A membrane in the midline of the THORAX of mammals. It separates the lungs between the STERNUM in front and the VERTEBRAL COLUMN behind. It also surrounds the HEART, TRACHEA, ESOPHAGUS, THYMUS, and LYMPH NODES.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Hemothorax: Hemorrhage within the pleural cavity.Endothelial Growth Factors: These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2: A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Tissue Adhesives: Substances used to cause adherence of tissue to tissue or tissue to non-tissue surfaces, as for prostheses.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors: A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Device Removal: Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.Mitral Valve Insufficiency: Backflow of blood from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the LEFT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the MITRAL VALVE. This can lead to mitral valve regurgitation.Venules: The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.Thymus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. Blood ... The heart is enclosed in a protective sac, the pericardium, which also contains a small amount of fluid. The wall of the heart ... The heart did not pump blood around, the heart's motion sucked blood in during diastole and the blood moved by the pulsation of ... From the heart to the body Arteries that contain deoxygenated blood, from the heart to the lungs Supplying blood to the heart ...
Mesothelial pericardium forms the outer lining of the heart. The inner lining of the heart, lymphatic and blood vessels, ... The heart is the first functional organ to develop and starts to beat and pump blood at around day 21 or 22. The heart begins ... This has formed from cardiac myoblasts and blood islands as forerunners of blood cells and vessels. By day 19, an endocardial ... M-mode sonography measuring embryonic heart rate. Blood flow in a neonate Human embryo, 38 mm, 8-9 weeks-anterior view, heart ...
The pericardium is a two-layered sac that surrounds the entire heart except where the blood vessels emerge on the heart's ... For the heart, the layers of the serous membrane are called the parietal pericardium, and the visceral pericardium (sometimes ... The connective tissue layer provides the blood vessels and nerves for the overlying secretory cells, and also serves as the ... The serous membrane covering the heart and lining the mediastinum is referred to as the pericardium, the serous membrane lining ...
... blood vessels or pericardium. A bioreactor in tissue engineering, as opposed to industrial bioreactors, is a device that ... Doris Taylor's heart in a jar Tissue-engineered airway Tissue-engineered vessels Artificial skin constructed from human skin ... Endothelial cells, the cells that line blood vessels, have been printed in a set of stacked rings. When incubated, these fused ... Others, such as endothelial cells, respond to shear stress from fluid flow, which is encountered in blood vessels. Mechanical ...
... and joins with the endothelium that lines the blood vessels that connect to the heart. On the outer aspect of the myocardium is ... the epicardium which forms part of the pericardium, the sack that surrounds, protects, and lubricates the heart. Within the ... If the heart is no longer able to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs, this is described as heart failure. Frank- ... Heart muscle may become damaged despite a normal blood supply. The heart muscle may become inflamed in a condition called ...
A specialised form of epithelium - endothelium forms the inner lining of blood vessels and the heart, and is known as vascular ... Another type, mesothelium, forms the walls of the pericardium, pleurae, and peritoneum. In arthropods, the ... Epithelial tissue has a nerve supply, but no blood supply and must be nourished by substances diffusing from the blood vessels ... Epithelial tissues line the cavities and surfaces of blood vessels and organs throughout the body. An example is the epidermis ...
Descending thoracic aorta
These vessels supply blood to the head, neck, thorax and upper limbs. Behind the descending thoracic aorta is the vertebral ... The aorta is an artery that conveys oxygenated blood from the heart to other parts of the body. It is one of the largest ... In front of the descending thoracic aorta lies the root of the left lung, the pericardium, the esophagus, and the diaphragm. ... Three vessels come out of the aortic arch: the brachiocephalic artery, the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian ...
The visceral layer extends to the beginning of the great vessels (the large blood vessels serving the heart) becoming one with ... The pericardium, also called pericardial sac, is a double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the great vessels. ... When the visceral layer of serous pericardium comes into contact with heart (not the great vessels) it is known as the ... Fibrous pericardiumEdit. The fibrous pericardium is the most superficial layer of the pericardium. It is made up of dense and ...
... especially found in the vicinity of small blood vessels in the myocardium and endocardium and occasionally in the pericardium, ... Aschoff bodies are found in all the three layers of the heart, least chance in the pericardium. The cardiac manifestations of ... They result from inflammation in the heart muscle and are characteristic of rheumatic heart disease. These nodules were ... Evolution of Aschoff nodules typically involve 3 stages of development all of which may be present in the heart at the same ...
Like the Heart, the Pericardium governs blood and stores the mind. The Pericardium's corresponding yang channel is assigned to ... blood) and vessels/meridians Opens into the tongue Reflects in facial complexion Since there are only five zàng organs but six ... The free flow of qì in turn will ensure the free flow of emotions, blood, and water. "Stores" (藏, pinyin: cáng) blood Opens ... Its concept is closely related to the Heart, and its stipulated main function is to protect the Heart from attacks by Exterior ...
The visceral layer extends to the beginning of the great vessels (the large blood vessels serving the heart) becoming one with ... The pericardium is a double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the great vessels. The pericardial sac has two ... Pericardial arteries supply blood to the dorsal portion of the pericardium. Sets heart in mediastinum and limits its motion ... When the visceral layer of serous pericardium comes into contact with heart (not the great vessels) it is known as the ...
The endocardial endothelium may also act as a kind of blood-heart barrier (analogous to the blood-brain barrier), thus ... Its cells are embryologically and biologically similar to the endothelial cells that line blood vessels. The endocardium also ... is termed epicardium and the heart is surrounded by a small amount of fluid enclosed by a fibrous sac called the pericardium. ... Heart Myocardium Histology image: 64_06 at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center - "Heart and AV valve" (atrial ...
Cardiac tamponade in which fluid in the pericardium prevents inflow of blood into the heart (venous return). Constrictive ... is the result of a thromboembolic incident in the blood vessels of the lungs and hinders the return of blood to the heart. ... heart rate divided by systolic blood pressure) is a stronger predictor of the impact of blood loss than heart rate and blood ... or valvular heart disease problems. Obstructive shock is due to obstruction of blood flow outside of the heart. Several ...
In the brain, they are known as meninges; in the heart they are known as pericardia; in the lungs, they are known as pleurae; ... It serves as a storage medium of fat and water; as a passageway for lymph, nerve and blood vessels; and as a protective padding ... In doing so, fasciae provide a supportive and movable wrapping for nerves and blood vessels as they pass through and between ... However, more recent investigations confirmed a rich presence of thin blood vessels. Deep fascia is also richly supplied with ...
Advanced life support
... blockage of the blood vessels to the lungs or the heart by a blood clot or other material) As of December 2005, Advanced ... leading to decreased venous return to the heart Tamponade: fluid or blood in the pericardium, compressing the heart Toxic and/ ... H's Hypoxia: low oxygen levels in the blood Hypovolemia: low amount of circulating blood, either absolutely due to blood loss ... Dallas: American Heart Association, 2003. ISBN 0-87493-341-2. ACLS for Experienced Providers. p. 3-5. Dallas: American Heart ...
The surgeon next opens the pericardium and exposes the apex of the heart. The surgeon closely examines the surface of the heart ... effectively pinching and isolating one side of the great vessel. Blood continues to flow to the body's lower half through the ... When an apicoaortic conduit is implanted, blood continues to flow from the heart through the aortic valve. In addition, blood ... 60% to 70% of the heart's output flows through the bypass to the aorta. The load on the heart is markedly reduced, and symptoms ...
... family member with a compatible blood type may donate some or all of the blood needed for transfusion during the use of a heart ... Transposition of Great Vessels Inova Heart and Vascular Institute: Arterial Switch for TGA Med-Lib: Transposition of the great ... and the patient is given heparin to prevent the blood from clotting. A generous section of pericardium is harvested, then ... A blood transfusion is necessary for the arterial switch because the HLM needs its "circulation" filled with blood and an ...
De humani corporis fabrica
The Fabrica rectified some of Galen's worst errors, including the notion that the great blood vessels originated from the liver ... the strong attachment of the pericardium to the diaphragm, the shape and orientation of the ventricles of the heart, and the ... the terminal vessels of the cutaneous nerves, or the vessels in the lungs and liver. Vesalius gives detailed descriptions of ... as being the main vessels which branch out into smaller veins and arteries. Vesalius lists some six hundred vessels in his ...
BV-small blood vessel. Figure 17. Rat jejunum. Toluidine blue stained Semithin Epon sections of jejunum mucosa showing the ... TC and Tp, and also podoms and podomeres were found in: cavitary organs: heart (endo-, myo-, and pericardium); stomach and ... TC are strategically located in between blood vessels (capillaries), nerve endings and the specific resident cell population(s ... Cap, blood capillary. Scale bar 5μm. Reproduced with permission from  Figure 12. This electron tomography (thick section of ...
Cardiac muscle cell
Myocardial infarction, commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when the heart's supplementary blood vessels are obstructed by ... Endocardium Epicardium Pericardium blood pump Wolfgang Kühnel (1 January 2003). Color atlas of cytology, histology, and ... Cardiomyocytes make up the atria (the chambers in which blood enters the heart) and the ventricles (the chambers where blood is ... athletic heart syndrome), heart disease, or heart muscle injury such as after a myocardial infarction. A healthy adult ...
From efferent vessels the blood goes into afferent vessel, where is gets an oxygen. Dorsal skin also partly serves as a ... On opening the heart from above, the ventricle and auricle are found to occupy a well-defined oval pericardium. The ventricle ... The oxygenated blood from the heart leads to the aorta, to sinuses where it oxygenates tissues. Deoxygenated blood goes to ... The heart is situated about in the middle of the back, where it forms a large oval swelling immediately below the skin, having ...
These contribute to angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels) and arteriogenesis (the increase in diameter of existing ... within the pericardium by lubricating the epicardial surface allowing the membranes to glide over each other with each heart ... The pericardium consists of two layers, an outer fibrous layer and the inner serous layer. This serous layer has two membranes ... 2005) studied the composition of pericardial fluid in patients undergoing open heart surgery. They found that the fluid is made ...
It may extend proximally (closer to the heart) or distally (away from the heart) or both. The blood travels through the media, ... The intima is in direct contact with the blood inside the vessel, and mainly consists of a layer of endothelial cells on a ... If the individual had a fainting episode, about half the time it is due to bleeding into the pericardium leading to pericardial ... Aortic dissection can quickly lead to death from not enough blood flow to the heart or rupture of the aorta. Aortic dissection ...
... is no longer under water and which is covered in a network of blood vessels all of which eventually carry oxygenated blood and ... The heart lies within a pericardium and is composed of a single (morphologically left) auricle, a single ventricle, and bulbous ... Between these papillae and the heart lies the neural "visceral twist", a nervous condition called streptoneury or chiastoneury ... aorta which sends blood to both the anterior and posterior aortae. It lies near the surface of shell on the left, and opposite ...
Heart - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Blood is carried in blood vessels. These are arteries and veins. Blood going to the heart is carried in veins. Blood going away ... The heart has three layers. The outer covering is the pericardium. This is a tough sack that surrounds the heart. The middle ... This pushes blood out of the heart and into the blood vessels. After the heart contracts and pushes in, the muscle relaxes or ... These get blood that comes to the heart. They pump this blood to the lungs. In the lungs blood picks up oxygen and drops carbon ...
ISBN 978-0-443-06612-2. Skandalakis, editor in chief John E. (2004). "Chapter 7. Pericardium, Heart, and Great Vessels in the ... As part of the pulmonary circulation they carry oxygenated blood back to the heart, as opposed to the veins of the systemic ... Pulmonary vessels, seen in a dorsal view of the heart and lungs. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the ... The pulmonary veins are the veins that transfer oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart. The largest pulmonary veins are ...
List of diseases (P)
Periodontitis Perioral dermatitis Peripartum cardiomyopathy Peripheral blood vessel disorder Peripheral nervous disorder ... with growth failure Pericardial defect diaphragmatic hernia Pericardium absent mental retardation short stature Pericardium ... defects Piebaldism Piepkorn-Karp-Hickoc syndrome Pierre Marie cerbellar ataxia Pierre Robin sequence congenital heart defect ...
The ostrich reduces blood flow to the trachea to cool itself, and vasodilates its blood vessels around the gular region to ... Other domestic birds capable of flight have three or more coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. The blood ... and being enclosed by a pericardium layer. Moreover, similarities also include a larger right atrium volume, and a thicker left ... the red blood cells of the ostrich are about three times larger than the red blood cells of a human. The blood oxygen affinity ...
The ventral aorta carries de-oxygenated blood from the heart to the gills; part of this vessel forms the ascending aorta in ... and pericardium. Its lowest pair of branches are the superior phrenic arteries, which supply the diaphragm, and the subcostal ... The aorta ends by dividing into two major blood vessels, the common iliac arteries and a smaller midline vessel, the median ... These two blood vessels twist around each other, causing the aorta to start out posterior to the pulmonary trunk, but end by ...
Pericardium: operations and procedures - Hirslanden Private Hospital Group
... success rates and follow-up treatment involved in pericardium operations. ... When and how is surgery performed on the pericardium? Find out more about the risks, complications, ... Heart and blood vessels. Despite its strength, the heart can also get sick - find out more. ... Pericardium operations are a type of heart surgery. They are necessary if the pericardium, or heart sac, becomes thickened or ...
The Tao of Health, Sex, and Longevity: A Modern Practical Guide to the Ancient Way by Daniel Reid, Paperback | Barnes & Noble®
Circulatory System: heart, pericardium, blood vessels. Anemia. A condition also known as tired blood, anemia is caused by a ... Heart disease. The various forms of heart disease are primarily the result of toxic impurities clogging blood vessels; this ... Blood pressure (high). Excessive pressure of blood against the walls of blood vessels, owing primarily to diets of denatured ... removes sticky deposits in blood vessels, and thus enhances the quality and quantity of blood supplied to the heart; 6-8 cloves ...
If thymus cancer spreads - Canadian Cancer Society
Cardiovascular Diseases - MeSH - NCBI
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM. ... Heart AneurysmHeart Arrest +Heart Defects, Congenital +Heart Failure +Heart Neoplasms +Heart Rupture +Heart Valve Diseases + ... Heart DiseasesArrhythmias, Cardiac +Carcinoid Heart DiseaseCardiac Conduction System Disease +Cardiac Output, HighCardiac ... PneumopericardiumPostpericardiotomy SyndromePulmonary Heart DiseaseRheumatic Heart DiseaseVentricular Dysfunction +Ventricular ...
Free Physical Science Flashcards about Chapter 5 Med Terms
Pertaining to the heart and blood vessels.. Pericardium. The double walled membranous sac that encloses the heart. ... The opening within the vessel through which blood flows.. Arteries. The large blood vessels that carry blood away from the ... Blood flow to all parts of the body except the lungs.. Pulmonary circulation. The flow of blood between the heart and the lungs ... Low pressure collection vessels that the waste filled blood back to the heart. ...
Major Blood Vessels and Patterns of Blood Flow Flashcards by Nick Yutrzenka | Brainscape
Study Major Blood Vessels and Patterns of Blood Flow flashcards from Nick Yutrzenka ... What is the region called between the lungs that the heart sits in? ... Major Blood Vessels and Patterns of Blood Flow Flashcards Preview Anatomy , Major Blood Vessels and Patterns of Blood Flow , ... Flashcards in Major Blood Vessels and Patterns of Blood Flow Deck (43): ...
Amino Acids in Urine, Diet, and Blood Pressure: International Population Study
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM. ... eight standardized systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure measurements/person; other data). Urinary concentrations of ... It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ... More From BioPortfolio on "Amino Acids in Urine, Diet, and Blood Pressure: International Population Study". *Related Companies* ...
Population-Based Modeling of Cholesterol Lowering in the United States
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM. ... Heart Disease (CHD) Policy Model, a state-transition computer simulation model used to obtain forecasts of the public health ... It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ... Cardiovascular Diseases in HIV-infected Subjects (HIV-HEART Study). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been ...
TDMS Study 05212-05 Pathology Tables
Heart , + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +, Myocardium, Degeneration , 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 2 2 3 1 3, Pericardium, ... Blood Vessel , + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + +, 49 , Aorta, Thrombosis , , 1 4.0 ... Heart , + + + + + , 7 , Atrium, Thrombosis , 4 3 1 3 4 , 5 3.0, Myocardium, Degeneration , 4 , 1 4.0 ... Heart , + + , Atrium, Thrombosis , , Myocardium, Degeneration , , Myocardium, Mineralization , 4 4 ...
Myocardial contusion: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Myocardial contusion is a bruise of the heart muscle. ... lung or blood vessel injury. *Problem with the hearts ... Fluid or blood in the thin sac surrounding the heart (pericardium). *Rib fractures, ... Serious heart injuries can increase your risk for heart failure or heart rhythm problems. ... Problems with the heart wall and the ability for the heart to contract ...
Damage to Blood Vessels of Eyes or Kidneys Linked to Risk of Common Heart Disorder
... more than 10,000 middle-aged people for close to 14 years to understand the connection between microvascular disease and heart ... Pericarditis occurs when the pericardium gets inflamed. Pericarditis is characterized by severe chest pain. ... They found that the risk of a common type of heart-rhythm disorder can be identified by the damage to the blood vessels of the ... Damage to Blood Vessels of Eyes or Kidneys Linked to Risk of Common Heart Disorder. ...
Concise Analysis of the European Cardiological Surgical Procedures Volumes
Pericardium - definition of pericardium by The Free Dictionary
... a The membranous sac filled with serous fluid that encloses the heart and the roots of the aorta and other large blood vessels ... pericardium synonyms, pericardium pronunciation, pericardium translation, English dictionary definition of pericardium. n. pl. ... Related to pericardium: pericarditis, parietal pericardium, Fibrous pericardium, Serous pericardium. per·i·car·di·um. (pĕr′ĭ- ... the sac that encases the heart, and paracardial fat is outside the pericardium.. Type of heart fat linked with increased heart ...
PPT - The Heart PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 441fb0-MzAxM
Layers of Heart Wall Pericardium protects and anchors the heart ... - A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash ... The Heart The Heart Heart pumps over 1 million gallons per year Over 60,000 miles of blood vessels I. ... The Heart. Description:. The Heart The Heart Heart pumps over 1 million gallons per year Over 60,000 miles of blood vessels I. ... The Heart - Interesting Facts At rest, the heart pumps 30xs its own weight each minute. There are 60,000 miles of blood vessels ...
Heart - Wikipedia
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. Blood ... Pericardium. The pericardium is the sack that surrounds the heart. The tough outer surface of the pericardium is called the ... In a healthy heart blood flows one way through the heart due to heart valves, which prevent backflow. The heart is enclosed ... The heart did not pump blood around, the hearts motion sucked blood in during diastole and the blood moved by the pulsation of ...
Hair Loss from Remicade? | DailyStrength
Fluid in the Covering of the Heart or Pericardium Vasculitis Inflammation of Blood Vessels in the Skin Pneumonia Interstitial ... Decreased White Blood Cells Decreased Neutrophils a Type of White Blood Cell Formation of Dead Tissue in the Spleen Blood ... Sudden Loss of Blood Supply to Kidney Urinary Tract Blockage Lupus-Like Syndrome Abscess Feeling Faint Seizures Rash Heart ... High Blood Pressure Throat Irritation Inflammation of the Nose Sinus Irritation and Congestion Red Blood in Bowel Movement ...
Stages of thymus cancer - Canadian Cancer Society
... the large blood vessels near the heart or the pericardium (the sac that surrounds the heart). ... large blood vessels going into or leaving the lung outside of the pericardium ... large blood vessels going into or leaving the lung within the pericardium ... The cancer has spread widely through the pleura or pericardium.. Stage 4B. The cancer has spread to other parts of the body ...
Echocardiogram - Echo
... to make pictures of your heart. Learn more. ... the pericardium).. *Problems with the large blood vessels that ... The American Heart Association explains that echocardiogram (echo) is a test that uses high frequency sound waves (ultrasound) ... An echo uses sound waves to create pictures of your hearts chambers, valves, walls and the blood vessels (aorta, arteries, ... He turned the camera and stopped it several times so he could show me the pictures of my heart. I could see my heart valves ...
Heart development - Wikipedia
Mesothelial pericardium forms the outer lining of the heart. The inner lining of the heart, lymphatic and blood vessels, ... The heart is the first functional organ to develop and starts to beat and pump blood at around day 21 or 22. The heart begins ... This has formed from cardiac myoblasts and blood islands as forerunners of blood cells and vessels. By day 19, an endocardial ... M-mode sonography measuring embryonic heart rate. Blood flow in a neonate Human embryo, 38 mm, 8-9 weeks-anterior view, heart ...
The Left Ventricle of the Heart - 846 Words | Bartleby
The Left Ventricle of the Heart The left ventricle is one of the four hollow chambers of the heart. Being the largest chamber, ... An artery carries blood out from the heart. A vein carries blood back to the heart. An average adult heart weighs about 10-13 ... The heart and attachments are enclosed in a fibrous sac called the pericardium. Figure The human heart consists of four ... The heart is a muscular organ that lies centrally within the thorax. It is suspended by its attachment to the great vessels. ...
This is blood clotting that is occurring inappropriately inside the blood vessels. It uses up all of the blood clotting ... There is a strong predilection for the spleen, pericardium and heart. These tumors are most common in middle aged or older dogs ... which is the lining of blood vessels and spleen. As might be expected of a tumor arising in the blood system they are highly ... If fluid is aspirated from the abdomen and it looks like blood it is even more suggestive of hemangiosarcoma. If blood is drawn ...
Coronary Stents - Global Trends, Estimates and Forecasts, 2012-2018 : ReportsnReports
Disorders of Heart Valves. F. Congenital Heart Defect. Types of Congenital Heart Defect. G. Ailments of Blood Vessels (Vascular ... Blood Flow in the Heart. B. Heart Malfunction. Types of Cardiac Arrest. C. Myocardium. Disorders of Myocardium. D. Pericardium ... Techniques to Prevent Coronary Blood Vessel Syndrome. tools Deployed in Cardiology. Diagnostic Tests and Procedures. Conclusion ... Heart Transplants Substituted by A Pump. Devices for Treatment of Atrial Fibrillations (AF). Remote Monitoring of Heart Failure ...
Pericardium - Wikipedia
The visceral layer extends to the beginning of the great vessels (the large blood vessels serving the heart) becoming one with ... The pericardium is a double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the great vessels. The pericardial sac has two ... When the visceral layer of serous pericardium comes into contact with heart (not the great vessels) it is known as the ... Fibrous pericardium. The fibrous pericardium is the most superficial layer of the pericardium. It is made up of dense and ...
Sum Test 2 chapter 9, 20,21 Blood hear muscle Flashcards
vessels that carry blood back into the heart. Term. Pericardium (Name 2 parts). ... Function of a heart valve. Definition. Permit blood flow in one direction preventing (backflow or regurgitation) of blood ... the simple squamous epithelial lining of the cavities within the heart, the endocardium continues into the blood vessels where ... the area located between the lungs where the heart is located, heart is situated so that about 1/3 of the heart is on the right ...
Echocardiogram | Medical City Dallas
Blood vessels entering and leaving the heart. *Pericardium-the sac that surrounds the heart ... Assess heart or major blood vessel damage caused by trauma. *Test heart function and diagnose heart and lung problems in those ... Find changes in the hearts structure. * Assess motion of the chamber walls and damage to the heart muscle after a heart attack ... Electrocardiogram (EKG)-a test that records the hearts activity by measuring electrical currents through the heart muscle ...
Echocardiogram | Heart Care Treatments and Services | Wellmont Health System
Blood vessels entering and leaving the heart. *Pericardium-the sac that surrounds the heart ... Assess heart or major blood vessel damage caused by trauma. *Test heart function and diagnose heart and lung problems in those ... Find changes in the hearts structure. * Assess motion of the chamber walls and damage to the heart muscle after a heart attack ... Echo; Heart Ultrasound; Ultrasound of the Heart). Definition. An echocardiogram uses sound waves called ultrasound to look at ...
Points - 1714 Words | Bartleby
Pericardium Myocardium Endocardium Hypocardium 2. Which blood vessel shown in the figure carries oxygenated blood to the lower ... Heart and Points. 894 Words , 4 Pages heart wall consists of cardiac muscle tissue? (Points : 1) Epicardium ... thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity of the body? (Points : 1) A B E F H 3. Blood leaving the left ventricle passes through ...
Cardiovascular Conditions | Agency for Health Research and Quality
... the blood vessels, or the pericardium. AHRQ has research, tools, and resources on cardiovascular conditions and how clinicians ... Medical conditions involving the cardiovascular system including the heart, ... Medical conditions involving the cardiovascular system including the heart, the blood vessels, or the pericardium. AHRQ has ... Practice level factors associated with enhanced engagement with practice facilitators; findings from the Heart Health Now study ...
Pericardial Drainage | Cigna
The tissue sac that surrounds the heart is called the pericardium. It protects the heart and parts of the major blood vessels ... connected to the heart. Normally, there is a small... ... is done to find the cause of fluid buildup around the heart and ... The tissue sac that surrounds the heart is called the pericardium. It protects the heart and parts of the major blood vessels ... It is possible for the needle to puncture your heart or one of your blood vessels. In rare cases, the needle may also puncture ...
Overview of the Pericardium | Blausen Medical
The pericardial sac encapsulates the heart and parts of the great vessels. The... ... The heart is located within the mediastinum, or area between the lungs. ... The heart is a beating muscle that pumps blood to the body through a network of arteries. The force of the blood is constantly ... The pericardial sac encapsulates the heart and parts of the great vessels. The inner visceral pericardium, or epicardium, ...
Great vesselsParietalArteriesMajor Blood VesselsLarge blood vesselsVeinsCirculatoryInflammationEndocardiumEpicardiumSurroundsVisceralSystemicTissueMembranePericarditisStructuresLungFluidAbnormalCarriesVascularDiseasesWallsTissues of the bodyMyocardialCardiac CycleContractionsChambers of the heartCarbon dioxideRight atriumChest cavityDorsalAtriaFlowDiaphragmSkeletalMuscular organEnclosesSpleenCongenitalDamage to Blood VesselsOrgansVentriclesVenousAnatomyPump bloodLeft Ventricle of the HeartSmall blood vesselsCARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM includingDisorders
- Left right Subclavian arteries carries blood to the arms and the subclavian veins return blood to the superior vena cava. (powershow.com)
- blood is being forced into the aorta and pulmonary arteries. (powershow.com)
- An echo uses sound waves to create pictures of your heart's chambers, valves, walls and the blood vessels (aorta, arteries, veins) attached to your heart. (heart.org)
- Pericardial arteries supply blood to the dorsal portion of the pericardium. (wikipedia.org)
- The heart is a beating muscle that pumps blood to the body through a network of arteries. (blausen.com)
- Large arteries connect the heart to the body and the lungs, delivering de-oxygenated blood from the body into the heart. (columbiasurgery.org)
- Pulmonary Circuit begins in the Right Ventricle which pushes the blood into the attached arteries. (ostatic.com)
- The arteries bring the blood into the capillaries in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occur, leaving the blood Oxygenated again. (ostatic.com)
- 1. Systole - First the 2 Atria contract, pushing the blood into the Ventricles, then the 2 Ventricles contract, pushing the blood into the attached arteries. (ostatic.com)
- Contractions of heart generate blood pressure in arteries for flow 2. (ostatic.com)
- In atherosclerosis, the walls of arteries become stiff with plaque, which can hinder the normal flow of blood. (reference.com)
- Because your heart works like a pump, the blood is actually pushed through the arteries in spurts. (e-tutor.com)
- You can also measure your heart at work by taking your pulse in areas where your arteries are close to the skin. (e-tutor.com)
- These vessels include arteries, veins and capillaries. (e-tutor.com)
- Oxygenated blood returns from the lungs to the left atrium and enters the left ventricle, which contracts, forcing the blood into the aorta aorta , primary artery of the circulatory system in mammals, delivering oxygenated blood to all other arteries except those of the lungs. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Two major coronary arteries regulate this blood supply. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The human heart pumps blood into the arteries that carries oxygen and nutrients to all the tissues of the body. (acls.net)
- Vessels that carry blood away from the heart to the body are called arteries , while those that bring it back are called veins . (acls.net)
- During systole, the ventricles contract and push blood into the arteries. (acls.net)
- Reasons why the proper pumping of the blood may happen include: the clotting and calcification of the arteries and blood vessels sometimes referred to as arteriosclerosis, the inflammation of the muscles of the heart. (hubpages.com)
- The top of the heart where the veins and arteries all connect is called the base. (redorbit.com)
- The pulmonary semilunar valve separates the right ventricle from the pulmonary arteries and ensures that there is no backflow of blood back into the right ventricle. (redorbit.com)
- The veins of the cardiovascular system carry blood to the heart, while the arteries carry blood away from the heart. (redorbit.com)
- Arteries that supply oxygenated blood to the myocardium (heart tissue) itself. (prezi.com)
- There are numerous types of coronary arteries arounf the ventral and dorsal surface of the heart. (prezi.com)
- The openings of the right and left coronary arteries are found near the aortic valve, although the branches are revealved on the outer layers of the heart. (prezi.com)
- One of the only arteries that carries oxygenated blood. (prezi.com)
- Originating from the left ventricle of the heart, it extends all the way down to the abdomen where it splits into two smaller arteries. (prezi.com)
- Exists in the right ventricle and leads the deoxygenated blood to the pulmonary arteries. (prezi.com)
- Prevents back flow of blood from the arteries to the ventricles during ventricular diastole. (prezi.com)
- Coronary angiography and coronary catheterization-These tests help to detect obstruction in the arteries of the heart and assesses heart function. (epnet.com)
- Testing to check for blockage in the coronary arteries is recommended for some individuals with heart failure, especially younger people and people with symptoms of chest pain and angina . (epnet.com)
- Cardiac MRI -Evaluates large blood vessels, coronary arteries, heart walls, and the pericardium, a double-walled sac that contains the heart. (epnet.com)
- The terminations of the arteries open into a series of irregular venous sinuses, whence the blood is collected into a principal ventral sinus , and distributed to the branchiae , where it undergoes aeration. (chestofbooks.com)
- The systemic arteries are shaded longitudinally, the veins are dotted, and the branchial vessels are black. (chestofbooks.com)
- The external structures of the heart include the ventricles, atria, arteries and veins. (stlukes-stl.com)
- Arteries carry blood away from the heart while veins carry blood into the heart. (stlukes-stl.com)
- Increased sized coronary anatomy depicting the cardiac veins and coronary arteries extending around the exterior of the heart. (anatomywarehouse.com)
- These arteries and veins circulate blood to and from the muscles of the heart. (anatomywarehouse.com)
Major Blood Vessels3
- It protects the heart and parts of the major blood vessels connected to the heart. (cigna.com)
- Cardiac catheterization - can measure the blood pressure inside the heart and major blood vessels to rule out other cardiac diseases/conditions. (mercy.com)
- Torrance Memorial Medical Center provides advanced imaging of anatomy and function of the heart, valves, major blood vessels and pericardium. (torrancememorial.org)
Large blood vessels4
- The large blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to all regions of the body. (studystack.com)
- The tumour has grown into nearby organs or tissues, such as the lungs, the large blood vessels near the heart or the pericardium (the sac that surrounds the heart). (cancer.ca)
- Problems with the large blood vessels that enter and leave the heart. (heart.org)
- The visceral layer extends to the beginning of the great vessels (the large blood vessels serving the heart) becoming one with the parietal layer of the serous pericardium. (wikipedia.org)
- Congestive heart failure takes place when the heart is unable to maintain an adequate circulation of blood in the bodily tissues or to pump out the venous blood returned to it by the veins (Merriam-Webster). (bartleby.com)
- The Deoxygenated blood then moves into the Systemic Veins which carry it to the Vena Cava (2 largest veins) which then brings the blood back to the Right Atrium. (ostatic.com)
- The blood then travels into the Pulmonary Veins which bring it back to the Left Atrium of the heart. (ostatic.com)
- One way valves in heart and veins keep blood flowing one way 4. (ostatic.com)
- elevated right atrial pressure can cause distended neck veins or liver engorgement as a result of resistance blood flow. (ostatic.com)
- Engage in argument from evidence regarding possible prevention and treatment options related to the pathology of the cardiovascular system (e.g., myocardial infarction, mitral valve prolapse, varicose veins, arteriosclerosis, anemia, high blood pressure). (al.us)
- Blood flows into the heart through the superior and inferior vena cavae, which are two large veins located near the back of the heart. (redorbit.com)
- It then moves into the capillaries of the lungs, and returns back to the heart through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. (redorbit.com)
- It is the part of the heart that receives oxygenated blood from the lungs, through the pulmonary veins. (prezi.com)
- Furthermore, it is one of the only veins that carries oxygenated blood. (prezi.com)
- The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system . (wikipedia.org)
- The heart is a muscular organ that beats, or contracts, forcing blood through the vessels of the circulatory system. (blausen.com)
- The circulatory system has three major components which are blood, blood vessels, and the heart. (e-tutor.com)
- The heart is the main component of the circulatory system. (e-tutor.com)
- These three types of vessels and the heart make up the circulatory system. (e-tutor.com)
- This website offers a lot of varied information about the human heart and circulatory system. (acls.net)
- This well-illustrated report features in-depth information on the mammalian heart and circulatory system. (acls.net)
- The heart is a part of the circulatory system, and is considered one of the most vital organs of the human body. (redorbit.com)
- If fluid builds up in the pericardium due to inflammation in this area (pericarditis), cancer or an injury/haemorrhage, this is called pericardial effusion. (hirslanden.ch)
- Chronic inflammation or irritation of the pericardial sac can cause it to become thicker over time and scar tissue to form, which constricts the heart. (hirslanden.ch)
- Inflammation of the pericardium is called pericarditis . (wikipedia.org)
- During an attack of FMF, large numbers of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell, move into the affected areas of the body, where they cause painful inflammation and fever. (encyclopedia.com)
- Acute pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium (the flexible two-layered sac that envelops the heart) that begins suddenly, is often painful, and causes fluid and blood components such as fibrin, red blood cells, and white blood cells to enter the pericardial space. (merckmanuals.com)
- Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardial sac (lining around the heart). (mercy.com)
- NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, can reduce the inflammation in the pericardium. (mercy.com)
- Colchicine kills select cells in the heart to reduce inflammation in the pericardium. (mercy.com)
- Inflammation of the pericardium and increased fluid in the pericardial cavity can lead to pericardial effusion (accumulation of excess fluid around the heart). (uspharmacist.com)
- Then the heart tube is formed by the endocardium, which is the inner endothelial lining of the heart, and the myocardial muscle wall which is the epicardium that covers the outside of the tube. (wikipedia.org)
- The inner layer is called the endocardium and consists of simple squamous epithelial cells that are in contact with the blood. (redorbit.com)
- The endocardium represents number three of the layers of the heart. (infobarrel.com)
- The endocardium is situated in the inner layer of the heart and it covers fibrous skeletons of the heart. (infobarrel.com)
- The endocardium is continuous with the endothelial coating of the blood vessels that leaves and enters the heart. (infobarrel.com)
- Another thing to note in relation to the endocardium is that the Purkinje fibres are located in this layer of heart. (infobarrel.com)
- Then mesothelial cells form the pericardium and migrate to form most of the epicardium. (wikipedia.org)
- The serous pericardium , in turn, is divided into two layers, the parietal pericardium , which is fused to and inseparable from the fibrous pericardium, and the visceral pericardium , which is part of, or in some textbooks synonymous with, the epicardium. (wikipedia.org)
- When the visceral layer of serous pericardium comes into contact with heart (not the great vessels) it is known as the epicardium . (wikipedia.org)
- The inner visceral pericardium, or epicardium, adheres to the heart and the parietal pericardium makes up the outer fibrous layer. (blausen.com)
- The parietal pericardium (epicardium) consists of areolar tissue and mesothelium. (blausen.com)
- visceral pericardium , and the outer layer of the heart wall, which is called the epicardium . (getbodysmart.com)
- The epicardium is the outermost or superficial layer of the heart. (infobarrel.com)
- The epicardium is made up of tough, fibrous tissue that conceals the heart. (infobarrel.com)
- The pericardium consists of connective tissue (tissue that surrounds organs or is found between organs) and forms a thin pouch around the heart. (hirslanden.ch)
- A double-membraned sac called the pericardium surrounds the heart and attaches to the mediastinum. (wikipedia.org)
- This fluid surrounds and helps cushion the heart. (cigna.com)
- A sac or membrane called the pericardium surrounds the heart. (columbiasurgery.org)
- A network of vessels surrounds the heart, feeding the muscle. (columbiasurgery.org)
- The pericardium is the thin sac (membrane) that surrounds the heart and the roots of the great blood vessels. (medmovie.com)
- which is the membrane that surrounds the heart (pericarditis), and rarely, restrictive cardiomyopathy, in which the heart muscle is stiff and cannot fully relax after each contraction. (medlineplus.gov)
- The outermost layer that surrounds the entire heart is called the pericardium . (acls.net)
- whereby said dehydrated tube expands when contacted by said natural moisture within said blood and by natural moisture within tissue that surrounds said artery. (google.ca)
- From the gills the now aerated blood is carried by a series of branchial vessels to a large sac, which is badly termed the " pericardium ," and which envelops and surrounds the heart. (chestofbooks.com)
- Separated by the pericardial cavity, the visceral pericardium has a mesothelium with areolar and fibrous connective tissue layers. (blausen.com)
- The visceral pericardium. (getbodysmart.com)
- Together, the parietal and visceral pericardial layers are also called the serous pericardium . (getbodysmart.com)
- It represents the visceral layer of the pericardium. (infobarrel.com)
- The pericardium is composed of layers, including the visceral pericardium and the parietal pericardium. (uspharmacist.com)
- Between the visceral and parietal layers of the pericardium is a potential space, or cavity. (uspharmacist.com)
- The heart receives blood low in oxygen from the systemic circulation , which enters the right atrium from the superior and inferior venae cavae and passes to the right ventricle. (wikipedia.org)
- Systemic scleroderma, which is also called systemic sclerosis, affects the smaller blood vessels and internal organs of the body. (thefreedictionary.com)
- A. Systemic Circuit: A series of blood vessels that bring Oxygenated Blood to the organs and tissues in the body. (ostatic.com)
- It is made up of dense and loose connective tissue , which acts to protect the heart, anchoring it to the surrounding walls, and preventing it from overfilling with blood . (wikipedia.org)
- heart wall consists of cardiac muscle tissue? (bartleby.com)
- Scleroderma is a progressive disease that affects the skin and connective tissue (including cartilage, bone, fat, and the tissue that supports the nerves and blood vessels throughout the body). (thefreedictionary.com)
- MRI has traditionally been used to assess anatomy and heart muscle function, as well as to identify the presence of any scar tissue in the musculature. (columbiasurgery.org)
- venules are small vessels made up of small amount of muscle and connective tissue. (ostatic.com)
- A fibrous tissue or sac, called the pericardium, encloses and protects the heart. (e-tutor.com)
- Echocardiogram - can determine the amount of fluid in the pericardial space as well as if you have developed fibrous tissue around the heart. (mercy.com)
- The heart is constructed of a special kind of muscle muscle, the contractile tissue that effects the movement of and within the body. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Each heartbeat is stimulated by an electrical impulse that originates in a small strip of heart tissue known as the sinoatrial (S-A) node, or pacemaker. (thefreedictionary.com)
- They are made of cusps of fibrous tissue that prevent the backflow of blood, and they are attached to the connective tissue in the heart called the chordae tendinae and further to the papillary muscle. (redorbit.com)
- Connective tissue supports all of the structures of the body, including the skin, the organs, and all of the body's blood vessels and nerves. (arthritis-symptom.com)
- 4 Cardiovascular system The blood as liquid assets and tissue. (univr.it)
- 9. The biological tissue of claim 7 , wherein said tissue is selected from a group consisting of a porcine valve, a bovine jugular vein, a bovine pericardium, an equine pericardium, a porcine pericardium, and submucosal tissue. (google.com)
- Though these sutures are fine, they're built to withstand pressure-suture companies have put them through controlled tests to simulate the pressure required to burst a vessel or disrupt tissue. (popularmechanics.com)
- Heart tumors can arise directly from heart tissue, or can spread from other locations via metastasis. (webvet.com)
- These tumors can arise directly from heart tissue, or can travel to the heart from other locations in the body. (webvet.com)
- What is the membrane the heart sits in? (brainscape.com)
- The growth of the brain and the cephalic folds push the oropharyngeal membrane forward, while the heart and the pericardial cavity move first to the cervical region and then into the chest. (wikipedia.org)
- The membrane sac that encloses the heart in vertebrate animals. (thefreedictionary.com)
- 1. The two-layered membrane enclosing the heart. (thefreedictionary.com)
- It is enclosed by the pericardial membrane or pericardium. (smore.com)
- The heart lies within the mediastinum , and is surrounded by a thick fibrous membrane, the pericardium . (madsci.org)
- A small amount of fluid exists in the space between the beating heart and this membrane. (madsci.org)
- It has a double membrane of pericardial fluid, which nourishes the heart and prevents it from shocks. (redorbit.com)
- Pericarditis occurs when the pericardium gets inflamed. (medindia.net)
- In patients suffering with pericarditis, a pericardial friction rub can often be heard when listening to the heart with a stethoscope. (wikipedia.org)
- Infection and other conditions that inflame the pericardium cause pericarditis. (merckmanuals.com)
- After a heart attack, acute pericarditis develops during the first day or two in 10 to 15% of people and after about 10 days to 2 months in 1 to 3% (subacute pericarditis). (merckmanuals.com)
- When acute pericarditis develops in the first day or two after a heart attack , symptoms of pericarditis are seldom noticed because symptoms of the heart attack are the main concern. (merckmanuals.com)
- The exact cause of pericarditis is not known but is believed to be caused by a viral infection, heart attack or because of complications from other diseases. (mercy.com)
- In many patients, it is difficult to determine if the pain is from a heart attack or pericarditis. (mercy.com)
- Should the amount of fluid increase, due to infections ( pericarditis ) or rupture of the heart muscle as can happen with serious damage to the heart muscle, a life-threatening condition called cardiac tamponade can occur. (madsci.org)
- Acute pericarditis is an inflammatory process involving the pericardium, a fibroelastic sac containing the heart and the roots of the great blood vessels. (uspharmacist.com)
- The heart is split into two distinct pumping structures, the right side of the heart and the left side of the heart. (bartleby.com)
- Blood leaving the left ventricle passes through which of the following structures? (bartleby.com)
- It helps reduce friction between the heart and other structures in the chest when the heart beats. (cigna.com)
- 1) Questions about heart structures based on a diagram of the heart. (teacherspayteachers.com)
- 7 ) Use models to determine the relationship between the structures in and functions of the cardiovascular system (e.g., components of blood, blood circulation through the heart and systems of the body, ABO blood groups, anatomy of the heart, types of blood vessels). (al.us)
- Obtain information about the structure of the cardiovascular system, including various types of structures that aid in circulation through the heart and throughout the systems of the body. (al.us)
- In addition, these structures contain the blood vessels and lymphatics that enter the intestines to receive nutrients absorbed by the gut. (madsci.org)
- The outer layer is called the fibrous pericardium, and its job is to protect the heart, anchor it to surrounding structures, and prevents the heart from over-filling itself with blood. (redorbit.com)
- Imaging tests take pictures of the heart, blood vessels, and structures. (epnet.com)
- A CT of the heart looks at the structures and blood vessels of the heart. (alberta.ca)
- A CT of the heart is done to look at the structures and blood vessels of the heart. (alberta.ca)
- They cut away a part of the patient's pericardium and squeezed the new heart between the right lung and the original organ. (thefreedictionary.com)
- National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. (medicalcityhospital.com)
- The aim of the present review is to provide the practicing physician with an overview of the concepts of heart-lung interactions during mechanical ventilation. (smw.ch)
- This was a first recognition of the mechanical interplay between the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, nowadays referred to as heart-lung or cardiorespiratory interactions, which comprise the effects of respiration on circulation. (smw.ch)
- The need for oxygen-enriched positive pressure breathing at high altitude for fighter pilots in the Second World War and the invention of right-heart catheterisation facilitated research programmes intended to gain a more profound understanding of heart-lung interactions [ 3 , 4 ]. (smw.ch)
- Besides the direct mechanical interdependence between lung, heart and circulation, neurally mediated phenomena, such as respiratory sinus arrhythmia, or effects of altered gas exchange (e.g., hypoxic and hypercapnic pulmonary vasoconstriction) in the context of lung disease or high altitude exposure can critically derange cardiorespiratory interplay [ 9 - 11 ]. (smw.ch)
- In this review we focus on the mechanical interaction between the lung and the heart, mainly with respect to pre- and afterload. (smw.ch)
- He has performed more than 2500 heart operations and more than 700 thoracic procedures (such as removal of part of a lung). (popularmechanics.com)
- They are necessary if the pericardium, or heart sac, becomes thickened or filled with fluid. (hirslanden.ch)
- If the fluid presses too hard against the heart, it causes the heart to become constricted. (hirslanden.ch)
- In the case of thoracoscopic pericardial fenestration, an endoscope is used to help make a hole in the pericardium, so that the fluid can be drained or removed. (hirslanden.ch)
- Before pericardial fenestration, an attempt will firstly be made to drain the fluid by puncturing the pericardium and inserting a thin tube. (hirslanden.ch)
- Guided by camera imaging, a hole (window) is cut into the pericardium so that the fluid can drain into the chest cavity. (hirslanden.ch)
- Pericardial fenestration removes the fluid and the 'hole' in the pericardium does not negatively impact on the heart. (hirslanden.ch)
- In the initial period after pericardial fenestration, ultrasound examinations are necessary to investigate how the pericardium is progressing and to ensure there is no new fluid build-up. (hirslanden.ch)
- The heart is enclosed in a protective sac, the pericardium , which also contains a small amount of fluid . (wikipedia.org)
- If fluid is aspirated from the abdomen and it looks like blood it is even more suggestive of hemangiosarcoma. (vetinfo.com)
- The space between the two layers of serous pericardium (see below), the pericardial cavity, is filled with serous fluid which protects the heart from any kind of external jerk or shock. (wikipedia.org)
- Pericardial drainage (pericardiocentesis) is done to find the cause of fluid buildup around the heart and to relieve pressure on the heart. (cigna.com)
- Normally, there is a small amount of fluid between this sac and the heart. (cigna.com)
- Some diseases cause fluid to collect within the pericardium. (cigna.com)
- During this test, a needle is inserted into the chest and into the pericardium to remove a sample of the fluid. (cigna.com)
- The fluid is sent to a laboratory where it is measured and checked for blood, microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi , or viruses), white blood cells , sugar (glucose), and cancer cells. (cigna.com)
- In these circumstances, blood or fluid can build up very rapidly in the pericardium . (cigna.com)
- An emergency pericardial drainage can be done to remove the blood or excess pericardial fluid surrounding the heart. (cigna.com)
- Remove blood or excess fluid after a heart attack or a serious injury, such as a gunshot or stab wound. (cigna.com)
- A layer of fluid in the pericardium allows the heart to move easily within the body. (columbiasurgery.org)
- The accumulating fluid or blood in the pericardial space puts pressure on the heart, interfering with its ability to pump blood. (merckmanuals.com)
- A condition in which extra fluid collects between the heart and the pericardium (the sac around the heart). (cancer.gov)
- The extra fluid causes pressure on the heart. (cancer.gov)
- The pericardium has an inner and outer layer with a small amount of lubricating fluid between them. (medmovie.com)
- When the pericardium becomes inflamed, the amount of fluid between the two layers increases. (medmovie.com)
- Due to the limited space, the increased fluid prevents the heart from filling with blood and pumping it to the body. (madsci.org)
- An echocardiogram also can detect structural damage, tumors, or excess fluid around the heart. (epnet.com)
- Lymph is a colorless fluid that carries away waste and transports a type of white blood cell called lymphocytes. (cancer.net)
- In streptobacillary rat-bite fever diagnosis can be made by taking a sample of blood or fluid from a painful joint, which can be cultured to allow the growth of organisms. (healthofchildren.com)
- This sac fills with fluid (a condition known as tamponade) and constricts the heart, interfering with the ability of the heart to pump the blood effectively to the rest of the body. (webvet.com)
- Dogs with heart tumors often have muffled heart sounds (because of the pericardial fluid surrounding the heart) and a weak, rapid pulse. (webvet.com)
- Your veterinarian may recommend an electrocardiogram to look for conduction problems in the heart, and possibly aspirating some fluid from the pericardial sac to examine its composition and characteristics. (webvet.com)
- Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder passed on through parental genes causing the body to produce abnormal hemoglobin. (medindia.net)
- Abnormal holes between the chambers of the heart. (heart.org)
- In Raynaud's phenomenon, the blood vessels of the fingers and/or toes (the digits) react to cold in an abnormal way. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The veterinarian and owner are encouraged to submit all evaluations, whether normal or abnormal, to help assure accuracy of the database and to assist in the analysis of patterns of inheritance in important canine congenital heart disease. (ofa.org)
- The most common heart tumors are hemangiosarcomas, which arise from abnormal growth of blood vessels. (webvet.com)
- A vein carries blood back to the heart. (bartleby.com)
- Which blood vessel shown in the figure carries oxygenated blood to the lower thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity of the body? (bartleby.com)
- A system of blood vessels carries the blood through the body. (e-tutor.com)
- The blood vessel system carries blood from the heart to all parts of the body. (e-tutor.com)
- First and foremost cardiovascular diseases are ailments that affect the circulation of blood flow and whatever blood carries to the different regions of your body. (hubpages.com)
- The superior vena cava carries deoxygenated blood from the upper body (head, neck, arms, and chest regions) to the right atrium. (prezi.com)
- While the inferior vena cava carries deoxygenated blood from the lower body (legs, back, abdomen, and pelvis regions) to the right atrium. (prezi.com)
- It's the large blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body. (alberta.ca)
- Looking for other heart and vascular services? (wellmont.org)
- In addition, the heart employs a separate vascular system to obtain blood for its own nourishment. (thefreedictionary.com)
- These blood islands extend and fuse together making a primordial vascular network. (edu.au)
- Foxo1 -null embryonic and yolk sac vessels were not well developed at embryonic day 9.5, and Foxo1 expression was found in a variety of embryonic vessels, suggesting a crucial role of this transcription factor in vascular formation. (pnas.org)
- A physician who specializes in diagnosing nd treating diseases and disorders of the heart. (studystack.com)
- Human Emotions on the Onset of Cardiovascular and Small Vessel Related Diseases. (bioportfolio.com)
- The aim of the present study was to examine the relation between understanding of emotions and cardiovascular related diseases, namely coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus and obesity. (bioportfolio.com)
- Specialists who focus on diseases of the heart are called cardiologists , although many specialties of medicine may be involved in treatment. (wikipedia.org)
- To gather data regarding heart diseases in dogs, and to identify dogs which are phenotypically normal prior to use in a breeding program. (ofa.org)
- Examples of diseases impacting the heart include endocarditis, myocardial ischemia, pulmonary heart disease and carcinoid heart diseases. (reference.com)
- What Is a List of the Different Types of Heart Diseases? (reference.com)
- There are so many types of heart diseases that they are grouped into different families, according to the World Heart Federation. (reference.com)
- Hypertensive heart diseases include aneurysm, atherosclerosis and hypertension, claims the World Heart Federation. (reference.com)
- Where Can You Find a List of Heart Diseases? (reference.com)
- There are many online sources where a person can find a list of heart diseases including WebMD, MedicineNet and the World Heart Federation. (reference.com)
- How Many Different Types of Heart Diseases Are There? (reference.com)
- There are at least five different types of heart diseases, including rheumatic, ischemic, hypertensive and inflammatory heart disease. (reference.com)
- The Center of Disease Control (CDC) places on its top three leading causes of death in the US: Heart disease, cancer and chronic breathing diseases. (hubpages.com)
- Occurs when the ventricles contract and is the highest pressure against the walls of the vessels. (studystack.com)
- Occurs when the ventricles are relaxed and is the lowest pressure on the walls of the blood vessels. (studystack.com)
- The thicker walls of the left ventricle support its tremendous workload of pumping blood at great pressure out of the heart. (bartleby.com)
- Walls of the heart , showing pericardium at right. (wikipedia.org)
- The force of the blood is constantly putting pressure on the inside walls of blood vessels. (blausen.com)
- coronal section of the pericardium reveals that it is composed of two walls and a thin, intervening space. (getbodysmart.com)
- Aneurysms are the ballooning of the walls of the blood vessels. (reference.com)
- Through the capillary walls, blood cells deliver oxygen and food to other cells in exchange for carbon dioxide and other wastes. (e-tutor.com)
- Three layers compose the walls of the heart which is continuously supplied by fresh blood with blood vessels. (infobarrel.com)
Tissues of the body2
- Some theories suggest that damage to blood vessels may cause the tissues of the body to receive an inadequate amount of oxygen-a condition called ischemia . (thefreedictionary.com)
- When blood vessels are damaged, the tissues of the body receive an inadequate amount of oxygen (a condition called ischemia). (arthritis-symptom.com)
- Myocardial contusion is a bruise of the heart muscle. (medlineplus.gov)
- A severe myocardial contusion may lead to signs and symptoms of a heart attack. (medlineplus.gov)
- Inadequate blood flow to the heart can lead to heart pain (angina) or a heart attack (myocardial infarction). (sciencephoto.com)
- Myocardial perfusion imaging -Contrast material is used to observe the heart muscle. (epnet.com)
- Initially, all venous blood flows into the sinus venosus, and contractions propel the blood from tail to head, or from the sinus venosus to the truncus arteriosus. (wikipedia.org)
- Pumping of blood is produced by alternate contractions of the atria and ventricles. (e-tutor.com)
- Purkinje fibres are important because it participates in heart muscle contractions. (infobarrel.com)
- The double sound of the heart, embracing what are known as the first and second sounds, is heard distinctly: the former caused by the strong muscular contractions of the ventricles, mainly the left, whose function it is to distribute the blood to the system. (wikisource.org)
Chambers of the heart3
- The left ventricle is extremely important to other systems of the body because it is a major player in the transportation of blood that brings essential substances such as oxygen, glucose, and hormones to all the parts of the body or to transport wastes such as carbon dioxide and urea out of the body. (bartleby.com)
- Keep oxygen rich blood and carbon dioxide rich blood separate 3. (ostatic.com)
- Venous blood from the body, containing large amounts of carbon dioxide, returns to the right atrium. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The vessels colored blue indicate the transport of blood with relatively low content of oxygen and high content of carbon dioxide. (stlukes-stl.com)
- Commonly the right atrium and ventricle are referred together as the right heart and their left counterparts as the left heart . (wikipedia.org)
- The right atrium and the right ventricle together are sometimes referred to as the right heart. (wikipedia.org)
- De-oxygenated blood flows from the body into the right atrium. (columbiasurgery.org)
- and the right atrium, which receives deoxygenated blood. (redorbit.com)
- Allows blood to be pumped from the right atrium into the left ventricle, maintaining the flow in one direction. (prezi.com)
- Hemangiosarcomas are most commonly located in the right atrium, and they tend to bleed into the pericardium (the sac surrounding the heart). (webvet.com)
- The heart can move freely in the chest cavity without it. (hirslanden.ch)
- This rub, which is audible upon auscultation of the chest cavity throughout the respiratory cycle, is caused by the friction of the two inflamed layers of pericardium. (uspharmacist.com)
- Twenty years later, he vividly remembers when he was a surgical resident seeing his first open chest cavity, a beating heart before him. (popularmechanics.com)
- The doctor will then trim the heart to fit snugly in the chest cavity and connect it to the left atrium again, specially tailoring each anastomosis-the joining of two blood vessels. (popularmechanics.com)
- Septa form within the atria and ventricles to separate the left and right sides of the heart. (wikipedia.org)
- In humans, other mammals, and birds, the heart is divided into four chambers: upper left and right atria and lower left and right ventricles . (wikipedia.org)
- Figure The human heart consists of four chambers, these being left and right atria along with left and right ventricles. (bartleby.com)
- The heart has four chambers, two upper atria, the receiving chambers, and two lower ventricles, the discharging chambers. (wikipedia.org)
- The two chambers at the top of the heart are known as the atria , a right and a left. (acls.net)
- The atria receive blood that returns from the different parts of the body, while the ventricles pump that blood back to all body tissues. (acls.net)
- During diastole, the ventricles relax and receive blood from the atria. (acls.net)
- The coronary sulcus is a deep groove that runs horizontally across the surface of the heart and separates the atria from the ventricles. (redorbit.com)
- Echocardiogram with Doppler ultrasound-This helps your doctor assess blood flow. (medicalcityhospital.com)
- The vessels clamp down, preventing blood flow to the tip of the digit. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Doppler ultrasound , which depicts blood flow, is another adaptation of ultrasound testing. (columbiasurgery.org)
- This reduces blood flow to the areas served by the vessel. (sciencephoto.com)
- Heart and blood vessels regulate blood flow according to needs of the body 5. (ostatic.com)
- How does blood flow through the human heart? (e-tutor.com)
- Congenital heart defects are structural abnormalities of the heart present at birth, and that affect blood flow through the heart and to the rest of the body. (medindia.net)
- The lumen, or openings, in the vessels provide the resistance needed to allow the blood to flow. (redorbit.com)
- The precapillary sphincters are made up of smooth muscle cells and constrict or dilate to help control blood flow. (redorbit.com)
- Allows the flow of blood in one direction and prevents oxygenated blood from flowing back. (prezi.com)
- Areas with diminished blood flow can be detected on the scan. (epnet.com)
- CT angiography-Contrast material is used to detect areas with diminished blood flow. (epnet.com)
- Build Yang Qi of Governing Vessel, and Shoayang Meridian Flow to Build Energies of Back. (gancao.net)
- The findings suggest that the developing human brain may actually receive less blood flow at embryonic sizes (less than 22 mm body length) than do other mammalian embryos of a similar body size, but that internal carotid and vertebral flow is higher in human fetuses (body length greater than 30 mm) than in developing non-humans of the same body size. (edu.au)
- Hemangiosarcomas are a form of cancer which originates in the endothelium, which is the lining of blood vessels and spleen. (vetinfo.com)
- There is a strong predilection for the spleen, pericardium and heart. (vetinfo.com)
- Identification of a tumor in the spleen or heart raises a high degree of suspicion for this tumor. (vetinfo.com)
- If a tumor is identified when it is small it may be possible to remove the spleen if the tumor is there or even to remove tumors found near the heart and prolong the pet's life. (vetinfo.com)
- One with an innocent heart murmur that is found to be otherwise normal by virtue of an echocardiographic examination which includes Doppler studies.The OFA maintains two separate and distinct cardiac databases: The Congenital Cardiac Database and the Advanced Cardiac Database . (ofa.org)
- The lesions characterizing congenital heart defects are present at birth and may develop more fully during perinatal and growth periods. (ofa.org)
- Individuals with Myhre syndrome often have problems with the structure of the heart that are present at birth (congenital heart defects). (medlineplus.gov)
- Congenital heart defects can occur in the developing embryo at a time when women typically do not even know they are pregnant - 16 to 18 days following conception. (medindia.net)
- Aberrant PAA formation results in defects frequently observed in patients with lethal congenital heart disease. (edu.au)
Damage to Blood Vessels1
- The upper part of the body between the neck and abdomen that contains the respiratory system (the organs involved in breathing) and the heart. (cancer.ca)
- Heart failure occurs when the heart still pumps blood, but not enough blood for the needs of the other organs. (reference.com)
- Damage to small blood vessels within the skin and affected organs also occurs. (arthritis-symptom.com)
- My assessment of this is the the blockage of energy, blood and nutrition to the muscles of the upper body included the nourishment of the spirts of the organs. (gancao.net)
- At the AV node the electrical impulse pauses very briefly to allow the ventricles to fill with blood. (bartleby.com)
- The ventricles are separated from each other by the interventricular septum, visible on the surface of the heart as the anterior longitudinal sulcus and the posterior interventricular sulcus. (wikipedia.org)