Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Heart Valves: Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Heart Block: Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Heart Arrest, Induced: A procedure to stop the contraction of MYOCARDIUM during HEART SURGERY. It is usually achieved with the use of chemicals (CARDIOPLEGIC SOLUTIONS) or cold temperature (such as chilled perfusate).Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Heart, Artificial: A pumping mechanism that duplicates the output, rate, and blood pressure of the natural heart. It may replace the function of the entire heart or a portion of it, and may be an intracorporeal, extracorporeal, or paracorporeal heart. (Dorland, 28th ed)Heart Failure, Systolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial contraction during SYSTOLE leading to defective cardiac emptying.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Heart Rate, Fetal: The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.Heart Septum: This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Rheumatic Heart Disease: Cardiac manifestation of systemic rheumatological conditions, such as RHEUMATIC FEVER. Rheumatic heart disease can involve any part the heart, most often the HEART VALVES and the ENDOCARDIUM.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Heart Arrest: Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Heart Valve Prosthesis: A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Heart Failure, Diastolic: Heart failure caused by abnormal myocardial relaxation during DIASTOLE leading to defective cardiac filling.American Heart Association: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Heart Septal Defects: Abnormalities in any part of the HEART SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communication between the left and the right chambers of the heart. The abnormal blood flow inside the heart may be caused by defects in the ATRIAL SEPTUM, the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM, or both.Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: A condition caused by underdevelopment of the whole left half of the heart. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the left cardiac chambers (HEART ATRIUM; HEART VENTRICLE), the AORTA, the AORTIC VALVE, and the MITRAL VALVE. Severe symptoms appear in early infancy when DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS closes.Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports research program related to diseases of the heart, blood vessels, lung, and blood; blood resources; and SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS. From 1948 until October 10, 1969, it was known as the National Heart Institute. From June 25, 1976, it was the National Heart and Lung Institute. Since October 1997, the NHLBI has also had administrative responsibility for the NIH Woman's Health Initiative.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Endocardium: The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two lower chambers of the heart. Classification of ventricular septal defects is based on location of the communication, such as perimembranous, inlet, outlet (infundibular), central muscular, marginal muscular, or apical muscular defect.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial: Exposure of myocardial tissue to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion in order to render the myocardium resistant to the deleterious effects of ISCHEMIA or REPERFUSION. The period of pre-exposure and the number of times the tissue is exposed to ischemia and reperfusion vary, the average being 3 to 5 minutes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Myocarditis: Inflammatory processes of the muscular walls of the heart (MYOCARDIUM) which result in injury to the cardiac muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Manifestations range from subclinical to sudden death (DEATH, SUDDEN). Myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction is classified as inflammatory CARDIOMYOPATHY usually caused by INFECTION, autoimmune diseases, or responses to toxic substances. Myocarditis is also a common cause of DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY and other cardiomyopathies.Heart-Assist Devices: Small pumps, often implantable, designed for temporarily assisting the heart, usually the LEFT VENTRICLE, to pump blood. They consist of a pumping chamber and a power source, which may be partially or totally external to the body and activated by electromagnetic motors.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Electrocardiography, Ambulatory: Method in which prolonged electrocardiographic recordings are made on a portable tape recorder (Holter-type system) or solid-state device ("real-time" system), while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It is useful in the diagnosis and management of intermittent cardiac arrhythmias and transient myocardial ischemia.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Myocardial Reperfusion: Generally, restoration of blood supply to heart tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. Reperfusion can be induced to treat ischemia. Methods include chemical dissolution of an occluding thrombus, administration of vasodilator drugs, angioplasty, catheterization, and artery bypass graft surgery. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.Heart Septal Defects, Atrial: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.Ventricular Dysfunction: A condition in which HEART VENTRICLES exhibit impaired function.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Baroreflex: A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Sinoatrial Node: The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).Mice, Inbred C57BLTachycardia: Abnormally rapid heartbeat, usually with a HEART RATE above 100 beats per minute for adults. Tachycardia accompanied by disturbance in the cardiac depolarization (cardiac arrhythmia) is called tachyarrhythmia.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Pacemaker, Artificial: A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Atrioventricular Node: A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.Metoprolol: A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Parasympathetic Nervous System: The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)United StatesModels, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Ventricular Fibrillation: A potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia that is characterized by uncoordinated extremely rapid firing of electrical impulses (400-600/min) in HEART VENTRICLES. Such asynchronous ventricular quivering or fibrillation prevents any effective cardiac output and results in unconsciousness (SYNCOPE). It is one of the major electrocardiographic patterns seen with CARDIAC ARREST.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Digoxin: A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Cardiac Volume: The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Cyanosis: A bluish or purplish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to an increase in the amount of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood or a structural defect in the hemoglobin molecule.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Carbazoles: Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Endomyocardial Fibrosis: A condition characterized by the thickening of the ventricular ENDOCARDIUM and subendocardium (MYOCARDIUM), seen mostly in children and young adults in the TROPICAL CLIMATE. The fibrous tissue extends from the apex toward and often involves the HEART VALVES causing restrictive blood flow into the respective ventricles (CARDIOMYOPATHY, RESTRICTIVE).Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Pulmonary Wedge Pressure: The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Cardiac Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Atrial Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Heart Aneurysm: A localized bulging or dilatation in the muscle wall of a heart (MYOCARDIUM), usually in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Blood-filled aneurysms are dangerous because they may burst. Fibrous aneurysms interfere with the heart function through the loss of contractility. True aneurysm is bound by the vessel wall or cardiac wall. False aneurysms are HEMATOMA caused by myocardial rupture.Tachycardia, Ventricular: An abnormally rapid ventricular rhythm usually in excess of 150 beats per minute. It is generated within the ventricle below the BUNDLE OF HIS, either as autonomic impulse formation or reentrant impulse conduction. Depending on the etiology, onset of ventricular tachycardia can be paroxysmal (sudden) or nonparoxysmal, its wide QRS complexes can be uniform or polymorphic, and the ventricular beating may be independent of the atrial beating (AV dissociation).Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Pulmonary Heart Disease: Hypertrophy and dilation of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart that is caused by PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. This condition is often associated with pulmonary parenchymal or vascular diseases, such as CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE and PULMONARY EMBOLISM.Sodium-Calcium Exchanger: An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Rest: Freedom from activity.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Phonocardiography: Graphic registration of the heart sounds picked up as vibrations and transformed by a piezoelectric crystal microphone into a varying electrical output according to the stresses imposed by the sound waves. The electrical output is amplified by a stethograph amplifier and recorded by a device incorporated into the electrocardiograph or by a multichannel recording machine.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).Troponin I: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.

Extra-vesicular binding of noradrenaline and guanethidine in the adrenergic neurones of the rat heart: a proposed site of action of adrenergic neurone blocking agents. (1/18491)

1 The binding and efflux characteristics of [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline were studied in heart slices from rats which were pretreated with reserpine and nialamide. 2 Binding of both compounds occurred at extra-vesicular sites within the adrenergic neurone. After a brief period of rapid washout, the efflux of [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline proceeded at a steady rate. The efflux of both compounds appeared to occur from a single intraneuronal compartment. 3 (+)-Amphetamine accelerated the efflux of [14C]-noradrenaline; this effect was inhibited by desipramine. 4 Unlabelled guanethidine and amantadine also increased the efflux of labelled compounds. Cocaine in high concentrations increased slightly the efflux of [14C]-guanethidine but not that of [3H]-noradrenaline. 5 Heart slices labelled with [3H]-noradrenaline became refractory to successive exposures to releasing agents although an appreciable amount of labelled compound was still present in in these slices. 6 It is suggested that [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline are bound at a common extravesicular site within the adrenergic neurone. Binding of guanethidine to the extra-vesicular site may be relevant to its pharmacological action, i.e., the blockade of adrenergic transmission.  (+info)

Myocardial uptake of digoxin in chronically digitalized dogs. (2/18491)

1 The time course of myocardial uptake of digoxin, increase in contractility and changes in myocardial potassium concentration was studied for 90 min following an intravenous digoxin dose to long-term digitalized dogs. 2 Nineteen dogs were investigated by the use of a biopsy technique which allowed sampling before and after administration of digoxin. 3 Ten minutes after administration of digoxin the myocardial concentration increased from 60 to 306 nmol/kg tissue, the myocardial concentration of digoxin was significantly lower (250 nmol/kg tissue) after 30 min and then increased again. 4 The transmural myocardial distribution of digoxin was uniform before and 90 min after administration of digoxin in long-term digitalized dogs but at 10 min after administration, both the subepicardial and the subendocardial concentration of digoxin were significantly lower than that of the mesocardial layer. 5 During the first 10 min the dp/dtmax increased to 135% of the control level. The increase remained unchanged during the rest of the study. 6 Myocardial potassium decreased throughout the study. 7 The M-configuration of the myocardial uptake curve and the non-uniformity of myocardial distribution of digoxin observed at 10 min after administrating digoxin to long-term digitalized dogs indicate that the distribution of myocardial blood flow may be changed during chronic digitalization.  (+info)

A comparison of affinity constants for muscarine-sensitive acetylcholine receptors in guinea-pig atrial pacemaker cells at 29 degrees C and in ileum at 29 degrees C and 37 degrees C. (3/18491)

1 The affinity of 17 compounds for muscarine-sensitive acetylcholine receptors in atrial pacemaker cells and ileum of the guinea-pig has been measured at 29 degrees C in Ringer-Locke solution. Measurements were also made at 37 degrees C with 7 of them. 2 Some of the compounds had much higher affinity for the receptors in the ileum than for those in the atria. For the most selective compound, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide, the difference was approximately 20-fold. The receptors in the atria are therefore different the structure from those in the ileum. 3 The effect of temperature on affinity are not the same for all the compounds, tested indicating different enthalpies and entropies of adsorption and accounting for some of the difficulty experienced in predicting the affinity of new compounds.  (+info)

Automatic activity in depolarized guinea pig ventricular myocardium. Characteristics and mechanisms. (4/18491)

Membrane potential was changed uniformly in segments, 0.7-1.0 mm long, of guinea pig papillary muscles excised from the right ventricle by using extracellular polarizing current pulses applied across two electrically insulated cf preparations superfused with Tyrode's solution at maximum diastolic membrane potentials ranging from-35.2+/-7.5 (threshold) to +4.0+/-9.2 mV. The average maximum dV/dt of RAD ranged from 17.1 to 18.0 V/sec within a membrane potential range of -40 to +20 mV. Raising extracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]0 from 1.8 to 6.8 mM, or application of isoproterenol (10(-6)g/ml) enhanced the rate of RAD, but lowering [Ca2+]0 to 0.4 mM or exposure to MnCl2 (6 mM) abolished RAD. RAD were enhanced by lowering extracellular K+ concentration [K+]0 from 5.4 to 1.5 mM. RAD were suppressed in 40% of fibers by raising [K+]0 to 15.4 mM, and in all fibers by raising [K+]0 to 40.4 mM. This suppression was due to increased [K+]0 and not to K-induced depolarization because it persisted when membrane potential was held by means of a conditioning hyperpolarizing puled gradually after maximum repolarization. These observations suggest that the development of RAD in depolarized myocardium is associated with a time-dependent decrease in outward current (probably K current) and with increase in the background inward current, presumably flowing through the slow cha-nel carrying Ca or Na ions, or both.  (+info)

Phasic right coronary artery blood flow in conscious dogs with normal and elevated right ventricular pressures. (5/18491)

We studied phasic right coronary blood flow in well trained normal dogs and dogs with pulmonic stenosis. We installed electromagnetic flow transducers and pressure tubes under anesthesia to monitor right coronary blood flow, cardiac output, central aortic blood pressure, and right ventribular pressure. In normotensive dogs, systolic flow amplitude equaled early diastolic flow levels. The ratio of systolic to diastolic flow at rest was substantially greater in the right coronary bed (36+/-1.3%) than in the left circumflex bed (13+/-3.6%). Right diastolid flow runoff, including the cove late in diastole, resembled left circumflex runoff. Blood flow to the normotensive right (37+/-1.1 ml/min 100(-1) g) and the left (35+/-1.0 ml/min(-1) g) ventricular myocardium indicated equal perfusion of both cardiac walls. Throttling of systolic flow was related directly to the right ventricular systolic pressure level in the dogs with pulmonic stenosis. Retrograde systolic flow occurred in severe right ventricular hypertension. The late diastolic runoff pattern in dogs with pulmonic stenosis appeared the same as for the normotensive dogs. We obtained systolic to diastolic flow ratios of 1/3 the value of normotensive hearts in high and severe pulmonic hypertension. Electrocardiograms and studies of pathology suggested restricted blood flow to the inner layers of the right myocardium in the dogs with severe and high right ventricular hypertension. Normotensive and hypertensive peak hyperemic flow responses were similar, except for an increased magnitude of diastolic flow, with proportionately less systolic flow in hypertensive states.  (+info)

Ventricular pressure-volume curve indices change with end-diastolic pressure. (6/18491)

Many indices have been proposed to describee the diastolic pressure-volume curve mathematically and permit quantification of the elastic properties of the myocardium itself in hopes that changes in the muscle caused by disease would b.e reflected in the diastolic pressure-volume curve. To date, none of the proposed indices has been shown convincingly to discriminate one group of patients from another. While this situation in part arises from the relatively large amount of noise introduced by the technical difficulties of measuring synchronous pressures and volumes during diastole in man, ther is a more fundamental difficulty. In practice, one can measure only a short segment of the entire pressure-volume curve, and the values of all diastolic pressure-volume curve parameters investigated change significantly when one uses different segments of the same pressure-volume curve to compute them. These results were derived from relatively noise-free pressure-volume curves obtained by filling nine excised dog left ventricles at a known rate and monitoring pressure-volume curve used to compute the parameter. Merely increasing measurement fidelity will not resolve this problem, because none of these parameters accurately characterizes the entire diastolic pressure-volume curbe from a segment like that which one can reasonably expect to obtain from humans.  (+info)

Hierarchy of ventricular pacemakers. (7/18491)

To characterize the pattern of pacemaker dominance in the ventricular specialized conduction system (VSCS), escape ventricular pacemakers were localized and quantified in vivo and in virto, in normal hearts and in hearts 24 hours after myocardial infarction. Excape pacemaker foci were localized in vivo during vagally induced atrial arrest by means of electrograms recorded from the His bundle and proximal bundle branches and standard electrocardiographic limb leads. The VSCS was isolated using a modified Elizari preparation or preparations of each bundle branch. Peacemakers were located by extra- and intracellular recordings. Escape pacemaker foci in vivo were always in the proximal conduction system, usually the left bundle branch. The rate was 43+/-11 (mean+/-SD) beats/min. After beta-adrenergic blockade, the mean rate fell to 31+/-10 beats/min, but there were no shifts in pacemaker location. In the infarcted hearts, pacemakers were located in the peripheral left bundle branch. The mean rate was 146+/-20 beats/min. In isolated normal preparations, the dominant pacemakers usually were in the His bundle, firing at a mean rate of 43+/-10 beats/min. The rates of pacemakers diminished with distal progression. In infarcted hearts, the pacemakers invariably were in the infarct zone. The mean firing rates were not influenced by beta-adrenergic blockade. The results indicate that the dominant pacemakers are normally in the very proximal VSCS, but after myocardial infarction pacemaker dominance is shifted into the infarct. Distribution of pacemaker dominance is independent of sympathetic influence.  (+info)

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (8/18491)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

Vertebrate hearts develop from the fusion of bilaterally positioned cardiac precursors, followed by the growth of the primitive heart tube. In the zebrafish, complex morphogenic events transforming the embryonic heart from sheets of cardiac precursors into a three-dimensional tubular structure have been previously described (Stainier and Fishman, 1992; Yelon, 2001; Yelon et al., 1999). The proper growth of the primitive heart tube is an important factor for subsequent patterning of cardiac chambers, as demonstrated by studies on the zebrafish heart and soul mutation (Peterson et al., 2001; Yelon et al., 1999). However, detailed molecular and cellular mechanisms guiding primitive heart tube extension are still largely unknown.. Na,K-ATPase is an integral membrane protein that transports Na+ and K+ across the plasma membrane to establish proper chemical and electrical gradients (for reviews, see Blanco and Mercer, 1998; Therien and Blostein, 2000). Its activity is essential for maintenance of the ...
The mechanisms underlying the initiation of the heart beat are still poorly understood. Here we show that early embryonic heart cells display small, but stable, [Ca2+]i oscillations that can evoke contractions. Our biophysical and pharmacological evidence suggests that such oscillations can activate small depolarizations of the Em via the NCX. Such depolarizations, when reaching threshold potential, give rise to APs that synchronize the activity of individual heart cells. The [Ca2+]i oscillations are not restricted to cardiac subtypes but can be detected in pacemaker-, atrial-, and ventricular-like early embryonic cardiomyocytes. Thus, although the early embryonic heart consists of individual [Ca2+]i oscillators, APs appear to synchronize contractions and the coordinated pumping of blood.. The finding that [Ca2+]i oscillations drive spontaneous contractions without APs in early embryonic heart cells is in agreement with our observations in ES cell−derived cardiomyocytes, where persistence of ...
An actuation system for assisting the operation of the natural heart comprises a framework for interfacing with a natural heart, through the wall of the heart, which includes an internal framework element configured to be positioned within the interior volume of a heart and an external framework element configured to be positioned proximate an exterior surface of the heart. The internal framework is flexibly suspended with respect to the external frame. An actuator system is coupled to the framework and configured to engage an exterior surface of the heart. The actuator system comprises an actuator band extending along a portion of a heart wall exterior surface. The actuator band is selectively movable between an actuated state and a relaxed state and is operable, when in the actuated state, to assume a predetermined shape and thereby indent a portion of the heart wall to effect a reduction in the volume of the heart. A drive apparatus is coupled to the actuator band and is operable for selectively
Remarkable growth plasticity enables the prenatal mammalian heart to counteract various unfavorable intrauterine conditions and build a functional and normally sized organ at birth. We have recently shown that the murine embryonic and fetal heart has a substantial regenerative capacity in response to tissue mosaicism for mitochondrial dysfunction caused by heart specific inactivation of the X-linked holocytochrome c synthase (Hccs) gene. In heterozygous Hccs knockout (Hccs+/-) embryos, hyperproliferation of healthy cardiomyocytes compensates for the functional loss of 50% cardiac cells, ensuring formation of a functional heart at birth. However, we hypothesized that embryonic heart regeneration alters peri- and postnatal cardiac growth mechanisms. Indeed, neonatal Hccs+/- hearts are hypoplastic containing a reduced number of cardiomyocytes, whereas in adult Hccs+/- hearts compensatory cellular hypertrophy normalizes morphology and size. We aimed at identifying postnatal adaptive growth ...
The endocardial cushions play a critical role in septation of the four-chambered mammalian heart and in the formation of the valve leaflets that control blood flow through the heart. Within the outflow tract (OFT), both cardiac neural crest and endoc
... : The Heart (Function, Facts (The heart pumps about 6 quarts (5.7 liters) of blood throughout the body, The heart beats about 100,000 times per day (about 3 billion beats in a lifetime), An adult heart beats about 60 to 80 times per minute, The heart weighs between about 10 to 12 ounces (280 to 340 grams) in men and 8 to 10 ounces (230 to 280 grams) in women, Newborns hearts beat faster than adult hearts, about 70 to 190 beats per minute, A human heart is roughly the size of a large fist, The heart is located in the center of the chest, usually pointing slightly left ), Anatomy (Two lower chambers (the ventricles), The right atrium and right ventricle together make up the right heart, Two upper chambers (the atria), The left atrium and left ventricle make up the left heart, The physiology of the heart comes down to structure, electricity and plumbing , A double-walled sac called the pericardium encases the heart, which serves
nt clinic setting and perform diagnostic tests to help physicians diagnose problems with the heart and lungs.. This role provides a wide range of technical services within the Cardiac Physiology department. Cardiac physiology technicians perform patient-related non-invasive cardiac procedures.. This role works collaboratively with other clinical team members including cardiologists and cardiac physiologists within the department, to provide an effective and efficient service for patients.. A technicians main duty is performing Electrocardiographs (ECG), including recognition and interpretation of arrhythmias, exercise tolerance stress testing (ETT), holter monitor application and removal, spirometry (simple lung function test), and various administrative duties specific to the Cardiac Physiology department.. ...
It doesnt help that Mr. Cheney has had many heart attacks in the past. With the progressive loss of healthy muscle cells to to the heavy lifting of contraction, the ejection fraction falls. At first, the heart compensates by recruiting other, non-injured segments of heart muscle to take up the slack, but with each successive heart attack, the reserve heart muscle dwindles. Lose enough muscle and the heart must rely on increasing the rate at which if contracts to increase output, but for hearts already with limited blood flow this might lead to futher shortage of oxygen to the heart muscleto When this happens, the heart rate kicks up just a bit to increase cardiac output. If it kicks up too much, the heart can outstrip its own oxygen supply, resulting in additional injury to the heart. This is part of the reason medication that slow the heart rate (beta blockers) can be helpful adjuncts to preserving heart muscle function and slowing the progression of worstened heart failure ...
Shop Wallums Wall Decor Giant Hearts Wall Decal; Lime Green at Staples. Choose from our wide selection of Wallums Wall Decor Giant Hearts Wall Decal; Lime Green and get fast & free shipping on select orders.
Heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women in the United States. There are many forms of heart disease, and it can be difficult to keep all of the terms straight. Three heart problems often confused are heart attack, sudden cardiac arrest and congestive heart failure.. "All three of these heart problems are serious, but their causes are different and they require different treatments," said Zubair Khan, M.D., FACC, a cardiologist at Lake Regional Heart and Vascular. "Because all three are common, its a good idea to know how to recognize each one and what to do if any of them is suspected.". What is Heart Attack?. A heart attack happens when theres a sudden blockage in the flow of blood to a section of the heart muscle. If blood flow isnt restored quickly, the affected section of the heart begins to die.. The leading cause of heart attack is coronary heart disease, also called coronary artery disease. "In this disease, plaque builds up inside the coronary arteries," Dr. ...
meegonow Page 18: 61 Marvelous Heart Pics For Valentines Day. 48 Extraordinary Valentine Heart Applique. 70 Extraordinary Heart Animal Templates. 78 Excelent How Was The Heart Shape Created Image Inspirations. 38 Fantastic Why Is The Heart Called A Heart. 62 Marvelous Heart Shape Symbol Meaning Photo Inspirations. Real Heart Drawing. 41 Awesome Who Created The Heart Shape. dan gurney die cast car. jaguars vs steelers live. trending on bing today. valentine appliqued heart sweaters for women. heart shaped printable animal templatesheart shaped printable animal templates. heart shaped animal templatesheart animal templates for pre kheart animal craft templatesheart shaped animal templates. heart animal templates for pre k.
Yes. One in three American women dies of heart disease. In 2003, almost twice as many women died of cardiovascular disease (both heart disease and stroke) than from all cancers combined. The older a woman gets, the more likely she is to get heart disease. But women of all ages should be concerned about heart disease. All women should take steps to prevent heart disease.. Both men and women have heart attacks, but more women who have heart attacks die from them. Treatments can limit heart damage but they must be given within hours of a heart attack.. If you think youre having a heart attack, call 911 right away. Tell the operator your symptoms and that you think youre having a heart attack.. ...
fish amphibian reptiles birds & mammals 2 chamber 3 chamber 3 chamber 4 chamber A powerful four-chambered heart was an essential adaptation in support of the endothermic way of life characteristic of mammals and birds. Endotherms use about ten times as much energy as equal-sized ectotherms; therefore, their circulatory systems need to deliver about ten times as much fuel and O2 to their tissues (and remove ten times as much CO2 and other wastes). This large traffic of substances is made possible by separate and independent systemic and pulmonary circulations and by large, powerful hearts that pump the necessary volume of blood. Mammals and birds descended from different reptilian ancestors, and their four-chambered hearts evolved independently-an example of convergent evolution. Why is it an advantage to get big? Herbivore: can eat more with bigger gut. lowers predation (but will push predators to get bigger as well, although no one east elephant s.) V A A A A A A A V V V V V ...
0:03Skip to 0 minutes and 3 secondsIf you have all the required items and youve read through the risks, then lets make a start. The first thing were going to do is were going to weigh our heart. So using one hand if you can, so the other hand stays clean, pop the heart on the scales and note down on the worksheet the weight of your heart.. 0:23Skip to 0 minutes and 23 secondsThe next thing were going to do is were going to start by observing the heart. Theres several things that you can notice about the heart straight away. We can see the general shape is that weve got a roundish or flattish base coming down to a softly pointed apex. You can see that often in the process of preparing the heart for food-- we bought this heart from a food source-- the heart may be damaged. Your heart may actually have cuts or slices into it. And often the top of the heart has been removed. So, clean hand here. We can see that the heart that we have looks pretty similar to this one here. Weve cut through, ...
When DArcy Wentworth Thompsons On Growth and Form was published 100 years ago, it raised the question of how biological forms arise during development and across evolution. In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales.. Read the Editorial by guest editors Thomas Lecuit and L. Mahadevan, as they provide a perspective on the influence of DArcy Thompsons work and an overview of the articles in this issue.. ...
A heart attack is a serious medical emergency, that requires urgent medical treatment in order to minimise potential damage to the heart muscle. This week, a study on the incidence of heart attacks revealed that 45% of heart attacks appear to be clinically silent, with no visible symptoms.. So, what is a heart attack?. A heart attack is when the blood supply to the heart is suddenly blocked. This deprives the heart muscle of blood, and therefore of oxygen, which can seriously damage it. Its essential that anyone suspected of having a heart attack goes straight to A&E. Time is key, for heart attack treatment: the quicker youre administered vital medication, the quicker you restore oxygen to your heart muscle, the more heart function you preserve.. Anyone can have a heart attack, at any age. However, there are various risk-factors for heart-attacks, that make some people much more likely to suffer from one. Some risk-factors are unavoidable, such as age, gender and ethnicity: those aged over 45 ...
Technology Networks is an internationally recognised publisher that provides access to the latest scientific news, products, research, videos and posters.
We are interested in understanding gene regulatory programs under different growth conditions of the heart. We first took a bioinformatics approach to analyze gene expression profiles at different stages of embryonic heart development (E12.5-E18.5, n=3 for each group), neonatal heart development (1, 20, 49 days after birth, n=3 for each group), and adult cardiac hypertrophy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). For hypertrophy, we used multiple microarray data sets from different laboratories including ours to enhance the reliability of our study (5 datasets having 1, 2, 4, 12week TAC). Clustering analysis of gene expression and analysis of gene sets, such as Gene Ontology (GO) groups, indicated common and distinct regulatory modules for these 3 stages of heart growth. Consistent with the well-known fetal gene program, many genes and pathways showed opposite regulation in hypertrophy compared with embryonic and neonatal growth, with most significant genes involved in mitochondrial ...
JUST ONE DAY OF EXERCISE CAN PROTECT THE HEART AGAINST...(A HEART ATTACK).... and this protection is upheld with months of exercise, making exercise one of the few sustainable preconditioning stimuli" (Journal of Applied Physiology, September 2011). Wow.. HEART ATTACKS OCCUR WHEN A PLAQUE SUDDENLY BREAKS OFF FROM THE WALLS OF AN ARTERY SUPPLYING BLOOD TO THE HEART. The plaque travels down the ever-narrowing artery until it completely blocks the flow of blood to a part of the hearts muscle. The hearts muscle must receive oxygen from the bloodstream all the time. When a part of the heart muscle is suddenly deprived of oxygen, it dies and you suffer a heart attack. The dying heart muscle usually causes severe pain, in the chest, back or left arm. Heart attacks are not caused by progressive narrowing of an artery.. LACK OF OXYGEN IS THE ULTIMATE CAUSE OF HEART MUSCLE DAMAGE. Anything that increases the ability of the heart muscle to survive oxygen deprivation or increases oxygen supply to the ...
Heart disease describes a range of conditions that affect your heart. Diseases under the heart disease umbrella include blood vessel diseases, such as coronary artery disease; heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias); and heart defects youre born with (congenital heart defects), among others.. The term "heart disease" is often used interchangeably with the term "cardiovascular disease." Cardiovascular disease generally refers to conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain (angina) or stroke. Other heart conditions, such as those that affect your hearts muscle, valves or rhythm, also are considered forms of heart disease.. Many forms of heart disease can be prevented or treated with healthy lifestyle choices.. ...
The team then created mice in which the gene for ERBB2 was "knocked out" in cardiomyocytes. This had a severe impact: the mice had hearts with walls that were thin and balloon-like - a cardiac pathology known as dilated cardiomyopathy. The conclusion was that cardiomyocytes lacking ERBB2 do not divide, even in the presence of NRG1.. Next, the team reactivated the ERBB2 protein in adult mouse heart cells, in which cardiomyocytes normally no longer divide. This resulted in extreme cardiomyocyte proliferation and hypertrophy - excessive growth and development of the individual cardiomyocytes - leading to a giant heart (cardiomegaly) that left little room for blood to enter. Says Prof. Tzahor: "Too little or too much of this protein had a devastating impact on heart function.". The question then became: if one could activate ERBB2 for just a short period in an adult heart following a heart attack, might it be possible to get the positive results, i.e., cardiac cell renewal, without negative ones ...
Heart disease is a broad term that describes a number of conditions affecting the heart and blood vessels. Some of the most common include cardiovascular disease, heart rhythm problems (arrhythmia), congenital heart defects, infections of the heart and cardiomyopathy. Heart disease is responsible for 40% of all deaths worldwide, making it the number one killer for both men and women. There are a number of factors that can increase the risk of developing heart disease. Some of these factors are beyond a persons control, while others are more related to lifestyle and bad habits.. Cardiovascular disease is one of the most common types of heart disease that is associated with controllable risk factors. It is a disease in which blood vessels are obstructed or narrowed; it can lead to heart attack and stroke. Symptoms include chest pain or angina, shortness of breath, coldness or numbness in the extremities. In many cases it is not diagnosed until chest pain, heart failure or heart attack occurs. It ...
Heart attacks are a leading cause of death for both men and women in the United States. A heart attack occurs when blood flow to the heart is restricted, commonly due to a blood clot that has formed in one of the coronary arteries. If the clot becomes large enough, blood flow to the heart can be blocked almost completely and the heart muscle in that area can suffer permanent injury or death. Although a PCI can be used to open up the blocked artery and restore blood flow to the heart muscle, there may be a significant amount of heart tissue that has been irreversibly damaged. Recent studies have shown that adult stem cells from bone marrow may be able to improve heart function after a heart attack. These specialized cells may have the ability to promote blood vessel growth, prevent cell death, and transform themselves into a number of tissues, including muscle. After an acute heart attack, a remodeling process is initiated in the heart in an attempt to compensate for damaged areas. Consequently, ...
OBJECTIVE The aim was to assess the abilities of exogenous noradrenaline, isoprenaline, and phenylephrine to precondition the isolated rat heart against ischaemic and reperfusion injury. METHODS The isovolumetric Langendorff rat heart model was used to determine postischaemic recovery of left ventricular function. The hearts were subjected to 30 min of normothermic global ischaemia followed by 30 min reperfusion. Treated hearts were perfused with noradrenaline (10(-7) M), isoprenaline (10(-8) M), or phenylephrine (10(-6) M, 10(-5) M, and 10(-4) M) for 5 min followed by 5 min washout before the 30 min ischaemic period. RESULTS Control hearts recovered 47.6(SEM 4.3)% of baseline heart rate x developed pressure after 30 min reperfusion, whereas noradrenaline and isoprenaline treated hearts recovered 75.1(4.6) and 76.4(4.6)%, respectively (p | 0.001 v control). Left ventricular end diastolic pressures at the end of reperfusion were 48.8(4.0), 20.0(2.4), and 21.6(2.7)mm Hg for control, noradrenaline
Heart attack means there is cessation or inadequate blood flow to a particular portion of the heart. These happen due to blocking inside the coronary artery. This block is more often due to a disease process known as atherosclerosis you can read this articles to know more on prevention of heart attack 7 Tips to Prevent Heart Attack.. A patient suffering from heart attack complains of chest pain which commonly presents at the centre of the chest (retrosternal). The type of pain is squeezing or pressing type. More often patients say it is a discomfort rather than actual pain. Sometimes it is associated with breathlessness and sweating.. Sometimes the heart attack can occur without any obvious symptoms, or with minimal symptoms. This type of heart attack is called as a silent heart attack. A silent heart attack is common in diabetic and old age patients. These patients present to doctors with the complication of the heart attack.. ...
A heart attack is not the same as cardiac arrest (click here for details on cardiac arrest). A heart (coronary) attack occurs when the blood flow that brings oxygen to the heart muscle is severely reduced or cut off completely. This happens because coronary arteries that supply the heart with blood can slowly become thicker and harder from a buildup of fat, cholesterol and other substances that together are called "plaque". This slow process is known as atherosclerosis (a portion of cardiovascular disease) . When plaque in a heart artery breaks, a blood clot forms around the plaque. This blood clot can lock the artery and shut off blood flow to the heart muscle. When the heart muscle is starved for oxygen and nutrients, it is called ischemia. When damage or death of part of the heart muscle occurs as a result of ischemia, it is called a heart attack or myocardial infarction (MI).. If you are concerned that you may be experiencing a heart attack, call 9-1-1. Minutes matter! Symptoms of a heart ...
The physiology of blood circulation was first described by Sir William Harvey in 1628. The blood circulation in our body is divisible into 3 circuits -. (i) Coronary circulation: It involves blood supply to the heart wall and also drainage of the heart wall.. (a) Coronary arteries: One pair, arising from the aortic arch just above the semilunar valves. They break up into capillaries to supply oxygenated blood to the heart wall.. (b) Coronary veins: Numerous, collecting deoxygenated blood from the heart wall and drains it into right auricle through coronary sinus which is formed by joining of most of the coronary veins.. (ii) Pulmonary circulation: It includes circulation between heart and lungs. The right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood into a single, thick vessel called pulmonary aorta which ascends upward and outside heart gets divided into longer, right and shorter, left pulmonary arteries running to the respective lungs where oxygenation of blood takes place.. (iii) Systemic circulation: ...
During a heart attack, a clot starves the heart of blood and can cause lasting damage. The heart is then damaged further by a mixture of chemicals and cells that rush into the heart as blood flow is restored when a stent is inserted to open the blocked artery. Doctors are currently unable to prevent or repair this damage and do not fully understand how the chemical build-up causes such severe damage.. Someone has a heart attack in the UK every three minutes and when the heart becomes significantly damaged, a person can develop heart failure, a debilitating and ultimately fatal condition. Over half a million people in the UK are suffering from heart failure.. These new findings suggest that white blood cells called T-lymphocytes are responsible for a significant part of the heart damage, as they can become activated during a heart attack and travel into the heart muscle. Once inside the muscle tissue, they can release toxic chemicals that kill off parts of the heart. Normally these T-lymphocytes ...
In one minute your heart beats 80 times and your heart pushes millions of gallons of blood to the every part of the body. This flow carries with it oxygen, fuel, hormones and many other compounds. Our heart has never ending workload and still it performs very well. But due to some bad habits you make your heart health poor and as a result you will become more likely to have heart diseases. So, its our duty to do something which can make our heart healthy.. You can make your heart healthy by changing your lifestyle. Drinking, smoking, taking unhealthy diet and not doing physical activities is the main reasons to make your heart unhealthy. But there is one remedy by which you can make your heart healthy and that is fish oil. There is very strong connection between heart health and fish oil.. This is the oil which can make your heart healthy and by this you can cure many other health complications. According to studies the people who eat fish or take potent fish oil supplement are healthier than ...
The disruption of a structural component in heart muscle cells, which is associated with heart failure, appears to occur even before heart function starts to decline, according to a new study by researchers at the University of Iowa Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine.. The structure is a highly organized network of grooves in heart muscle membrane called T-tubules. This network is essential for transmitting electrical signals to the cells interior where they are translated into contractions that make the heart beat.. It was previously known that T-tubules become very disorganized during heart failure. The new study, published in the Aug. 20 issue of the journal Circulation Research, shows that this disorganization starts well before heart failure occurs during a stage known as compensated hypertrophy, when the heart muscle is enlarged but still able to pump a normal amount of blood around the body.. Although heart function appears normal during compensated hypertrophy, we found ...
The concept of "athletic heart" was first introduced into literature in 1899, a German scientist Henschen. By this term he meant the enlarged heart of a sportsman and is regarded as a pathological phenomenon. The term "athletic heart" is preserved in the present and is widely used.. The definition given by G. F. lang sports heart; the term "athletes heart" can be interpreted two ways: 1) as the heart is more functional (in the sense of ability to meet, through systematic training, higher standards. met him at extreme and prolonged physical work), or 2) as the heart of a pathologically altered, with reduced performance as a result of excessive. stress sports. Production of wooden Windows and pictures. Speaking of sports heart should mention the work of a major Soviet therapist V. F. Zelenin, who regarded the enlargement of the heart as an adaptation and drew attention to the fact that the increased size of the heart of athletes is mainly due to the dilatation of its cavities.. The increase in ...
Heart Transplant Surgery. Heart Transplant Surgery is an open heart surgery in which an incision is made in the chest to separate the chest bone to open the rib cage so that the heart can be operated on.. The procedure involves removing the diseased heart and sewing the donors heart in place. The major blood vessels are then attached to the donor heart which causes the new heart to start beating when blood flow is restored. Pain medications are given after the surgery and the patient is kept in a ventilator to help him breathe. Tubes attached to the chest help in draining out the fluids from the lungs and the heart. Fluids and medications are given through intravenous tubes.. Any signs of shortness of breath, fatigue, fever or weight gain needs to be indicated to the doctor without delay.. Book surgery packages online so that you can schedule the heart surgery in advance and also save on expensive treatment cost.. ...
An echocardiogram is a noninvasive (the skin is not pierced) procedure used to assess the hearts function and structures.. During the procedure, a transducer (like a microphone) sends out ultrasonic sound waves at a frequency too high to be heard.. When the transducer is placed on the chest at certain locations and angles, the ultrasonic sound waves move through the skin and other body tissues to the heart tissues, where the waves echo off of the heart structures.. The transducer picks up the reflected waves and sends them to a computer. The computer interprets the echoes into an image of the heart walls and valves.. An echocardiogram may be performed for further evaluation of signs or symptoms that may suggest:. atherosclerosis - a gradual clogging of the arteries over many years by fatty materials and other substances in the blood stream. cardiomyopathy - an enlargement of the heart due to thickening or weakening of the heart muscle. congenital heart disease - defects in one or more heart ...
An echocardiogram is a noninvasive (the skin is not pierced) procedure used to assess the hearts function and structures.. During the procedure, a transducer (like a microphone) sends out ultrasonic sound waves at a frequency too high to be heard.. When the transducer is placed on the chest at certain locations and angles, the ultrasonic sound waves move through the skin and other body tissues to the heart tissues, where the waves echo off of the heart structures.. The transducer picks up the reflected waves and sends them to a computer. The computer interprets the echoes into an image of the heart walls and valves.. An echocardiogram may be performed for further evaluation of signs or symptoms that may suggest:. atherosclerosis - a gradual clogging of the arteries over many years by fatty materials and other substances in the blood stream. cardiomyopathy - an enlargement of the heart due to thickening or weakening of the heart muscle. congenital heart disease - defects in one or more heart ...
Vienna, VA – Dr. Salwa A. Elgebaly, PhD is the Founder and CEO of Nour Heart, Inc., dedicated to the development of the new cardioprotective drug, Cyclocreatine Phosphate for patients with Ischemic Heart Diseases. ?I wanted to bring this to life for the people whose stories touched me,? says Dr. Elgebaly. ?I believe in Cyclocreatine phosphate.? Cyclocreatine phosphate could be used in end-stage heart failure patients scheduled for heart transplantation procedure and, thus, can increase donor utilization and patients outcomes. For the new heart transplantation procedures using ?donation after circulatory death (DCD)? hearts, Cyclocreatine phosphate would be very effective in protecting donor hearts during the warm ischemic time, reducing heart dysfunction after the transplant. CCrP can also be administered to heart attack patients in the pre-hospital phase, as well as during, or some hours after, the angioplasty procedure to potentially achieve protection of a greater amount of heart tissue,
The heart is situated inside the thorax in vertebrates, and in the human body is slightly to the left. The human heart consists of 4 main chambers, 2 atria and 2 ventricles. The right side of the heart receives de-oxygenated blood from other parts of the body and pumps it to the lungs where it is oxygenated and returns to the left side of the heart. The left side of the heart pumps the oxygen-carrying blood to the rest of the body. A heartbeat is a single pumping cycle of the heart which comprises three major stages: atrial systole, ventricular systole and complete cardiac diastole. The right and left coronary arteries branch off the aorta and then divide into smaller branches, supplying all portions of the heart with blood and oxygen. In order for the heart to function properly, it must receive a continuous supply of fresh oxygen-enriched blood. The coronary arteries surround the heart and carry the blood which nourishes the heart muscle. The right coronary artery supplies blood to the right ...
Fred Lesikar was playing with his granddaughter when he suddenly felt an intense pain radiating through his chest, back, and arms. By the time he got to the hospital, his heart had already sustained permanent damage. Simple physical tasks like walking around the block became incredibly difficult.. Months after the heart attack, Fred enrolled in a clinical trial in hopes of finding relief. The trial researchers used tissue from Freds heart to grow stem cells, which were later placed in his heart. The results were astounding-his hearts function has improved greatly, and the scar that the attack left on his heart seems to have reduced in size. "Im in better shape than Ive been in years," Fred said.. Since then, more clinical studies have tested stem cell treatments for hearts damaged by heart attacks, and the results have been very promising. Eduardo Marbán, heart researcher and director of the Cedar-Sinai Heart Institute in Los Angeles, and his colleagues used patients own heart tissue to ...
Although some invertebrates can regrow parts of their hearts after damage, that has not been known to be possible for mammals. Until now, that is. Hesham Sadek and his colleagues from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center have observed heart regeneration in newborn mice.. The researchers removed 15% of the heart tissue from newborn mice. To their surprise, the infant mice were able to regrow the tissue. The resultant hearts looked and performed exactly like normal hearts. This ability was retained until the mice were seven days old, at which point they lost the capacity to grow new heart muscle. To put that in perspective, mice reach maturity between 6 to 8 weeks and can live for two or three years. Thus, the ability to fix heart problems continues for a large part of the mouses childhood.. The scientists believe that the infant mices cardiomyocytes, the beating cells of the heart, can stop beating and divide, repairing the damage. The next step is to figure out whether adult ...
Most heart muscle cells formed during childhood New human heart muscle cells can be formed, but this mainly happens during the first 10 years of life. Other cell types, however, are replaced more quickly. The study demonstrates that the heart muscle is regenerated throughout a persons life, supporting the idea that it is possible to stimulate the rebuilding of lost heart tissue. ...
MONASH (AUS) - Scientists will be able to mimic the effects of heart disease in a petri dish after identifying a new, reliable way to produce heart cells in the lab.. New research published in the journal Nature Methods shows how human heart cells can be consistently produced from embryonic stem cells, creating a potentially inexhaustible source for research and drug discovery.. Researchers were able to isolate the heart cells by turning them green, says David Elliot of Monash University, who co-led the work.. [sources]. "We linked a green fluorescent marker-originally from a jellyfish-to a gene found in heart cells, causing them to glow," says Elliott.. "Using this cell line we have discovered two new cell surface proteins that we can use as handles to allow us to grab only the cardiac cells from cultures containing different cell types. Importantly, we can use these handles to isolate and study cardiac cells grown from the stem cells of heart disease patients, and, in this way model heart ...
The function of the gene, called Meis1, in the heart was not known previously. The findings of the UTSW investigation are available online in Nature.. "We found that the activity of the Meis1 gene increases significantly in heart cells soon after birth, right around the time heart muscle cells stop dividing. Based on this observation we asked a simple question: If the Meis1 gene is deleted from the heart, will heart cells continue to divide through adulthood? The answer is yes," said Dr. Hesham Sadek, assistant professor of internal medicine in the division of cardiology, and senior author of the study.. In 2011, Dr. Sadeks laboratory showed that the newborn mammalian heart is capable of a vigorous, regenerative response to injury through division of its own cells. As the newborn develops, the heart rapidly loses the ability to regenerate and to repair injuries such as heart attacks.. The research team demonstrated that deletion of Meis1 extended the proliferation period in the hearts of ...
capture his heart claire, capture his heart login, capture his heart ebook download, capture his heart by lysa terkeurst, capture his heart lysa terkeurst pdf, michael fiore capture his heart, capture his heart review amazon, capture his heart review, capture his heart michael fiore, claire casey capture his heart
The findings offer a potential first step to a new way to heal human hearts after heart attacks as well, Physorg said.. The experiments build on the idea that although stem cells have shown enormous promise in repairing organs after injury, using them in the heart itself has not yielded the expected results because very few of the transplanted cells survive in the heart, said M. Roselle Abraham, an assistant professor of medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. When the heart beats, she explained, it pushes cells injected into the heart wall out into the lungs before they get a chance to attach to the wall.. Additionally, when stem cells move from the culture flasks they are grown in and into a solution for injection in the heart, their metabolism slows, causing them to die in several hours unless they are given the opportunity to attach to tissue.. Researchers have tried to improve stem cell retention in the heart by injecting millions, only to have a mere 10-to-20 percent ...
By Alicia M. Colombo. This month, take time to love yourself by thinking about your heart health. Heart health is a broad term that is often used to describe healthy blood flow through the vessels, healthy tissue in the heart walls and a normal rhythm, said Sonela Skenderi, D.O., a board-certified cardiovascular disease specialist at Mercy Cardiology at Nazareth Hospital.. Several factors can compromise heart health and contribute to heart disease, including hypertension, or high blood pressure; high cholesterol; and diabetes. Of these, hypertension is especially dangerous; it is known as a "silent killer." Most of the time, it has no obvious symptoms. It can damage coronary arteries, causing them to become narrowed, and strain the heart by forcing it to work harder.. You may not even know you have heart disease until its too late. But with lifestyle changes and medical monitoring, you can prevent a life-threatening cardiac event. While you cant control some risk factors for heart disease, ...
The term "heart disease" refers to several types of heart conditions. The most common type in the United States is coronary heart disease (also called coronary artery disease), which occurs when a substance called plaque builds up in the arteries that supply blood to the heart. Coronary heart disease can cause heart attack, angina, heart failure, and arrhythmias.. Cardiovascular disease, including heart disease and stroke, costs the United States $312.6 billion each year.1 This total includes the cost of health care services, medications, and lost productivity. These conditions also are leading causes of disability, preventing Americans from working and enjoying family activities.. The situation is alarming, but there is good news-heart disease is preventable and controllable. We can start by taking small steps every day to bring our loved ones and ourselves closer to heart health. CDC is providing a tip a day throughout February, but you can take these small steps all year long. ...
External and Internal Structures of the heart. (book). Heart Valves. The atrioventricular (AV) valves link the atria to the ventricles, and the semi-lunar (SL) valves link the ventricles to the pulmonary artery and aorta - they all stop blood flowing the wrong way. The valves only open one way - whether theyre open or closed depends on the relative pressure of the heart chambers. If theres higher pressure behind a valve, its forced open. If pressure is higher in front of the valve, its forced shut. Thickness of Heart Chamber Walls. The heart is mainly cardiac muscle. When it contracts it creates higher pressure - enough to force blood all the way around the boyd. Each of the four chambers of the heart have a different function. The more work a heart chamber has to do, the muscle it needs - so thicker walls. The left ventricle of the heart has thicker more muscular walls than the…. ...
Embryonic Heart Exhibits Impressive Regenerative Capacity Monday, 13 October 2008 A new study demonstrates that the embryonic mouse heart has an astounding capacity to regenerate, a phenomenon previously observed only in non-mammalian species. The research, published by Cell Press in the October 14th issue of the journal Developmental Cell, describes the previously unrecognized potential of the embryonic heart to replace diseased tissue through compensatory proliferation of healthy cells. Disorders of the mitochondria, a cell structure required for energy production, are one of the leading causes of fatal early onset cardiomyopathies. To investigate how mutations that interfere with mitochondrial function impact the heart during development, Professor Timothy C. Cox from the University of Washington in Seattle and colleagues from Australia, used a heart-specific knockout approach in mice to inactivate a gene crucial for normal mitochondrial function. Their experimental methods established ...
In order to function properly, your heart needs a large and continuous stream of oxygen-enriched blood, which is supplied directly to your heart muscle through your coronary arteries. If your coronary arteries become clogged, blocked, inflamed, infected, or injured, the blood flow to your heart will be reduced, which can cause injury to your heart muscle and in turn lead to heart disease or cardiovascular disease (CVD). Some of the more common outcomes of heart disease include myocardial infarction (heart attack), angina (inadequate blood flow to the heart that can cause chest pain), and arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms). ...
Common tests include an electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiogram, exercise stress test, carotid artery scan, coronary angiography, and nuclear ventriculography (MUGA or RNV). An ECG records the hearts electrical activity. An ECG may be repeated over several hours. An echocardiogram uses sound waves to produce an image of the heart on a monitor. An exercise stress test checks the hearts ability to respond to exercise. You will walk on a treadmill or pedal a stationary bike while an ECG records your hearts activity. A carotid artery scan uses sound waves to check for blockages in the carotid artery, a main blood vessel in the neck that supplies the brain. Coronary angiography involves inserting a long narrow tube through a blood vessel and injecting dye into the heart to see how the heart and coronary arteries are working. A nuclear ventriculography involves using a safe radioisotope injection to produce an image of the heart with special scanners. The heart structures may also be viewed with ...
Scientists at the Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease (GICD) have found a new way to make beating heart cells from the bodys own cells that could help regenerate damaged hearts. Over 5 million Americans suffer from heart failure because the heart has virtually no ability to repair itself after a heart attack. Only 2,000 hearts become available for heart transplant annually in the United States, leaving limited therapeutic options for the remaining millions. In research published in the current issue of Cell, scientists in the laboratory of GICD director Deepak Srivastava, MD, directly reprogrammed structural cells called fibroblasts in the heart to become beating heart cells called cardiomyocytes. In doing so, they also found the first evidence that unrelated adult cells can be reprogrammed from one cell type to another without having to go all the way back to a stem cell state ...
Classic Human Heart Model, 2 part - 3B Smart Anatomy | Human Heart Models | The front heart wall is detachable to reveal the chambers and valves inside the human heart.
Myocardial infarction. Theres a mouthful. Its a tongue-twiser, isnt it? And it sounds serious.. Well, it is.. Myocardial infarction is medical language for a heart attack. It means the death of tissue (an infarct) in the muscular wall of the heart (the myocardium).. Heart attack is known by several names. coronary thrombosis is a heart attack caused by a clot in the coronary arteries. Sometimes, it is caused by snoring. Coronary occlusion is a blocked artery that could have a number of causes. Myocardial infarction refers to the end result-the damage or death of a part of the heart muscle.. The heart never stops working. In contrast to the muscles in our arms and legs, the heart muscle never rests, although it does slow down when we sleep.. to do its important job of keeping us alive, the heart must have a regular and adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients for energy. For this reason, the heart receives its own supply of oxygen-rich blood by way of the coronary arteries. The sole purpose of ...
Theres a mantra in emergency medicine and cardiology that time is muscle," Polevoi said. "What that means is the longer the time that theres lack of coronary blood flow, which is the cause of the vast majority of heart attacks, the more damage there is to the heart. Often patients come in with discomfort and by series of tests, we find out theyre having a heart attack and theyve already suffered a significant amount of damage to the heart muscle and thats what leads to the problems.". Cardiac ischemia could lead to more heart damage if its not treated quickly. Insufficient blood flow to the heart muscle can lead to congestive heart failure, end-stage heart disease and even death. Overeating and stress typically associated with the holiday season could exacerbate existing conditions.. "The holidays are a time when we really increase the amount of salt and fat we eat. Most people dont notice the difference. However, there are certain people - for example, those with heart failure - for whom ...
Heart is the most important organ of the body. If we make a triad of the most important organs in the body, besides lungs, kidneys and brain, comes the heart.. The major function of the heart is to supply blood to all the different parts of the body through the arterial system and the veins collect the blood and bring it back to heart, which is purified in the lungs with oxygen and then being pumped out again to the entire body.. If anything happens to the heart, an individual can die. If the brain does not get oxygen for about 4 minutes, which is through the blood pumped by heart, the brain cells die. That is all the time brain has if the blood supply is cut to the brain and every second that passes is precious.. The life of all the organs depend on the nutrients present in the blood that is being pumped out to them from heart, therefore it is very very important that the health of the heart is intact.. The major problems that occur with heart are lack of blood supply to heart due to blockage ...
Contact: Nicole Napoli, [email protected], 202-375-6523. Washington (Sep 21, 2015) -. Sex is rarely the cause of a heart attack, and most heart disease patients are safe to resume sexual activity after a heart attack, according to a research letter published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology.. Sexual activity can be a concern for many heart attack patients who worry about exertion triggering another heart event, but data on the harms and benefits of sexual activity in heart disease patients is limited. According to the research letter, sexual activity generally involves moderate physical activity comparable to climbing two staircases or taking a brisk walk.. Researchers looked at 536 heart disease patients between 30 and 70 years old to evaluate sexual activity in the 12 months before a heart attack and estimate the association of frequency of sexual activity with subsequent cardiovascular events, including fatal heart attack, stroke or cardiovascular death.. In a ...
Cardiovascular disease, including heart attack, is the leading killer among Americans. Preventing a heart attack is possible, but only by committing to a heart-healthy lifestyle. The American Heart Association suggests beginning on the road to better heart health around the age of 20. However, if you are at high risk for heart disease, you should assess your lifestyle and make adjustments in order to reduce your risk of having a heart attack. Prevention is extremely important given the fact that many initial heart attacks and strokes can be deadly or cause permanent damage. Here are some useful tips for preventing a heart attack.. See: 4 Simple Ways To Prevent Heart Disease. Eat More Healthy Foods. Eating a healthy diet is a key component in the prevention of heart disease. The food that you choose to eat and the quantity of that food directly affects certain health factors including:. Cholesterol ...
Heart shape free - We have 12801 Heart shape free Free Downloads in Ai, EPS, SVG, CDR formats. heart, heart, heart icon, heart icon, heart vector, heart vector, love, love, heart pattern, heart pat...
Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the nation. That calls for fighting it together. We hope youll pick Spectrum Health to be on your team. Our heart and vascular specialists are among the best. From preventive care all the way to heart transplant, weve got your back-and your heart.. Heart disease, or coronary artery disease, occurs when fatty deposits accumulate on the inside walls of coronary arteries. This leads to narrowing of the arteries and can decrease, or even block, blood flow to the heart, which results in a heart attack. About 15 million U.S. adults have heart disease. High cholesterol, smoking and high blood pressure all increase the risk of developing heart disease ...
Chapter 1: The Dawn of Open Heart Surgery (Pages 16 - 31). Chapter 2: The Normal Heart (Pages 32 - 43). Chapter 3: Staying Healthy (Pages 44 - 57). Chapter 4: Signs and Symptoms of Heart Problems (Pages 58 - 71). Chapter 5: Diagnosing a Problem (Pages 72 - 83). Chapter 6: What Is Cardiac Catheterization? (Pages 84 - 95). Chapter 7: Heart Problems of Infants and Children (Pages 96 - 109). Chapter 8: Coronary Artery Disease and Treatment Options (Pages 110 - 129). Chapter 9: The Coronary Bypass: Operation and Recovery (Pages 130 - 147). Chapter 10: Heart Valve Problems (Pages 148 - 177). Chapter 11: Advanced Heart Failure: Transplants, Heart Assist Devices, and the Future (Pages 178 - 203). Chapter 12: Arrhytmias, Pacemakers, and Defibrillators (Pages 204 - 219). Chapter 13: Aneurysms and Other Blood Vessel Problems (Pages 220 - 233). Chapter 14: Heart Surgery in the Elderly (Pages 234 - 241). Chapter 15: Recovery After Heart Surgery and A Second Bypass Operation...Will You Need It? When? (Pages ...
Background-Heart development is tightly regulated by signaling events acting upon a defined number of progenitor and differentiated cardiac cells. While loss-of-function of these signaling pathways leads to congenital malformation, the consequences of cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) or embryonic cardiomyocyte loss are less clear. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that embryonic mouse hearts exhibit a robust mechanism for regeneration following extensive cell loss. Methods and Results-By combining a conditional cell ablation approach with a novel blastocyst complementation strategy, we generated murine embryos that exhibit a full spectrum of CPC or cardiomyocyte ablation. Remarkably, ablation of up to 60% of CPCs at embryonic day 7.5 was well-tolerated and permitted embryo survival. Ablation of embryonic cardiomyocytes to a similar degree (50-60%) at embryonic day 9.0 could be fully rescued by residual myocytes with no obvious adult cardiac functional deficit. In both ablation models, an ...
The heart has an internal electrical system that controls the rhythm of the heartbeat. Several problems can cause abnormal heart rhythms, called arrhythmias. During an arrhythmia, the heart can beat too fast, too slow, or it can stop beating. Sudden cardiac arrest occurs when the heart develops an arrhythmia that causes it to stop beating. This is different than a heart attack, where the heart usually continues to beat, but blood flow to the heart is blocked ...
Echocardiogram (also called echo). This noninvasive test uses sound waves to evaluate the motion of the hearts chambers and valves. The echo sound waves create an image on the monitor as an ultrasound transducer is passed over the heart. This shows how well the heart pumps. It also shows the thickness of the heart walls, and if the heart is enlarged. It is one of the most useful tests because it shows a great deal of information about the hearts function and helps guide treatment decisions. ...
The heart meridian is a yin meridian and is paired with the small intestine yang meridian. The hearts physical job is to move blood, pumping and moving blood non-stop with every heartbeat. The heart has to be physically very strong and powerful because it has a constant job to keep pumping blood throughout the entire life of a person.. The mental and spiritual qualities of the heart are very powerful. A person with a healthy heart is a happy and grateful person and a person with a weak heart often leads a miserable life. In todays modern societies, many people suffer from imbalances of the heart due to living lifestyles that are not in our hearts just to "pay the bills". Modern society can also be very lonely for many people, which can also lead to a weak heart.. ...
Most people can go back to work and the activities they enjoy within a few months of having a heart attack. Others may have to limit their activity if their heart muscle is too weak. The amount of activity you can do will be based on the condition of your heart. Your doctor will work with you to develop a recovery plan.. You will need to start slowly. For the first few days after your heart attack, you may need to rest and let your heart heal. As your heart heals, you will be ready to start moving around again. A few days after your heart attack, your doctor may want you to move around more. You may do stretching exercises and get up and walk. You will then slowly become more active, based on advice from your doctor.. After you have gotten through the early weeks after a heart attack, your doctor may talk to you about how to be active within your limits. Your doctor probably will want you to do an exercise test, also called a stress test. During this test, you will exercise (usually by walking ...
Human heart diagram - human body pictures - science for kids at muscles. Basic Heart Diagram encouraged to help my own web site, within this moment I will teach you in relation to Basic heart diagram.. And after this, here is the primary image, basic heart diagram, basic heart diagram to label, basic heart diagram quiz, basic heart diagram worksheet, basic human heart diagram, basic heart anatomy diagram :. ...
Each year, approximately 17 million persons die from cardiovascular disease, mainly heart disease and stroke, making it the worlds leading cause of death (1). Controlling certain risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, tobacco use, and physical inactivity, can help prevent heart disease and stroke.. This year marks the 10th anniversary of celebrating World Heart Day. In 2000, the World Heart Federation, a nongovernmental organization based in Geneva, Switzerland, created the annual World Heart Day campaign to increase public awareness of the threat of heart disease and stroke.. The theme of the 2010 World Heart Day is Workplace Wellness: Take Responsibility for Your Own Heart Health. Promoting physical activity and healthful eating and discouraging tobacco use around the workplace are simple ways to foster health in the workplace. Activities organized by members and partners of the World Heart Federation will include workplace campaigns, runs, public ...
The American Heart Association reports that an estimated 42.2 million Americans over age 60 have one or more types of cardiovascular disease, which are conditions affecting the heart and blood vessels. These conditions include coronary artery disease, heart attack, heart failure, abnormal heart rhythms, congenital heart disease and stroke.. Those battling heart disease fell 29 percent more than those without a chronic condition, based on our study of 145,000 Philips Lifeline users. Heart conditions have symptoms that can leave you feeling unwell and unsteady, including muscle weakness and fatigue, lightheadedness, dizziness, shortness of breath, nausea, swelling of the legs, ankles and feet, and even fainting.. And if youve suffered a stroke, you may be left with hemiparesis, a condition marked by weakness and sensory imbalances affecting one side of the body. Hemiparesis makes simple, everyday activities more difficult and possibly dangerous, particularly for seniors living alone.. "In the ...
Oh, high blood pressure? Thats only in old people". "Heart problems only occur in adults or old people". Arent these your thoughts too? Most of us think that problems related to high blood pressure (hypertension) and heart problems only occur in adults or older people. In reality, it can affect people of all ages, including children.. Studies show a significant rise in the number of children affected by non-communicable diseases like hypertension and heart diseases. Commemorating World Heart Health Day, we would like to highlight that taking care of the heart needs to start in childhood.. Obesity; the main culprit. Although there are a number of factors that can adversely affect heart health in children, obesity remains the main culprit. Obesity also hastens the occurrence of other heart disease risk factors like high blood pressure, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and so on. High BP is an important risk factor for heart diseases.. A study that looked at the relationship of childhood obesity ...
Surgery for problems unrelated towards the heart can harm heart cells - and it may be deadly for many patients, new research finds.. Research printed Monday within the American Heart Associations journal Circulation discovered that heart cell damage occurring during or following a non-heart-related operation was connected by having an elevated chance of dying among patients who have been 65 or older or whod a pre-existing heart problem.. Heart damage that develops during or after surgical treatment is known as perioperative myocardial injuries, or PMI.. "Patients with PMI are often missed simply because they show no signs and symptoms of cardiovascular disease in nearly all cases and just hardly ever experience chest discomfort, the typical characteristic of cardiac arrest,Inches stated the studys lead author Christian Puelacher, M.D., Ph.D., a clinical investigator at Cardiovascular Research Institute Basel in Europe, in an announcement.. The research incorporated greater than 2,000 men and ...
Cardiac regeneration is a broad effort that aims to repair irreversibly damaged heart tissue with cutting-edge science, including stem cell and cell-free therapy. Reparative tools have been engineered to restore damaged heart tissue and function using the bodys natural ability to regenerate. During a typical myocardial infarction or heart attack, an estimated one billion cardiac cells are lost. The scarring that results is then responsible for greatly increasing the risk of life-threatening abnormal heart rhythms or arrhythmias. Therefore, the ability to naturally regenerate the heart would have an enormous impact of modern healthcare.. ...
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY Chronic Kidney Disease Cardiovascular System The cardiovascular system is sometimes called the circulatory system. It consists of the heart, which is a muscular pumping device, and a closed system of vessels called arteries, veins, and capillaries. As the name implies, blood contained in the circulatory system is pumped by the heart around a closed circuit of vessels as it passes again and again through the various "circulations" of the body. The Heart * The heart is enclosed by a sac known as the pericardium. There are three layers of tissues that form the heart wall. The outer layer of the heart wall is the epicardium, the middle layer is the myocardium, and the inner layer is the endocardium. The internal cavity of the heart is divided into four chambers: * Right atrium * Right ventricle * Left atrium * Left ventricle * The two atria are thin-walled chambers that receive blood from the veins. The two ventricles are thick-walled chambers that forcefully pump blood out of ...
The tragic death of actor James Gandolfini at the age of only 51 following cardiac arrest serves as a grim reminder that sudden cardiac arrest does not discriminate by age. While reporting his death, the media has seemed to stir up a bit of confusion regarding whether Mr. Gandolfini suffered a heart attack or cardiac arrest. The investigation into cause of death is ongoing, but the head physician of the emergency room Gandolfini was admitted to has confirmed he was in a state of cardiac arrest. It is possible that this was a result of a previous heart attack, but it is important to understand the difference between these two conditions.. Heart attacks occur when there is a blockage of vessels in the heart limiting blood flow; however, the heart generally keeps beating. Cardiac arrest is caused by ventricular fibrillation, which is caused by a lack of synchronicity of the hearts chambers resulting in a sudden stoppage of blood flow and loss of consciousness. As mentioned above, cardiac arrest ...
We report an accurate method for studying the functional dynamics of the beating embryonic zebrafish heart. The fast cardiac contraction rate and the high velocity of blood cells have made it difficult to study cellular and subcellular events relating to heart function in vivo. We have devised a dynamic three-dimensional acquisition, reconstruction, and analysis procedure by combining (1) a newly developed confocal slit-scanning microscope, (2) novel strategies for collecting and synchronizing cyclic image sequences to build volumes with high temporal and spatial resolution over the entire depth of the beating heart, and (3) data analysis and reduction protocols for the systematic extraction of quantitative information to describe phenotype and function. We have used this approach to characterize blood flow and heart efficiency by imaging fluorescent protein-expressing blood and endocardial cells as the heart develops from a tube to a multichambered organ. The methods are sufficiently robust to ...
Their research, published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, compared the differences between hypertrophic heart growth in rats as a result of exercise - which is beneficial - and heart growth induced by pathology - in this case increased load. Specifically, they compared epigenetic marks responsible for locking cells in their final developed state - important for preventing cells from switching to a less differentiated state. Notably for their analysis, the researchers employed a powerful cell sorting technique to allow them to study pure populations of heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes) rather than a mix of all cell types in the heart - which, due to an alteration in composition during disease, would confound analysis ...
The heart may be just as small as the fist, but it is considered to be one of the strongest muscles in the human body. Aside from this, it is also one of the most important organs simply because of the fact that it controls the whole blood circulation. As small as it is, the heart can actually create enough energy to drive a truck for 20 miles, pump 1.5 million barrels of blood during a lifetime, beat 100,000 times a day, and many more. Aside from this, it is only the heart that has a special cluster of self-starting cells. These cells are responsible fro making sure that the heart is able to beat a specific pattern. This makes it even more important for us to make sure that we take good care of the heart to prevent heart diseases.. Regardless of age, the two best ways to prevent a heart disease are being physically active and following a healthy eating habit. To be physically healthy, the human body needs at least 150 minutes of aerobic physical activity like brisk walking or 75 minutes of an ...
Blood supply of the heart, Innervations of the heart, Heart beat, Cardiac cycle, The shape of heart is like a fist of a person. Normally its length is 12 centimeter and breadth is nine centimeter (5x 3.5 inch).
In order to better understand the function of Raf-1 in mature cardiac muscle, we used the Cre-loxP system to specifically inactivate the c-raf-1 gene in cardiac muscle. Our data indicate that the c-raf-1 gene is not essential for mouse heart development or the regulation of developmental cardiomyocyte hypertrophic growth. Our data, however, do not exclude the role of the MEK/ERK pathway in cardiac development or hypertrophy, since MEK1/2 and ERK can be activated in Raf CKO hearts.. Raf CKO mice exhibited cardiac dysfunction and heart dilatation at 5 weeks of age. Raf CKO hearts demonstrated a heightened level of apoptosis at 3, 4, and 5 weeks but not at 2 weeks and after 6 weeks of age, even though cardiac contractility progressively decreased during the 10 weeks. These findings suggest that apoptosis is one of the early causes of cardiac dysfunction rather than a terminal event associated with the end stage. Mice are undergoing marked postnatal growth and hypertrophic stimulation during the ...
A successful CABG sure should increase your EF. It revitalizes the heart muscle by greatly increasing the blood supply to your heart muscle that formerly had myocardium (heart muscle) that was deprived of adequate blood flow. An EF of 23 is not good Dizzy. SSDI requires an EF of 30 or less to qualify for heart failure. If your EF is truly 23, you have some degree of heart failure. It can certainly improve dramatically after CABG, if your heart was not significantly damaged from lack of coronary blood flow to the heart (prior to the CABG). Your EF should be at least 45. Normal for my age is around 55. Mine is 45 ...
KERNSPINRESONANZ-ABBILDUNGSVERFAHREN + KERNSPINRESONANZ-TOMOGRAPHIE (MEDIZINISCHE DIAGNOSTIK); ZUSAMMENGESETZTE BEWEGUNGEN + NICHTLOKOMOTORISCHE BEWEGUNGEN (ANATOMIE UND PHYSIOLOGIE); HERZKAMMERN (PATHOLOGIE); KARDIOLOGISCHE DIAGNOSTIK (MEDIZIN); HERZVORHÖFE + HERZKAMMERN + HERZMUSKEL (ANATOMIE, PHYSIOLOGIE); NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING + NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE TOMOGRAPHY (MEDICAL DIAGNOSTICS); COMBINED MOVEMENTS + NON-LOCOMOTIVE MOVEMENTS (ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY); HEART VENTRICLES (PATHOLOGY); CARDIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS (MEDICINE); CARDIAL ATRIA +CARDIAL VENTRICLES + HEART MUSCLE (ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY ...
A heart-lung preparation with flow limited to the coronary vessels was used to study cardiac performance 4 to 120 days after severe constriction of the abdominal aorta in rabbits. Cardiac performance was evaluated by finding the maximum mean arterial pressure against which the heart could pump. Cardiac performance began to exceed the normal, range by the second or third post operative week and was well above normal after the first month. A high cardiac performance was not necessarily associated with marked ventricular hypertrophy. Animals died of heart failure within the first month, and all had developed a much more rapid rate of blood pressure increase than those that survived without signs of decompensation. We conclude that the basic cause of heart failure after severe aorta constriction is a rapid rise in arterial pressure which exceeds the rate at which the heart develops an improved performance.. ...
In this article, we successfully isolate Sca-1+ cells from postnatal mice hearts with the MACS system, using a microbead-labeled anti-Sca-1 antibody. The isolated Sca-1+ cells express the stemness markers Nanog and TERT, the cardiac mesoderm markers ISL-1, TBX5, and the cardiac specific transcription factors GATA4, Nkx2.5, and MEF2C. They can be propagated in vitro for a long time without any significant changes in marker expression. Moreover, the isolated Sca-1+ cells and their long-term descendants exhibit multipotent differentiation to cardiac cell lineages, including smooth muscle, endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. So, the Sca-1+ cells we isolated from mouse heart tissue should be identified as CPCs.. Isolation of a cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) population from the heart is challenging, particularly because of a lack of specific surface markers. Though Sca-1+ cells, c-kit+ cells, Isl-1+ cells, WT1+ cells, SP cells and CDCs have been extracted from postnatal cardiac tissue [8-14], it ...
Surgery for problems unrelated towards the heart can harm heart cells - and it may be deadly for many patients, new research finds.. Research printed Monday within the American Heart Associations journal Circulation discovered that heart cell damage occurring during or following a non-heart-related operation was connected by having an elevated chance of dying among patients who have been 65 or older or whod a pre-existing heart problem.. Heart damage that develops during or after surgical treatment is known as perioperative myocardial injuries, or PMI.. "Patients with PMI are often missed simply because they show no signs and symptoms of cardiovascular disease in nearly all cases and just hardly ever experience chest discomfort, the typical characteristic of cardiac arrest,Inches stated the studys lead author Christian Puelacher, M.D., Ph.D., a clinical investigator at Cardiovascular Research Institute Basel in Europe, in an announcement.. The research incorporated greater than 2,000 men and ...
A new study has revealed statins can reduce the thickness of the heart - which experts say is a good predictor of future heart attack risk.. The research by scientists at Queen Mary University of London, suggest statins improve blood flow, lower blood pressure and reduce stress on the heart.. The most common cause of cardiovascular disease is the build-up of fatty deposits in the arteries - a process called atherolsclerosis, which can lead to a heart attack or a stroke.. Heart attacks can cause an uncomfortable tightness or heaviness in the chest, rather than a sharp stabbing pain.. They can also cause shortness of breath, sweating, and pain in the arm.. Researchers investigating the link between statins and the heart considered data from more than 4,500 participants, who did not have heart disease.. They looked at MRI scans to assess the volume and mass of the heart.. Medical records - and results from questionnaires, found 17 per cent were prescribed statins - and these people were older, had ...
Heart disease kills more than 600,000 Americans each year - making it the most deadly killer in the United States. But the good news is that there are many things you can do to decrease your risk of succumbing to this all too common killer. Written by Matthew Budoff, the book Enhancing Heart Health: Preventing a Heart Attack breaks down important need-to-know statistics regarding heart disease, while providing relatively easy ways to improve their heart health. Budoff writes:. CVD (Cardiovascular Disease) has claimed the lives of more females than males. And the gap between male and female deaths has increased dramatically ... In addition, black females are more at risk than white females. According to the statistics, a woman dies of heart disease every minute, more than half a million each year. Annually, heart disease kills 10 times more women than breast cancer.. Men and women experience and react to heart disease differently. According to the Center for the Advancement of Health, women take ...
This program explains heart attacks. The program includes the following sections: what are the symptoms of a heart attack, what is the anatomy of the heart, what causes heart attacks, what is the difference between angina and heart attacks, how are heart attacks treated, how do you create an emergency plan for heart attacks, what is cardiac arrest and how do you prevent heart attacks.
Life-Size Human Heart Model, 5 parts with Representation of Systole - 3B Smart Anatomy | Human Heart Models | Invest in quality with this uniquely sectioned 5-part heart model by 3B Scientific. Cast from a real human heart and didactically prepared to facilitate a better understanding of the anatomy and blood flow of the heart. It shows the cardiac valves
When a persons heart does not act as it should, he is said to have functional heart disease; when the heart is inflamed or deformed, it is called organic heart disease. The heart may act poorly in several different ways. It may be irritable, so that it beats violently from slight causes ; or, it may be neither sluggish nor rapid, but the beats may be irregular, so that every little while a beat is missed; or there may be extra beats; or, a person may have functional heart disease and suffer great pain in the chest, in the arms, or the back.
With this research study, we want to specifically study a group of patients who have chest pain or other signs or symptoms suggestive of heart disease but dont have visible blockages in the large heart arteries. Patients with chest pain who undergo heart catheterization but have no blockages of large heart arteries will be consented and enrolled. Patients will be asked to fill out questionnaires about their medical history, including family, reproductive and, social histories. They will also be asked to undergo testing during heart catheterization that would test for abnormalities in their small heart arteries using medications, acetylcholine and adenosine. This testing is a standard of care procedure given at the discretion of the treating physician. Patients would receive this test whether they participate in the research or not. The test is performed by infusing acetylcholine and adenosine through the same catheter that is used for routine heart catheterization. This test may add an ...
Ischemic heart disease is a heart problem caused by heart arteries that are narrowed. When there are blockages in arteries, they become narrowed, which means less blood and oxygen reaches the heart muscle. When more oxygen is needed, such as while exercising, the heart cannot meet the demands. The lack of oxygen caused by ischemic heart disease can product chest pain, discomfort known as angina pectoris or even a heart attack.. ...
An astonishing 80 percent of women ages 40 to 60 have one or more risk factor for heart disease. Having one or more risk factors dramatically increases a womans chance of developing heart disease because risk factors tend to worsen each others effects. In fact, according to research compiled by the NHLBI, having just one risk factor doubles your chance of developing heart disease.. Whatever a womans age, she needs to take action to protect her heart health. Heart disease can begin early, even in the teen years, and women in their 20s and 30s need to take action to reduce their risk of developing heart disease. Yet among U.S. women ages 18 and older, 17.3 percent are current smokers, 51.6 are overweight (BMI of 25 or greater), 27 percent have hypertension, 35 percent have high cholesterol, and 53 percent do not meet physical activity recommendations. African American and Hispanic women, in particular, have higher rates of some risk factors for heart disease and are disproportionately affected ...
A method for revascularizing a coronary vessel with a conduit through the heart wall having a diameter transition in the myocardial leg, wherein blood flow is in the direction of transition from larger to smaller diameter. A method for revascularizing a coronary vessel using an implant with a myocardial leg having a maximum cross-sectional area proximate a first end, and inserting the first end through the myocardium into a heart chamber so that the implant directs blood flow into the coronary vessel. A transmyocardial implant with a myocardial leg including point of minimum diameter and a first end with a larger diameter, and a vessel leg in fluid communication with the myocardial leg.
A method for revascularizing a coronary vessel with a conduit through the heart wall having a diameter transition in the myocardial leg, wherein blood flow is in the direction of transition from larger to smaller diameter. A method for revascularizing a coronary vessel using an implant with a myocardial leg having a maximum cross-sectional area proximate a first end, and inserting the first end through the myocardium into a heart chamber so that the implant directs blood flow into the coronary vessel. A transmyocardial implant with a myocardial leg including point of minimum diameter and a first end with a larger diameter, and a vessel leg in fluid communication with the myocardial leg.
This UK National Heart Month, the British Heart Foundation is once again raising awareness about heart disease. Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is currently the most common type of irregular heart rhythm, known to affect about 1.3 million in the UK. It occurs when the upper chambers of the heart - known as the atria - produce uncoordinated electrical messages. This makes them contract randomly and twitch, causing an irregular, or sometimes fast, heartbeat.. Adrian Bennett, 69, from Worsley in Manchester, has AF and been under the care of the cardiology team at Spire Manchester Hospital for more than a year. Adrians story:. He first started to feel unwell in Autumn 2018, up until this point he had no known heart issues. He was suffering with breathlessness, had gained a lot of weight around his middle, and his legs and ankles were puffy. Adrian had his initial treatment on the NHS, after being rushed to hospital following advice from his son, who is a dentist, to seek urgent medical attention, where he ...
In order to assist a surgeon by operating on a beating heart, visual stabilization makes the beating heart appear still to a surgeon by providing the current heart view as stationary and non-moving. In this way, the surgeon is not disturbed during an operation by a motion of the heart and can get an impression of performing conventional surgery. In contrast to existing methods for visual stabilization, the proposed approach involves a model-based transformation of image sequences provided by a camera system. This transformation incorporates the knowledge of physical characteristics of the heart in form of a mathematical model of the heart surface. Its main advantage is that the uncertainties of the model and measurements are considered. This occurs by estimating the parameters of the transformation. Furthermore, the quality of the visual stabilization is additionally improved by adapting the parameters of the underlying physical model. A performance of the proposed approach is evaluated in an ...
Owens book VITAMIN C CURES: Heart Disease (Formerly Practicing Medicine Without a License) documents the amazing 12-year, (now 26 year,) history of the Linus Pauling and Matthias Rath theory and the Linus Pauling therapy for reversing coronary heart disease.. Linus Pauling and associates invented and patented a safe, low-cost, effective, non-prescription therapy for heart disease that Pauling said could "completely control, even cure Americans number one killer. Owens enhanced Pauling-therapy protocol for reversing heart disease from the book is available as an excerpt (PDF file). This protocol prevents and often reverses coronary heart disease, something Pauling predicated was possible after the patient corrects an ancient genetic defect (so-called GULO defect) that prevents humans from making their own vitamin C. Owens protocols are based on his more than two decades of study and recommending the Pauling therapy to heart patients.. Heart patients who elected to follow Linus Paulings ...
Irregular heartbeats change the amount of blood that flows to the lungs and other parts of the body. The amount of blood that the heart pumps may be decreased when the heart pumps too slow or too fast.. Changes such as atrial fibrillation that start in the upper chambers of the heart can be serious, because they increase your risk of forming blood clots in your heart. This in turn can increase your risk for having a stroke or a blood clot in your lungs ( pulmonary embolism ). People who have heart disease , heart failure , or a history of heart attack should be more concerned with any changes in their usual heart rhythm or rate.. Fast heart rhythms that begin in the lower chambers of the heart are called ventricular arrhythmias. They usually are fast and regular, such as ventricular tachycardia, or fast and irregular, such as ventricular fibrillation. These types of heart rhythms make it hard for the heart to pump enough blood to the brain or the rest of the body and can be life-threatening. ...
First, I had to ask myself, "What do heart disease and cancer have in common?. 4. Heart disease and cancer all have a genetic factor. Well, thats true, yet the genetic factor only affects small percentage of population, and is beyond our control.. 3. Heart disease and cancer are associated with aging. While aging is inevitable, how you age inside and outside is really up to you nowadays.. 2. Heart disease and cancer have been linked to inflammation. Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation plays an important role in the development of heart disease and cancer. The body produces elevated level of C-reactive protein (CRP) in response to inflammation, and studies show that CRP, a marker of inflammation, is tied to risks of developing heart attack, stroke and cancer.. 1. Heart disease and cancer are significantly influenced by poor lifestyle factors, including obesity, dietary, and other behavioral habits. Everybody knows that smoking can cause lung cancer, but not everybody is aware of ...
Harvard researchers took inspiration from the heart itself to create an entirely new device that doesnt come into contact with blood. The thin silicone sleeve uses soft pneumatic actuators placed around the heart to mimic the outer muscle layers of the mammalian heart. The actuators twist and compress the sleeve in a similar motion to the beating heart.. The device is tethered to an external pump, which uses air to power the soft actuators.. The sleeve can be customized for each patient, said Roche. If a patient has more weakness on the left side of the heart, for example, the actuators can be tuned to give more assistance on that side. The pressure of the actuators can also increase or decrease over time, as the patients condition evolves.. The following graphic is: in vivo demonstration of cardiac assist in a porcine model of acute heart failure.. ...
Heart attack patients may soon be able to have a blood test to predict any future heart attacks according to recent research. The Journal Physical Biology just published a new study that found that patients who have had previous heart attacks have unique cells that are floating around in their circulatory system. Researchers are currently investigating whether they can predict who is about to have a heart attack compared to those who are healthy.. A group of scientists at the Scripps Research Institute in California are examining patients blood for the unique endothelial cells that are found cruising around in the circulatory system. Pieces of fatty plaques that build up on blood vessel walls can rupture and dislodge into the blood stream. Eventually these pieces, along with blood clots from ulcerated blood vessels, can block various vessels around the heart leading to a lack of blood flow that leads to a heart attack.. The research consisted of 111 patients, 79 after a previous heart attack, ...
Heart attack treatment as an emergency. This is the most fatal situation when a person has sudden heart attack characterized by squeezing chest pain, dizziness, and difficulty in breathing. Normally, the patient is rushed to the nearest health clinic or hospital especially when the heart has stopped pumping blood. Just a delay for a few minutes can result to stroke or even death. The first heart attack treatment done is using a defibrillator to shock the heart so it would return to its normal rhythm. Once the heart has been stabilized, certain medications are given to correct whatever damage has been done. Epinephrine is a common medication given for cardio cerebral resuscitation along with CPR. Sometimes, aspirin is taken by the patient as well as nitroglycerin to control blood pressure which affects the patient. The earlier heart attack treatment is given at the very start of the attack, less damage can happen to vital organs ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Macrophages are required for neonatal heart regeneration. AU - Aurora, Arin B.. AU - Porrello, Enzo R.. AU - Tan, Wei. AU - Mahmoud, Ahmed I.. AU - Hill, Joseph A.. AU - Bassel-Duby, Rhonda. AU - Sadek, Hesham A.. AU - Olson, Eric N.. PY - 2014/3/3. Y1 - 2014/3/3. N2 - Myocardial infarction (MI) leads to cardiomyocyte death, which triggers an immune response that clears debris and restores tissue integrity. In the adult heart, the immune system facilitates scar formation, which repairs the damaged myocardium but compromises cardiac function. In neonatal mice, the heart can regenerate fully without scarring following MI; however, this regenerative capacity is lost by P7. The signals that govern neonatal heart regeneration are unknown. By comparing the immune response to MI in mice at P1 and P14, we identified differences in the magnitude and kinetics of monocyte and macrophage responses to injury. Using a cell-depletion model, we determined that heart regeneration and ...
heart exercise,heart exercise yoga,heart medicine,heart medicine in homeopathy,heart medicine in patanjali,heart medicines in india,heart mudra,heart opening yoga poses,heart opening yoga poses benefits,heart problem ayurvedic treatment,heart problem medicine,heart problem solution in hindi,heart remedies,heart strengthening yoga,heart tonic ayurvedic,heart tonic in homeopathy,heart treatment in homeopathy,heart treatment without angioplasty,heart treatment without bypass surgery,heart treatment without surgery,heart treatment without surgery…
What Are Diseased Heart Valves?. Diseased heart valves can affect the flow of blood through the heart. The heart consists of four valves, with two large blood vessels leaving the heart to ensure that blood doesnt go back into the heart after it has been pumped out.. Diseased or damaged heart valves can affect this flow by restricting or obstructing the blood-this is known as valve stenosis or narrowing. This puts extra strain on the heart so that it has to pump much harder to get the blood through the narrowing. If the valve doesnt close properly, then its known as a leaky valve, valve incompetence, or regurgitation.. What Causes Diseased Heart Valves?. There are a few known causes, and these include being born with an abnormal valve/s, having had rheumatic fever, damaged heart muscle after a heart attack, or cardiomyopathy (a disease of the heart muscle). If youve had rheumatic fever or a previous condition with endocarditis, these can all have an effect.. One of the main causes of diseased ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of chronic methamphetamine exposure on heart function in uninfected and retrovirus-infected mice. AU - Yu, Qianli. AU - Montes, Sergio. AU - Larson, Douglas F. AU - Watson, Ronald R. PY - 2002/7/12. Y1 - 2002/7/12. N2 - Methamphetamine (MA) increases catecholamine levels, which have detrimental effects on heart function through vasoconstriction, myocardial hypertrophy, and fibrosis. Murine retrovirus infection induces dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The present study investigated the cardiovascular effects of chronic MA treatment on uninfected and retrovirus-infected mice. C57BL/6 mice were studied after 12 weeks treatment. The four study groups were (group I) uninfected, MA placebo; (group II) infected, MA placebo; (group III) uninfected, MA treatment; and (group IV) infected and MA treatment. MA injections were given i.p. once a day for 5 days/week with a increasing dose from 15 mg/kg to 40 mg/kg. Left ventricular mechanics were measured in situ a using Millar conductance ...
Incomplete penetrance of congenital heart defects (CHDs) was observed in a mouse model. We hypothesized that the contribution of a major genetic locus modulates the manifestation of the CHDs. After genome-wide linkage mapping, fine mapping, and high-throughput targeted sequencing, a recessive frameshift mutation of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (Hnrnpa1) gene was confirmed (Hnrnpa1ct). Hnrnpa1 was expressed in both the first heart field (FHF) and second heart field (SHF) at the cardiac crescent stage but was only maintained in SHF progenitors after heart tube formation. Hnrnpa1ct/ct homozygous mutants displayed complete CHD penetrance, including truncated and incomplete looped heart tube at E9.5, ventricular septal defect (VSD) and persistent truncus arteriosus (PTA) at E13.5, and VSD and double outlet right ventricle at P0. Impaired development of the dorsal mesocardium and sinoatrial node progenitors was also observed. Loss of Hnrnpa1 expression leads to dysregulation of ...
malignant hypertensive heart disease with heart failure, malignant hypertensive heart disease with heart failure icd 10, malignant hypertensive heart disease without heart failure, malignant hypertensive heart disease without heart failure icd 10, malignant hypertensive heart disease without congestive heart failure, malignant hypertension with hypertensive heart disease and congestive heart failure
BACKGROUND--Although heart rate variability has already been studied in survivors of sudden cardiac death secondary to coronary artery disease, an assessment of heart rate variability in survivors of sudden cardiac death not associated with coronary artery disease has not been made. METHODS--10 patients with aborted sudden cardiac death not associated with coronary artery disease (seven patients with primary ventricular fibrillation and three with unclassified mild cardiomyopathy) underwent two channel 24 hour Holter monitoring in a drug free state. All subjects were in sinus rhythm and had normal atrioventricular conduction and normal cardiac function. Spectral heart rate variability was analysed on a Holter analysis system and was expressed as total (0.01-1.00 Hz), low (0.04-0.15 Hz) and high (0.15-0.40 Hz) frequency components for each hour. Heart rate variability index was calculated for the 24 hour periods. 10 age and sex matched healthy subjects were taken as a control group. RESULTS--The ...
Table of Contents. Table of Contents 2. List of Tables 8. List of Figures 9. Introduction 10. Global Markets Direct Report Coverage 10. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Ischemic Heart Disease) Overview 11. Therapeutics Development 12. Pipeline Products for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Ischemic Heart Disease)-Overview 12. Pipeline Products for Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Ischemic Heart Disease)-Comparative Analysis 13. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Ischemic Heart Disease)-Therapeutics under Development by Companies 14. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Ischemic Heart Disease)-Therapeutics under Investigation by Universities/Institutes 17. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Ischemic Heart Disease)-Pipeline Products Glance 18. Late Stage Products 18. Clinical Stage Products 19. Early Stage Products 20. Unknown Stage Products 21. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Ischemic Heart Disease)-Products under Development by Companies 22. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) (Ischemic Heart Disease)-Products under ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Targeting protein tyrosine phosphatase σ after myocardial infarction restores cardiac sympathetic innervation and prevents arrhythmias. AU - Gardner, R. T.. AU - Wang, L.. AU - Lang, B. T.. AU - Cregg, J. M.. AU - Dunbar, C. L.. AU - Woodward, William. AU - Silver, J.. AU - Ripplinger, C. M.. AU - Habecker, Beth. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Millions of people suffer a myocardial infarction (MI) every year, and those who survive have increased risk of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Recent clinical studies have identified sympathetic denervation as a predictor of increased arrhythmia susceptibility. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans present in the cardiac scar after MI prevent sympathetic reinnervation by binding the neuronal protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor σ (PTPσ). Here we show that the absence of PTPσ, or pharmacologic modulation of PTPσ by the novel intracellular sigma peptide (ISP) beginning 3 days after injury, restores sympathetic innervation to the scar and ...
heart; Chips, Loves Both the Edible; Chips, The Non-Edible Silicon. "Nokia 8 Flagship with Snapdragon 835 and Zeiss Dual Camera ...
2008). "Metabolic actions of metformin in the heart can occur by AMPK-independent mechanisms". Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ... According to the prescribing information, heart failure (in particular, unstable or acute congestive heart failure) increases ... Outcomes appear to be improved even in those with some degree of kidney disease, heart failure, or liver problems. The American ... However, following a meta-analysis in 2007 that linked the medication's use to an increased risk of heart attack, concerns were ...
... is the replacement of the aortic valve of the heart through the blood vessels (as opposed to valve replacement by open heart ... Once the wire is across, a large tube is used to place the transcatheter heart valve through the femoral vein and inferior vena ... Under general anesthesia, a small surgical incision is made between the ribs, followed by a small puncture of the heart. The ... Afterwards, the hole in the aorta is closed with a self-collapsing nitinol device designed to close holes in the heart. ...
This means that some of the blood that was already ejected from the heart is regurgitating back into the heart. The percentage ... The amount of blood that is ejected by the heart is known as the stroke volume. Under normal conditions, >50% of the blood in a ... Bonow, RO; American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to revise the 1998 guidelines for ... Heart in Fours: Cardiology for Residents and Practitioners. JP Medical Ltd. p. 47. ISBN 9789350904930. Retrieved 4 June 2016. ...
"Birmingham Children's & Women's Hospital Will Now Be Run As One". Heart. 31 January 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2017. "Exclusive: ...
However, high doses of deguelin are suspected of having negative effects on the heart, lungs and nerves. The molecular ... Tissue distributions after i.g. (intragastric) administration: perirenal fat > heart > mammary gland > colon > kidney > liver ... heart > fat > mammary gland > colon > liver > kidney > brain > lung. ...
The American Heart Association, NIH and NCEP provide a set of guidelines for fasting HDL levels and risk for heart disease. ... Data from the landmark Framingham Heart Study showed that, for a given level of LDL, the risk of heart disease increases 10- ... National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute HDL: The good, but complex, cholesterol - Harvard Heart Letter HDL Cholesterol at Lab ... National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). Retrieved 2 June 2011. M.J. Sorrentino (2011), "Non-HDL-Cholesterol", ...
Although still controversial, this may increase the risk of stroke or heart attack in people taking clopidogrel to prevent ... Heart. 99 (8): 520-7. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2012-302371. PMID 22851683. Shirasaka, Y; Sager, J. E.; Lutz, J. D.; Davis, C; ...
Heart. 93 (2): 215. doi:10.1136/hrt.2006.093187. PMC 1861368 . PMID 17228071. Hibino H, Kurachi Y (March 2006). "A new insight ...
Perrault LP (2003). "A prospective randomized angiographic study of open versus endoscopic saphenectomy for CABG". Heart ... Heart Surgery Forum. 6: S15. Meyer DM (2000). "Histologic evidence of the safety of endoscopic saphenous vein graft preparation ... Heart Surgery Forum. 6: E143. Connolly MW (2002). "Endoscopic radial artery harvesting: results of first 300 patients". Annals ... channel or new blood flow connection across the heart. The success of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) may be ...
Every year, 300,000 people worldwide undergo open heart surgery for mitral valve repair, 44,000 people in the US alone. Since ... de Oliveira, J.M.F; Antunes, M.J (2006). "Mitral valve repair: better than replacement". Heart. 92 (2): 275-281. doi:10.1136/ ... 2006). "ACC/AHA 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease". Circulation. 114 (5): e84-e231. ...
"Alcohol intake and the risk of coronary heart disease in the Spanish EPIC cohort study". Heart. 96 (2): 124-30. doi:10.1136/hrt ... involving hypertrophy of the musculature of the heart that can lead to congestive heart failure. Alcoholics may have anemia ... A meta-analysis of 34 studies found a reduced risk of mortality from coronary heart disease in men who drank 2 - 4 drinks per ... 2002). "Alcohol, heart disease, and mortality: a review". Rev Cardiovasc Med. 3 (1): 7-13. PMID 12439349. Sesso HD, Stampfer MJ ...
Kubler P, Gibbs H, Garrahy P (2000). "Platypnoea-orthodeoxia syndrome". Heart. 83 (2): 221-3. doi:10.1136/heart.83.2.221. PMC ...
The Perpetrators Speak". HEART. Archived from the original on September 6, 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2014 - via Internet ...
Heart. 81 (3): 308-12. doi:10.1136/hrt.81.3.308. PMC 1728981 . PMID 10026359. Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, ...
When the heart is involved, the prognosis is generally less favourable, though corticosteroids appear effective in improving AV ... Less commonly affected are the eyes, liver, heart, and brain. Any organ, however, can be affected. The signs and symptoms ... Syed J, Myers R; Myers (January 2004). "Sarcoid heart disease". Can J Cardiol. 20 (1): 89-93. PMID 14968147. Sadek MM, Yung D, ... Cardiac sarcoidosis can cause fibrosis, granuloma formation, or the accumulation of fluid in the interstitium of the heart, or ...
For a healthy human heart the entire cardiac cycle typically runs less than one second. That is, for a normal heart rate of 72 ... Diastole /daɪˈæstəliː/ is that part of the cardiac cycle during which the heart refills with blood after the emptying done ... Examining diastolic function during a cardiac stress test is a good way to test for heart failure with preserved ejection ... Over time, decreased cardiac output will diminish the ability of the heart to circulate blood efficiently throughout the body. ...
"Harwich: Birth Of The American Dream?". Heart. 1 May 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2015. "Harwich tries to claim Mayflower". Wall ...
He is also famous for discovering the sinoatrial node, the component of the heart which makes it beat, with his student Martin ... Heart. 93 (10): 1184-1187. doi:10.1136/hrt.2006.105049. PMC 2000948 . PMID 17890694. BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF FORMER FELLOWS OF ...
... is a disorder of the heart muscle in people with diabetes. It can lead to inability of the heart to ... While the heart can function without help from the nervous system, it is highly innervated with autonomic nerves, regulating ... An analysis of major clinical trials shows that diabetic patients with heart failure benefit from such a therapy to a similar ... Therefore, the diabetic heart shows clear denervation as the pathology progresses. This denervation correlates with ...
Strokes of laddish humour, dad-dancing and chart-toppers such as Heart Skips a Beat and Dance With Me Tonight all appeared ... Hughes, Lorna (17 March 2017). "REVIEW: Olly Murs makes fans' hearts skip a beat at ECHO Arena". Liverpool Echo. Retrieved 7 ... "See Olly Murs Live On His Spring 2017 Arena Tour!". Heart. Global. 5 September 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2017. Ahmed, Afshan (5 ... " "Heart Skips a Beat" "24 Hrs" "Deeper" "Dear Darlin'" "That's the Way (I Like It)" / "Never Too Much" / "She's Got That Vibe ...
Heart's version of her song became the band's eighth U.S. top-ten single, peaking at number seven. It also climbed to number ... "Who Will You Run To" is a song recorded by American rock band Heart. It was composed by Diane Warren and released as the second ... https://www.billboard.com/artist/303367/heart/chart?f=379 "Heart". AllMusic. Retrieved 2012-01-12. ... "HEART , full Official Chart History , Official Charts Company". officialcharts.com. Retrieved 2016-11-09. ...
Low sodium versus normal sodium diets in systolic heart failure: systematic review and meta-analysis". Heart. 99 (11): 820. doi ... "Low sodium versus normal sodium diets in systolic heart failure: systematic review and meta-analysis". Heart (British Cardiac ... In 2012, the British Journal Heart published an article claiming that a low salt diet appears to increase the risk of death in ... "Heart pulls sodium meta-analysis over duplicated, and now missing, data". Retraction Watch. Retrieved 2013-09-29. Sodium, Your ...
Heart Disease and Exercise 1957 Aubrey Lewis, Between Guesswork and Certainty in Psychiatry 1956 Phillips William, The ... Bedford, D. E.; Muir, D. C. (1959). "James William Brown". Heart. 21: 284-8. doi:10.1136/hrt.21.2.284. "Obituary". BMJ. 1 (4874 ... doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(01)29463-X. "Bradshaw Lecture ON THE SURGERY OF THE HEART". The Lancet. 195 (5029): 134-139. 1920. doi: ... doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(01)09687-8. Campbell, M. (1951). "A. G. GIBSON". Heart. 13: 255-7. doi:10.1136/hrt.13.2.255. PMC 479416 ...
... blood away from those parts of the heart. This happens as a result of the narrowed coronary arteries being always maximally ... Heart. 91 (7): 863. doi:10.1136/hrt.2004.043471. PMC 1768979 . PMID 15958345. Kern MJ (1996). "Coronary steal through anomalous ... internal mammary artery graft treated by ligation without sternotomy". Tex Heart Inst J. 23 (4): 316-7. PMC 325384 . PMID ...
Peau, Andrew T. Le; Doll, Linda (2006). Heart. Soul. Mind. Strength.: An Anecdotal History of InterVarsity Press, 1947-2007. ...
The smallest artificial heart in the world, weighing only 11 grams, was enough to save life of an infant boy suffering a deadly ... An Italian heart surgeon holds a tiny titanium pump, the worlds smallest artificial heart, which was implanted in a baby, at ... was able to survive for 13 days with the artificial heart before receiving an actual heart transplant. ... The smallest artificial heart in the world, weighing only 11 grams, was enough to save life of an infant boy suffering a deadly ...
Mom with a child with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome. Anyone can join. Has your child gone through surgeries,... ... Hypoplastic Right Heart syndrome. im 20 weeks and have just found out our baby has hypoplastic right heart syndrome and was ... Mom with a child with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome. Anyone can join. Has your child gone through surgeries, heart transplant ... Started by Adriana on 02/15/2010 in Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome. Last update on 10/02/2011 by Ed Sierra ...
Surgeons at a Paris hospital have implanted a revolutionary new artificial heart which is designed to stay in the body for five ... Surgeons at a Paris hospital have implanted a revolutionary new artificial heart which is designed to stay in the body for five ... France pioneers artificial heart implant. Sun 22 Dec 2013 12:18 PM ...
... but this new invention by European scientists is so convincing in its emulation of a real hearts... ... Artificial heart technology has been around a while, ... Artificial heart technology has been around a while, but this ... But dont go on a heart-destroying burger binge just yet, since its first human trials are a few years away, and routine use in ... Developed by Frances leading cardiac surgeon and a team of engineers from the companies that also make Airbusses, the hearts ...
Normally Jordan Merecka would have to stay hooked up to a 400-pound machine called Big Blue to power the temporary heart, but ... An 18-year-old with a temporary artificial heart headed home yesterday from the Texas Childrens Hospital. ... He still has a heart transplant in his future, but the artificial heart has helped him grow stronger. He will be ready when the ... "The artificial heart was a blessing when he needed it desperately and his father and I are glad that Texas Childrens could ...
... medical professionals and the public can watch the implantation of the SynCardia temporary Total Artificial Heart in a peer ... Heart failure patients who are extremely sick can get a second chance at life with the SynCardia Total Artificial Heart. It is ... Originally used as a permanent replacement heart, the SynCardia Total Artificial Heart is currently approved as a bridge to ... The SynCardia Total Artificial Heart is becoming the standard of care for addressing end-stage biventricular heart failure. ...
Heart valves are important to making the heart act as a pump. There are four heart valves: tricuspid, mitral, pulmonic, and ... Transcatheter heart valve replacement is the newest option in heart valve replacement. Rather than enduring open heart surgery ... Heart Basics. The heart is one of two organs that make up the cardiovascular system; it pumps blood throughout the body. "The ... "The development of the heart valve design was fueled by the introduction of the heart-lung bypass machine,which was first used ...
Artificial heart operation fails. Thursday, November 29, 2001. HOUSTON -- A man suffering from chronic heart failure died from ... The heart of the matter: Clinic helps patients rise above congestive heart failure (2/17/18) ... The heart device performed well during the surgery, officials said.. Dr. O.H. Frazier, who led the team, said the bleeding was ... The man who died Tuesday was the first of a second group of five patients who will be implanted with the artificial heart ...
Artificial heart patient Anthony Mandia yesterday continued to rebound from Tuesdays setback, when he lapsed in and out of a ... Two potential donor hearts, traced by the Delaware Valley Transplant Program, have not worked out. The first heart was too ... "I spent a lot of time, as have the members of our group, developing this heart. So it was a thrill for us," to have used it in ... Artificial heart patient Anthony Mandia yesterday continued to rebound from Tuesdays setback, when he lapsed in and out of a ...
Find out how to protect your heart health with simple lifestyle changes that can also help you manage diabetes. ... Heart failure is a serious condition, but it doesnt mean the heart has stopped beating; it means your heart cant pump blood ... What Is Heart Disease?. Heart disease includes several kinds of problems that affect your heart. The term "cardiovascular ... Learn About Heart Disease. Know the Facts About Heart Disease pdf icon[PDF - 793KB]. Living With Diabetes. Get Diabetes ...
Learn about the different types of heart diseases, and what you can do to try to prevent them. ... Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the U.S. ... Heart Anatomy (Texas Heart Institute) Also in Spanish * Heart ... Heart Information Center (Texas Heart Institute) Also in Spanish * How the Heart Works (National Heart, Lung, and Blood ... Other kinds of heart problems may happen to the valves in the heart, or the heart may not pump well and cause heart failure. ...
If they dont work properly and heart valve disease occurs. Learn more. ... Heart valves make sure blood flows in then out of your heart. ... What Is Heart Valve Surgery? (American Heart Association) - PDF ... Medications for Heart Valve Symptoms (American Heart Association) * Newer Heart Valve Surgery Options (American Heart ... Options for Heart Valve Replacement (American Heart Association) * Valve Repair or Replacement (Texas Heart Institute) Also in ...
Learn about heart disease statistics, signs, and symptoms in women. ... Almost as many women as men die each year of heart disease in the United States. ... The term heart disease refers to several types of heart conditions, including coronary artery disease and heart attack. ... Although heart disease is sometimes thought of as a mans disease, almost as many women as men die each year of heart disease ...
The sound is caused by turbulent (rough) blood flow through the heart valves or near the heart. ... A heart murmur is a blowing, whooshing, or rasping sound heard during a heartbeat. ... Chest sounds - murmurs; Heart sounds - abnormal; Murmur - innocent; Innocent murmur; Systolic heart murmur; Diastolic heart ... A heart murmur may be described as systolic or diastolic. (Systole is when the heart is squeezing out blood and diastole is ...
Your heart is located between your lungs in the middle of your chest, behind and slightly to the left of your breastbone. ... Heart Anatomy. Your heart is located between your lungs in the middle of your chest, behind and slightly to the left of your ... The heart and circulatory system make up your cardiovascular system. Your heart works as a pump that pushes blood to the organs ... The Heart Valves. Four valves regulate blood flow through your heart:. *The tricuspid valve regulates blood flow between the ...
Flu Shots Protect Hearts, Too Many people with heart disease and other chronic health conditions die from the flu each year. ... Don Fick suffered a heart attack while on vacation with his family. After his heart attack, Don made cardiac rehab a priority ... Gum disease increases risk for heart attack by nearly 50%, according to a recent study published in the American Heart ... Just as gum disease causes inflammation of the gums, heart disease is associated with inflammation of the hearts arteries, ...
Stories From the Heart chronicles the inspiring journeys of heart disease and stroke survivors, caregivers and advocates. ... Categories: Stories from the Heart , Tags: Cardiac Arrest, Heart disease, Heart attack ... A heart attack caused Laura Vanderpools heart to stop. Since then, shes left a stressful job for a new gig that leaves plenty ... Since suffering a heart attack at 55, Bev Pohlit has been devoted to raising awareness that heart disease is the No. 1 killer ...
We go over the Pyle Heart Rate Monitor Watch, Scosche Rhythm+ Heart Rate Monitor Armband, Polar FT7, and Polar M430. The review ... Also, it features devices at every price level along with tips on what to look for when selecting a heart rate monitor. ... Reviews of the best heart rate monitors are here. The article uncovers optical, chest strap, and arm band pulse monitors. ... includes our pick of the best heart rate monitor. ... Best Heart Rate Monitor Reviews - The Heart Rate Watch Buyers ...
Teaching Heart Blog. Bugs and Insects. Frogs. St. Patricks Day. Hungry Caterpillar. Weather. Rainbows. Learning Centers. ... I hope this site gives back to all sharing teachers with a Teaching Heart.. Enjoy!. Proud to be a #1 Teacher Resource for over ... Get the Teaching Heart Mom widget and many other great free widgets at Widgetbox!. Teaching Heart (www.teachingheart.net) on ... Instant download after payment! Trust Teaching Heart! Teaching Heart has been selling great products to happy teachers for over ...
... is a groundbreaking and critically important guide to heart care for athletes. By protecting your heart now ... The Haywire Heart is the first book to examine heart arrhythmia in athletes. Share:. *Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new ... The Haywire Heart How too much exercise can kill you, and what you can do to protect your heart. Dr. John Mandrola and Lennard ... The Haywire Heart: How too much exercise can kill you, and what you can do to protect your heart. Chris Case, Dr. John Mandrola ...
... and in the hearts of people with heart disease. ... Addiction, like heart disease, cancers, and type II diabetes, ... No one chooses to be a drug addict or to develop heart disease. ...
... the National Institutes of Health and other government agencies to compile up-to-date statistics on heart disease, stroke and ... Heart Disease Statistics at a Glance. Since its inception, the American Heart Association (AHA) has lead efforts in research, ... Understanding Congenital Heart Defects. Up to 1.3 million Americans alive today have some form of congenital heart defect and ... Understanding Congenital Heart Defects. Up to 1.3 million Americans alive today have some form of congenital heart defect and ...
Other diseases that damage or weaken the heart muscle or heart valves can also cause heart failure. Heart failure is most ... Ways the Heart Can Fail. Heart failure can occur in several ways: *The muscles of the heart pumps (ventricles) become thin and ... Heart Failure. Heart failure is a condition in which the heart does not pump enough blood to meet the needs of the bodys ... Angina and Heart Attacks. While coronary artery disease is a major cause of heart failure, people with heart failure are at ...
The Heart Foundation saves lives and improves health through funding world-class cardiovascular research, guidelines for health ... Your heart Understanding your heart. Learn about how to have a healthy heart and living with heart conditions. ... After my heart attack What happened to your heart?. Some people do not even notice they are having a heart attack, others have ... Jump Rope for Heart. Established in 1983, Heart Foundation Jump Rope for Heart is renowned for being one of Australias most ...
Target heart rate[edit]. For healthy people, the Target Heart Rate or Training Heart Rate (THR) is a desired range of heart ... Heart rate recovery[edit]. Heart rate recovery (HRrecovery) is the reduction in heart rate at peak exercise and the rate as ... Resting heart rate[edit]. The basal or resting heart rate (HRrest) is defined as the heart rate when a person is awake, in a ... Maximum heart rate[edit]. The maximum heart rate (HRmax) is the highest heart rate an individual can achieve without severe ...
  • The 69-year-old man, who wished to remain anonymous, was terminally ill when he received the experimental heart that was seen as a long-term solution for patients with end-stage heart failure. (thelocal.fr)
  • The smallest artificial heart in the world, weighing only 11 grams, was enough to save life of an infant boy suffering a deadly disease. (rt.com)
  • The boy suffered from dilated myocardiopathy, a disease which eventually would atrophy the heart muscle and stop its ability to pump blood. (rt.com)
  • However Carmat hopes to provide a longer-term solution to tens of thousands who suffer from heart disease -- the world's leading cause of death -- and are unable to receive a transplant. (thelocal.fr)
  • Whichever way they are categorised, it is helpful to have a working understanding of normal and fetal circulation , as well as an understanding of the segmental approach to imaging in congenital heart disease. (radiopaedia.org)
  • And the American Heart Association recommended high carbohydrate diets and even candy in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. (tedeytan.com)
  • The team who manages Jordan's care realizes that he will gain a morale boost by being out of the hospital enjoying a more active teen life as he waits for heart transplantation. (houstonpress.com)
  • Artificial heart technology has been around a while, but this new invention by European scientists is so convincing in its emulation of a real heart's action that if you plot its output blood flow and show "the graphs to a cardiac surgeon, he will say it's a human heart" apparently. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • Nearly 100,000 people in Europe and the United States are in need of a heart transplant, according to Carmat, but only about 4,000 hearts become available for transplant. (thelocal.fr)
  • Yes, all 40+ pages of the American Heart Association's scientific statement, published in 2011 (the most recent one - citation below), for leisure. (tedeytan.com)
  • The development of the heart valve design was fueled by the introduction of the heart-lung bypass machine,which was first used successfully on humans in 1953 to perform an atrial septal repair". (openwetware.org)
  • The contractions of the heart necessary to drive the blood are controlled by electrochemical impulses created by pace maker cells" . (openwetware.org)
  • The artificial heart uses soft biomaterials intended to lessen the risk of blood clots and rejection by the immune system. (thelocal.fr)
  • 1952 - First heart valve replacement using the caged-ball valve designed by a surgeon, Doctor Hufnagel. (openwetware.org)
  • More than 50 different heart valve designs have been developed since the first in 1952. (openwetware.org)
  • Approximately three million heart valve replacements have occurred worldwide. (openwetware.org)
  • Currently over 290,000 heart valve procedures are performed annually worldwide and that number is estimated to triple to over 850,000 by 2050. (openwetware.org)
  • Problems common to all heart valve replacement devices include small but persistent risks of endocarditis and paravalvular leak. (openwetware.org)
more