Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Hearing Aids: Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)Hearing Tests: Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.Hearing Loss, Sensorineural: Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.Hearing Disorders: Conditions that impair the transmission of auditory impulses and information from the level of the ear to the temporal cortices, including the sensorineural pathways.Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced: Hearing loss due to exposure to explosive loud noise or chronic exposure to sound level greater than 85 dB. The hearing loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.Hearing Loss, Bilateral: Partial hearing loss in both ears.Persons With Hearing Impairments: Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.Audiometry: The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.Hearing Loss, Conductive: Hearing loss due to interference with the mechanical reception or amplification of sound to the COCHLEA. The interference is in the outer or middle ear involving the EAR CANAL; TYMPANIC MEMBRANE; or EAR OSSICLES.Hearing Loss, High-Frequency: Hearing loss in frequencies above 1000 hertz.Audiometry, Pure-Tone: Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.Correction of Hearing Impairment: Procedures for correcting HEARING DISORDERS.Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Hearing Loss, Sudden: Sensorineural hearing loss which develops suddenly over a period of hours or a few days. It varies in severity from mild to total deafness. Sudden deafness can be due to head trauma, vascular diseases, infections, or can appear without obvious cause or warning.Hearing Loss, Unilateral: Partial or complete hearing loss in one ear.Noise, Occupational: Noise present in occupational, industrial, and factory situations.Ear Protective Devices: Personal devices for protection of the ears from loud or high intensity noise, water, or cold. These include earmuffs and earplugs.Education of Hearing Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.Presbycusis: Gradual bilateral hearing loss associated with aging that is due to progressive degeneration of cochlear structures and central auditory pathways. Hearing loss usually begins with the high frequencies then progresses to sounds of middle and low frequencies.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Noise: Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous: Self-generated faint acoustic signals from the inner ear (COCHLEA) without external stimulation. These faint signals can be recorded in the EAR CANAL and are indications of active OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are found in all classes of land vertebrates.Hearing Loss, Central: Hearing loss due to disease of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS (in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM) which originate in the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the PONS and then ascend bilaterally to the MIDBRAIN, the THALAMUS, and then the AUDITORY CORTEX in the TEMPORAL LOBE. Bilateral lesions of the auditory pathways are usually required to cause central hearing loss. Cortical deafness refers to loss of hearing due to bilateral auditory cortex lesions. Unilateral BRAIN STEM lesions involving the cochlear nuclei may result in unilateral hearing loss.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Audiometry, Evoked Response: A form of electrophysiologic audiometry in which an analog computer is included in the circuit to average out ongoing or spontaneous brain wave activity. A characteristic pattern of response to a sound stimulus may then become evident. Evoked response audiometry is known also as electric response audiometry.Audiology: The study of hearing and hearing impairment.Acoustic Impedance Tests: Objective tests of middle ear function based on the difficulty (impedance) or ease (admittance) of sound flow through the middle ear. These include static impedance and dynamic impedance (i.e., tympanometry and impedance tests in conjunction with intra-aural muscle reflex elicitation). This term is used also for various components of impedance and admittance (e.g., compliance, conductance, reactance, resistance, susceptance).Cochlear Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.Neonatal Screening: The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.Ear, Inner: The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Hearing Loss, Functional: Hearing loss without a physical basis. Often observed in patients with psychological or behavioral disorders.Hair Cells, Auditory: Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Audiometry, Speech: Measurement of the ability to hear speech under various conditions of intensity and noise interference using sound-field as well as earphones and bone oscillators.Bone Conduction: Transmission of sound waves through vibration of bones in the SKULL to the inner ear (COCHLEA). By using bone conduction stimulation and by bypassing any OUTER EAR or MIDDLE EAR abnormalities, hearing thresholds of the cochlea can be determined. Bone conduction hearing differs from normal hearing which is based on air conduction stimulation via the EAR CANAL and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Sign Language: A system of hand gestures used for communication by the deaf or by people speaking different languages.Speech Intelligibility: Ability to make speech sounds that are recognizable.Ear, Middle: The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.Speech Reception Threshold Test: A test to determine the lowest sound intensity level at which fifty percent or more of the spondaic test words (words of two syllables having equal stress) are repeated correctly.Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Organ of Corti: The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Spiral Ganglion: The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.Hair Cells, Auditory, Outer: Sensory cells of organ of Corti. In mammals, they are usually arranged in three or four rows, and away from the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), lateral to the INNER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and other supporting structures. Their cell bodies and STEREOCILIA increase in length from the cochlear base toward the apex and laterally across the rows, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Neuroma, Acoustic: A benign SCHWANNOMA of the eighth cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE), mostly arising from the vestibular branch (VESTIBULAR NERVE) during the fifth or sixth decade of life. Clinical manifestations include HEARING LOSS; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; TINNITUS; and FACIAL PAIN. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are associated with NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p673)Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Prosthesis Fitting: The fitting and adjusting of artificial parts of the body. (From Stedman's, 26th ed)Tympanic Membrane: An oval semitransparent membrane separating the external EAR CANAL from the tympanic cavity (EAR, MIDDLE). It contains three layers: the skin of the external ear canal; the core of radially and circularly arranged collagen fibers; and the MUCOSA of the middle ear.Hair Cells, Auditory, Inner: Auditory sensory cells of organ of Corti, usually placed in one row medially to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus). Inner hair cells are in fewer numbers than the OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS, and their STEREOCILIA are approximately twice as thick as those of the outer hair cells.Ear: The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Speech Discrimination Tests: Tests of the ability to hear and understand speech as determined by scoring the number of words in a word list repeated correctly.Hearing Loss, Mixed Conductive-Sensorineural: Hearing loss due to damage or impairment of both the conductive elements (HEARING LOSS, CONDUCTIVE) and the sensorineural elements (HEARING LOSS, SENSORINEURAL) of the ear.Sound Spectrography: The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Sound Localization: Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.Labyrinth Diseases: Pathological processes of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) which contains the essential apparatus of hearing (COCHLEA) and balance (SEMICIRCULAR CANALS).Otoscopy: Examination of the EAR CANAL and eardrum with an OTOSCOPE.Perceptual Masking: The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.Sound: A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Hyperacusis: An abnormally disproportionate increase in the sensation of loudness in response to auditory stimuli of normal volume. COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; STAPES SURGERY; and other disorders may be associated with this condition.Vestibular Aqueduct: A small bony canal linking the vestibule of the inner ear to the posterior part of the internal surface of the petrous TEMPORAL BONE. It transmits the endolymphatic duct and two small blood vessels.Psychoacoustics: The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Otologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the external, middle, or internal ear.Cochlear Diseases: Pathological processes of the snail-like structure (COCHLEA) of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) which can involve its nervous tissue, blood vessels, or fluid (ENDOLYMPH).Connexins: A group of homologous proteins which form the intermembrane channels of GAP JUNCTIONS. The connexins are the products of an identified gene family which has both highly conserved and highly divergent regions. The variety contributes to the wide range of functional properties of gap junctions.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.MP3-Player: Portable electronics device for storing and playing audio and or media files. MP3 for MPEG-1 audio layer 3, is a digital coding format.Stria Vascularis: A layer of stratified EPITHELIUM forming the endolymphatic border of the cochlear duct at the lateral wall of the cochlea. Stria vascularis contains primarily three cell types (marginal, intermediate, and basal), and capillaries. The marginal cells directly facing the ENDOLYMPH are important in producing ion gradients and endochoclear potential.Loudness Perception: The perceived attribute of a sound which corresponds to the physical attribute of intensity.Round Window, Ear: Fenestra of the cochlea, an opening in the basal wall between the MIDDLE EAR and the INNER EAR, leading to the cochlea. It is closed by a secondary tympanic membrane.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Meniere Disease: A disease of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is characterized by fluctuating SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; TINNITUS; episodic VERTIGO; and aural fullness. It is the most common form of endolymphatic hydrops.Vestibulocochlear Nerve Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE, including the branches of COCHLEAR NERVE and VESTIBULAR NERVE. Common examples are VESTIBULAR NEURITIS, cochlear neuritis, and ACOUSTIC NEUROMA. Clinical signs are varying degree of HEARING LOSS; VERTIGO; and TINNITUS.Ear Diseases: Pathological processes of the ear, the hearing, and the equilibrium system of the body.Lipreading: The process by which an observer comprehends speech by watching the movements of the speaker's lips without hearing the speaker's voice.Pitch Perception: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.Speech Acoustics: The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.Cochlear Microphonic Potentials: The electric response of the cochlear hair cells to acoustic stimulation.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Auditory Fatigue: Loss of sensitivity to sounds as a result of auditory stimulation, manifesting as a temporary shift in auditory threshold. The temporary threshold shift, TTS, is expressed in decibels.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Tympanoplasty: Surgical reconstruction of the hearing mechanism of the middle ear, with restoration of the drum membrane to protect the round window from sound pressure, and establishment of ossicular continuity between the tympanic membrane and the oval window. (Dorland, 28th ed.)Echolocation: An auditory orientation mechanism involving the emission of high frequency sounds which are reflected back to the emitter (animal).Ear Ossicles: A mobile chain of three small bones (INCUS; MALLEUS; STAPES) in the TYMPANIC CAVITY between the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and the oval window on the wall of INNER EAR. Sound waves are converted to vibration by the tympanic membrane then transmitted via these ear ossicles to the inner ear.Stapes: One of the three ossicles of the middle ear. It transmits sound vibrations from the INCUS to the internal ear (Ear, Internal see LABYRINTH).Vestibular Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH which contains part of the balancing apparatus. Patients with vestibular diseases show instability and are at risk of frequent falls.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Otitis Media with Effusion: Inflammation of the middle ear with a clear pale yellow-colored transudate.Cerumen: The yellow or brown waxy secretions produced by vestigial apocrine sweat glands in the external ear canal.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Acoustics: The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.Pitch Discrimination: The ability to differentiate tones.Vestibule, Labyrinth: An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Vertigo: An illusion of movement, either of the external world revolving around the individual or of the individual revolving in space. Vertigo may be associated with disorders of the inner ear (EAR, INNER); VESTIBULAR NERVE; BRAINSTEM; or CEREBRAL CORTEX. Lesions in the TEMPORAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE may be associated with FOCAL SEIZURES that may feature vertigo as an ictal manifestation. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp300-1)Usher Syndromes: Autosomal recessive hereditary disorders characterized by congenital SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. Genetically and symptomatically heterogeneous, clinical classes include type I, type II, and type III. Their severity, age of onset of retinitis pigmentosa and the degree of vestibular dysfunction are variable.Labyrinthitis: Inflammation of the inner ear (LABYRINTH).United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration: An office in the Department of Labor responsible for developing and establishing occupational safety and health standards.Tympanic Membrane Perforation: A temporary or persistent opening in the eardrum (TYMPANIC MEMBRANE). Clinical signs depend on the size, location, and associated pathological condition.Stereocilia: Mechanosensing organelles of hair cells which respond to fluid motion or fluid pressure changes. They have various functions in many different animals, but are primarily used in hearing.Vocabulary: The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)Consanguinity: The magnitude of INBREEDING in humans.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Saccule and Utricle: Two membranous sacs within the vestibular labyrinth of the INNER EAR. The saccule communicates with COCHLEAR DUCT through the ductus reuniens, and communicates with utricle through the utriculosaccular duct from which the ENDOLYMPHATIC DUCT arises. The utricle and saccule have sensory areas (acoustic maculae) which are innervated by the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Cochlear Duct: A spiral tube that is firmly suspended in the bony shell-shaped part of the cochlea. This ENDOLYMPH-filled cochlear duct begins at the vestibule and makes 2.5 turns around a core of spongy bone (the modiolus) thus dividing the PERILYMPH-filled spiral canal into two channels, the SCALA VESTIBULI and the SCALA TYMPANI.Threshold Limit Values: Standards for limiting worker exposure to airborne contaminants. They are the maximum concentration in air at which it is believed that a particular substance will not produce adverse health effects with repeated daily exposure. It can be a time-weighted average (TLV-TWA), a short-term value (TLV-STEL), or an instantaneous value (TLV-Ceiling). They are expressed either as parts per million (ppm) or milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3).Vestibular Function Tests: A number of tests used to determine if the brain or balance portion of the inner ear are causing dizziness.Otolaryngology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the ear, nose, and throat.Endolymph: The lymph fluid found in the membranous labyrinth of the ear. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Labyrinth Supporting Cells: Cells forming a framework supporting the sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS in the organ of Corti. Lateral to the medial inner hair cells, there are inner pillar cells, outer pillar cells, Deiters cells, Hensens cells, Claudius cells, Boettchers cells, and others.Speech Production Measurement: Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.Mainstreaming (Education): Most frequently refers to the integration of a physically or mentally disabled child into the regular class of normal peers and provision of the appropriately determined educational program.Otitis Media: Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Chinchilla: A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.Vestibulocochlear Nerve: The 8th cranial nerve. The vestibulocochlear nerve has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position. The fibers of the cochlear nerve originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS). The fibers of the vestibular nerve arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Tectorial Membrane: A membrane, attached to the bony SPIRAL LAMINA, overlying and coupling with the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI in the inner ear. It is a glycoprotein-rich keratin-like layer containing fibrils embedded in a dense amorphous substance.Child Language: The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.Amplifiers, Electronic: Electronic devices that increase the magnitude of a signal's power level or current.Auditory Perceptual Disorders: Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.Dolphins: Mammals of the families Delphinidae (ocean dolphins), Iniidae, Lipotidae, Pontoporiidae, and Platanistidae (all river dolphins). Among the most well-known species are the BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHIN and the KILLER WHALE (a dolphin). The common name dolphin is applied to small cetaceans having a beaklike snout and a slender, streamlined body, whereas PORPOISES are small cetaceans with a blunt snout and rather stocky body. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp978-9)Language Arts: Skills in the use of language which lead to proficiency in written or spoken communication.Basilar Membrane: A basement membrane in the cochlea that supports the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, consisting keratin-like fibrils. It stretches from the SPIRAL LAMINA to the basilar crest. The movement of fluid in the cochlea, induced by sound, causes displacement of the basilar membrane and subsequent stimulation of the attached hair cells which transform the mechanical signal into neural activity.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Otitis Media, Suppurative: Inflammation of the middle ear with purulent discharge.Spiral Ligament of Cochlea: A spiral thickening of the fibrous lining of the cochlear wall. Spiral ligament secures the membranous COCHLEAR DUCT to the bony spiral canal of the COCHLEA. Its spiral ligament fibrocytes function in conjunction with the STRIA VASCULARIS to mediate cochlear ion homeostasis.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials: Recorded electrical responses from muscles, especially the neck muscles or muscles around the eyes, following stimulation of the EAR VESTIBULE.Perilymph: The fluid separating the membranous labyrinth from the osseous labyrinth of the ear. It is entirely separate from the ENDOLYMPH which is contained in the membranous labyrinth. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1396, 642)Endolymphatic Sac: The blind pouch at the end of the endolymphatic duct. It is a storage reservoir for excess ENDOLYMPH, formed by the blood vessels in the membranous labyrinth.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Auditory Diseases, Central: Disorders of hearing or auditory perception due to pathological processes of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. These include CENTRAL HEARING LOSS and AUDITORY PERCEPTUAL DISORDERS.Transcription Factor Brn-3C: A POU domain factor that activates neuronal cell GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, alpha internexin, and SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25. Mutations in the Brn-3c gene have been associated with DEAFNESS.Neurofibromatosis 2: An autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a high incidence of bilateral acoustic neuromas as well as schwannomas (NEURILEMMOMA) of other cranial and peripheral nerves, and other benign intracranial tumors including meningiomas, ependymomas, spinal neurofibromas, and gliomas. The disease has been linked to mutations of the NF2 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 2) on chromosome 22 (22q12) and usually presents clinically in the first or second decade of life.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Noise, Transportation: Noise associated with transportation, particularly aircraft and automobiles.Linguistics: The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Pattern Recognition, Physiological: The analysis of a critical number of sensory stimuli or facts (the pattern) by physiological processes such as vision (PATTERN RECOGNITION, VISUAL), touch, or hearing.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Signal-To-Noise Ratio: The comparison of the quantity of meaningful data to the irrelevant or incorrect data.Hair Cells, Vestibular: Sensory cells in the acoustic maculae with their apical STEREOCILIA embedded in a gelatinous OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE. These hair cells are stimulated by the movement of otolithic membrane, and impulses are transmitted via the VESTIBULAR NERVE to the BRAIN STEM. Hair cells in the saccule and those in the utricle sense linear acceleration in vertical and horizontal directions, respectively.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Air Sacs: Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cerebellopontine Angle: Junction between the cerebellum and the pons.Cranial Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.Articulation Disorders: Disorders of the quality of speech characterized by the substitution, omission, distortion, and addition of phonemes.Anion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Endolymphatic Duct: The part of the membranous labyrinth that traverses the bony vestibular aqueduct and emerges through the bone of posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) where it expands into a blind pouch called the endolymphatic sac.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Military Personnel: Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.Inferior Colliculi: The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.Voice: The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Dichotic Listening Tests: Tests for central hearing disorders based on the competing message technique (binaural separation).Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Meningitis, Bacterial: Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.WisconsinMastoid: The posterior part of the temporal bone. It is a projection of the petrous bone.Ear Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of any part of the hearing and equilibrium system of the body (the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR).Olivary Nucleus: A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Aviation: Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Language Tests: Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.Suture Anchors: Implants used in arthroscopic surgery and other orthopedic procedures to attach soft tissue to bone. One end of a suture is tied to soft tissue and the other end to the implant. The anchors are made of a variety of materials including titanium, stainless steel, or absorbable polymers.Scala Tympani: The lower chamber of the COCHLEA, extending from the round window to the helicotrema (the opening at the apex that connects the PERILYMPH-filled spaces of scala tympani and SCALA VESTIBULI).Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Education, Special: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.Catfishes: Common name of the order Siluriformes. This order contains many families and over 2,000 species, including venomous species. Heteropneustes and Plotosus genera have dangerous stings and are aggressive. Most species are passive stingers.Reading

Sensory perception: supernormal hearing in the blind? (1/1228)

A recent experimental study suggests that blind individuals may compensate for their lack of vision with better-than-normal hearing. This provides support for a view dating back to 18th century philosophers, but the data raise as many problems as they solve.  (+info)

Comparing in vitro, in situ, and in vivo experimental data in a three-dimensional model of mammalian cochlear mechanics. (2/1228)

Normal mammalian hearing is refined by amplification of the motion of the cochlear partition. This partition, comprising the organ of Corti sandwiched between the basilar and tectorial membranes, contains the outer hair cells that are thought to drive this amplification process. Force generation by outer hair cells has been studied extensively in vitro and in situ, but, to understand cochlear amplification fully, it is necessary to characterize the role played by each of the components of the cochlear partition in vivo. Observations of cochlear partition motion in vivo are severely restricted by its inaccessibility and sensitivity to surgical trauma, so, for the present study, a computer model has been used to simulate the operation of the cochlea under different experimental conditions. In this model, which uniquely retains much of the three-dimensional complexity of the real cochlea, the motions of the basilar and tectorial membranes are fundamentally different during in situ- and in vivo-like conditions. Furthermore, enhanced outer hair cell force generation in vitro leads paradoxically to a decrease in the gain of the cochlear amplifier during sound stimulation to the model in vivo. These results suggest that it is not possible to extrapolate directly from experimental observations made in vitro and in situ to the normal operation of the intact organ in vivo.  (+info)

Activation of Heschl's gyrus during auditory hallucinations. (3/1228)

Apart from being a common feature of mental illness, auditory hallucinations provide an intriguing model for the study of internally generated sensory perceptions that are attributed to external sources. Until now, the knowledge about the cortical network that supports such hallucinations has been restricted by methodological limitations. Here, we describe an experiment with paranoid schizophrenic patients whose on- and offset of auditory hallucinations could be monitored within one functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session. We demonstrate an increase of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in Heschl's gyrus during the patients' hallucinations. Our results provide direct evidence of the involvement of primary auditory areas in auditory verbal hallucinations and establish novel constraints for psychopathological models.  (+info)

Sequential cycles of high-dose chemotherapy with dose escalation of carboplatin with or without paclitaxel supported by G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells: a phase I/II study in advanced ovarian cancer. (4/1228)

To assess high-dose carboplatin chemotherapy with or without paclitaxel with filgrastim mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) support in a phase I/II study, a total of 21 patients with mostly chemonaive disease received four cycles of high-dose chemotherapy. Cycle 1 (cyclophosphamide, 6 g/m2) was followed by two cycles of carboplatin (1600 mg/m2 or 1800 mg/m2). Cycle 4 consisted of carboplatin (1600 mg/m2), etoposide (1600 mg/m2), and melphalan (140 mg/m2). Further chemotherapy intensification was achieved by adding paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) to all cycles with a fixed carboplatin dose (1600 mg/m2). Ototoxicity was dose-limiting for escalation of sequential cycles of carboplatin. Grade 2 and grade 3 ototoxicity, hearing loss not requiring a hearing aid, or hearing loss correctable with a hearing aid, was observed with carboplatin at 1800 mg/m2. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of sequential carboplatin, therefore, was identified in this study as 1600 mg/m2. After cycles 1, 2, 3 and 4 the median duration of leukopenia (<1.0x10(9)/l) was 7, 4, 4 and 6 days. Severe grade 3 and 4 infections were seen in only 7% of cycles. Of the 21 patients evaluable for disease response, 57% had complete remissions and 43% experienced partial remissions resulting in an overall response rate of 100%. The median progression-free survival is 25 (15-36) months, the median overall survival 36.5 (15-38) months. Most patients were suboptimally debulked or had bulky residual disease at the start of chemotherapy. Sequential high-dose chemotherapy to a maximum dose of 1600 mg/m2 carboplatin is effective and feasible. A randomized, prospective trial comparing sequential high-dose chemotherapy with optimal standard chemotherapy is now warranted.  (+info)

Assessment of hearing in 80 inbred strains of mice by ABR threshold analyses. (5/1228)

The common occurrence of hearing loss in both humans and mice, and the anatomical and functional similarities of their inner ears, attest to the potential of mice being used as models to study inherited hearing loss. A large-scale, auditory screening project is being undertaken at The Jackson Laboratory (TJL) to identify mice with inherited hearing disorders. To assess hearing sensitivity, at least five mice from each inbred strain had auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds determined. Thus far, we have screened 80 inbred strains of mice; 60 of them exhibited homogeneous ABR threshold values not significantly different from those of the control strain CBA/CaJ. This large database establishes a reliable reference for normal hearing mouse strains. The following 16 inbred strains exhibited significantly elevated ABR thresholds before the age of 3 months: 129/J, 129/ReJ, 129/SvJ, A/J, ALR/LtJ, ALS/LtJ, BUB/BnJ, C57BLKS/J, C57BR/cdJ, C57L/J, DBA/2J, I/LnJ, MA/MyJ, NOD/LtJ, NOR/LtJ, and SKH2/J. These hearing impaired strains may serve as models for some forms of human non-syndromic hearing loss and aid in the identification of the underlying genes.  (+info)

Intracellular responses of onset chopper neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus to tones: evidence for dual-component processing. (6/1228)

Intracellular responses of onset chopper neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus to tones: evidence for dual-component processing. The ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) contains a heterogeneous collection of cell types reflecting the multiple processing tasks undertaken by this nucleus. This in vivo study in the rat used intracellular recordings and dye filling to examine membrane potential changes and firing characteristics of onset chopper (OC) neurons to acoustic stimulation (50 ms pure tones, 5 ms r/f time). Stable impalements were made from 15 OC neurons, 7 identified as multipolar cells. Neurons responded to characteristic frequency (CF) tones with sustained depolarization below spike threshold. With increasing stimulus intensity, the depolarization during the initial 10 ms of the response became peaked, and with further increases in intensity the peak became narrower. Onset spikes were generated during this initial depolarization. Tones presented below CF resulted in a broadening of this initial depolarizing component with high stimulus intensities required to initiate onset spikes. This initial component was followed by a sustained depolarizing component lasting until stimulus cessation. The amplitude of the sustained depolarizing component was greatest when frequencies were presented at high intensities below CF resulting in increased action potential firing during this period when compared with comparable high intensities at CF. During the presentation of tones at or above the high-frequency edge of a cell's response area, hyperpolarization was evident during the sustained component. The presence of hyperpolarization and the differences seen in the level of sustained depolarization during CF and off CF tones suggests that changes in membrane responsiveness between the initial and sustained components may be attributed to polysynaptic inhibitory mechanisms. The dual-component processing resulting from convergent auditory nerve excitation and polysynaptic inhibition enables OC neurons to respond in a unique fashion to intensity and frequency features contained within an acoustic stimulus.  (+info)

Supporting cells contribute to control of hearing sensitivity. (7/1228)

The mammalian hearing organ, the organ of Corti, was studied in an in vitro preparation of the guinea pig temporal bone. As in vivo, the hearing organ responded with an electrical potential, the cochlear microphonic potential, when stimulated with a test tone. After exposure to intense sound, the response to the test tone was reduced. The electrical response either recovered within 10-20 min or remained permanently reduced, thus corresponding to a temporary or sustained loss of sensitivity. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy, stimulus-induced changes of the cellular structure of the hearing organ were simultaneously studied. The cells in the organ were labeled with two fluorescent probes, a membrane dye and a cytoplasm dye, showing enzymatic activity in living cells. Confocal microscopy images were collected and compared before and after intense sound exposure. The results were as follows. (1) The organ of Corti could be divided into two different structural entities in terms of their susceptibility to damage: an inner, structurally stable region comprised of the inner hair cell with its supporting cells and the inner and outer pillar cells; and an outer region that exhibited dynamic structural changes and consisted of the outer hair cells and the third Deiters' cell with its attached Hensen's cells. (2) Exposure to intense sound caused the Deiters' cells and Hensen's cells to move in toward the center of the cochlear turn. (3) This event coincided with a reduced sensitivity to the test tone (i.e., reduced cochlear microphonic potential). (4) The displacement and sensitivity loss could be reversible. It is concluded that these observations have relevance for understanding the mechanisms behind hearing loss after noise exposure and that the supporting cells take an active part in protection against trauma during high-intensity sound exposure.  (+info)

Tympanal hearing in the sarcophagid parasitoid fly Emblemasoma sp.: the biomechanics of directional hearing. (8/1228)

In Diptera, tympanal hearing has evolved at least twice in flies that belong to two different families, the tachinids and the sarcophagids. Common to these flies is their parasitoid reproductive strategy, both relying on the acoustic detection and localization of their hosts, singing insects, by means of tympanal hearing organs. In the present study, the external anatomy of the unusual hearing organs of the sarcophagid fly Emblemasoma sp. is described. The sarcophagid ears bear numerous anatomical similarities with those of ormiine tachinids: they are located on the ventral prosternum and possess a pair of scolopidial mechanoreceptive sense organs. A striking difference, however, resides in the lack of a well-defined presternum in the sarcophagid tympanal system. Instead, a deep longitudinal fold, the tympanal fold, spans both hemilateral tympanal membranes across the midline of the animal. Measured using laser Doppler vibrometry, the tympanal mechanical response in the sound field reveals asymmetrical deflection shapes that differ from those of tachinids. Lacking a central fulcrum, the sarcophagid tympanal complex presents different vibrational modes that also result in interaural coupling. The evolutionarily convergent, yet distinct, solutions used by these two small auditory systems to extract directional cues from the sound field and the role of tympanal coupling in this process are discussed.  (+info)

  • Sihan Li, a graduate student in the lab of Jung-Bum Shin, PhD, of UVA's Department of Neuroscience, has made a surprising discovery about how the hearing organ in mammals achieves its extraordinary sensitivity. (uvahealth.com)
  • Problems with these protein "isoforms," as the variations are known, lead to hearing loss, Shin's team found. (uvahealth.com)
  • Shin and his team found that lab mice lacking proper Myosin-VIIa isoforms developed hearing loss. (uvahealth.com)
  • Finding those answers will help us understand an important aspect of our ability to hear, and it may one day help doctors develop new treatments for hearing loss. (uvahealth.com)
  • This will help us understand the harmful processes that lead to the loss of our hearing sensitivity with age or due to noise trauma, laying the foundation for the development of preventative and therapeutic strategies. (uvahealth.com)
  • New contributor to age-related hearing loss identified. (uvahealth.com)
  • Sihan Li (left) and Jung-Bum Shin, PhD, of UVA's Department of Neuroscience, have made a discovery about a component of the inner ear that is essential to our sense of hearing. (uvahealth.com)
  • Our sense of hearing is incredibly sensitive, and our study identified a very important component in the underlying mechanism," Shin said. (uvahealth.com)
  • After all, the flip side of the extreme sensitivity of our hearing organ is that it is also very vulnerable to stress factors, such as noise and age. (uvahealth.com)
  • If you're experiencing hearing loss or ringing in the ears, call us today for a free hearing test. (youtube.com)
  • You have sudden, severe hearing loss or ringing in the ears (tinnitus). (medlineplus.gov)
  • A survey of 121 people in the United Kingdom published in the International Journal of Audiology , for example, found about 13 percent of patients reported a change in hearing and/or tinnitus (ringing in the ears) since their COVID-19 diagnosis. (aarp.org)
  • Hearing aid candidacy is typically determined by an audiologist, who will also fit the device based on the nature and degree of the hearing loss being treated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Veterans can get a free hearing evaluation from an audiologist. (bankrate.com)
  • The audiologist will have to be visited every 3 months in the first couple of years while the child uses a hearing aid. (news-medical.net)
  • The best way to determine how well hearing is working is by having an evaluation by a hearing professional -- starting with an otolaryngologist/head and neck surgeon (also known as an ear, nose, and throat doctor, or ENT) and an audiologist. (go.com)
  • An estimated 12.5% of children and adolescents aged 6-19 years (approximately 5.2 million) and 17% of adults aged 20-69 years (approximately 26 million) have suffered permanent damage to their hearing from excessive exposure to noise. (cdc.gov)
  • In children, hearing problems can affect the ability to learn spoken language and in adults it can create difficulties with social interaction and at work. (wikipedia.org)
  • The story derives, as the Chicago Tribune reports in the first link, from a Zogby poll conducted in late February that found that almost 30 percent of teenagers and young adults exhibit some symptoms of hearing loss. (wired.com)
  • Over 35 million children and adults in the United States have some degree of hearing loss. (fda.gov)
  • The cumulative effect of these factors over the life span is a significant hearing loss among a large proportion of adults aged sixty-five years and older. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Only 3 states - Arkansas, New Hampshire and Rhode Island - mandate hearing aid coverage for adults. (bankrate.com)
  • Objectives: The main aim of this study was to collect information on music listening and music appreciation from postlingually deafened adults who use hearing. (lww.com)
  • See 'Evaluation of hearing loss in adults' and 'Etiology of hearing loss in adults' . (uptodate.com)
  • The BGSU Speech and Hearing Clinic may be involved in assessing and treating communication and social impairments associated with an autism spectrum disorders in children and adults. (bgsu.edu)
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Older adults with moderate kidney disease may require screening for hearing loss, according to the authors of a new study. (reuters.com)
  • In the study, of adults aged 50 years and older, 54 percent of people with moderate kidney disease had some extent of hearing loss, while 30 percent of those with the disease suffered severe hearing loss. (reuters.com)
  • SurfLink Mobile is a one-of-a-kind device that is a cell phone transmitter, assistive listening device, media streamer, and hearing aid remote all rolled into one. (youtube.com)
  • This type of hearing loss, termed "noise-induced hearing loss," is usually caused by exposure to excessively loud sounds and cannot be medically or surgically corrected. (cdc.gov)
  • Noise-induced hearing loss can result from a one-time exposure to a very loud sound, blast, or impulse, or from listening to loud sounds over an extended period. (cdc.gov)
  • Hearing plays an essential role in communication, speech and language development, and learning. (cdc.gov)
  • Even a small amount of hearing loss can have profound, negative effects on speech, language comprehension, communication, classroom learning, and social development. (cdc.gov)
  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (cdc.gov)
  • This technical report was developed by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Ad Hoc Committee on Apraxia of Speech in Children. (asha.org)
  • Common issues with hearing aid fitting and use are the occlusion effect , loudness recruitment, and understanding speech in noise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Speech perception - Another aspect of hearing involves the perceived clarity of a word rather than the intensity of sound made by the word. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are very rare types of hearing loss which affect speech discrimination alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conduct hearing tests on over 100 wildland fire · Develop new acoustic standards for personal fighters before, during, and after the fire season dosimetry and for measuring speech in collaboration with the U.S. Forest Service to intelligibility when hearing protectors are worn. (cdc.gov)
  • Deterioration of the auditory system with age leads to changes not only in hearing sensitivity, but also to a decline in processing of speech stimuli, particularly in less-than-ideal listening environments. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For example, 83 percent of the 2,351 participants in the Framingham Heart Cohort Study , ages fifty-seven to eighty-nine years, had some degree of hearing loss at one frequency in the speech range (Moscicki, Elkins, Baum, and McNamara). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Even a mild or partial hearing loss can affect a child's ability to develop speech and language properly. (kidshealth.org)
  • But if your child seems to have trouble hearing, if speech development seems abnormal, or if your child's speech is difficult to understand, talk with your doctor. (kidshealth.org)
  • Eligible customers with hearing, vision, speech, cognitive and physical (mobility and dexterity) accessibility needs will receive $20/month off any Connect Everything or Unlimited rate plan. (bell.ca)
  • This service allows deaf, hard of hearing or speech-impaired persons to communicate with 9-1-1 call centres using text messaging (SMS). (bell.ca)
  • Degrees of hearing loss range from mild (difficulty understanding soft speech) to profound (inability to hear even very loud noises). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hearing loss that occurs after the development of speech is classified as postlingual. (medlineplus.gov)
  • American Speech-Language Hearing Association: "Type, Degree, and Configuration of Hearing Loss. (webmd.com)
  • The parents are told to observe the psycho-educational development of the baby with particular attention to hearing, speech and language-related milestones. (news-medical.net)
  • If your baby has a hearing problem, using a hearing device early on and other communication options can help avoid speech delays and problems. (familydoctor.org)
  • The BGSU Speech and Hearing Clinic offers state-of-the-art diagnostic and therapeutic speech, language, and hearing services while acting as a training facility for master's- and doctoral-level speech-language pathologists. (bgsu.edu)
  • The BGSU Speech & Hearing Clinic is open to the public and serving all ages. (bgsu.edu)
  • The mission of the BGSU Speech and Hearing Clinic is to provide diagnostic and remedial clinical experiences for students in Communication Sciences and Disorders, consistent with the standards of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) and the Ohio Board of Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology (OBSLPA). (bgsu.edu)
  • Its mission is also to provide diagnostic and remedial speech, language and hearing services to the general public, and to the University community, consistent with the ASHA and OBSLPA standards. (bgsu.edu)
  • The Bowling Green State University Speech and Hearing Clinic has a privacy policy that can be accessed in PDF format via the following link ( Privacy Policy ). (bgsu.edu)
  • The master's program in speech-language pathology at Bowling Green State University is accredited by the Council on Academic Accreditation in Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (bgsu.edu)
  • Hearing loss can be temporary or permanent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Temporary and permanent hearing impairments are not uncommon among children. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Temporary hearing loss may be present in the infant, and this requires repeated follow-up to assess how the child is progressing through the developmental milestones. (news-medical.net)
  • Cotleur & Hearing designed the landscape, temporary irrigation system, terrace walls and provided post-design inspection services throughout the eight-month construction phase, as well as the two-year establishment phase. (constantcontact.com)
  • Studying the anatomy of the middle ear of extant taxa may not be critical because the auditory acuity of modern tetrapods can be measured more accurately by physiological studies, but the middle ear gives us much-needed clues about hearing in extinct taxa. (tolweb.org)
  • Also located in the middle ear are the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles which protect the hearing mechanism through a stiffening reflex. (wikipedia.org)
  • I'd highly recommend this text for graduate audiology students to anyone involved in hearing aid dispensing. (google.com)
  • Technical advances in these tests have allowed hearing screening for infants to become widespread. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prosecutors had been scheduled to present their drug and sexual-assault case against the 36-year-old Mussel Shoals man on Thursday but defense attorneys requested a two-month delay to prepare for the hearing. (latimes.com)
  • Outside a hearing on Monday, a defense lawyer and protestors commented on the trial of five men accused of the rape and murder of a student in New Delhi. (wsj.com)
  • When the brief hearing was over, one of the reporters in one of two "media overflow" rooms hopefully asked the rest of us, "Did he say 'very much' when the judge asked him if he was happy with the defense team? (newyorker.com)
  • In the course of many pre-trial hearings, both the defense and the prosecution have acknowledged not only that the first phase will be short but also that its outcome is all but preordained. (newyorker.com)
  • It is not uncommon for teenagers to become permanently hearing impaired in the high-frequency range above 4,000 hertz. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The amount of benefit experienced by the user of the hearing aid is multi-factorial, depending on the type, severity, and etiology of the hearing loss, the technology and fitting of the device, and on the motivation, personality, lifestyle, and overall health of the user. (wikipedia.org)
  • The severity of a hearing loss is categorized according to the increase in intensity of sound above the usual level necessary before the listener can detect it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most cases are idiopathic, and the prognosis depends on the severity of the hearing loss. (uptodate.com)
  • This information is provided by the Massachusetts Commission for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing . (mass.gov)
  • A right royal row over a once royal park has led to China's first public hearing related to the environment and highlighted the country's water shortage problem. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Guan Cheng, a student journalist, interviews a delegate at a public hearing on Yuanmingyuan Park in Beijing April 13, 2005. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • The dispute reached a climax yesterday at a public hearing on the environmental impact of the project, held by the State Environmental Protection Administration. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Vice-Minister of the State Environmental Protection Administration Pan Yue said it was the first time the administration had held a public hearing on how the environment is affected. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • At the public hearing on April 13, 2005 in Beijing, a short program about the Yuangmingyuan is played to show its water system. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Cochlear hearing loss, the most common type, may involve a specific part of the cochlea such as the inner hair cells, outer hair cells, or both. (kidshealth.org)
  • Empirical studies include anatomical studies of the cochlea and brainstem, measurements of mechanical properties of cochlear structures, single-unit and multi-unit recordings in the cochlear nucleus and auditory cortex, and measurements of auditory evoked potentials and otoacoustic emissions, as well as measurements of hearing abilities of human listeners with and without hearing impairments. (bu.edu)