Hearing Loss, Sensorineural
Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced
Persons With Hearing Impairments
Hearing Loss, Conductive
Hearing Loss, Sudden
Ear Protective Devices
Education of Hearing Disabled
Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem
Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous
Hearing Loss, Central
Audiometry, Evoked Response
Acoustic Impedance Tests
Hearing Loss, Functional
Hair Cells, Auditory
Speech Reception Threshold Test
Organ of Corti
Hair Cells, Auditory, Outer
Evoked Potentials, Auditory
Hair Cells, Auditory, Inner
Speech Discrimination Tests
Hearing Loss, Mixed Conductive-Sensorineural
Round Window, Ear
Vestibulocochlear Nerve Diseases
Cochlear Microphonic Potentials
Otitis Media with Effusion
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.)
United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Tympanic Membrane Perforation
Saccule and Utricle
Threshold Limit Values
Vestibular Function Tests
Labyrinth Supporting Cells
Speech Production Measurement
Auditory Perceptual Disorders
Spiral Ligament of Cochlea
Severity of Illness Index
Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials
Language Development Disorders
Auditory Diseases, Central
Transcription Factor Brn-3C
Pattern Recognition, Physiological
Analysis of Variance
Hair Cells, Vestibular
Cranial Nerve Neoplasms
Anion Transport Proteins
Dichotic Listening Tests
Disease Models, Animal
Sensory perception: supernormal hearing in the blind? (1/1228)A recent experimental study suggests that blind individuals may compensate for their lack of vision with better-than-normal hearing. This provides support for a view dating back to 18th century philosophers, but the data raise as many problems as they solve. (+info)
Comparing in vitro, in situ, and in vivo experimental data in a three-dimensional model of mammalian cochlear mechanics. (2/1228)Normal mammalian hearing is refined by amplification of the motion of the cochlear partition. This partition, comprising the organ of Corti sandwiched between the basilar and tectorial membranes, contains the outer hair cells that are thought to drive this amplification process. Force generation by outer hair cells has been studied extensively in vitro and in situ, but, to understand cochlear amplification fully, it is necessary to characterize the role played by each of the components of the cochlear partition in vivo. Observations of cochlear partition motion in vivo are severely restricted by its inaccessibility and sensitivity to surgical trauma, so, for the present study, a computer model has been used to simulate the operation of the cochlea under different experimental conditions. In this model, which uniquely retains much of the three-dimensional complexity of the real cochlea, the motions of the basilar and tectorial membranes are fundamentally different during in situ- and in vivo-like conditions. Furthermore, enhanced outer hair cell force generation in vitro leads paradoxically to a decrease in the gain of the cochlear amplifier during sound stimulation to the model in vivo. These results suggest that it is not possible to extrapolate directly from experimental observations made in vitro and in situ to the normal operation of the intact organ in vivo. (+info)
Activation of Heschl's gyrus during auditory hallucinations. (3/1228)Apart from being a common feature of mental illness, auditory hallucinations provide an intriguing model for the study of internally generated sensory perceptions that are attributed to external sources. Until now, the knowledge about the cortical network that supports such hallucinations has been restricted by methodological limitations. Here, we describe an experiment with paranoid schizophrenic patients whose on- and offset of auditory hallucinations could be monitored within one functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session. We demonstrate an increase of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in Heschl's gyrus during the patients' hallucinations. Our results provide direct evidence of the involvement of primary auditory areas in auditory verbal hallucinations and establish novel constraints for psychopathological models. (+info)
Sequential cycles of high-dose chemotherapy with dose escalation of carboplatin with or without paclitaxel supported by G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells: a phase I/II study in advanced ovarian cancer. (4/1228)To assess high-dose carboplatin chemotherapy with or without paclitaxel with filgrastim mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) support in a phase I/II study, a total of 21 patients with mostly chemonaive disease received four cycles of high-dose chemotherapy. Cycle 1 (cyclophosphamide, 6 g/m2) was followed by two cycles of carboplatin (1600 mg/m2 or 1800 mg/m2). Cycle 4 consisted of carboplatin (1600 mg/m2), etoposide (1600 mg/m2), and melphalan (140 mg/m2). Further chemotherapy intensification was achieved by adding paclitaxel (175 mg/m2) to all cycles with a fixed carboplatin dose (1600 mg/m2). Ototoxicity was dose-limiting for escalation of sequential cycles of carboplatin. Grade 2 and grade 3 ototoxicity, hearing loss not requiring a hearing aid, or hearing loss correctable with a hearing aid, was observed with carboplatin at 1800 mg/m2. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of sequential carboplatin, therefore, was identified in this study as 1600 mg/m2. After cycles 1, 2, 3 and 4 the median duration of leukopenia (<1.0x10(9)/l) was 7, 4, 4 and 6 days. Severe grade 3 and 4 infections were seen in only 7% of cycles. Of the 21 patients evaluable for disease response, 57% had complete remissions and 43% experienced partial remissions resulting in an overall response rate of 100%. The median progression-free survival is 25 (15-36) months, the median overall survival 36.5 (15-38) months. Most patients were suboptimally debulked or had bulky residual disease at the start of chemotherapy. Sequential high-dose chemotherapy to a maximum dose of 1600 mg/m2 carboplatin is effective and feasible. A randomized, prospective trial comparing sequential high-dose chemotherapy with optimal standard chemotherapy is now warranted. (+info)
Assessment of hearing in 80 inbred strains of mice by ABR threshold analyses. (5/1228)The common occurrence of hearing loss in both humans and mice, and the anatomical and functional similarities of their inner ears, attest to the potential of mice being used as models to study inherited hearing loss. A large-scale, auditory screening project is being undertaken at The Jackson Laboratory (TJL) to identify mice with inherited hearing disorders. To assess hearing sensitivity, at least five mice from each inbred strain had auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds determined. Thus far, we have screened 80 inbred strains of mice; 60 of them exhibited homogeneous ABR threshold values not significantly different from those of the control strain CBA/CaJ. This large database establishes a reliable reference for normal hearing mouse strains. The following 16 inbred strains exhibited significantly elevated ABR thresholds before the age of 3 months: 129/J, 129/ReJ, 129/SvJ, A/J, ALR/LtJ, ALS/LtJ, BUB/BnJ, C57BLKS/J, C57BR/cdJ, C57L/J, DBA/2J, I/LnJ, MA/MyJ, NOD/LtJ, NOR/LtJ, and SKH2/J. These hearing impaired strains may serve as models for some forms of human non-syndromic hearing loss and aid in the identification of the underlying genes. (+info)
Intracellular responses of onset chopper neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus to tones: evidence for dual-component processing. (6/1228)Intracellular responses of onset chopper neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus to tones: evidence for dual-component processing. The ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) contains a heterogeneous collection of cell types reflecting the multiple processing tasks undertaken by this nucleus. This in vivo study in the rat used intracellular recordings and dye filling to examine membrane potential changes and firing characteristics of onset chopper (OC) neurons to acoustic stimulation (50 ms pure tones, 5 ms r/f time). Stable impalements were made from 15 OC neurons, 7 identified as multipolar cells. Neurons responded to characteristic frequency (CF) tones with sustained depolarization below spike threshold. With increasing stimulus intensity, the depolarization during the initial 10 ms of the response became peaked, and with further increases in intensity the peak became narrower. Onset spikes were generated during this initial depolarization. Tones presented below CF resulted in a broadening of this initial depolarizing component with high stimulus intensities required to initiate onset spikes. This initial component was followed by a sustained depolarizing component lasting until stimulus cessation. The amplitude of the sustained depolarizing component was greatest when frequencies were presented at high intensities below CF resulting in increased action potential firing during this period when compared with comparable high intensities at CF. During the presentation of tones at or above the high-frequency edge of a cell's response area, hyperpolarization was evident during the sustained component. The presence of hyperpolarization and the differences seen in the level of sustained depolarization during CF and off CF tones suggests that changes in membrane responsiveness between the initial and sustained components may be attributed to polysynaptic inhibitory mechanisms. The dual-component processing resulting from convergent auditory nerve excitation and polysynaptic inhibition enables OC neurons to respond in a unique fashion to intensity and frequency features contained within an acoustic stimulus. (+info)
Supporting cells contribute to control of hearing sensitivity. (7/1228)The mammalian hearing organ, the organ of Corti, was studied in an in vitro preparation of the guinea pig temporal bone. As in vivo, the hearing organ responded with an electrical potential, the cochlear microphonic potential, when stimulated with a test tone. After exposure to intense sound, the response to the test tone was reduced. The electrical response either recovered within 10-20 min or remained permanently reduced, thus corresponding to a temporary or sustained loss of sensitivity. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy, stimulus-induced changes of the cellular structure of the hearing organ were simultaneously studied. The cells in the organ were labeled with two fluorescent probes, a membrane dye and a cytoplasm dye, showing enzymatic activity in living cells. Confocal microscopy images were collected and compared before and after intense sound exposure. The results were as follows. (1) The organ of Corti could be divided into two different structural entities in terms of their susceptibility to damage: an inner, structurally stable region comprised of the inner hair cell with its supporting cells and the inner and outer pillar cells; and an outer region that exhibited dynamic structural changes and consisted of the outer hair cells and the third Deiters' cell with its attached Hensen's cells. (2) Exposure to intense sound caused the Deiters' cells and Hensen's cells to move in toward the center of the cochlear turn. (3) This event coincided with a reduced sensitivity to the test tone (i.e., reduced cochlear microphonic potential). (4) The displacement and sensitivity loss could be reversible. It is concluded that these observations have relevance for understanding the mechanisms behind hearing loss after noise exposure and that the supporting cells take an active part in protection against trauma during high-intensity sound exposure. (+info)
Tympanal hearing in the sarcophagid parasitoid fly Emblemasoma sp.: the biomechanics of directional hearing. (8/1228)In Diptera, tympanal hearing has evolved at least twice in flies that belong to two different families, the tachinids and the sarcophagids. Common to these flies is their parasitoid reproductive strategy, both relying on the acoustic detection and localization of their hosts, singing insects, by means of tympanal hearing organs. In the present study, the external anatomy of the unusual hearing organs of the sarcophagid fly Emblemasoma sp. is described. The sarcophagid ears bear numerous anatomical similarities with those of ormiine tachinids: they are located on the ventral prosternum and possess a pair of scolopidial mechanoreceptive sense organs. A striking difference, however, resides in the lack of a well-defined presternum in the sarcophagid tympanal system. Instead, a deep longitudinal fold, the tympanal fold, spans both hemilateral tympanal membranes across the midline of the animal. Measured using laser Doppler vibrometry, the tympanal mechanical response in the sound field reveals asymmetrical deflection shapes that differ from those of tachinids. Lacking a central fulcrum, the sarcophagid tympanal complex presents different vibrational modes that also result in interaural coupling. The evolutionarily convergent, yet distinct, solutions used by these two small auditory systems to extract directional cues from the sound field and the role of tympanal coupling in this process are discussed. (+info)
Hearing loss is a condition in which an individual is unable to hear sounds or perceive them at a normal level. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, exposure to loud noises, infections, aging, and certain medical conditions. There are several types of hearing loss, including conductive hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss, and mixed hearing loss. Conductive hearing loss occurs when sound waves cannot pass through the outer or middle ear, while sensorineural hearing loss occurs when the inner ear or auditory nerve is damaged. Mixed hearing loss is a combination of both conductive and sensorineural hearing loss. Hearing loss can affect an individual's ability to communicate, socialize, and perform daily activities. It can also lead to feelings of isolation and depression. Treatment options for hearing loss include hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other assistive devices, as well as surgery in some cases.
Hearing Loss, Sensorineural is a type of hearing loss that occurs when there is damage to the inner ear or the auditory nerve. This type of hearing loss is also known as nerve deafness or sensorineural hearing loss. It is the most common type of hearing loss and can be caused by a variety of factors, including aging, exposure to loud noises, certain medications, and genetic factors. Sensorineural hearing loss is typically characterized by a gradual loss of hearing over time, and it can affect both ears or just one. It is often treated with hearing aids or cochlear implants, but in some cases, it may be permanent.
Hearing disorders refer to any condition that affects an individual's ability to perceive sound. These disorders can range from mild to severe and can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, aging, exposure to loud noises, infections, and certain medical conditions. Some common types of hearing disorders include: 1. Conductive hearing loss: This type of hearing loss occurs when sound waves cannot pass through the outer or middle ear properly. Causes of conductive hearing loss include ear infections, earwax buildup, and damage to the eardrum or middle ear bones. 2. Sensorineural hearing loss: This type of hearing loss occurs when there is damage to the inner ear or the auditory nerve. Causes of sensorineural hearing loss include aging, exposure to loud noises, certain medications, and genetic factors. 3. Mixed hearing loss: This type of hearing loss occurs when there is a combination of conductive and sensorineural hearing loss. 4. Auditory processing disorder: This type of hearing disorder affects an individual's ability to process and interpret sounds. It can cause difficulties with speech and language development, as well as problems with reading and writing. 5. Tinnitus: This is a condition characterized by a ringing, buzzing, or hissing sound in the ears. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including exposure to loud noises, ear infections, and certain medications. Treatment for hearing disorders depends on the type and severity of the condition. Some common treatments include hearing aids, cochlear implants, and medications to manage symptoms such as tinnitus. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct structural problems in the ear.
Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced, also known as Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL), is a type of hearing loss that is caused by prolonged exposure to loud noises. It is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide, especially those who work in noisy environments or engage in recreational activities that involve loud sounds. NIHL can occur when the hair cells in the inner ear are damaged by exposure to loud noises. These hair cells are responsible for converting sound waves into electrical signals that are sent to the brain for interpretation. When they are damaged, the brain may not receive the signals properly, leading to hearing loss. The severity of NIHL can vary depending on the duration and intensity of the exposure to loud noises. Short-term exposure to very loud noises can cause temporary hearing loss, while long-term exposure to loud noises can lead to permanent hearing loss. NIHL is preventable by taking steps to protect the ears from loud noises. This can include wearing earplugs or earmuffs in noisy environments, limiting exposure to loud noises, and taking breaks from noisy activities. If you suspect that you may have NIHL, it is important to see a healthcare professional for an evaluation and treatment.
Hearing loss, bilateral refers to a type of hearing loss that affects both ears equally. Bilateral hearing loss means that the individual has a similar degree of hearing loss in both ears, and it can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, aging, exposure to loud noises, infections, and certain medical conditions. Bilateral hearing loss can range from mild to severe and can affect an individual's ability to understand speech, especially in noisy environments. It can also impact social interactions, communication, and overall quality of life. Treatment options for bilateral hearing loss may include the use of hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other assistive devices. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to address the underlying cause of the hearing loss.
Hearing loss, conductive, is a type of hearing loss that occurs when sound waves are not able to reach the inner ear properly due to a problem with the outer or middle ear. This type of hearing loss is usually caused by a blockage or damage to the ear canal, eardrum, or middle ear bones (ossicles). Conductive hearing loss can be temporary or permanent, and it can be caused by a variety of factors, including ear infections, earwax buildup, exposure to loud noises, head injuries, and certain medications. Treatment for conductive hearing loss depends on the underlying cause. For example, if the hearing loss is caused by earwax buildup, it can be treated with earwax removal. If the hearing loss is caused by a blockage or damage to the eardrum or ossicles, surgery may be necessary to restore normal function. In some cases, hearing aids or cochlear implants may also be used to improve hearing.
Hearing Loss, High-Frequency is a type of hearing loss that affects the ability to hear high-pitched sounds. It is also known as sensorineural hearing loss, which means that it is caused by damage to the inner ear or the auditory nerve. High-frequency hearing loss is often associated with aging, exposure to loud noises, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. It can also be caused by genetic factors. Symptoms of high-frequency hearing loss include difficulty hearing high-pitched sounds, such as women's and children's voices, and difficulty understanding speech in noisy environments. Treatment options for high-frequency hearing loss include hearing aids, cochlear implants, and assistive listening devices.
Deafness is a medical condition characterized by a partial or complete inability to hear sounds. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to loud noises, infections, and aging. In the medical field, deafness is typically classified into two main types: conductive deafness and sensorineural deafness. Conductive deafness occurs when there is a problem with the outer or middle ear that prevents sound waves from reaching the inner ear. Sensorineural deafness, on the other hand, occurs when there is damage to the inner ear or the auditory nerve that transmits sound signals to the brain. Deafness can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life, affecting their ability to communicate, socialize, and participate in daily activities. Treatment options for deafness depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, hearing aids or cochlear implants may be used to improve hearing, while in other cases, surgery or other medical interventions may be necessary to address the underlying cause of the deafness.
Hearing loss that occurs suddenly is known as sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). SSNHL is a medical emergency that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. It is characterized by a rapid and significant decrease in hearing ability, often accompanied by ringing in the ears (tinnitus) and dizziness (vertigo). The cause of sudden hearing loss is not always clear, but it is thought to be related to damage to the inner ear or the auditory nerve. Risk factors for SSNHL include age, previous ear infections, head or neck trauma, certain medications, and a family history of hearing loss. Treatment for SSNHL typically involves the use of corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and swelling in the inner ear. In some cases, additional treatments such as antiviral medications or surgery may be necessary. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for the best possible outcome, as the success of treatment decreases over time.
Hearing loss, unilateral, refers to a condition in which an individual has a hearing impairment in only one ear. This type of hearing loss is also known as monaural hearing loss or one-sided hearing loss. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, exposure to loud noises, head or ear injuries, infections, and certain medical conditions such as meningitis or otosclerosis. Unilateral hearing loss can affect an individual's ability to hear speech and other sounds, and may require the use of hearing aids or other assistive devices to improve communication.
Presbycusis is a common type of hearing loss that occurs naturally with age. It is also known as age-related hearing loss or sensorineural hearing loss. Presbycusis is caused by damage to the tiny hair cells in the inner ear that are responsible for converting sound waves into electrical signals that the brain can interpret. As we age, these hair cells can become damaged or die off, leading to a gradual loss of hearing. Presbycusis is a progressive condition, meaning that the hearing loss typically worsens over time. It can affect one or both ears and can make it difficult to understand speech, especially in noisy environments. Other symptoms of presbycusis may include ringing in the ears (tinnitus), dizziness, and difficulty following conversations. Presbycusis is a common condition, affecting an estimated 30 million people in the United States alone. While there is no cure for presbycusis, there are several treatment options available to help manage the symptoms, including hearing aids, cochlear implants, and assistive listening devices.
Hearing loss, central, is a type of hearing loss that occurs when there is damage to the central auditory pathway, which includes the auditory nerve and the brainstem. This type of hearing loss is often referred to as sensorineural hearing loss, as it affects both the sensory (reception of sound) and neural (transmission of sound) components of the auditory system. Central hearing loss can be caused by a variety of factors, including head injury, stroke, brain tumors, infections, and degenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis or Alzheimer's disease. It can also be caused by exposure to loud noises or certain medications. Symptoms of central hearing loss may include difficulty understanding speech, especially in noisy environments or when speaking to people with normal hearing, ringing in the ears (tinnitus), and a feeling of fullness or pressure in the ears. Diagnosis typically involves a hearing test and an evaluation of the central auditory pathway using imaging techniques such as MRI or CT scans. Treatment for central hearing loss may include hearing aids, cochlear implants, and speech therapy to help individuals improve their ability to understand speech and communicate effectively. In some cases, medications or surgery may be recommended to treat the underlying cause of the hearing loss.
Hearing loss, functional, is a type of hearing impairment that is caused by a problem with the way the brain processes sound. It is also known as a central auditory processing disorder (CAPD) or a cognitive hearing loss. Unlike sensorineural hearing loss, which is caused by damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve, functional hearing loss is not related to the physical structure of the ear or the nervous system. People with functional hearing loss may have normal or near-normal hearing sensitivity when tested with standard audiometric tests, but they have difficulty understanding speech, especially in noisy environments or when the speaker is not facing them. This is because their brain has difficulty processing the auditory information that is received from the ear. Functional hearing loss can be caused by a variety of factors, including brain injury, stroke, brain tumors, and certain neurological disorders. It can also be caused by aging, as the brain may become less efficient at processing auditory information as it ages. Treatment for functional hearing loss may include speech therapy, cognitive training, and the use of assistive devices such as hearing aids or cochlear implants. In some cases, medication may also be used to help improve cognitive function and hearing ability.
An acoustic neuroma, also known as a vestibular schwannoma, is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor that develops on the vestibular nerve, which is responsible for transmitting signals from the inner ear to the brain. The tumor typically grows slowly and can cause a variety of symptoms, including hearing loss, ringing in the ears (tinnitus), dizziness, and balance problems. In some cases, an acoustic neuroma can cause pressure on the brainstem, which can lead to more serious symptoms such as double vision, weakness on one side of the face, and difficulty speaking. Treatment options for an acoustic neuroma may include observation, medication, radiation therapy, or surgery.
Hearing Loss, Mixed Conductive-Sensorineural is a type of hearing loss that occurs when there is a combination of both conductive and sensorineural hearing loss. Conductive hearing loss occurs when sound waves cannot travel through the outer or middle ear, while sensorineural hearing loss occurs when there is damage to the inner ear or the auditory nerve. In mixed hearing loss, both of these types of hearing loss are present, which can make it more difficult to understand speech and other sounds. Treatment for mixed hearing loss may involve the use of hearing aids, cochlear implants, or other devices to help amplify sound and improve hearing.
Labyrinth diseases refer to a group of disorders that affect the inner ear, specifically the labyrinth, which is responsible for balance and hearing. The labyrinth is a complex structure that contains the cochlea, which is responsible for hearing, and the vestibular system, which is responsible for balance. Labyrinth diseases can be classified into two main categories: conductive labyrinthine disorders and sensorineural labyrinthine disorders. Conductive labyrinthine disorders involve problems with the transmission of sound waves from the outer ear to the inner ear, while sensorineural labyrinthine disorders involve damage to the hair cells in the cochlea or the vestibular system. Some common examples of labyrinthine disorders include Meniere's disease, which is characterized by episodes of vertigo, hearing loss, and tinnitus, and labyrinthitis, which is an inflammation of the labyrinth that can cause vertigo, hearing loss, and dizziness. Other examples include vestibular neuronitis, which is an inflammation of the vestibular nerve, and acoustic neuroma, which is a benign tumor that can grow on the vestibular nerve and cause hearing loss and vertigo. Treatment for labyrinthine disorders depends on the specific disorder and its severity. In some cases, medications may be used to manage symptoms, while in other cases, surgery may be necessary to remove a tumor or repair damage to the labyrinth.
Hyperacusis is a hearing disorder characterized by an increased sensitivity to sounds, even at low volumes. People with hyperacusis may experience discomfort, pain, or even physical reactions to sounds that others find tolerable or even pleasant. Hyperacusis can be caused by a variety of factors, including ear infections, head injuries, exposure to loud noises, certain medications, and neurological conditions. It can also be a symptom of other hearing disorders, such as tinnitus or hearing loss. Treatment for hyperacusis may involve a combination of therapy, medication, and lifestyle changes. Audiologists and other hearing healthcare professionals can work with individuals to develop strategies for coping with hyperacusis, such as sound therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and relaxation techniques. In some cases, hearing aids or other assistive devices may also be helpful.
Cochlear diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the inner ear, specifically the cochlea, which is responsible for converting sound waves into electrical signals that are sent to the brain for interpretation. These diseases can cause a range of symptoms, including hearing loss, ringing in the ears (tinnitus), dizziness, and balance problems. Some common cochlear diseases include: 1. Sensorineural hearing loss: This is the most common type of hearing loss and occurs when there is damage to the hair cells in the cochlea that convert sound waves into electrical signals. 2. Meniere's disease: This is a disorder that affects the inner ear and can cause episodes of vertigo, hearing loss, and ringing in the ears. 3. Labyrinthitis: This is an inflammation of the inner ear that can cause vertigo, hearing loss, and ringing in the ears. 4. Acoustic neuroma: This is a benign tumor that grows on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain and can cause hearing loss, ringing in the ears, and dizziness. 5. Otosclerosis: This is a condition in which the bone in the middle ear becomes abnormally hard, leading to hearing loss. Treatment for cochlear diseases depends on the specific condition and may include medications, surgery, hearing aids, or other devices to help improve hearing and balance.
Connexins are a family of transmembrane proteins that form gap junctions, which are channels that allow the direct exchange of ions and small molecules between adjacent cells. These channels play a crucial role in cell-to-cell communication and coordination, and are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including the regulation of heart rate, the maintenance of tissue homeostasis, and the development and function of the nervous system. In the medical field, connexins are of particular interest because they have been implicated in a number of diseases and disorders, including deafness, skin disorders, and certain types of cancer. For example, mutations in connexin genes have been linked to a variety of hearing disorders, including congenital deafness and progressive hearing loss. Additionally, changes in the expression or function of connexins have been observed in a number of cancers, and may play a role in the development and progression of these diseases.
Meniere's disease is a disorder of the inner ear that affects balance and hearing. It is characterized by episodes of vertigo (a sensation of spinning or dizziness), hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and a feeling of fullness or pressure in the affected ear. The exact cause of Meniere's disease is not known, but it is thought to be related to an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the inner ear. There is no cure for Meniere's disease, but treatments such as diuretics, antivertigo medications, and surgery can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.
Vestibulocochlear nerve diseases refer to disorders that affect the vestibulocochlear nerve, which is also known as the eighth cranial nerve. This nerve is responsible for transmitting signals from the inner ear to the brain, allowing us to hear and maintain balance. Vestibulocochlear nerve diseases can affect either the hearing portion of the nerve (cochlear) or the balance portion of the nerve (vestibular). Some common vestibulocochlear nerve diseases include: 1. Meniere's disease: This is a disorder that affects the inner ear and can cause symptoms such as hearing loss, ringing in the ears (tinnitus), vertigo, and a feeling of fullness in the ear. 2. Acoustic neuroma: This is a benign tumor that grows on the vestibulocochlear nerve and can cause symptoms such as hearing loss, ringing in the ears, and vertigo. 3. Labyrinthitis: This is an inflammation of the inner ear that can cause symptoms such as hearing loss, vertigo, and ringing in the ears. 4. Vestibular neuronitis: This is an inflammation of the vestibular nerve that can cause symptoms such as vertigo, dizziness, and nausea. Treatment for vestibulocochlear nerve diseases depends on the specific disorder and its severity. In some cases, medications or lifestyle changes may be sufficient to manage symptoms. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove a tumor or repair damage to the nerve.
In the medical field, ear diseases refer to any disorders or conditions that affect the structures and functions of the ear. The ear is a complex organ that is responsible for hearing, balance, and maintaining the inner ear pressure. Ear diseases can affect any part of the ear, including the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear. Some common ear diseases include: 1. Otitis media: Inflammation of the middle ear that can cause pain, fever, and hearing loss. 2. Tinnitus: A ringing or buzzing sound in the ear that can be caused by a variety of factors, including age, noise exposure, and ear infections. 3. Conductive hearing loss: A type of hearing loss that occurs when sound waves cannot pass through the outer or middle ear. 4. Sensorineural hearing loss: A type of hearing loss that occurs when the inner ear or auditory nerve is damaged. 5. Meniere's disease: A disorder that affects the inner ear and can cause vertigo, hearing loss, and ringing in the ears. 6. Otosclerosis: A condition in which the bone in the middle ear becomes too hard, leading to hearing loss. 7. Ear infections: Infections of the outer, middle, or inner ear that can cause pain, fever, and hearing loss. 8. Earwax impaction: A blockage of the ear canal caused by excessive buildup of earwax. Treatment for ear diseases depends on the specific condition and can include medications, surgery, or other interventions. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of an ear disease to prevent further complications.
Vestibular diseases refer to a group of disorders that affect the vestibular system, which is responsible for maintaining balance and spatial orientation in the body. The vestibular system is located in the inner ear and consists of three semicircular canals and two otolith organs (utricle and saccule) that detect changes in head position and movement. Vestibular diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, head injuries, aging, genetics, and certain medications. Symptoms of vestibular diseases can include dizziness, vertigo, nausea, vomiting, unsteadiness, and difficulty with balance and coordination. Some common vestibular diseases include: 1. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV): A condition characterized by brief episodes of vertigo triggered by changes in head position. 2. Meniere's disease: A disorder that affects the inner ear and can cause symptoms such as vertigo, hearing loss, tinnitus, and a feeling of fullness in the ear. 3. Vestibular neuronitis: An inflammation of the vestibular nerve that can cause symptoms such as vertigo, nausea, and vomiting. 4. Labyrinthitis: An inflammation of the inner ear that can cause symptoms similar to those of vestibular neuronitis. 5. Vestibular schwannoma: A benign tumor that can grow on the vestibular nerve and cause symptoms such as hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. Treatment for vestibular diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of symptoms. In some cases, medications or physical therapy may be used to manage symptoms. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove tumors or repair damaged structures in the inner ear.
Otitis Media with Effusion (OME) is a medical condition that occurs when there is a build-up of fluid in the middle ear behind the eardrum. This can cause swelling and inflammation in the middle ear, which can lead to hearing loss, ear pain, and other symptoms. OME is a common condition in children, particularly those under the age of five. It is often caused by a viral or bacterial infection, but can also be caused by allergies or other factors. Treatment for OME depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the symptoms. In some cases, the fluid may resolve on its own without treatment. However, if the fluid persists or causes significant symptoms, treatment may include antibiotics, decongestants, or other medications. In some cases, a procedure called tympanostomy may be necessary to drain the fluid from the middle ear.
Occupational diseases are illnesses or injuries that are caused by exposure to hazards or conditions in the workplace. These hazards or conditions can include chemicals, dusts, fumes, radiation, noise, vibration, and physical demands such as repetitive motions or awkward postures. Occupational diseases can affect various systems in the body, including the respiratory system, skin, eyes, ears, cardiovascular system, and nervous system. Examples of occupational diseases include asbestosis, silicosis, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and hearing loss. Occupational diseases are preventable through proper safety measures and regulations in the workplace. Employers are responsible for providing a safe and healthy work environment for their employees, and workers have the right to report hazards and seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms related to their work.
In the medical field, a syndrome is a set of symptoms and signs that occur together and suggest the presence of a particular disease or condition. A syndrome is often defined by a specific pattern of symptoms that are not caused by a single underlying disease, but rather by a combination of factors, such as genetic, environmental, or hormonal. For example, Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that is characterized by a specific set of physical and intellectual characteristics, such as a flattened facial profile, short stature, and intellectual disability. Similarly, the flu syndrome is a set of symptoms that occur together, such as fever, cough, sore throat, and body aches, that suggest the presence of an influenza virus infection. Diagnosing a syndrome involves identifying the specific set of symptoms and signs that are present, as well as ruling out other possible causes of those symptoms. Once a syndrome is diagnosed, it can help guide treatment and management of the underlying condition.
Vertigo is a sensation of spinning or dizziness that can be caused by a variety of medical conditions. It is a common symptom that can be experienced by people of all ages and can range from mild to severe. Vertigo is often associated with a feeling of being off balance or as if the room is spinning around the person. It can be accompanied by other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light. There are several types of vertigo, including benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), which is caused by small crystals in the inner ear becoming dislodged and moving to a different location, and Meniere's disease, which is characterized by episodes of vertigo, ringing in the ears, and hearing loss. Diagnosis of vertigo typically involves a physical examination and may include additional tests such as an audiogram, balance testing, or imaging studies. Treatment for vertigo depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, physical therapy, or surgery.
Usher syndromes are a group of genetic disorders that affect hearing and vision. They are named after the American physician and geneticist Dr. Helen Usher, who first described the condition in 1952. There are three main types of Usher syndrome: Usher syndrome type I, Usher syndrome type II, and Usher syndrome type III. Each type is characterized by a different combination of hearing and vision loss, as well as other symptoms. Usher syndrome is caused by mutations in genes that are involved in the development and function of the inner ear and the retina. It is a rare condition, affecting an estimated 1 in 6,000 to 8,000 people worldwide.
Labyrinthitis is a medical condition that affects the inner ear, specifically the labyrinth, which is responsible for balance and hearing. It is caused by an infection or inflammation of the labyrinth, which can lead to symptoms such as vertigo (a sensation of spinning or dizziness), nausea, vomiting, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and hearing loss. Labyrinthitis is usually caused by a viral infection, but it can also be caused by bacteria or fungi. Treatment typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and symptoms, and in some cases, physical therapy to help with balance and coordination.
Tympanic membrane perforation, also known as a ruptured eardrum, is a medical condition in which a hole or tear develops in the tympanic membrane, which is the thin, delicate membrane that separates the outer ear from the middle ear. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including infection, injury, or exposure to loud noises. Symptoms of tympanic membrane perforation may include pain or discomfort in the ear, hearing loss, ringing in the ear (tinnitus), and discharge from the ear. Treatment options for tympanic membrane perforation depend on the underlying cause and the severity of the perforation. In some cases, the perforation may heal on its own over time, while in other cases, medical intervention may be necessary to prevent complications or promote healing.
Otitis Media is a medical condition that refers to the inflammation or infection of the middle ear. It is commonly known as "ear infection" and is one of the most common childhood illnesses. The middle ear is the space behind the eardrum that contains three small bones called ossicles, which help to transmit sound vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear. When the middle ear becomes inflamed or infected, it can cause pain, fever, and other symptoms. Otitis Media can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacteria, viruses, and allergies. It is typically treated with antibiotics, pain relievers, and other medications, and in some cases, surgery may be necessary.
Auditory perceptual disorders refer to a range of conditions that affect an individual's ability to perceive and interpret sounds. These disorders can result from damage to the auditory system, such as hearing loss or damage to the brain, or from other medical conditions that affect the nervous system. Some common examples of auditory perceptual disorders include: 1. Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD): This is a condition in which the brain has difficulty processing and interpreting auditory information, even when an individual's hearing is normal. 2. Auditory agnosia: This is a condition in which an individual has difficulty recognizing and identifying sounds, even when their hearing is normal. 3. Synesthesia: This is a condition in which an individual experiences a cross-modal perception, such as seeing colors when they hear certain sounds. 4. Hyperacusis: This is a condition in which an individual has an increased sensitivity to sounds, which can result in discomfort or pain. 5. Tinnitus: This is a condition in which an individual experiences a ringing, buzzing, or other type of noise in their ears, even when there is no external sound source. Auditory perceptual disorders can have a significant impact on an individual's ability to communicate and interact with others, and may require treatment or therapy to manage.
Otitis Media, Suppurative is a medical condition that refers to the presence of pus or other inflammatory materials in the middle ear. It is a type of otitis media, which is an inflammation of the middle ear. Suppurative otitis media is typically caused by bacterial infections and is characterized by symptoms such as ear pain, fever, and discharge from the ear. It is a common condition in children, particularly those under the age of five, and can lead to complications if left untreated. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics to clear the infection and relieve symptoms.
Language Development Disorders (LDDs) refer to a group of conditions that affect the ability of an individual to acquire, use, and understand language. These disorders can affect any aspect of language development, including receptive language (understanding spoken or written language), expressive language (using language to communicate thoughts, ideas, and feelings), and pragmatic language (using language appropriately in social situations). LDDs can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic, neurological, environmental, and social factors. Some common examples of LDDs include: 1. Specific Language Impairment (SLI): A disorder characterized by difficulty with language development that is not due to hearing loss, intellectual disability, or global developmental delay. 2. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A neurodevelopmental disorder that affects social interaction, communication, and behavior. 3. Dyslexia: A learning disorder that affects reading and writing skills. 4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder that affects attention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. 5. Stuttering: A speech disorder characterized by involuntary repetitions, prolongations, or blocks of sounds, syllables, or words. LDDs can have a significant impact on an individual's ability to communicate effectively and can affect their academic, social, and emotional development. Early identification and intervention are crucial for improving outcomes and promoting language development.
Auditory diseases, central, refer to disorders that affect the central auditory system, which is the part of the nervous system responsible for processing sound information. The central auditory system includes the brainstem, thalamus, and cortex, which work together to interpret and understand sound. Central auditory diseases can result from a variety of causes, including genetic disorders, infections, head injuries, and degenerative diseases. Some common examples of central auditory diseases include: 1. Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD): A condition in which the brain has difficulty processing auditory information, even when the ears are functioning normally. 2. Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD): A condition in which there is damage to the auditory nerve, which can result in hearing loss and difficulty understanding speech. 3. Cochlear neuropathy: A condition in which there is damage to the nerve cells in the cochlea, which can result in hearing loss and difficulty understanding speech. 4. Auditory agnosia: A condition in which there is a loss of the ability to recognize and identify sounds, even when there is no hearing loss. Central auditory diseases can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including hearing tests, brain imaging, and behavioral assessments. Treatment options may include hearing aids, cochlear implants, and speech therapy, depending on the specific diagnosis and severity of the condition.
Transcription factor Brn-3C is a protein that plays a role in regulating gene expression in various cells and tissues in the body. It is a member of the Brn-3 family of transcription factors, which are involved in the development and function of neurons and other cells. In the medical field, Brn-3C has been studied in relation to a number of conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as peripheral neuropathy and other neurological disorders. Research has suggested that Brn-3C may play a role in the development and progression of these conditions, and may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Overall, the exact role of Brn-3C in the body and its potential applications in medicine are still being studied, and more research is needed to fully understand its function and significance.
Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) is a genetic disorder that affects the development of Schwann cells, which are specialized cells that wrap around nerve fibers and help to insulate and protect them. People with NF2 typically develop multiple benign tumors, called schwannomas, on the nerves of the brain and spinal cord. These tumors can cause a variety of symptoms, including hearing loss, balance problems, and facial pain. In some cases, NF2 can also cause tumors to develop on other parts of the body, such as the eyes and the skin. NF2 is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means that a person only needs to inherit one copy of the mutated gene from one parent in order to develop the condition. It is estimated that NF2 affects about 1 in every 25,000 to 1 in every 60,000 people.
Aminoglycosides are a class of antibiotics that are commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and meningitis. They work by binding to the ribosomes of bacterial cells, which are responsible for protein synthesis, and interfering with this process, leading to the death of the bacteria. Aminoglycosides are typically administered intravenously, although some may also be given by mouth or injection. They are often used in combination with other antibiotics to increase their effectiveness and reduce the risk of bacterial resistance. However, aminoglycosides can also have serious side effects, including hearing loss, kidney damage, and neuromuscular disorders. As a result, they are typically reserved for use in severe infections and are administered with caution, under close medical supervision.
Cranial nerve neoplasms refer to tumors that develop on the cranial nerves, which are the nerves that emerge from the brainstem and control various functions such as movement, sensation, and autonomic functions. These tumors can be either benign or malignant and can affect any of the 12 cranial nerves. Symptoms of cranial nerve neoplasms may include facial weakness, numbness or tingling in the face or extremities, difficulty swallowing, double vision, hearing loss, and balance problems. Treatment options for cranial nerve neoplasms may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.
Articulation disorders, also known as speech sound disorders, refer to difficulties in producing speech sounds correctly. These disorders can affect the way a person pronounces individual sounds or groups of sounds, making it difficult for others to understand them. Articulation disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including neurological disorders, hearing loss, developmental delays, and oral-motor problems. They can affect people of all ages, but are most commonly diagnosed in children. Treatment for articulation disorders typically involves speech therapy, which focuses on improving the production of speech sounds and helping the individual to communicate more effectively. Speech therapists work with the individual to identify the specific sounds that are being mispronounced and develop exercises and strategies to help them produce those sounds correctly. With consistent practice and therapy, many individuals with articulation disorders are able to improve their speech and communicate more effectively.
Anion transport proteins are membrane proteins that facilitate the movement of negatively charged ions across cell membranes. These proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the proper balance of ions in the body, which is essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and the regulation of fluid balance. There are several types of anion transport proteins, including chloride channels, bicarbonate transporters, and anion exchangers. Chloride channels allow chloride ions to move down their electrochemical gradient, while bicarbonate transporters facilitate the movement of bicarbonate ions across cell membranes. Anion exchangers, on the other hand, exchange one anion for another across the membrane. Anion transport proteins can be found in various tissues throughout the body, including the lungs, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract. Mutations in these proteins can lead to a variety of medical conditions, such as cystic fibrosis, which is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel.
Meningitis, bacterial is an infection of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known as the meninges. It is caused by bacteria, most commonly Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). The symptoms of bacterial meningitis can include fever, headache, neck stiffness, sensitivity to light, vomiting, and a rash. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures, confusion, and even coma or death if not treated promptly. Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency and requires prompt diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics. Vaccines are available to prevent some types of bacterial meningitis, including Hib and meningococcal meningitis.
Ear neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the ear. These growths can occur in any part of the ear, including the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear. Ear neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign ear neoplasms are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. Examples of benign ear neoplasms include cholesteatoma, a cyst-like growth that forms in the middle ear, and exostoses, which are bony growths that form on the external ear canal. Malignant ear neoplasms are more rare and can be aggressive, spreading to other parts of the body. Examples of malignant ear neoplasms include squamous cell carcinoma, which can develop in the outer ear or ear canal, and adenoid cystic carcinoma, which can develop in the middle ear. Diagnosis of ear neoplasms typically involves a physical examination of the ear, imaging tests such as CT scans or MRI scans, and a biopsy to confirm the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options for ear neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.
In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.
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2 - Preparing for the hearing
How hearing works
- Sudden deafness , also known as sudden sensorineural hearing loss, is an unexplained rapid loss of hearing. (nih.gov)
- In some children with sensorineural hearing impairment, the part of the inner ear that provides information about balance and movement of the head is also damaged. (healthychildren.org)
- Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) occurs when the tiny hair cells (nerve endings) that detect sound in the inner ear are injured, diseased, do not work correctly, or have died. (nih.gov)
- Sensorineural hearing loss in adults. (nih.gov)
- Cochlear genetic sensorineural hearing loss. (medscape.com)
- The aging process is a very common cause of sensorineural hearing loss. (ucsfhealth.org)
- Some people have a combination of both sensorineural and conductive hearing loss. (ucsfhealth.org)
- RESEARCH OBJECTIVES Background Hearing aids continue to be the management of choice for many people with sensorineural hearing loss. (nih.gov)
- Most forms of nonsyndromic hearing loss are described as sensorineural, which means they are associated with a permanent loss of hearing caused by damage to structures in the inner ear. (nih.gov)
- Even without a family history of deafness, the cause is frequently genetic) Parents and other family members often are unaffected because each parent is only a carrier for a hearing-loss gene. (healthychildren.org)
- NIH's National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) and the American Hearing Research Foundation. (nih.gov)
- The term "deafness" is often used to describe severe-to-profound hearing loss. (nih.gov)
- This FOA, issued by the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, encourages Exploratory/Developmental Research Grant (R21) applications from institutions/organizations to support research leading to accessible and affordable hearing health care (HHC). (nih.gov)
- Susan Drummond joined the office as Deputy Hearing Examiner in 2021. (seattle.gov)
- Patricia Cole re-joined the Office of Hearing Examiner on December 22, 2021, having previously served in this position from October 2007 to April 2016. (seattle.gov)
- Francis Collins, M.D., Ph.D., Director of NIH, responds to Congressman Harder's question about NIH priorities for climate change and health during the May 25, 2021 House Appropriations Subcommittee Hearing. (nih.gov)
- Cochlear implants are only used in people who have lost too much hearing to benefit from a hearing aid. (nih.gov)
- In other cases, patients may benefit from hearing aids, assistive listening devices or cochlear implants. (ucsfhealth.org)
- These include hearing aids, cochlear implants, and communication approaches. (nih.gov)
- Guideline] Alford RL, Arnos KS, Fox M, et al, ACMG Working Group on Update of Genetics Evaluation Guidelines for the Etiologic Diagnosis of Congenital Hearing Loss, Professional Practice and Guidelines Committee. (medscape.com)
Impairment in children1
- Katbamna B, Crumpton T, Patel DR. Hearing impairment in children. (medscape.com)
- That's why, before baby goes home from the hospital after birth, they undergo a formal newborn hearing screening . (healthychildren.org)
- Erenberg A, Lemons J, Sia C, Trunkel D, Ziring P. Newborn and infant hearing loss: detection and intervention. (medscape.com)
- Task Force on Newborn and Infant Hearing, 1998- 1999. (medscape.com)
- A multicenter evaluation of how many infants with permanent hearing loss pass a two-stage otoacoustic emissions/automated auditory brainstem response newborn hearing screening protocol. (medscape.com)
- Newborn hearing screening in the NICU: profile of failed auditory brainstem response/passed otoacoustic emission. (medscape.com)
- Universal newborn hearing screening: systematic review to update the 2001 US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation. (medscape.com)
- In many regions the COVID-19 pandemic interrupted the delivery of healthcare services in 2020, including newborn hearing screening and follow-up diagnostic and intervention services. (cdc.gov)
- That's why every newborn has a hearing screening test before leaving the hospital. (kidshealth.org)
- Hospitals use OAE for newborn hearing screening. (kidshealth.org)
- If an impairment is detected, your child may be referred to an audiologist (hearing specialist), and/or an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) doctor ( otolaryngologist ). (healthychildren.org)
- You should see someone trained to do hearing screenings, like an audiologist, nurse, or teacher. (asha.org)
- You should see an audiologist for a hearing evaluation. (asha.org)
- Hearing is checked by a hearing specialist called an audiologist . (kidshealth.org)
- Joint Committee on Infant Hearing, American Academy of Audiology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, and Directors of Speech and Hearing Programs in State Health and Welfare Agencies. (medscape.com)
- Click the Pay Online button below, then choose the "Audiology Payment" (hearing) or "Speech Payment" icon. (wichita.edu)
- American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guideline for the clinical evaluation and etiologic diagnosis of hearing loss. (medscape.com)
- Number of infants in maternal age-specific category (e.g., 15-19 years) receiving hearing screening/evaluated for diagnosis/enrolled in early intervention. (cdc.gov)
- College Graduate or higher) receiving hearing screening/evaluated for diagnosis/enrolled in early intervention. (cdc.gov)
- However, at any time during your child's life, if you or your pediatrician suspect that they have a hearing impairment, insist that a formal hearing evaluation be performed promptly. (healthychildren.org)
- If you're wondeirng if you need to have your hearing or your child's hearing tested, there are questions and considerations that can help you find out. (asha.org)
- That's why it's important to get your child's hearing screened at birth and checked regularly. (kidshealth.org)
- Tell your child's doctor if you are concerned about a hearing problem. (kidshealth.org)
- Doctors can tell a lot about a child's hearing based on how well this reflex works. (kidshealth.org)
- The hearings for the academic year 2022-2023 will take place on 22, 23 and 24 August 2023. (tudelft.nl)
- Sarah Grant joined the Office of Hearing Examiner on March 30, 2023. (seattle.gov)
- The first public hearing will took place on June 6, 2023 during the open session of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Advisory Committee meeting. (nih.gov)
- The second public hearing took place on June 7, 2023 using the NHLBI DLD Director's Twitter account. (nih.gov)
- However, hearing impairment at birth, or that develops in infants and toddlers, is of extra concern. (healthychildren.org)
- As a result, infants born in 2020 and needing hearing screening and/or follow-up services may have experienced delays or had difficulties obtaining these services. (cdc.gov)
- Most infants are screened for hearing loss before they leave the hospital. (nih.gov)
- Learn more about infants and hearing loss . (nih.gov)
- For example, there are some medicines that can cause hearing loss, but only in people who have certain mutations in their genes. (cdc.gov)
- About 70% of all mutations causing hearing loss are non-syndromic. (cdc.gov)
- About 30% of the mutations causing hearing loss are syndromic. (cdc.gov)
- Clinical studies of families with hearing loss attributable to mutations in the connexin 26 gene (GJB2/DFNB1). (medscape.com)
- Mutations in these genes contribute to hearing loss by interfering with critical steps in processing sound. (nih.gov)
- Different mutations in the same gene can be associated with different types of hearing loss, and some genes are associated with both syndromic and nonsyndromic forms. (nih.gov)
- Mutations in the GJB2 or GJB6 gene alter their respective connexin proteins, which changes the structure of gap junctions and may affect the function or survival of cells that are needed for hearing. (nih.gov)
- The most common cause of moderate autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss is mutations in the STRC gene. (nih.gov)
- Age-related hearing loss usually occurs in both ears, affecting them equally. (nih.gov)
- Permanent hearing loss occurs when inner ear nerves become damaged and do not properly transmit their signals to the brain. (ucsfhealth.org)
- In contrast, syndromic hearing loss occurs with signs and symptoms affecting other parts of the body. (nih.gov)
- Hearing loss that occurs after the development of speech is classified as postlingual. (nih.gov)
- It plays sounds and measures an "echo" response that occurs in ears with normal hearing. (nih.gov)
- The NIDCD, NASA and the Department of Veterans Affairs agreed in 1995 to initiate a federal technology transfer program for hearing aids by developing partnerships among scientists, industry and Federal laboratories for commercialization of promising technologies for the benefit of individuals with hearing impairment. (nih.gov)
- 1995). Children's hearing endangered. (who.int)
- Mr. Vancil joined the office as Deputy Hearing Examiner in October of 2016. (seattle.gov)
- Hearing loss is being partly or totally unable to hear sound in one or both ears. (nih.gov)
- You have sudden, severe hearing loss or ringing in the ears (tinnitus). (nih.gov)
- Hearing loss can affect one ear (unilateral) or both ears (bilateral). (nih.gov)
- Between 2 and 3 per 1,000 children in the United States are born with detectable hearing loss in one or both ears. (nih.gov)
- It can range from a mild loss, in which a person misses certain high-pitched sounds, to a total loss of hearing. (nih.gov)
- The establishment of prevalence and incidence estimates of hearing loss within industries is made possible through surveillance. (cdc.gov)
- A search of Federal laboratories for acoustic and electronic technologies that might improve hearing aids was completed in September, 1996 utilizing a NASA contract with Research Triangle Institute (RTI). (nih.gov)
- Ryan Vancil was appointed as Hearing Examiner in March of 2018. (seattle.gov)
- The identified technologies were reviewed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and the most promising were selected for presentation by their developers at the NIDCD/NASA/VA Hearing Aid Improvement Conference: Facilitating Partnerships for Technology Transfer held on May 1 and 2, 1997 on the NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland. (nih.gov)
- This joint NIDCD/NASA Program Announcement is a solicitation for applications to support multidisciplinary collaborative research needed to transfer promising technologies into practical implementation of improvements in hearing aid performance. (nih.gov)
- Age-related hearing loss , also called presbycusis, comes on gradually as a person grows older. (nih.gov)
- About one-third of older adults have hearing loss, and the chance of developing hearing loss increases with age. (nih.gov)
- Although hearing loss is very common among adults, particularly those over age 65, the condition is often under diagnosed in older people. (ucsfhealth.org)
- Damage to hair cells or their stereocilia during life is permanent in mammals, so understanding the basic mechanisms underlying their development during early life holds the promise to unlock regeneration potential in adults and restore hearing following injury. (jax.org)
- Angela Oberhansly joined the office of Hearing Examiner in June of 2019. (seattle.gov)
- Syndromic Hearing Loss in Children. (nih.gov)
- The difference between a hearing screening and a hearing evaluation can sometimes be confusing. (asha.org)
- A hearing screening is a quick test that you will pass or fail. (asha.org)
- Neonatal hearing screening: to do or not to do. (medscape.com)
- Universal screening for hearing loss in newborns: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. (medscape.com)
- If your baby doesn't have a screening before going home, or was born at home or a birthing center, get their hearing checked within the first 3 weeks of life. (kidshealth.org)
- Not passing a hearing screening doesn't mean a baby has hearing loss, but it does mean that the baby should have a full hearing evaluation within 3 months. (kidshealth.org)
- A baby that fails this screening will need a full hearing evaluation. (kidshealth.org)
- If the screening shows that your baby may have hearing loss, you'll be referred for follow-up testing. (nih.gov)
- A Design Public Hearing Webinar will be published on the MassDOT website to present the design for the proposed Bruce Freeman Rail Trail project in the Towns of Sudbury and Concord, MA. (mass.gov)
- All statements and exhibits intended for inclusion in the public hearing webinar transcript must be postmarked/date stamped no later than ten (10) business days after the webinar is posted (July 30thfor this project) to the MassDOT website. (mass.gov)
- To view the archived recording of the June 6th public hearing, click on the video below. (nih.gov)
- normal hearing commonly returns once the congestion or infection gets better and the Eustachian tube (which connects the middle ear to the throat) drains the remaining fluid into the back of the throat. (healthychildren.org)
- Less commonly, nonsyndromic hearing loss is described as conductive, meaning it results from changes in the middle ear. (nih.gov)
- In some populations about 40% of newborns with a genetic hearing loss who do not have a syndrome, have a mutation in the GJB2 gene. (cdc.gov)
Loss in Children1
- Even mild hearing loss in children can cause problems with speech, language, learning, and social skills. (kidshealth.org)
- Ear infections caused by viruses and bacteria (also known as otitis media), a heart condition, stroke , brain injury, or a tumor may also affect your hearing. (nih.gov)
- Most children experience mild hearing loss when fluid builds up in the middle ear from congestion, colds, or ear infections. (healthychildren.org)
- Hearing loss can be related to conditions affecting the nerves of the ear or can accompany infections that produce congestion of the sinus is and Airways. (medicinenet.com)
- The overarching emphasi s is on the acquisition of knowledge that can be rapidly translated into new or enhanced approaches for access, assessment or interventions with a goal to delivering better hearing health care outcomes. (nih.gov)
- Hearing loss is a common problem caused by loud noise, aging, disease, and genetic variations. (nih.gov)
- Noise from lawn mowers, snow blowers, or loud music can damage the inner ear and result in permanent hearing loss. (nih.gov)
- You can prevent most noise-related hearing loss by turning down the sound on your devices, moving away from loud noise, or using earplugs or other ear protection. (nih.gov)
- Occupational hearing loss (OHL) may occur when workers are exposed to loud noise and/or ototoxic chemicals such as heavy metals, organic solvents, and asphyxiants. (cdc.gov)
- For instance, family members may complain that the person with hearing loss listens to the television or radio too loud and often ask them to repeat what they've just said. (ucsfhealth.org)
- This reflex helps protect the ear against loud sounds, which can harm hearing. (kidshealth.org)
- Degrees of hearing loss range from mild (difficulty understanding soft speech) to profound (inability to hear even very loud noises). (nih.gov)
- Hearing aids, special training, certain medications, and surgery are some of the treatments that can help. (nih.gov)
- Medicare does not cover the cost of hearing aids. (wichita.edu)
- In most cases, the symptoms can be significantly minimized with hearing aids. (ucsfhealth.org)
- Although hearing aids allow for improved hearing function in many situations, they provide limited benefit in noisy and other adverse listening environments. (nih.gov)
- Various signal processing algorithms, technologies and microelectronics have been developed for security, military and space applications, yet many of these have not been applied to hearing aids. (nih.gov)
- Much less common is the permanent kind of hearing impairment that always impacts normal speech and language development. (healthychildren.org)
- Permanent hearing impairment varies from mild or partial to complete or total. (healthychildren.org)
- Language ability after early detection of permanent childhood hearing impairment. (medscape.com)
- Hearing loss can also result from taking certain medications that can damage the inner ear, sometimes permanently. (nih.gov)
- This type of hearing impairment is caused by an abnormality of the inner ear or the nerves that carry sound messages from the inner ear to the brain. (healthychildren.org)
- Or, if the birth parent had rubella (German measles), cytomegalovirus (CMV), toxoplasmosis, or another infectious illness that affects the inner ear during pregnancy, the fetus could have been infected and may lose hearing as a result. (healthychildren.org)
- Sound waves, transmitted by the fluid in the inner ear, must deflect the motion sensors at exactly the right angle for proper hearing. (jax.org)
- Investigates inner ear development, focusing on the role of cytoskeleton polarization in sensory function and hearing loss, with a goal to inform therapies for sensory cell regeneration. (jax.org)
- Some forms of nonsyndromic hearing loss, particularly a type called DFNX2, involve changes in both the inner ear and the middle ear. (nih.gov)
- It can lead to developmental challenges if not recognized and treated early, since normal hearing is needed to understand spoken language - and then, later, to produce clear speech. (healthychildren.org)
- Even a temporary but significant hearing impairment during this time can make it very challenging for the child to learn spoken language or speech patterns. (healthychildren.org)
- Directors of Speech and Hearing Programs in State Health and Welfare Agencies. (medscape.com)
- Submit a Speech-Language-Hearing Clinic Request Information form . (wichita.edu)
- Ready to make a payment for hearing or speech services? (wichita.edu)
- If you or someone you know experiences sudden hearing loss, visit a doctor immediately. (nih.gov)
- This is usually mistaken for inattention or resistance, but could be the result of a partial hearing impairment. (healthychildren.org)
- Genetic epidemiology of hearing impairment. (medscape.com)
- However, I don't think a hearing test affects our ability to judge the quality of playback equipment unless one has truly poor hearing. (stereophile.com)
- some children have hearing loss in only one ear . (healthychildren.org)
- Hearing loss in school-aged children. (nih.gov)
- Children with hearing loss who get help early develop better language skills than those who don't. (nih.gov)
- They specialize in testing and treating children with hearing loss. (nih.gov)
- Your ability to hear the frequency extremes may be diminished (which is normal - also, there is a roll-off like Kal described even in individuals with perfect hearing), but your years of experience listening for minute differences gives you an advantage over someone like me, who is only just getting started in the world of auditioning. (stereophile.com)
- The Municipal Code requires that the Deputy Hearing Examiner be an attorney with training and experience in administrative hearings. (seattle.gov)
- She has served as a hearing examiner throughout the state and brings to the office over 20-years of experience in land use, real property, environmental and local government law. (seattle.gov)
- By age 85, more than half of all people experience hearing loss. (nih.gov)
- Scientists, representatives of hearing aid and hearing aid component manufacturers, and individuals from Federal laboratories attended the conference. (nih.gov)
- The purpose of the conference was to initiate the development of partnerships among scientists, hearing aid or hearing aid component manufacturers and Federal laboratories to carry out research that will lead to the commercialization of the promising technologies. (nih.gov)
- Now researchers at the University of Maryland and Johns Hopkins University have overturned conventional wisdom, showing the brains of adult mice can also be re-wired to compensate for a temporary vision loss by improving their hearing. (nih.gov)
Type of hear2
Types of hear1
- Each of these types of hearing loss includes multiple subtypes. (nih.gov)
- Health conditions common in older people, such as diabetes or high blood pressure , can contribute to hearing loss. (nih.gov)
- Some family doctors, pediatricians, and well-baby clinics can test for hearing loss or fluid in the middle ear. (healthychildren.org)
- When this happens, doctors check to see if the cochlea (the organ of hearing, which creates the messages) is working properly. (kidshealth.org)
- This helps doctors detect any hearing problems early and start treatment. (nih.gov)