Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Acetobacter: A species of gram-negative bacteria of the family ACETOBACTERACEAE found in FLOWERS and FRUIT. Cells are ellipsoidal to rod-shaped and straight or slightly curved.Cacao: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.Lactobacillus fermentum: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria associated with DENTAL CARIES.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.DairyingSwine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Housing, AnimalNitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Carbon Footprint: A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Homicide: The killing of one person by another.PolandJews: An ethnic group with historical ties to the land of ISRAEL and the religion of JUDAISM.Catholicism: The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)Christianity: The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Medicine in ArtSchools: Educational institutions.Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Efficiency: Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Child Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.Eastern Orthodoxy: The name given to the religion of the body of modern churches, including among others the Greek and Russian Orthodox, that is derived from the church of the Byzantine Empire, adheres to the Byzantine rite, and acknowledges the honorary primacy of the patriarch of Constantinople. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed)Famous PersonsHistory, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Coffee: A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Herpes Zoster: An acute infectious, usually self-limited, disease believed to represent activation of latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN) in those who have been rendered partially immune after a previous attack of CHICKENPOX. It involves the SENSORY GANGLIA and their areas of innervation and is characterized by severe neuralgic pain along the distribution of the affected nerve and crops of clustered vesicles over the area. (From Dorland, 27th ed)PaperPlant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
  • When industrial methods of fertilization combined with germ theory, dung heaps became outmoded. (theatlantic.com)
  • Before Western societies built conduits to flush excrement into the waterways, it was piled into dung heaps for reuse. (theatlantic.com)
  • For alchemists, dung heaps were a source of saltpeter and, for some, including the 12th-century master Morienus, they provided the first materials for fabricating the philosopher's stone . (theatlantic.com)
  • In an era before the Bunsen burner, dung heaps provided chemical researchers with a source of constant, elevated temperatures. (theatlantic.com)
  • and we learned that a considerable part of the rent of the houses was paid by the produce of the dung heaps. (theatlantic.com)
  • Increased moisture content and surface temperature of soil and manure were major factors increasing CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes. (nature.com)
  • When the manure loses its distinctive aroma and looks like soil, it is ready to apply to the garden. (ehow.co.uk)
  • In 1832, the Scottish politician and agricultural writer Sir John Sinclair described "the use of bones as manure" as "perhaps the most important discovery, connected with the cultivation of the soil, that has been made in the course of a great number of years. (monthlyreview.org)
  • Horse manure is considered a ``hot,`` dry manure that serves to warm up the soil and is especially effective when applied to heavy, cold, claylike earth. (chicagotribune.com)
  • It is interesting to turn from the writings of the ancients to the account of the symposium on 'Soil Organic Matter and Green-manuring' arranged by the American Society of Agronomy at Washington D.C. on 22 November 1928, the main results of which appeared in the Journal of the American Society of Agronomy of October 1929. (journeytoforever.org)
  • Muck heaps are a valuable tool in the battle against soil depletion, Tim Field explains. (thefield.co.uk)
  • 1 For the mulched half, cut down the larger weed foliage to just above soil level using a satisfying slash technique (you can use much of the foliage on your new compost heap, so long as there are no seeds). (gardenorganic.org.uk)
  • This enhances soil structure and encourages healthy growth, especially when soil life is encouraged and multiplied through the addition of good compost and manure. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Incorporate manures to bare soil quickly, ideally within 4 to 6 hours of spreading. (nutrientmanagement.org)
  • For many years, the most popular source of organic matter for soil improvement has been well-rotted farm manure, which is now less available, especially for the urban gardener. (uga.edu)
  • Easily obtained from riding stables, boarding facilities or local farmers, horse manure enriches the surrounding earth as it decomposes, offering nearby plants a ready source of essential nutrients. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Farmers are coming under increasing environmental pressure when it comes to safe use of manures and fertilisers. (fwi.co.uk)
  • Organic manure is also highly polluting and can emit lethal gases - killing two to three farmers every year. (fwi.co.uk)
  • These views and the controversies to which they gave rise, combined with the results of the Rothamsted experiments (started by Lawes and Gilbert in 1843) led to the adoption of artificial manures by many of the farmers of Europe. (journeytoforever.org)
  • Storing solid manures at high density also reduces air exchange which with the low temperature limits the formation and transfer of NH3 to the surface layers of the heap, reducing emissions. (wur.nl)
  • In A.D. 90 Columella emphasized the importance of constructing the pits (in which farmyard manure was stored) in such a manner that drying out was impossible. (journeytoforever.org)
  • The Romans therefore not only understood the importance of organic matter in crop production but had gone a long way towards mastering the principle that, to obtain the best results, it is necessary to arrange for the decay of farmyard manure before it is applied to arable land. (journeytoforever.org)
  • Most N2O emission estimates from cattle and pig manure have been between 0.001 and 0.009 of total-N. Emission of N2O from poultry manure tends to be small. (wur.nl)
  • Average unabated NH3 emissions following application of manure were 0.79, 0.63 and 0.40 of total ammoniacal-N (TAN) from cattle, pig and poultry manure respectively. (wur.nl)
  • Manure incorporation within 4 h after application reduced emission on average by 32%, 92% and 85% for cattle, pig and poultry manure respectively. (wur.nl)
  • Emissions of N2O following the application of cattle manure were 0.12 of TAN without incorporation after application and 0.073 TAN with incorporation after application. (wur.nl)
  • For example, use a belt system to remove layer manure twice a week and regularly wash and scrape cattle yards. (www.gov.uk)
  • Merino, Pilar 2017-12-01 00:00:00 An on-farm composting network operates in the Basque Country (northern Spain), in which solid manure produced in livestock farms (mostly dairy and beef cattle) is composted through windrow turning. (deepdyve.com)
  • Spread a 10 cm layer of composted horse manure over the garden area. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Weigh spread load directly - If you have access to scales, weigh spreader full, then subtract spreader weight empty to get weight of manure. (whatcomcd.org)
  • This method involves measuring the amount of manure spread on a plastic sheet of known area (20 to 40 sq ft is a reasonable size). (whatcomcd.org)
  • The smaller emission from poultry manure is expected as hydrolysis of uric acid to urea may take many months and is often incomplete even after application, hence limiting the potential for NH3 emission. (wur.nl)
  • Sheep, poultry and pigeon manures are best accumulated under cover and kept dry. (chicagotribune.com)
  • The intestinal parasitic agents thrive mostly in such polluted environments such as refuse heaps, gutters and sewage units in and around human dwellings ( 9 ). (ispub.com)
  • Depending on wind direction, they could pinpoint the stench as it wafted from either the manure-waste lagoons of the Desert Rose Farm, an 8,000-cow dairy operation two miles to the southeast, or the Dutch Touch, a 3,000-cow dairy three miles to the south. (hcn.org)
  • We have several different compost heaps going all the time on our farm, every one of these heaps gets inoculated with native spores and mushroom slurries. (permies.com)
  • This helps to avoid methane emissions which otherwise occur in the storage and processing of farm manure, and produces renewable energy at the same time. (myclimate.org)
  • Most biogas plants use not only farm manure, but also other, energy-rich organic waste (co-substrates), which provide more biogas and thus enable the plant to operate more economically. (myclimate.org)
  • The agricultural small biogas plants in this climate protection programme have to use at least 80 percent farm manure and no more than 20 percent co-substrates. (myclimate.org)
  • More than 350 firefighters, including military personnel, battled the flames, which remained out of control for a third day, having started after a heap of farm manure spontaneously ignited amidst the heat and high winds. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The magnitude of the gaseous losses from on-farm composting systems is dependent on the manure management practices at farm level (e.g. moment of windrow stacking). (deepdyve.com)
  • From each positive fly pool, six isolates were characterized and compared with isolates obtained from manure ( n = 53) sampled at both farms and rinse water ( n = 10) from the broiler farm. (asm.org)
  • These types, as well as six additional types, were also present in manure and/or rinse water at the same farm. (asm.org)
  • At the laying-hen farm, all fly and manure isolates were identical, carrying bla TEM-52 in an A 1 /ST48 genetic background. (asm.org)
  • In Vietnam, farmed shrimp bound for the US market are kept fresh with heaps of ice made from tap water that teems with pathogenic bacteria, Businessweek reports. (motherjones.com)
  • The production of greenhouse gases inside the heap was found to be heavily influenced by the oxygen accessibility, which again was influenced by length of storage and the distance to the heap surface. (orgprints.org)
  • This implies that emission of greenhouse gases from stores of solid manure may be heavily influenced by the size of heaps and the length of storage. (orgprints.org)
  • As it matures, the harmful compounds in the manure break down, leaving a nourishing, all-purpose plant food behind. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Add shredded leaves, tree bark or other plant materials and blend them into the manure with a garden rake, creating a homogenous mixture. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Therefore, an optimal system will fix fertility in leguminous leys, harvest the "fat from the land" (as silage or hay) during peak growing season, conserve to feed in winter and recycle via manure for future plant growth. (thefield.co.uk)
  • We established a database of emissions from solid manures. (wur.nl)
  • Statistical analysis provided new information, focussing on developing emission factors, emission algorithms and also new understanding of emission patterns from solid manure. (wur.nl)
  • Attention should therefore be paid to the size of heap and the length of the storage period when composting studies for inventories of greenhouse gas emission are planned or used. (orgprints.org)
  • De-worm any new horses before they are released into a paddock, keep them in a yard and collect the manure for at least three days afterwards. (rspca.org.au)
  • Try not to use fresh manure in your compost, since it provides a common location for fly eggs. (gardenguides.com)
  • He mentions the need of turning this material in summer to facilitate decay, and suggested that ripened manure should always be used for corn, while the fresh material could be applied with safety to grass land. (journeytoforever.org)
  • Manure application equipment, as well as irrigation equipment (when applicable), shall be calibrated to determine actual application rates (gallons, tons, cubic yards or inches applied per acre). (whatcomcd.org)
  • The word recalls the ancient Germanic custom (reported by Tacitus) of covering underground shelters with manure to keep in warmth in winter. (etymonline.com)