Sperm Count: A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.Sperm Head: The anterior portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that contains mainly the nucleus with highly compact CHROMATIN material.Sperm Capacitation: The structural and functional changes by which SPERMATOZOA become capable of oocyte FERTILIZATION. It normally requires exposing the sperm to the female genital tract for a period of time to bring about increased SPERM MOTILITY and the ACROSOME REACTION before fertilization in the FALLOPIAN TUBES can take place.Sperm Maturation: The maturing process of SPERMATOZOA after leaving the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. Maturation in SPERM MOTILITY and FERTILITY takes place in the EPIDIDYMIS as the sperm migrate from caput epididymis to cauda epididymis.Sperm Transport: Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.Sperm-Ovum Interactions: Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Acrosome: The cap-like structure covering the anterior portion of SPERM HEAD. Acrosome, derived from LYSOSOMES, is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the required hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg in FERTILIZATION.Infertility, Male: The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.Sperm Midpiece: The middle piece of the spermatozoon is a highly organized segment consisting of MITOCHONDRIA, the outer dense fibers and the core microtubular structure.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Semen: The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.Sperm Banks: Centers for acquiring and storing semen.Semen Preservation: The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Semen Analysis: The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.Zona Pellucida: A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Ejaculation: The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Sperm Whale: The species Physeter catodon (also called Physeter macrocephalus), in the family Physeteridae. The common name is derived from the milky wax substance in its head (spermaceti). The species also produces an intestinal secretion AMBERGRIS, which was previously used in perfumes. The sperm whale is the largest toothed MAMMAL in the world.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Oligospermia: A condition of suboptimal concentration of SPERMATOZOA in the ejaculated SEMEN to ensure successful FERTILIZATION of an OVUM. In humans, oligospermia is defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Seminal Plasma Proteins: Proteins found in SEMEN. Major seminal plasma proteins are secretory proteins from the male sex accessory glands, such as the SEMINAL VESICLES and the PROSTATE. They include the seminal vesicle-specific antigen, an ejaculate clotting protein; and the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.Asthenozoospermia: A condition in which the percentage of progressively motile sperm is abnormally low. In men, it is defined as Protamines: A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Sea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Egg Proteins: Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.Azoospermia: A condition of having no sperm present in the ejaculate (SEMEN).Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Seminal Vesicle Secretory Proteins: The secretory proteins of the seminal vesicles are proteins and enzymes that are important in the rapid clotting of the ejaculate. The major clotting protein is seminal vesicle-specific antigen. Many of these seminal vesicle proteins are under androgen regulation, and are substrates for the prostatic enzymes, such as the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.Vasectomy: Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cryoprotective Agents: Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.Whales: Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Insemination: The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Vitelline Membrane: The plasma membrane of the egg.Genitalia, Male: The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.DNA Fragmentation: Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Reproductive Techniques: Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Oviducts: Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Contraceptive Agents, Male: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Povidone: A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.Chromomycin A3: Glycosidic antibiotic from Streptomyces griseus used as a fluorescent stain of DNA and as an antineoplastic agent.Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Epididymal Secretory Proteins: Proteins secreted by the epididymal epithelium. These proteins are both tissue- and species-specific. They are important molecular agents in the process of sperm maturation.Cervix Mucus: A slightly alkaline secretion of the endocervical glands. The consistency and amount are dependent on the physiological hormone changes in the menstrual cycle. It contains the glycoprotein mucin, amino acids, sugar, enzymes, and electrolytes, with a water content up to 90%. The mucus is a useful protection against the ascent of bacteria and sperm into the uterus. (From Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1988)Vasovasostomy: Surgical anastomosis or fistulization of the spermatic ducts to restore fertility in a previously vasectomized male.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Insemination, Artificial, Homologous: Human artificial insemination in which the husband's semen is used.Genitalia, Female: The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Insemination, Artificial, Heterologous: Human artificial insemination in which the semen used is that of a man other than the woman's husband.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Seminiferous Tubules: The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Echinodermata: A phylum of the most familiar marine invertebrates. Its class Stelleroidea contains two subclasses, the Asteroidea (the STARFISH or sea stars) and the Ophiuroidea (the brittle stars, also called basket stars and serpent stars). There are 1500 described species of STARFISH found throughout the world. The second class, Echinoidea, contains about 950 species of SEA URCHINS, heart urchins, and sand dollars. A third class, Holothuroidea, comprises about 900 echinoderms known as SEA CUCUMBERS. Echinoderms are used extensively in biological research. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp773-826)Testicular Diseases: Pathological processes of the TESTIS.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Acridine Orange: A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.Contraception, Immunologic: Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Urochordata: A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.Vaccines, Contraceptive: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Seminal Vesicles: A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)alpha-Chlorohydrin: A chlorinated PROPANEDIOL with antifertility activity in males used as a chemosterilant in rodents.Mice, Inbred ICREmbryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Tissue and Organ Harvesting: The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.Scrotum: A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Disorders of Sex Development: In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Myoglobin: A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.Poecilia: A genus of livebearing cyprinodont fish comprising the guppy and molly. Some species are virtually all female and depend on sperm from other species to stimulate egg development. Poecilia is used in carcinogenicity studies as well as neurologic and physiologic research.Starfish: Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Klinefelter Syndrome: A form of male HYPOGONADISM, characterized by the presence of an extra X CHROMOSOME, small TESTES, seminiferous tubule dysgenesis, elevated levels of GONADOTROPINS, low serum TESTOSTERONE, underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics, and male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE). Patients tend to have long legs and a slim, tall stature. GYNECOMASTIA is present in many of the patients. The classic form has the karyotype 47,XXY. Several karyotype variants include 48,XXYY; 48,XXXY; 49,XXXXY, and mosaic patterns ( 46,XY/47,XXY; 47,XXY/48,XXXY, etc.).Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Vas Deferens: The excretory duct of the testes that carries SPERMATOZOA. It rises from the SCROTUM and joins the SEMINAL VESICLES to form the ejaculatory duct.Chlortetracycline: A TETRACYCLINE with a 7-chloro substitution.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Antelopes: Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Spermatocidal Agents: Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Suction: The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Micromanipulation: The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell SeparationGryllidae: The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).Mating Preference, Animal: The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Comet Assay: A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Egg Yolk: Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Microsurgery: The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Paternity: Establishing the father relationship of a man and a child.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Parthenogenesis: A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.Axoneme: A bundle of MICROTUBULES and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS forming the core of each CILIUM or FLAGELLUM. In most eukaryotic cilia or flagella, an axoneme shaft has 20 microtubules arranged in nine doublets and two singlets.Peanut Agglutinin: Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Dithiothreitol: A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols.Follicular Fluid: The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Ejaculatory Ducts: Paired ducts in the human male through which semen is ejaculated into the urethra.Propidium: Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Masturbation: Sexual stimulation or gratification of the self.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Calcium Signaling: Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.ADAM Proteins: A family of membrane-anchored glycoproteins that contain a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain. They are responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many transmembrane proteins and the release of their extracellular domain.Rete Testis: The network of channels formed at the termination of the straight SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES in the mediastinum testis. Rete testis channels drain into the efferent ductules that pass into the caput EPIDIDYMIS.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Characiformes: An order of fresh water fish with 18 families and over 1600 species. The order includes CHARACINS, hatchetfish, piranhas, and TETRAS.Gametogenesis: The process of germ cell development from the primordial GERM CELLS to the mature haploid GAMETES: ova in the female (OOGENESIS) or sperm in the male (SPERMATOGENESIS).Phascolarctidae: A family of marsupials in the order Diprotodontia, native to Australia and possessing vestigial tails. There is a single living genus and species: Phascolarctos cinereus, the koala.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Metmyoglobin: Myoglobin which is in the oxidized ferric or hemin form. The oxidation causes a change in color from red to brown.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Viviparity, Nonmammalian: The capability of bearing live young (rather than eggs) in nonmammalian species. Some species of REPTILES and FISHES exhibit this.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Galactolipids: A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Bufo arenarum: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, found in South America.Sex Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.Paternal Age: Age of the biological father.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Arbacia: A genus of SEA URCHINS in the family Arbaciidae. They have only one spheridium (stalked body) per ambulacral area (contains tube feet); most sea urchins have several spheridia per area.Sonication: The application of high intensity ultrasound to liquids.Strongylocentrotus: A genus of SEA URCHINS in the family Strongylocentrotidae. They possess more than three pore pairs per ambulacral plate. The species STRONGYLOCENTROTUS PURPURATUS is commonly used for research.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate: Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.Desmosterol: An intermediate in the synthesis of cholesterol.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Kovavisarach, E.; Lorthanawanich, S.; Muangsamran, P. (2016). "Presence of Sperm in Pre-Ejaculatory Fluid of Healthy Males". J ... The presence of sperm in the fluid is variable from low to absent. Pre-ejaculate functions as a lubricant and an acid ... "Researchers find no sperm in pre-ejaculate fluid". Contraceptive Technology Update. 14 (10): 154-156. October 1993. PMID ... Low levels or no sperm exists in pre-ejaculate, although studies examined small samples of men. Two contrary studies found ...
... sperm can be surgically removed by testicular sperm extraction or percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration. These procedures ... The numbers of women with SCI giving birth and having healthy babies are increasing. Around a half to two-thirds of women with ... Most men have a normal sperm count, but a high proportion of sperm are abnormal; they are less motile and do not survive as ... Massage of the prostate gland and seminal vesicles is another method to retrieve stored sperm. If these methods fail to cause ...
The effects of dietary selenium on sperm motility in healthy men. J. Androl. 22: 764-771, 2001 , Mahadevan U, Terdiman J, Aron ... In men with no sperm count (azoospermia), it soon became clear that sperm could be found in the testes and used with ICSI, but ... The tails of normal sperm will swell when exposed to this solution, whereas damaged sperm with low motility will not swell ... Birth after intracytoplasmic sperm injection using testicular sperm from men with Kartagener/immotile cilia syndrome. Fertil ...
Marty, Robin (March 5, 2012). "Delaware Councilwoman Wants Personhood For Sperm". RH Reality Check. "Mary Sam Smith Ward". ... Bengston, Karen (June 10, 2010). "Healthy Schools Honored with Edith P. Vincent Awards School Nutrition, Physical Activity ...
Bruce Dessau (4 July 2014). "Interview: Sara Pascoe on female instincts, healthy sperm and her latest show". London Evening ...
Therefore, since sperm are antigenically different from self tissue, a male animal can react immunologically to his own sperm. ... These are two healthy testicles. Heat causes them to descend, allowing cooling. A healthy scrotum containing normal size testes ... This was because people believed that the right testicle made "boy" sperm and the left made "girl" sperm. One theory about the ... Instead, the sperm are produced in spherical structures called sperm ampullae. These are seasonal structures, releasing their ...
We both look forward to raising a family and living happy, healthy lives together. We hope friends and fans will understand and ... It also stated that Jackson impregnated Rowe artificially with his own sperm cells, a "foolproof" method of insemination. ... It did, however, matter to him that she was intelligent, healthy, and had uncorrected eyesight. In the television documentary, ... Jackson stated that the baby was produced through artificial insemination using his own sperm cells. He further said that he ...
... whereas a healthy human sperm was reported to contain on average 5 molecules ), degradation of sperm mtDNA in the male genital ... Also, most mitochondria are present at the base of the sperm's tail, which is used for propelling the sperm cells; sometimes ... The composite egg is then fertilized with the male's sperm. The procedure is used when a woman with genetically defective ... In 1999 it was reported that paternal sperm mitochondria (containing mtDNA) are marked with ubiquitin to select them for later ...
This constant shift of genetic makeup helps to maintain a healthy population of plankton despite complex and unpredictable ... Low genetic diversity and resulting poor sperm quality has made breeding and survivorship difficult for cheetahs. Moreover, ... With very little genetic diversity within the species, healthy reproduction becomes increasingly difficult, and offspring are ...
Cervical mucus enabling healthy sperm cells to navigate the genital tract is necessary for fertility. Most commonly, ... The possibility of pregnancy from sperm survival longer than five days has been compared to "the chances of winning a huge ... In the days leading up to ovulation the cervix responds to oestrogen by producing mucus capable of sustaining sperm survival. ... Both of these patterns follow the hormonal patterns which control sperm survival and conception. The first recorded ...
... producing a sperm with an X and a Y chromosome or an egg with two X chromosomes. Fertilizing a normal (X) egg with this sperm ... Most can lead a normal, healthy life.[citation needed] The results of a study carried out on 87 Australian adults with the ... Microdissection testicular sperm extraction in adult men with Klinefelter syndrome reported success rates of up to 45%. ... meiosis) An XX egg is produced which, when fertilized with a Y sperm, yields XXY offspring. This XXY chromosome arrangement is ...
The more they could forage, more and healthier offspring they could produce, and higher the chance they had to pass on their ... She also found that folate was crucial to sperm development; some male contraception drugs are based on folate inhibition. It ... UV rays can strip away folate, which is important to the development of healthy foetuses. In these abnormalities children are ... Women need folate to maintain healthy eggs, for proper implantation of eggs, and for the normal development of placenta after ...
He used a healthy egg cell (ovum) from a donor woman, from which he removed the nucleus. He extracted only the young nuclei ( ... The new egg cell was then fertilized with the father's sperm. Zhang could produce only one normally developing embryo out of ... The embryo was then implanted in the mother's uterus, and a healthy boy was born nine months later, on 6 April 2016. The study ... Therefore, the only solution was to replace the mutant genes with healthy ones. Zhang and his team took the nucleus from the ...
Australian researchers have found evidence to suggest overweight obesity may cause subtle damage to sperm and prevent healthy ... Canadian researchers have found evidence to suggest overweight obesity may cause subtle damage to sperm and prevent healthy ... Sperm count declines with age, with men aged 50-80 years producing sperm at an average rate of 75% compared with men aged 20-50 ... sperm motility, and sperm morphology. In studies that controlled for female age, comparisons between men under 30 and men over ...
Australian researchers have found evidence to suggest overweight obesity may cause subtle damage to sperm and prevent a healthy ... sperm motility, and sperm morphology. In studies that controlled for female age, comparisons between men under 30 and men over ... Sperm survive inside the uterus between 48 and 72 hours on average, with the maximum being 120 hours (5 days). These periods ... Age Limit of Sperm Donors in the United Kingdom Pdf file Archived October 3, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Reggiani, Andrés ...
These regimens attack rapidly dividing cells in the body, including healthy cells like sperm and those belonging to the ovarian ... eggs or sperm, or of embryos after in vitro fertilization. The patient may also choose to use egg or sperm from a donor by ... Women who do not have a partner will need to use donor sperm. Additionally, because this procedure requires a two-week period ... Some female patients choose to have mature eggs extracted and fertilized outside of the body with sperm from a partner or donor ...
... 健 healthy; 康 healthy; 力 strength; 病 illness; 症 disease; 疾 disease; 患 sick; 疫 epidemic; 骸 corpse; 痛 pain; 疲 tired; 休 rest; 痩 ... 精 sperm; 尿 urine; 便 faeces; 胎 foetus; 妊 pregnant; 娠 pregnant; 生 birth; 産 give birth; 哺 suckle; 息 breath; 寝 sleep; 眠 sleep; 睡 ...
The usual method of sterilizing men was to sever the sperm duct, known as a vasectomy. By the 1930s, there were more than one ... Some were forced to undergo sterilization even if there was proof that they could give birth to "healthy" children. After ...
Nok-Yong (Antler)': It is effective to keep positive energy, sperm and the bone marrow healthy, as well as to strengthen bones ... San-Su-Yu (Japanese Cornel) ': It stimulates negative energy and helps create sperm. Also, it energizes the genital organs and ...
... regulates certain functions of the reproductive system important to the maturation of sperm and may be necessary for a healthy ... "Estrogen Linked To Sperm Count, Male Fertility". Science Blog. Retrieved 2008-03-04. Hill RA, Pompolo S, Jones ME, Simpson ER, ...
... and far fewer motile sperm than a man of healthy weight. Sperm with high amounts of damaged DNA are significantly more common ... People in the obese category are much more likely to suffer from fertility problems than people of normal healthy weight. A ... This affects the quantity and quality of a mans sperm. Obese men have increased risk of oligozoospemia, having fewer than 15 ... Hammoud, AO; Wilde, N; Gibson, M; Parks, A; Carrell, DT; Meikle, AW (2008). "Male obesity and alteration in sperm parameters". ...
Therefore, healthy young women would need to be induced to sell eggs to be used in the creation of custom stem cell lines that ... A father providing a sperm cell, one mother providing the egg nucleus and another mother providing the enucleated egg cell. In ... Recent studies show SCNT of the nucleus of a body cell afflicted with one of these diseases into a healthy oocyte prevents the ... the long-term effects have not been studied or declared safe to use on a large scale on otherwise healthy women. Longer-term ...
PSA is produced for the ejaculate, where it liquefies semen in the seminal coagulum and allows sperm to swim freely. It is also ... PSA is present in small quantities in the serum of men with healthy prostates, but is often elevated in the presence of ... Its proteolytic action is effective in liquefying the coagulum so that the sperm can be liberated. The activity of PSA is well ... Li TS, Beling CG (Oct 1974). "The effect of antibodies to two human seminal plasma-specific antigens on human sperm". Fertility ...
The woman had healthy ovaries but was born without a uterus, a condition that affects about one in 4,500 women. The procedure ... used an embryo from a laboratory, created using the woman's ovum and her husband's sperm, which was then implanted into the ... "Woman has healthy baby boy after womb transplant in Sweden". ABC News. Brännström, M.; Johannesson, L.; Bokström, H.; ... In October 2014 it was announced that, for the first time, a healthy baby had been born to a uterine transplant recipient, at ...
In 1993, the first case of microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration in the country was successfully applied by the center. In ... the center succeeded in autologous mitochondrial transfer to pregnancy and brought the world a healthy baby.[citation needed] ... 1995, the first baby using intracytoplasmic sperm injection was born in the hospital. In 1996, a frozen embryo was successfully ...
Males release sperm to fertilize them. The eggs are laid one by one or in batches. Batches of eggs can look like a long chain ... Frogs and toads: your happy healthy pet. Wiley ISBN 0470165103 *↑ Nelson, Robin 2002. Pet frog. Lerner. ISBN 0822512718 ...
Comparatively, healthy men without vasectomy can expect a pregnancy rate of 90 percent.) Previous studies have demonstrated ... the tube that carries sperm, is blocked. The study, published in the January Journal of Urology, documents the highest ... In general, if sperm is present in the vas fluid, VV is performed. If sperm is not present in the vas fluid, VE is performed. ... For men who had a vasectomy less than 15 years ago, a reversal will result in a much higher pregnancy rate than sperm ...
If your doctor is unsure whether you are producing enough healthy sperm, you may need a testicular biopsy. In this test, a ... or that contains no sperm or partial sperm, can be a sign that there is scar tissue blocking the flow of sperm. In this case, ... Before having vasectomy reversal surgery to restore fertility, your doctor will want to make sure you can produce healthy sperm ... Sperm leakage into the scrotum can prompt your immune system to form an inflammatory mass called a sperm granuloma. Granulomas ...
Association of a novel human mtDNA ATPase6 mutation with immature sperm cells. Andrologia. 1999;31:339-45 ... Transcriptome analysis was performed on blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 10 non-mosaic KS patients as well as 10 healthy ... affecting spermatogenesis and sperm motility, and hence could be responsible for the absent spermatogenesis in males affected ... mitochondria play a key role in the energy production and thus a correlation between sperm motility and mitochondrial enzymatic ...
... had total sperm counts that rose to at minimum 1 million sperm (note: normal sperm counts are 15 million sperm/cc or higher, ... I would even argue that for less-healthy men, the stress and discomfort of having a scrotal procedure while he is awake may ... a sperm count of at least 15 million sperm/cc and a motility (the % of sperm that are swimming) of 40% or higher. ... men who had no sperm after the reversal and needed a sperm extraction and IVF, 3) donor sperm combined with inseminations, or ...
During a vasectomy, the vas deferens are cut to initiate a change in semen (sperm-free). ... We are dedicated to keeping Virginia healthy. Sign up for our email newsletter. ...
Healthy sperm arent always a given. Understand how lifestyle factors can affect your sperm and what you can do to improve your ... Maintain a healthy weight. Some research suggests that increasing BMI is linked with decreasing sperm count and sperm movement. ... Sperm transport disorders. Age can also play a role. The ability of sperm to move and the proportion of normal sperm tend to ... Eat a healthy diet. Choose plenty of fruits and vegetables, which are rich in antioxidants - and might help improve sperm ...
Freeze-dried mouse sperm that spent nine months in space has successfully impregnated female mice and created healthy offspring ... Female mice implanted with the sperm via IVF had the same birth rate as those impregnated with freeze-dried sperm that had not ... To test the effects of space radiation not just on sperm, but sperm-egg pairings, Wakayamas team has now received approval to ... A handful of studies in the 1980s found that male rats produced less sperm in space, but sperm quality was not assessed. ...
One study found that men who ate more red meat, processed carbs, sweets and energy drinks had reduced sperm motility, compared ... Two new studies suggest that eating a healthy diet may be linked to stronger and more abundant sperm. ... Could a Healthy Diet Boost Sperm?. By Meredith Melnick Oct. 20, 2011 ... Two new studies suggest that eating a healthy diet may be linked to stronger and more abundant sperm. ...
Get Our Weekly Healthy Newsletter. Please enable JavaScript in your browser to complete this form.. Whats your name? *. First ... Damage to sperm may be most devastating when men are exposed to these chemicals from birth.. Environmental factors like heat, ... New evidence supports the argument that high exposure to agrochemicals may affect sperm volume and quality.. A French study ... They found that the men with the highest exposure to chemicals such as pesticides and solvents tended to have lower sperm ...
... can delay an eggs development into an embryo in order to allow time for sperm to arrive and merge with the egg in a healthy ... Researchers at the National Institutes of Health have discovered a protein that plays a vital role in healthy egg-sperm union ... Researchers at the National Institutes of Health have discovered a protein that plays a vital role in healthy egg-sperm union ... Researchers identify protein in mice that helps prepare for healthy egg-sperm union. NIH/National Institute of Environmental ...
Scientists in China have succeeded in creating functioning sperm from mouse embryonic stem cells. This raises hopes for ... Some men who have no sperm in their ejaculate (azoospermia) do have sperm in their testicles, which can be surgically recovered ... Making sperm from stem cells in a dish. Researchers have taken important steps in conserving endangered cats. dragaroo/Flickr ... Healthy mice born from frozen testicle tissue sperm. ... The resultant sperm, or spermatid-like cells, were then ...
As the name suggests, polyspermy results from multiple sperm entering and fertilizing an egg, a condition harmful to the zygote ... Home › About › News › How Plants Maintain a Healthy Sperm-Egg Ratio. How Plants Maintain a Healthy Sperm-Egg Ratio. ...
Despite the abundance of sperm, conception can take up to a year for many couples with healthy gametes (sex cells - sperm in ... males and eggs in females). When sperm quality is reduced, for example sperm are immotile (cannot move properly) or abnormally ... Healthy males produce millions of sperm each day and only a few of these ever go on to fertilise an egg. ... Introduction to supplements and healthy sperm. Healthy males produce millions of sperm each day and only a few of these ever go ...
... the body makes sperm, so anything that effects overall health can affect sperm! ... how do you make your sperm as healthy and fit as they can be? Well, ... So, how do you make your sperm as healthy and fit as they can be? Well, the body makes sperm, so anything that effects overall ... Dont forget, your sperm really want to run hard and run fast. So, dont hold them up. Sperm are like Eva Gabor... they love ...
Selecting sperm with greater stamina results in offspring that are healthier and live longer, according to a recent study in ... Older sperm produce healthier offspring. Dr Elizabeth Oliver. Progress Educational Trust. 18 February 2019. ... by which time around half of the sperm had already lost motility. This ensured only the longer-lived sperm had a chance to ... In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the process of fertilising an egg with a sperm in the laboratory to produce an embryo. The ...
The DNA of sperm taken directly from the testicles of infertile men is as healthy as that of sperm ejaculated by fertile men, ... Selecting sperm with greater stamina results in offspring that are healthier and live longer, according to a recent study in ... Sperm of infertile men is healthy before it begins journey out of body, major breakthrough finds ... Sperm DNA taken directly from testes of infertile men is healthy. 25 March 2019 ...
... healthy sperm are much more likely to fertilise an egg than sperm containing major genetic faults. So any aneuploid sperm - ... They examined more than 16,000 sperm cells from three fertile men and six with low sperm counts, and found that faulty sperm ... this is much lower than the frequency of anueplidy in sperm taken from healthy men.. The team now wants to test whether sperm ... genetically abnormal sperm tend to differ in appearance to healthy sperm. Study leader Myung-Geol Pang presented the findings ...
The recommendation was to have sex every 2-3 days so that there are plenty of sperm in reserve.There is a new study that now ... I have always read that men should hold onto their sperm during the days before ovulation. ... Researchers took sperm from 118 men who were diagnosed with DNA sperm damage. After having sex at least one time a day during ... Can More Sex Lead To Healthier Sperm?. *Back to Fertile Talk Blog ... Home » Fertile Talk» Can More Sex Lead To Healthier Sperm?. ...
Young men who eat a heart-healthy diet may have better quality sperm than their peers who dine mostly on junk food, a small ... Share this Story: Want better quality sperm? Eat a heart-healthy diet, study says. *. Copy Link ... Share this Story: Want better quality sperm? Eat a heart-healthy diet, study says. *. Copy Link ... Share this Story: Want better quality sperm? Eat a heart-healthy diet, study says. *. Copy Link ...
Will HCG reinstate healthy sperm production after a 0 sperm count? I am a 26 year old male who has been battling low ... After trying for over 6 months without success I went to the doctor to get another check of sperm and received the shock of my ... on sperm production. I have also had scans on my testes and no obstructions or V veins were detected. I have been on HcG ... my fertility so I was put on clomid every other day for approximately 4-6 months in which during that time I undertook a sperm ...
How often is it healthy to ejuct sperms ?. 4 doctors weighed in ... I want to increase my sperms and healthy ... 2 doctors ... Is it a problem for sperm not to stay inside after a male come inside of a female? ... Are there any health hazards to donating sperm on a regular basis? ...
... Research, benefits and proper dosages of this important ... help rejuvenate our aging brains and even promote healthy sperm function.*. L-carnitine is critical for energy production in ... Sperm motility. Infertility research has shown approximately 30% of cases to be directly related to the man alone, and not the ... One Italian study showed that 78% of men had improvement in sperm counts and motility with 3 grams of L-carnitine daily. ...
Healthy Life. Breast Cancer. Blood Pressure. Thyroid. Sperm count. Heart Diseases. Pregnancy Care. Malayalam health Magazines. ... Soya Milk.health.Healthy Food. Diet Tips. Malayalam Health News. Manorama Online ...
... including an effort to find ways of restoring fertility in men who dont produce enough healthy sperm. ... a critical step toward finding ways to restore fertility in men who dont produce enough healthy sperm because of inherited or ... New Insights on Sperm Production Lay Groundwork for Solving Male Infertility Using advanced techniques, Michigan Medicine ... Sperm are germ cells that are continuously generated in the male testes, rendering a man fertile throughout his reproductive ...
These cells generally were not good at generating sperm. ... in a dish that had the capacity to go on to form viable sperm. ... Those cells were used for artificial insemination and resulted in the healthy births of 60 mice that were then able to produce ... then used molecular markers to select those cells in the culture that were most likely to have the ability to form sperm. ...
  • A substantial subset of embryos are created using fertilization with testicular sperm, which have subtly different RNA contents from ejaculated sperm," said Rando. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Because mice only live about 1.5 years and male rhesus monkeys typically do not reach sexual maturity until around 4 years old, the researchers were not sure that the entire process, from grafting immature testicular tissue to producing mature sperm, could occur during the life span of the host mice. (scienceblog.com)
  • The study is a drug trial comparing the post-operative pain control provided by liposomal bupivacaine (a local anesthetic) against standard bupivacaine (a different formulation of the local anesthetic) for men undergoing testicular sperm extraction. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Effects of Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) Exposure on Apoptosis, Sperm Parameters and Testicular Histomorphometry in Rats: A Time Course Study. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In some men, an underlying problem such as an inherited chromosomal abnormality, a hormonal imbalance, dilated testicular veins or a condition that blocks the passage of sperm may cause signs and symptoms. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Although some infections can result in permanent testicular damage, most often sperm can still be retrieved. (mayoclinic.org)
  • And sperm was also produced from testicular tissue that was frozen in liquid nitrogen for several weeks. (zdnet.com)
  • As ScienceNOW explains , many infertile men who don't produce sperm have normal reproductive stem cells, and with modifications to Ogawa's technique, culture of testis biopsies from these men or men with testicular cancer could allow them to develop sperm. (zdnet.com)
  • While men can have their sperm frozen before cancer treatment, this research suggests that boys could have testicular tissue removed before chemotherapy or radiation. (zdnet.com)
  • my friends husband had 0 in ejac, he has klienfelters syndrome, i may have spelled it wrong, a testicular biobsy showed he has sperm buds, they did a biopsy, took out the imature sperm and matured them, even then they only found 2 normal sperm, the did ivf with icsi and she has twins now. (dailystrength.org)
  • Production of sperm (red) was restored when the testes of infertile male mice were transplanted with sperm-producing stem cells that were cultured with testicular cells (green). (nih.gov)
  • A research team led by Dr. Sandra Ryeom at the University of Pennsylvania set out to understand how testicular endothelial cells (TECs) help SSCs thrive and produce sperm. (nih.gov)
  • Creating fresh sperm, therefore, would be useful in only about 15% of males with azoospermia, where we do not find even one sperm during TESE or testicular biopsy," said Gleicher in an email. (emaxhealth.com)
  • During the 6th decade of life there may be important modifications in hormonal status, sperm characteristics, and histologic and cytologic testicular structure ( 3 - 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In 2007, a patent application was filed on methods for creating human female sperm using artificial or natural Y chromosomes and testicular transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both studies looked at small RNAs to determine how these molecules contribute to epigenetic changes in sperm in mice. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Being obese, and the corresponding hormonal problems, can lead to physical and molecular changes in sperm, according to a 2012 article published in 'Spermatogenesis. (livestrong.com)
  • In a comprehensive review of the published scientific literature, the Environmental Working Group found 10 human studies that have identified a startling variety of changes in sperm exposed to cell phone radiation. (ewg.org)
  • Eating patterns that stuck more closely to a DASH diet were also associated with a 74% higher total motile sperm count, a measure of the amount of moving sperm, and 31% more sperm with a normal size and shape, which are the sperm most likely to fertilize an egg. (canoe.com)
  • Men who carried a cell phone on the belt and used it intensively during a five-day test period had a 19 percent drop in highly motile sperm from their previous levels (Davoudi 2002). (ewg.org)
  • Men who talked on the phone for more than an hour a day had 17 percent fewer highly motile sperm than men who talked less than 15 minutes a day (Fejes 2005). (ewg.org)
  • FertilAid for Men is patented and clinically-studied: In a 90-day, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving 14 men receiving either FertilAid for Men or a placebo, the FertilAid for Men group showed significant improvement in the total count of normal-motile sperm. (fairhavenhealth.com)
  • Scrotal insulation in Holstein-Friesian and Belgian Blue bulls ( Bos taurus ) has been shown to increase flagella defects and reduced the percentage of motile sperm [ 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Similarly, so-called swim-up techniques apply a centrifugation step and then sperm is allowed to swim up into a medium, thus enriching a subpopulation of motile sperm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists in China have successfully made mouse sperm cells from embryonic stem cells. (theconversation.com)
  • Scientists from the University of Uppsala in Sweden and the University of East Anglia (UEA) in Norwich collected the sperm of 26 zebrafish and split them into two parts. (ivf.net)
  • In the latest study, the scientists used the 'hypo-osmotic swelling test' (HOST) to examine the appearance of normal and abnormal sperm, and stained the sperms' chromosomes using fluorescent dyes, to find out which were genetically normal. (ivf.net)
  • Scientists believe that sperm cells can survive indefinitely once they are frozen, as long as the temperature remains stable. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Scientists at the Centre for Biosciences at Karolinska Institutet have determined the first 3D structure of ZP3, a protein essential for the interaction between the mammalian egg coat and sperm. (ki.se)
  • 2 In 2007, scientists at the University of Newcastle in Australia underscored our need for healthy fats. (bodyecology.com)
  • So a team of Japanese scientists led by Takehiko Ogawa of Yokohama City University designed a way to culture sperm and allow them to mature outside of the body. (zdnet.com)
  • Scientists believe sperm cells find a waiting egg cell via a couple of complex mechanisms. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Scientists haven't yet found a way to grow sperm-producing stem cells, called spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), in culture. (nih.gov)
  • A study by scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory found that men over 44 with high vitamin-C diets had 20 percent less DNA damage to sperm than men who consumed less vitamin C. (emed.com.au)
  • Up until now scientists have only been able to create the very early stages of the sperm cell and keep them alive and regenerating in a petri dish for long periods of time. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Once the sperm were created the scientists removed the sperm and used them to fertilize mice eggs in an in vitro procedure before transferring the resulting embryos into female mice for gestation. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Spanish scientists say they have created rudimentary sperm-like cells from skin and bone marrow cells taken from adult males. (bionews.org.uk)
  • Scientists in China have used stem cells to create rudimentary sperm that successfully fertilised mouse eggs to produce healthy offspring. (bionews.org.uk)
  • Sperm cells, which scientists call spermatozoa - from the Greek words for seed and animal - may be too few in number or immature. (healthcanal.com)
  • UCSF's Yuriy Kirichok , PhD, is among the scientists riding a wave of recent sperm discoveries. (healthcanal.com)
  • The major function of a man's sperm was fertilization, scientists once thought. (news-medical.net)
  • Since the late 1980s, scientists have explored how to produce sperm where all of the chromosomes come from a female donor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1997, Japanese scientists partially confirmed such techniques by creating chicken female sperm in a similar manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists from the University of Newcastle upon Tyne led by biologist Karim Nayernia discovered a method of creating partly developed sperm cells, otherwise known as "spermatogonial" stem cells, from the bone marrow of male volunteers, entirely in-vitro (outside the human body), and is seeking funding to see whether such techniques can be used to make female sperm. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are numerous things that can have an impact on the quality of sperm, and diet is one. (livestrong.com)
  • The new research, presented at the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology conference in Amsterdam earlier this week, suggests that while not having sex for a few days can improve sperm count, the quality of sperm can in fact be damaged if a man ejaculates too infrequently. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Fine wine improves with time, but the opposite may be true of your sperm, says urologist Kiranpreet Khurana, MD . While the average age of fatherhood continues to rise around the globe, Dr. Khurana says the quality of sperm tends to decline as men get older. (uhhospitals.org)
  • the quality of sperm has also declined in a number of Western countries. (salem-news.com)
  • The enlargement causes flow of blood from the abdomen into the scrotum, affecting the production and quality of sperm. (news-medical.net)
  • The radiation damage in the DNA may have been repaired when the sperm cells were combined with the eggs to form embryos, says Andrew Wyrobek at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California. (newscientist.com)
  • All mammals, including mice and humans, reproduce sexually and so rely on the fusion of gametes (eggs and sperm). (theconversation.com)
  • Despite the abundance of sperm, conception can take up to a year for many couples with healthy gametes (sex cells - sperm in males and eggs in females). (healthengine.com.au)
  • One batch was mixed with water and eggs, allowing any sperm that were motile the opportunity to fertilise an egg. (ivf.net)
  • This ensured only the longer-lived sperm had a chance to fertilise the eggs. (ivf.net)
  • She speculated that allowing only longer-surviving sperm to fertilise eggs may act as a form of quality control, weeding out lower quality sperm or those with harmful mutations. (ivf.net)
  • At the moment IVF clinics select the strongest swimming sperm and use them to fertilise eggs. (ivf.net)
  • For years and years, we haven't had the ability to look at how germ cells -- the cells that give rise to eggs and sperm -- how they are made -- what genes are required, what pathways are active," Pera said. (health24.com)
  • Unlike women, who are born with all the eggs they will ever have, men produce sperm throughout their lives. (healthymale.org.au)
  • After retrieving the eggs, our embryologist selects the healthiest sperm and carefully injects one into each egg. (socalfertility.com)
  • No there are no sperm or eggs when this occurs. (healthtap.com)
  • With the other part, the eggs were added 25 seconds after the water, meaning that only the longer-lived sperm had a chance of fertilising them. (newscientist.com)
  • In humans, it is thought that the sperm that are first to reach the fallopian tubes - down which the eggs travel - are the best ones, says Sakkas. (newscientist.com)
  • By germ-line editing, Daley means editing sperm, eggs, or embryos-anything that, if you alter its DNA, could convey the change to future generations. (technologyreview.com)
  • Free-radicals cause oxidative damage to our cells, including sperm and female eggs. (natural-fertility-info.com)
  • Survival comes down to strong sperm and healthy eggs. (bigthink.com)
  • Unlike a woman who is born with all the eggs she will ever have, a man must constantly produce new sperm. (fairhavenhealth.com)
  • While a woman is born with all the eggs she'll ever have, men produce sperm continually. (emed.com.au)
  • These simple transplantation methods follow from earlier observations by developmental biologists that germ stem cells are autonomous in the sense that they can begin the processes to become both sperm and eggs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Key to successful creation of female sperm (and male eggs) will be inducing male epigenetic markings for female cells that initially have female markings, with techniques for doing so disclosed in the patent application. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because a high sugar level can have a negative impact on sperm production and health, pay special attention to how much of the sweet stuff you're consuming. (livestrong.com)
  • The outside temperature and physical environment would not have any impact on sperm survival. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The point is that heat is a definite, no questions asked, has an impact on sperm production. (go.com)
  • The team set out to investigate whether the time men spend exercising and the intensity at which they work out have an impact on sperm quality. (topnews.in)
  • The authors noted that while losing weight in general is likely to have contributed to improving sperm quality, MICT may have had the most profound impact on sperm quality because it reduces the gonad's exposure to inflammatory agents and oxidative stress. (topnews.in)
  • DNA errors in the sperm, problems with the Y chromosome, and, surprisingly, even the endocannabinoid system are all relevant to sperm maturation and health, as well. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • It has, therefore, been postulated that the activation of sAC protein results in an increase of the intracellular concentration of cAMP and the induction of the signaling cascade, leading to the completion of the sperm maturation. (pnas.org)
  • Bearing the signature of their somatic heritage is becoming a matter of greater and greater concern when speaking of gamete quality as appears to be the case during sperm development and maturation. (springer.com)
  • What a man does on a daily basis to his body therefore can definitely affect the sperm maturation process. (emed.com.au)
  • The choice of multi-fluid sperm is thought to provide better sperm to obtain the environment in physiological conditions. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Though duration and type of exercise were not determined, one thing is clear: men who exercised more exhibit better sperm. (bigthink.com)
  • Overall, this is a study with encouraging findings that demonstrates the feasibility of producing sperm cells from embryonic stem cells under purely in vitro conditions. (theconversation.com)
  • As a result there has been increasing interest in the role of nutrition in protecting and/or improving sperm health. (healthengine.com.au)
  • The ways in which various nutritional components (e.g. vitamins, micronutrients) affect sperm production is complex and has not yet been adequately investigated by scientific studies. (healthengine.com.au)
  • Problems with any of these systems can affect sperm production. (mayoclinic.org)
  • For starters, the recipe used to transform the mouse stem cells into sperm will need to be modified to work with human embryonic stem cells. (latimes.com)
  • Freeze-drying immobilizes rabbit sperm, breaks plasma membranes, and causes fragmentation of the sperm tails. (scienceblog.com)
  • Nearly half of the samples contained cells with sperm-like tails (pictured). (zdnet.com)
  • Sperm get a boost of energy from a burst of female progesterone, which encourages sperm to whip their tails more passionately. (natural-fertility-info.com)
  • For example a defective sperm could have double heads, a small or oversized head, a bent neck, a thin mid-piece, a tail that's bent, broken, coiled or multiple tails. (emed.com.au)
  • Sperm with large, small, tapered or crooked heads or kinky, curled or double tails will struggle to fertilise an egg. (emed.com.au)
  • In the case of mouse sperm, tails were removed by the thawing/centrifugation process. (pnas.org)
  • Homocysteine plays an important role in protecting cells from oxidative damage throughout sperm production, and as its production in the human body is dependent on the availability of B group vitamins, these vitamins play a role in protecting the health of sperm. (healthengine.com.au)
  • The study of paternal contributions to development, including environmental contributions to the health of sperm, is a burgeoning field of research," said Dr. Rando. (technologynetworks.com)
  • For example, a diet high in saturated fat might decrease the health of sperm, which is why cutting down on red meat is often recommended. (livestrong.com)
  • Studies linking cell phone exposure to harmful effects on sperm have been done in the United States, Australia, Austria, Hungary, Poland, Turkey and South Africa, using diverse methodologies. (ewg.org)
  • The important next step is to show that this does in fact suppress the production of sperm, and that requires at least a three-month study, which we're going to be undertaking starting next month," Page said. (ajc.com)
  • Despite some previous reports of haploid sperm cells being generated in vitro from stem cells, the study by Quan Zhou and his team at Nanjing Medical University , is the first to describe complete in vitro meiosis, fulfilling all the gold standard criteria proposed for in vitro derived gametes. (theconversation.com)
  • DNA requires nutrients to grow and, as most of the nutrients required for DNA synthesis are derived from the diet, a man's nutritional intake affects the production and health of the stem cells from which his sperm are produced. (healthengine.com.au)
  • Sperm development begins with stem cells called spermatogonia. (uofmhealth.org)
  • The stem cells that give rise to sperm have two slightly different copies of the genome. (newscientist.com)
  • When SSCs from mice were cultured along with TECs in the laboratory, the stem cells stayed healthy for more than 3 months. (nih.gov)
  • So the second step will be to figure out a way to make the sperm precursor cells out of induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPS cells. (latimes.com)
  • A lot is still unknown about how mammalian sperm develop and what is driving the differentiation program," says Sue Hammoud, Ph.D. , lead author of a new study published in Developmental Cell . (uofmhealth.org)
  • Small RNAs Are Trafficked from the Epididymis to Developing Mammalian Sperm. (technologynetworks.com)
  • That's when I realized that I needed to donate sperm, too. (slate.com)
  • Freeze-dried mouse sperm that spent nine months in space has successfully impregnated female mice and created healthy offspring. (newscientist.com)
  • Female mice implanted with the sperm via IVF had the same birth rate as those impregnated with freeze-dried sperm that had not been exposed to space. (newscientist.com)
  • Then they will be returned to Earth and implanted in female mice to see if they produce healthy offspring. (newscientist.com)
  • Small RNAs Gained during Epididymal Transit of Sperm Are Essential for Embryonic Development in Mice. (technologynetworks.com)
  • A 2008 study conducted on mice, and published in 'Pharmacogenomics,' found that diets high in sugar can significantly alter DNA that leads to changes in the shape and structure of sperm, rendering it useless in fertilizing an egg. (livestrong.com)
  • Since the mice were only 2 or 3 days old, they didn't already have mature sperm. (zdnet.com)
  • A new mouse study shows that exposure to second-hand smoke damages sperm DNA, and those mutations could be passed along to baby mice. (menshealth.com)
  • Seven weeks after transplantation, sperm production in mice that received the TECs was substantially restored compared with mice that didn't receive any TECs. (nih.gov)
  • Although this study was performed exclusively on mice, experts say that this is a huge step forward in understanding how sperm develop and function and could be applicable to future human research. (emaxhealth.com)
  • This remarkable effect of progesterone on sperm seems stranger still when one considers that mice - not-so-distant relatives to human in terms of evolution - do not seem to require progesterone for sperm activation, according to Kirichok. (healthcanal.com)
  • Those mice went on to father healthy mouse pups that were able to reproduce themselves. (latimes.com)