Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Birth Order: The sequence in which children are born into the family.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Paternal Age: Age of the biological father.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Birth Rate: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.ClupeinePregnancy, High-Risk: Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.Birth Certificates: Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Amniocentesis: Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Conjunctival DiseasesInfant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Birth Intervals: The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Congenital Hyperinsulinism: A familial, nontransient HYPOGLYCEMIA with defects in negative feedback of GLUCOSE-regulated INSULIN release. Clinical phenotypes include HYPOGLYCEMIA; HYPERINSULINEMIA; SEIZURES; COMA; and often large BIRTH WEIGHT. Several sub-types exist with the most common, type 1, associated with mutations on an ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS (subfamily C, member 8).Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.United StatesArabs: Members of a Semitic people inhabiting the Arabian peninsula or other countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The term may be used with reference to ancient, medieval, or modern ethnic or cultural groups. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Crown-Rump Length: In utero measurement corresponding to the sitting height (crown to rump) of the fetus. Length is considered a more accurate criterion of the age of the fetus than is the weight. The average crown-rump length of the fetus at term is 36 cm. (From Williams Obstetrics, 18th ed, p91)Coenzyme A-Transferases: Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Nuchal Translucency Measurement: A prenatal ultrasonography measurement of the soft tissue behind the fetal neck. Either the translucent area below the skin in the back of the fetal neck (nuchal translucency) or the distance between occipital bone to the outer skin line (nuchal fold) is measured.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Multiple Birth Offspring: The offspring in multiple pregnancies (PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE): TWINS; TRIPLETS; QUADRUPLETS; QUINTUPLETS; etc.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human: The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.Hernia, Umbilical: A HERNIA due to an imperfect closure or weakness of the umbilical ring. It appears as a skin-covered protrusion at the UMBILICUS during crying, coughing, or straining. The hernia generally consists of OMENTUM or SMALL INTESTINE. The vast majority of umbilical hernias are congenital but can be acquired due to severe abdominal distention.Gastroschisis: A congenital defect with major fissure in the ABDOMINAL WALL lateral to, but not at, the UMBILICUS. This results in the extrusion of VISCERA. Unlike OMPHALOCELE, herniated structures in gastroschisis are not covered by a sac or PERITONEUM.Perinatal Mortality: Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Closteroviridae: A family of plant viruses containing the largest single-stranded RNA genomes. Infections typically involve yellowing and necrosis, particularly affecting the phloem.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Commodification: The social process by which something or someone comes to be regarded and treated as an article of trade or commerce.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Paxillin: Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Obstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Preimplantation Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the OVUM; ZYGOTE; or BLASTOCYST prior to implantation. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS is performed to determine the presence or absence of genetic disease.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE established in 1990 to "provide indexing, abstracting, translating, publishing, and other services leading to a more effective and timely dissemination of information on research, demonstration projects, and evaluations with respect to health care to public and private entities and individuals engaged in the improvement of health care delivery..." It supersedes the National Center for Health Services Research. The United States Agency for Health Care Policy and Research was renamed Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) under the Healthcare Research and Quality Act of 1999.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Perinatal Care: The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Live Birth: The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).Abortion, Eugenic: Abortion performed because of possible fetal defects.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.DenmarkChromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.SwedenApgar Score: A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.NorwayBirth Injuries: Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.Polar Bodies: Minute cells produced during development of an OOCYTE as it undergoes MEIOSIS. A polar body contains one of the nuclei derived from the first or second meiotic CELL DIVISION. Polar bodies have practically no CYTOPLASM. They are eventually discarded by the oocyte. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Great BritainBrazilChorionic Villi Sampling: A method for diagnosis of fetal diseases by sampling the cells of the placental chorionic villi for DNA analysis, presence of bacteria, concentration of metabolites, etc. The advantage over amniocentesis is that the procedure can be carried out in the first trimester.EnglandFetal Macrosomia: A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Twins: Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Gravidity: The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.New YorkAbortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Triplets: Three individuals derived from three FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Soluble N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor Attachment Proteins: SNARE binding proteins that facilitate the ATP hydrolysis-driven dissociation of the SNARE complex. They are required for the binding of N-ETHYLMALEIMIDE-SENSITIVE PROTEIN (NSF) to the SNARE complex which also stimulates the ATPASE activity of NSF. They are unrelated structurally to SNAP-25 PROTEIN.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.CaliforniaData Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Pregnancy, Twin: The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Abortion, Habitual: Three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Araceae: A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).Infant Care: Care of infants in the home or institution.Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced: A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Illegitimacy: The state of birth outside of wedlock. It may refer to the offspring or the parents.Labor, Induced: Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Healthcare Financing: Methods of generating, allocating, and using financial resources in healthcare systems.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Infant Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Nasal Bone: Either one of the two small elongated rectangular bones that together form the bridge of the nose.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Postnatal Care: The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Personnel, Hospital: The individuals employed by the hospital.Sudden Infant Death: The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Anencephaly: A malformation of the nervous system caused by failure of the anterior neuropore to close. Infants are born with intact spinal cords, cerebellums, and brainstems, but lack formation of neural structures above this level. The skull is only partially formed but the eyes are usually normal. This condition may be associated with folate deficiency. Affected infants are only capable of primitive (brain stem) reflexes and usually do not survive for more than two weeks. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p247)NepalAfrican Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Fetal Mortality: Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Asphyxia Neonatorum: Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cattell Personality Factor Questionnaire: Self report questionnaire which yields 16 scores on personality traits, such as reserved vs. outgoing, humble vs. assertive, etc.WalesContinental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.SicilyParturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.GeorgiaIntensive Care Units, Neonatal: Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.Safety Management: The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.Estriol: A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Vaginal Birth after Cesarean: Delivery of an infant through the vagina in a female who has had a prior cesarean section.Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations: A private, voluntary, not-for-profit organization which establishes standards for the operation of health facilities and services, conducts surveys, and awards accreditation.Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Vital Statistics: Used for general articles concerning statistics of births, deaths, marriages, etc.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Dystocia: Slow or difficult OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH.Organizational Culture: Beliefs and values shared by all members of the organization. These shared values, which are subject to change, are reflected in the day to day management of the organization.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Midwifery: The practice of assisting women in childbirth.OhioAge Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Morris, JK; Mutton, DE; Alberman, E (2002). "Revised estimates of the maternal age specific live birth prevalence of Down's ... "How do health care providers diagnose Down syndrome?". Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human ... Maternal age affects the chances of having a pregnancy with Down syndrome. At age 20, the chance is one in 1441; at age 30, it ... Although the probability increases with maternal age, 70% of children with Down syndrome are born to women 35 years of age and ...
Following up on the women who have given birth is a crucial factor as it helps check on maternal health. Since healthcare ... "Maternal periodontal disease in early pregnancy and risk for a small-for-gestational-age infant". American Journal of ... Recommended Maternal Health Practices[edit]. Maternal health care and care of the fetus starts with prenatal health. The World ... Maternal Mortality Rate worldwide, as defined by the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births from any cause related ...
In 2000, the maternal mortality rate in the city was 110 of every 100,000 births of which 62.3 percent were women ages 20 to 35 ... In 2004, there were 67 public health care establishments in the Central District-five national hospitals, 22 health centers in ... Central District age distribution. Source:[5] Ages. Male %. Female %. Ages. Male %. Female % ... In 2001, the infant mortality rate was 29 per 1000 live births (Both maternal and infant mortality rates are based on local and ...
Family planning approaches include avoiding pregnancy at too young of an age or too old of an age and spacing births. Access to ... The MMR is used as a measure of the quality of a health care system. Maternal mortality rate (MMRate): the number of maternal ... The four measures of maternal death are the maternal mortality ratio (MMR), maternal mortality rate, lifetime risk of maternal ... low birth weight, preterm delivery, and small-for-gestational-age infants, all of which can lead to maternal death. Structural ...
Maternal deaths have steadily increased in Texas from 2010, with more than 30 deaths occurring for every 100,000 live births in ... The Program provided family planning services for women from the ages of 18-44 whose incomes were 185% below the federal ... The maternal healthcare system in Texas has undergone legislative changes in funding and the provision of family planning and ... Maternal healthcare in Texas refers to the provision of family planning services, abortion options, pregnancy-related services ...
Prenatal development Fundal height Gestational age Human embryogenesis Maternal physiological changes Prenatal care - regular ... Cervical dilation Cervical effacement Position Home birth Multiple birth Natural childbirth Unassisted childbirth Water birth ... It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of ... Prenatal nutrition Maternal nutrition Nutrition and pregnancy Concomitant conditions Diabetes mellitus and pregnancy Systemic ...
Some maternal factors are associated with stillbirth, including being age 35 or older, having diabetes, having a history of ... Registration of still-births can be made by a relative or certain other persons involved with the still-birth but it is not ... "How do health care providers manage stillbirth?". NICHD. 23 September 2014. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. ... maternal diabetes. *maternal consumption of recreational drugs (such as alcohol, nicotine, etc.) or pharmaceutical drugs ...
Why do so many US women die giving birth? - BBC News Deadly delivery : the maternal health care crisis in the USA. Amnesty ... In 2016, the number of pregnancy-and-childbirth related deaths totaled approximately between 700 to 900 with their ages ranging ... the maternal mortality ratio monitored women 6 weeks postpartum per 100,000 live births. With maternal morbidity and maternal ... out-of-hospital births (such as home births and birthing centers) "generally provided a lower risk profile than hospital births ...
... reduction according to UN estimates from the 1400/100000 live births in 1990 to 420/100,000 live births in 2013. Maternal ... Majority of maternal deaths occur in the peripartum period. Deliveries attended by a skilled health care provider were shown to ... median age of 16.6 years for women and 21.2 years for men) Good progress has been registered in maternal mortality reduction, a ... The U5MR has dropped from 204/1000 live births in 1990 to 64/1000 live births in 2013, the target for achieving MDG4 being 67/ ...
The maternal mortality rate in Ecuador is 110 deaths/100,000 live births (as of 2010). The HIV/AIDS rate is 0.6% for adults ( ... At age 15, girls often have traditional parties called fiesta de quince años. Quinceañera is the term used for the girl, not ... poverty and lack of proper access to healthcare. Women, especially rural women, are disproportionately affected by poverty. ... This coming of age or debutante party is a tradition found in most Latin American countries, comparable to the American ...
Morris, JK; Mutton, DE; Alberman, E (২০০২)। "Revised estimates of the maternal age specific live birth prevalence of Down's ... "How do health care providers diagnose Down syndrome?"। Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human ... Steinbock, Bonnie (২০১১)। Life before birth the moral and legal status of embryos and fetuses (2nd সংস্করণ)। Oxford: Oxford ... "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a ...
... and maternal and child services. If infant death records are matched to birth records, it is possible to use birth variables, ... such as birth weight and gestational age, along with mortality data, such as cause of death, in analyzing the data. Linkages ... Record linkage is an important tool in creating data required for examining the health of the public and of the health care ... If a value of 0.95 were to be estimated for the m probability, then the match/non-match weights for the birth month identifier ...
Djibouti's birth rate is 23.6/1,000 inhabitants, while its death rate is 7.6 deaths/1,000 inhabitants. The maternal rate is ... Since healthcare in the region is so poor, more than a third of the healthcare recipients are migrants. Healthcare is best in ... The HIV/AIDS in Djibouti prevalence was 1.6% of the population for those aged 15-49 years old, as of 2015. As of 2015, there ... The first health care facility in Djibouti was opened in 1897 by the Ethiopian Railways Company, which was later purchased by ...
In 2011 just one in five Pakistani women ages 15 to 49 uses modern birth control. Contraception is shunned under traditional ... maternal and neonatal health care to women in developing countries. This would include contraception, prenatal, delivery, and ... The main problems that preventing access to and use of birth control are unavailability, poor health care services, spousal ... Only about 30% of all women use birth control, although over half of all African women would like to use birth control if it ...
Goal 3 also aims to reduce maternal mortality to less than 70 deaths per 100,000 live births.[34] Though the maternal mortality ... from 78 deaths per 1,000 live births to 41 deaths per 1,000 live births).[29] Still, the number of children dying under age ... Wikipedia's health care articles can be viewed offline with the Medical Wikipedia app. ... maternal health conditions were also the leading cause of death among girls aged 15-19.[29] Data for girls of greatest concern ...
From 2000 to 2010, the maternal mortality rate in Texas increased from 17.7 (for every 100,000 live births) to 18.6.[3] It must ... Farr, SL (2011). "Depression, diabetes, and chronic disease risk factors among U.S. women of reproductive age". Chronic ... Maternal healthcare in Texas refers to the provision of family planning services, abortion options, pregnancy-related services ... The maternal healthcare system in Texas has undergone legislative changes in funding and the provision of family planning and ...
Aging Before Birth and Beyond.2 Abdou coined the term healthcare stereotype threat (HCST) and was the first to develop ... Abdou, C.W.; Dominguez, T.P.; Myers, H.F. (2013). "Maternal familism predicts birthweight and ashthma symptoms by age three". ... Abdou, C. M. (2013). Aging before birth and beyond: Lifespan and intergenerational adaptation through positive resources. In K ... empirically demonstrating that healthcare stereotype threat is an overlooked psychosocial barrier to healthcare utilization and ...
The 2015 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Haiti is 359. This is compared with 582.5 in 2008 and 898.2 in 1990. ... Only one-fourth of births are attended by a skilled health professional. Most rural areas have no access to health care, making ... They have also provided school-based mental health education for 13,694 high school-aged students and teachers to teach ... Coreil, Jeannine (September 1991). "Maternal Time Allocation in Relation to Kind and Domain of Primary Health Care". Medical ...
The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Chad is 1,200. This is compared with 1065.2 in 2008 and 891 in 1990. ... Public health care expenditures were estimated at 2.9% of GDP. As of 2004, it was estimated that there were fewer than 3 ... As of 2000, only 4 percent of married women (ages 15 to 49) used any form of contraception. According to a 2013 UNICEF report, ... In Chad the number of midwives per 1,000 live births is 0.4 and the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women 1 in 14. ...
... average maternal age at birth, paternal age, age gap between father and mother, late births, ethnicity, social and economic ... The high prevalence of HIV/AIDS seems to suggest, according to Anderson and Ray, an imbalance in women's access to healthcare ... However, subsequent births of girls were unwelcome, because each such birth diminished a chance of the family having a son. ... He reports that there is an excess of males at birth in almost all human populations, and the natural sex ratio at birth is ...
Of these maternal deaths, 46 percent occur during the first six weeks after birth. Amnesty International notes that economic ... Gender and ethnic discrimination in health care also exist. According to the 2007 census, the causes of maternal death in Peru ... Obstructed birth 0.9% The age of consent in Peru has changed several times during recent years, and has been subject to ... Women who live in poverty are less likely to give birth in a health center or be attended by a health care worker. Peru has one ...
Ten percent of all births were low birth weight. The HIV/AIDS prevalence is estimated to be 5.2% of the adult population (ages ... The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Gabon is 260. This is compared with 493.5 in 2008 and 422.5 in 1990. ... Approximately 90% of the population had access to health care services. In 2000, 70% of the population had access to safe ... The under 5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 71 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under 5's mortality is 36. In ...
The maternal mortality rate in Portugal is 8.00 deaths/100,000 live births (as of 2010). This is low by global standards, but ... The age at first marriage in 2012 was 29.9 years for women and 31.4 years for men. Cohabitants have rights under laws dealing ... Since 2001, immigrants in Portugal are entitled to free health care, including free care during pregnancy and postnatal period ... "PORDATA - Live births outside of marriage, with parents co-habiting or not (%) in Portugal". Retrieved 17 June 2016 ...
... average maternal age at birth, paternal age, age gap between father and mother, late births, ethnicity, social and economic ... Sen pointed to research that had shown that if men and women receive similar nutritional and medical attention and good health care ... and 4 states/UT had birth sex ratio less than 103 implying excess females at birth and/or excess male mortalities after birth ... He reports that there is an excess of males at birth in almost all human populations, and the natural sex ratio at birth is ...
... and maternal and child services. If infant death records are matched to birth records, it is possible to use birth variables, ... such as birth weight and gestational age, along with mortality data, such as cause of death, in analyzing the data. Linkages ... Record linkage is an important tool in creating data required for examining the health of the public and of the health care ... One such rule in the case of missing SSN might be to compare name, date of birth, sex, and ZIP code with other records in hopes ...
Approximately 160 babies were born with birth defects due to maternal use of isotretinoin during pregnancy.[186][187] ... women of childbearing age are therefore required to use effective birth control if retinoids are used to treat acne.[20] Oral ... They work by killing C. acnes and reducing inflammation.[20][82][90] Although multiple guidelines call for healthcare providers ... premature births, or low birth weight.[152] Similarly, in studies examining the effects of topical retinoids during pregnancy, ...
Infant Death Rates, by Maternal Age: White, Black, and Mexican Mothers, U.S., 2013. Source: Period Linked Birth/Infant Death ... In terms of health care, the board surveys the enormous gaps observed in treatment and insurance coverage based on race. ... Maternal Deaths by Race (per 100,000 births) Source: MBRRACE, 2018 / CDC, 2019 / 2020. Explained: Sex. Childbirth. Netflix. ... Maternal Mortality in the United States Millennium development goal set a global commitment to reduce maternal mortality. The U ...
... and treatment of pregnant women or women of child-bearing age with substance use disorders could improve maternal and infant ... We found the overall NAS incidence increased 300% from 1.5 to 6.0 per 1,000 hospital births. Substantial variations in NAS ... Primary prevention efforts are vital in curbing neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Healthcare providers have a key role in ... Age-Adjusted Death Rates for Males Aged 15-44 Years, by the Five Leading Causes of Death - United States, 1999 and 2014 ...
... major birth defect. No increased risk was seen, even after adjusting for birth month, maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity and ... Health-care providers should consider pertussis in persons of any age with an acute cough illness. Early recognition and ... Data from CDCs National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large national birth defect study, was used to examine this possible ... In a large national birth defects study, loratadine, an allergy medication sold under the brand name Claritin, was not ...
Good health care (the communities should be identical in everything except maternal age at first birth) means that womens ... If the average age at first birth of a child for women is increased by 5, or 10, or 15 or more years, what effect does that ... In the other community, women also have 2 children but the average age of first birth is 30. So you have women in one community ... Its absolutely true that a lot of women in the world do start having children at that age. What I do nowadays is play with ...
1 Customised birth weight , 10th percentile; ii Adjusted for maternal age, Body Mass Index (BMI, except for IUGR), Irish ... Private Health Care. 103 (16.2). 16 (10.0). 3 (2.7). 0.58 (0.33, 1.01). 0.15 (0.05, 0.47) *. ... Preterm birth was defined as the birth of a live baby at less than 37 weeks gestation and low birth weight was defined as ... Information on the following maternal characteristics was extracted from the electronic records: maternal age, marital status, ...
Morris, JK; Mutton, DE; Alberman, E (2002). "Revised estimates of the maternal age specific live birth prevalence of Downs ... "How do health care providers diagnose Down syndrome?". Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human ... Maternal age affects the chances of having a pregnancy with Down syndrome. At age 20, the chance is one in 1441; at age 30, it ... Although the probability increases with maternal age, 70% of children with Down syndrome are born to women 35 years of age and ...
Multiple regression analysis indicated maternal age as being a risk factor for low birth weight. The conclusion reached is that ... Primary health care and its attributes: the situation of children under two years of age according to their caregivers Artigo. ... and maternal age, educational level and skin color as independent variables. The time trends of mothers age, educational level ... Health inequalities in maternal health care on offer in Niterói were identified, despite improvements in social and demographic ...
... maternal age, birth period, sex, paternal age, and maternal education), the association disappeared (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99- ... Limitations The study was undertaken in a country with largely tax-funded healthcare; results may not generalize to other ... but an increased rate of third and higher birth orders in families where a previous child had an ASD diagnosis. When all birth ... Results Analyses of inter-pregnancy intervals showed that the association differed across birth orders, with a lower rate of ...
We surveyed women with a recent live birth who resided in 16 US states and 1 city during the 2016 Zika outbreak. We found high ... during pregnancy and about advisories to avoid travel to affected areas but moderate levels of discussions with healthcare ... We examined these outcomes by maternal demographics, including age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, source of ... as were women who gave birth during September 2016-February 2017 compared with those who gave birth in earlier months (aPR 1.19 ...
The Centers for Disease Control identified key factors associated with pre-term birth,[12] including: *Low or high maternal age ... Medicaid is crucial to maternal and child health care in the United States, supporting over 40 percent of births.[13] Research ... Maternal stress. Ensuring all women have ready access to health care, nutrition information, assistance with chronic diseases ... They have the chance to address the states infant mortality crisis by protecting maternal health care. ...
Advanced maternal age and the risk of cesarean birth: a systematic review . Birth 2010 ; 37 : 219 - 26 . Google Scholar ... Add Journal to My Library International Journal for Quality in Health Care , Volume 30 (7) - Aug 1, 2018 ... Advanced maternal age and the risk of cesarean birth: a systematic review . Birth 2010 ; 37 : 219 - 26 . Google Scholar ... Higher maternal age (OR 1.0 (95%CI 1.0-1.1)), higher number of prescribed medications (OR 1.2 (95%CI 1.1-1.3)), obstetric ...
These activities include a system of maternal and child health care, which serves children from birth to age 18 years [10,11]. ... Mothers age (years), range. 19.00-48.00. 20.00-48.00. 19.00-47.00. Fathers age (years), mean (SD). 34.51 (5.17). 34.50 (5.14) ... Parent and Health Care Professional Evaluation of the Well-Baby Visit. Parents and child health care professionals in the E- ... Parents child safety behaviors were derived from self-report questionnaires at baseline (age 7 months) and at follow-up (age ...
... births. Babies who are SGA at birth have a highe... ... Research demonstrates a link between low maternal weight gain ... in pregnancy and small for gestational age (SGA) ... Health care professionals ought to inform pregnant women about ... Research demonstrates a link between low maternal weight gain in pregnancy and small for gestational age (SGA) births. Babies ... Low gestational weight gain is recognized as a modifiable risk factor for SGA births, while it is also acknowledged that there ...
Some maternal and fetal health experts suggest that focusing on good healthcare for reproductive-age women before pregnancy may ... "But with all those programs, what we found is that the number of preterm births and number of low birth-weight babies is going ... Peter Bernstein, a maternal-fetal medicine specialist at Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine in ... Babies born to diabetic mothers are at higher risk of being premature and having birth defects. And a growing body of research ...
... at birth, age 12 and age 60 months. A second aim was to examine whether any observed association was independent of maternal ... The SAIL databank anonymously record-links routinely collected data held in healthcare and social datasets at the Health ... at birth and large at ages 12 and 60 months according to maternal diabetes status. Large at ages 12 and 60 months was ... Electronic medical records provided maternal diabetes status and offspring weight at birth and ages 1 and 5 years (n. =. ...
Models were adjusted for sex, birth order, maternal age at childbirth, and maternal and paternal covariates including country ... The authors used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the effect of paternal age on the first incidence of healthcare- ... Even after adjustment for covariates including maternal age, advanced paternal age was associated with increased risk, and ... Paternal age at childbirth and eating disorders in offspring * K. N. Javaras, M. E. Rickert, L. M. Thornton, C. M. Peat, J. H. ...
These factors included: infants sex; maternal education; maternal age at her infants birth; marital status at the time of ... Infant Death: An Analysis by Maternal Risk and Health Care. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine and National Academy of ... maternal age, maternal smoking, and age of infant at death) as well as infant care factors (bedding softness, breastfeeding, ... the age eligibility for infants dying of SIDS was extended to birth, ie, all infants birth to 1 year of age were included. ...
Our study has shown that excessive GWG is influenced by nonmodifiable risk factors including maternal age and birth weight. ... This has major implications for long-term individual health and future health care costs to a society already burdened by ... for every 500 g increase in maternal birth weight. No relationship between maternal birth weight and infant birth weight was ... younger maternal age, increasing maternal birthweight, cessation of smoking by 14-16 weeks, increased nightly sleep duration, ...
Age 35 is considered advanced maternal age, but the risks increase as a woman ages. If you are pregnant and over the age of 30 ... This is more likely when women receive prenatal care and give birth in a healthcare facility equipped to care for high-risk ... Risks for chromosome abnormalities by maternal age. The risk of chromosomal abnormality increases with maternal age. The chance ... Pregnancy Over Age 30. Many women today are waiting until later in life to have children. In the United States, birth rates for ...
Following up on the women who have given birth is a crucial factor as it helps check on maternal health. Since healthcare ... "Maternal periodontal disease in early pregnancy and risk for a small-for-gestational-age infant". American Journal of ... Recommended Maternal Health Practices[edit]. Maternal health care and care of the fetus starts with prenatal health. The World ... Maternal Mortality Rate worldwide, as defined by the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births from any cause related ...
The exposure of interest was gestational age at birth, which was based on maternal report of last menstrual period and ... Chronic Conditions and Health Care Needs of Adolescents Born at 23 to 25 Weeks Gestation ... Gestational age and occurrence of atopy at age 31: a prospective birth cohort study in Finland. Clin Exp Allergy. 2001;31(1):95 ... No association was found between later preterm birth (gestational ages 28-32 weeks or 33-36 weeks) or postterm birth (≥43 weeks ...
Result: Mothers age significantly associated with maternal knowledge (p = 0,002). Long marriage was significantly associated ... with maternal knowledge (p = 0,002). In high knowledge category was 25 pregnant women (83,3%) and moderate knowledge was 5 ... especially for mothers who having their first birth (pirimipara). Method: Analytical observational study, using cross-sectional ... Introduction: Postpartum period is a transition period but it is being neglected aspect from women health care. Mothers ...
Reduction in maternal and child mortalities and morbidities will be achieved by the paradigm shift in the approach towards ... increasing the age at marriage, increasing birth intervals, delaying the birth of first child, womens empowerment & employment ... low literacy and lack of timely access to healthcare facilities gets highlighted. The important determinants for population ... Since 45% of the Indias maternal deaths occur in the age group between 15 and 25, with 47% of the total fertility group ...
By this means the birth weight was adjusted for sex, gestational week of delivery, and maternal age, parity, height, and ... Pregnancy care was the responsibility of the obstetric health care providers and was conducted in accord with standard practice ... or gestational age at delivery (data not shown). For women in the low-glycemic index group, the birth centile (46.3 ± 5.0) and ... Three women in both groups had a large-for-gestational-age baby (≥90th centile), and two women in the low-glycemic index group ...
  • The possibility increases from less than 0.1% in 20-year-old mothers to 3% in those age 45. (
  • 170 mothers were enlisted, with a mean age of 26.5 ± 5.8 years old. (
  • Babies born to diabetic mothers are at higher risk of being premature and having birth defects. (
  • The prevention of childhood obesity should focus on mothers with diabetes with a high maternal pre-pregnancy weight. (
  • Misinformation about traditions/customs in society are considered irrational, causing confusion in puerperal women, especially for mothers who having their first birth (pirimipara). (
  • The health of the developing fetus and newborn child is of utmost importance to expecting parents, healthcare providers, and society at large, with preconception and pregnancy health efforts traditionally centred on the mothers. (
  • There was a marked difference in the rate of caesarean sections, increasing with maternal age, and more research is needed to explore the care provided to younger mothers and whether their enhanced ability to deliver naturally may suggest a reduction is possible for overall caesarean section rates. (
  • The significant interaction between district of residence and maternal age indicated that the IMR excess in the Messina district cannot be explained by disproportionately high live birth rates among older mothers and suggested the hypothesis that health care facilities in the Messina district could be less well prepared to provide assistance to the excess of high risk pregnancies and deliveries, as compared to Palermo district. (
  • Participants: Indigent mothers (n=1443), between the ages of 15 and 44, who were residents of Westchester County and indicated having Medicaid or no health care coverage. (
  • Results: There were 1474 live births among cohort mothers. (
  • Young mothers face higher risks of complications and death during pregnancy than older mothers, especially adolescents aged 15 years or younger. (
  • x000a0;1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0–1.1), with the highest prevalence among mothers aged <20 years. (
  • Mothers of all races are concerned with premature birth and the risks that come with it, which have been known to be associated with poverty levels and are noticeably present among Black women. (
  • Maternal indicators went down regarding the mean percentage of teenage mothers and low education, whereas they went up regarding mother with 35 years old or older and mothers without a partner. (
  • 30 mothers and fathers of children with Down syndrome in school age complete questionnaires on the family impact of childhood disability, parental stress and child behavioral symptoms. (
  • Mothers were given written and oral information about the trial at the maternal health care centre from 34 weeks of gestational age. (
  • Methods We conducted a population-based study of all singleton or twin live births in Ontario, from 2002 to 2011, among immigrant mothers from the Philippines (n=27 946), Vietnam (n=15 297), Hong Kong (n=5618), South Korea (n=5148) and China (n=42 517). (
  • But as the following global maternal health statistics make brutally clear, mothers elsewhere face incomparably bigger obstacles. (
  • But they have clarified that pregnant women and mothers should not be concerned by the findings, as only a tiny portion of those who had influenza gave birth to children with 'infantile autism' and that the research was so limited and early that no concrete findings had been discovered. (
  • The data shows that in 2015 there were 5.9 deaths per 1,000 births nationally compared to 4.8 deaths per 1,000 births in New Jersey - but New Jersey has one of the largest disparities between Black and white children in the nation. (
  • The charity also calculated that a child born in the UK is more than twice as likely to die before the age of five as in Iceland or Luxembourg, with the UK having a child mortality rate of 4.6 per 1,000 births, and the other two countries being 2.1 and two respectively. (
  • Conclusions This study does not support a universal reproductive stoppage effect in ASD families, when birth order and other factors are considered. (
  • Therefore, proper attention to birth order and other factors may alleviate potential bias in familial aggregation studies of ASD. (
  • We adjusted models for all demographics examined, along with factors likely to influence access to healthcare and exposure to information about ZIKV. (
  • Higher maternal age (OR 1.0 (95%CI 1.0-1.1)), higher number of prescribed medications (OR 1.2 (95%CI 1.1-1.3)), obstetric conditions (OR 2.2 (95%CI 1.4-3.3)) and non-breastfeeding postpartum women (OR 3.9 (95% CI 2.5-6.1)) were the independent factors associated with prescribing errors identified through multivariate analysis. (
  • We carried out a large-scale record linked database analysis of health data to investigate the association between existing diabetes, gestational diabetes and maternal diabetes developed post pregnancy (a marker for exposure to poor lifestyle factors rather than diabetes) and offspring being large (above the 90th centile) at birth, age 12 and age 60 months. (
  • Maternal characteristics and pregnancy risk factors at 14-16 weeks were compared between categories and multivariable analysis controlled for confounding factors. (
  • Other factors independently associated with excessive GWG included recruitment in Ireland, younger maternal age, increasing maternal birthweight, cessation of smoking by 14-16 weeks, increased nightly sleep duration, high seafood diet, recent immigrant, limiting behaviour, and decreasing exercise by 14-16 weeks. (
  • Placental hormones arise from the syncytiotrophoblast and, in combination with cytokines and growth factors, alter various maternal physiological systems as a means to sustaining pregnancy. (
  • It is interpreted as a measure of the impact of socio-economic, environmental and cultural factors, as well as of the quality of maternal and child health care. (
  • We adjusted mod- married (61.3%), and reported private insurance as els for all demographics examined, along with a source of payment for delivery (55.8%) (data not factors likely to influence access to healthcare and shown). (
  • The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological profile of preterm births in Monastir, Tunisia, and to study the chronological trends of associated factors over the years 1994-2012. (
  • Factors that increase maternal death can be direct or indirect. (
  • Result Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used separately in two age groups [4-6 ( n = 8439) and 6-7 ( n = 10 748) years old] to analyse relative factors. (
  • Conclusion Both preconception and pregnancy health education and health care are the important maternal factors closely associated with children's cognitive and social competence. (
  • Public health research is needed to understand factors contributing to the association between young maternal age and gastroschisis and assess the effect of prescription opioid use during pregnancy on this pregnancy outcome. (
  • It is fundamental to acknowledge and understand the complex process of birth and factors that interfere with it, in order to deliver quality health assistance to mother and child. (
  • Little is known about the prevalence of maternal mortality in refugee camps for populations displaced by conflict, or about the factors contributing to such deaths. (
  • The direct, indirect and contributing causes of maternal death include not only medical causes, but also social factors, many of which are avoidable. (
  • Investigators estimated national and provincial time trends in key reproductive, maternal and child health indicators, and used linear regression analysis to identify factors associated with changes in the receipt of key interventions. (
  • Watch this roundtable discussion to learn more about the factors contributing to the rising rates of early term and late preterm births, the potential consequences of births before 39 weeks of gestation, and evidence-based guidelines for delivery prior to 39 weeks. (
  • One of the factors which increase the odds of conceiving with twins is increasing maternal age. (
  • This study describes recent trends of modifiable risk factors and controllable chronic conditions among reproductive-aged women. (
  • We calculated prevalence ratios over time to assess trends for 4 selected risk factors and 4 chronic conditions, accounting for age, race/ethnicity, education, health care coverage, and individual states. (
  • Recent studies show increases in risk factors for heart disease, diabetes, and cancer in the general population (14-16), but only identified 1 study for women of reproductive age (17). (
  • We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the relationships between maternal demographics and each outcome using adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) and 95% CIs. (
  • We examined prevalence of diagnosed autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and age at diagnosis according to child's race/ethnicity and primary household language. (
  • While NHW children have comparable ASD prevalence and diagnosis age distributions as Hispanic-English children, they have both higher prevalence and proportion of later diagnoses than NHB and Hispanic-Other children. (
  • Data from 20 population-based state surveillance programs were pooled and analyzed to assess age-specific gastroschisis prevalence during two 5-year periods, 2006–2010 and 2011–2015, and an ecologic approach was used to compare annual gastroschisis prevalence by annual opioid prescription rate categories. (
  • CDC requested annual data from U.S. population-based birth defects surveillance programs to assess the prevalence of gastroschisis during 2006–2015. (
  • 6 One recent study identified a 73.9% prevalence of periodontal diseases among women age 18 to 40. (
  • Among respondents, most women were 25-34 years of age (59.7%), were non-Hispanic white (56.9%), had more than a high school education (65.1%), were married (61.3%), and reported private insurance as a source of payment for delivery (55.8%) (data not shown). (
  • A study from Kaiser Permanente published last week found that births to women with diabetes doubled between 1999 and 2005. (
  • The study, published in Diabetes Care, sampled 175,000 ethnically diverse women who gave birth in Southern California Kaiser hospitals. (
  • But federal, state and local governments have focused largely on ensuring medical care for women who are already pregnant, says Dr. Peter Bernstein, a maternal-fetal medicine specialist at Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York City. (
  • In the United States, birth rates for women in their 30s are at the highest levels in four decades. (
  • It is important to know that most babies with Down syndrome are born to women under the age of 35. (
  • This is because women under the age of 35 have more babies than women over 35. (
  • Maternal health is the health of women during pregnancy , childbirth , and the postpartum period . (
  • Maternal health revolves around the health and wellness of women, particularly when they are pregnant, at the time they give birth, and during child-raising. (
  • The investment can be achieved in different ways, among the main ones being subsidizing the healthcare cost, education on maternal health, encouraging effective family planning, and ensuring progressive check up on the health of women with children. (
  • Subsidizing the cost of healthcare will help improve the health status of women. (
  • When women deliver their babies in certified healthcare facilities without paying or paying a very small amount of money, they are motivated to use their own money on the diet of the baby, clothing, and other needs (Onarheim, Iversen, and Bloom n.p). (
  • Also, when women attend clinics without being charged and are issued with free supplements, their health is maintained, and this reduces the cost that the monetary resources that the government invests in healthcare. (
  • Education on various issues related to maternal health is essential to control and improve the healthcare of women. (
  • These women make the right decision regarding family planning, the best time to give birth as far as their financial capabilities are concerned, and their nutrition, before, during, and after giving birth. (
  • Gannon (n.p) reports that the maternal rate of mortality reduced by 70% between 1946 and 1953, when women started getting maternal education. (
  • A total of 637 604 women and men were identified in the Swedish Medical Birth Register who were born as singletons from 1973 through 1979. (
  • METHODS: This population-based cohort study included all women who had undergone IVF treatment in Northern Finland leading to delivery in 1990-1995 (n = 225) and control pregnancies derived from the Finnish Medical Birth Register (n = 671) matched for sex of the child, year of birth, area, maternal age, parity, social class and fetal plurality. (
  • The pregnant women were subdivided into five age groups, 3.3% at 17 years or younger (17-), 7.2% at 18-19 years, 77.9% at 20-34 years, 9.9% at 35-39 years and 1.7% at 40 years or older (40+). (
  • Participants Women aged 12-55 years, without pre-existing cardiovascular disease, who underwent prenatal screening between 1993 and 2011. (
  • If these findings are replicated elsewhere, a massive amount of data exists that could aid in identifying women at higher risk of premature cardiovascular disease and that could be conveyed to them or their healthcare providers. (
  • In the United Kingdom, women are having their children at an older age, and the proportion of childless women in England and Wales rose by 13% in 1994 (Armitage & Babb, 1996). (
  • During the last 15 years in Ribeirão Preto, one of the most highly developed areas in Latin America, situated in southeast Brazil, official data showed a 39.7% decrease in the birth rate and a 46.7% drop in the fertility rate, despite a 40.1% increase in the proportion of childbearing-age women (SEADE, 1996). (
  • Ethnographic data collected during participant observation, four community discussions, individual interviews with 218 women and five midwives, 314 health assessments, and a maternal mortality survey are used to identify and explain the risks indigenous women encounter during pregnancy and childbirth. (
  • Excluding preterm births, SGA births, and offspring of women who had pre-pregnancy hypertension or over the age of 40 did not change the results materially. (
  • Adolescent pregnancies, a lack of maternal health care, literacy, and life skills for girls and women, combined with the fact that most give birth at home without the presence of a skilled birth attendant, create enormous challenges for women and girls living in poverty. (
  • States were at risk for ZIKV infection primarily if they York City), for women who gave birth during March traveled to affected areas or had sexual contact with 2016-February 2017. (
  • We used multivariable logistic regression to Among respondents, most women were 25-34 years assess the relationships between maternal demo- of age (59.7%), were non-Hispanic white (56.9%), graphics and each outcome using adjusted preva- had more than a high school education (65.1%), were lence ratios (aPRs) and 95% CIs. (
  • The risk of gestational diabetes for pregnant women increased as the age of the father increased, with women pregnant with the child of a man aged 55 years or older having a 34 percent higher odds of gestational diabetes. (
  • Study objective: To examine the effect of a comprehensive prenatal and delivery programme administered by nurse-midwives on the risk of low weight births among indigent women. (
  • By 2017, the world maternal mortality rate had declined 44% since 1990, but still every day 830 women die from pregnancy or childbirth related causes. (
  • In a cohort study in 2009, 1801 pregnant women without depression at 32-42 weeks of pregnancy attending Mazandaran primary healthcare centres were examined for postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). (
  • The mean age of the women was 30.13 (SD 5.21) years. (
  • Maternal expectations and outlook were found to be a risk factor for the occurrence of subsequent problems for both mother and child (10,14), and women with a history of postpartum depression have developed more depressive symptoms later (14,15). (
  • She said that these disparities disproportionately affect Black women, and intersect with other issues like maternal morbidity, racism and discrimination regarding class, gender and age. (
  • The Women's Health specialists at Carle provide comprehensive care and treatment for women of all ages, including high-risk obstetrical care, reproductive medicine/infertility, women's cancers, prenatal appointments, genetic counseling, routine and annual gynecological care, and comprehensive diagnosis and treatment of gynecologic disorders. (
  • Charitable gifts are used for numerous projects and programs that enhance the healthcare experience for women of all ages and their loved ones. (
  • In cities, 76.5 per cent of women receive skilled maternal care, while only 15 per cent of the indigenous Quichua women do. (
  • We looked at all the deaths of women of childbearing age to find out what was the real cause of their deaths. (
  • A 1998 law guarantees all pregnant women and their children (up to age five) free health care. (
  • A population-based multilevel discrete choice analysis was performed using the most recent population-based 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys data of women aged between 15 and 49 years. (
  • 4,5 Both periodontal diseases and dental caries are highly prevalent in women of child-bearing age, particularly among low-income women and members of certain racial and ethnic minority groups. (
  • 4,5 According to research, 38.4% of US women age 30 and older have some form of periodontal disease, with 65.4% of those living below the federal poverty level. (
  • 7 In 2012, 25.9% of women between the ages of 20 and 44 had untreated dental caries, an increase of 4.1% since 2008. (
  • [ 4 ] In addition, maternal mortality has been linked to the percentage of women who have four or more antenatal care visits, the percentage of deliveries attended by a skilled assistant and the percentage of deliveries performed by cesarean section. (
  • For example, a study of 52 refugee camps in seven countries found that residents had lower levels of maternal mortality than did women of the host countries or the countries of origin. (
  • Coverage of antenatal care, skilled birth attendance and health facility birth among pregnant women aged 15-49 tripled between 2003 and 2012, and coverage of basic vaccinations of young children doubled over the period. (
  • The data showed persistent, often marked disparities over time in intervention coverage according to socioeconomic status: For example, the proportion of women delivering with a skilled birth attendant ranged from roughly 15% for those in the poorest wealth quintile to about 80% for those in the richest. (
  • a third of provinces saw the proportion of women delivering with a skilled birth attendant increase by more than 30% between 2003 and 2010, while nearly half (many in remote regions) saw little to no gain. (
  • We analyzed data collected by Egypt's Demographic and Health Survey 2000, which included a probability sample of 8,999 women aged 15 to 49, who has been married at least once irrespective of their current marital status. (
  • This information pamphlet is for women who are currently pregnant and have had a cesarean birth before. (
  • Women who have had a baby by cesarean usually have a choice about how they will give birth to their next baby. (
  • The VBAC option After a cesarean birth, some women choose to plan a vaginal birth after cesarean, or VBAC. (
  • Some women want to experience giving birth normally. (
  • Overall, about 75% of women who plan a VBAC are successful in having a vaginal birth. (
  • Service providers (such as primary, secondary, community care and public health providers) ensure that systems are in place to ensure that pregnant women and the parents and carers of children under 4 years who may be eligible are given information about the Healthy Start scheme and that an adequate supply of application forms is available for distribution by healthcare professionals. (
  • Healthcare professionals ensure that they give information to pregnant women and the parents and carers of children under 4 years who may be eligible about the Healthy Start scheme, and provide them with support to apply, such as giving them a signed application form. (
  • Commissioners (clinical commissioning groups, NHS England and local authorities) ensure that providers give information to pregnant women and the parents and carers of children under 4 years who may be eligible about the Healthy Start scheme and provide them with support to apply, including having enough application forms for distribution by healthcare professionals. (
  • Pregnant women and the parents and carers of children under 4 years who may be eligible for the Healthy Start scheme are given information about it and help to apply (including a signed application form from their healthcare professional). (
  • This is also against the backdrop of the efforts to provide free maternal care services to women to achieve universal access to skilled birth attendant. (
  • The World Health Organization(WHO) defines maternal health as the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum. (
  • Ghana, under the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in July 2008 introduced a free maternal health policy which made it possible for all pregnant women to be entitled to free health services throughout pregnancy, childbirth and three Months postpartum. (
  • The free maternal policy was to facilitate the access to free quality maternal care so as to reduce the high number of women and children who die from preventable death during pregnancy. (
  • In 2015, the WHO indicated that a total of 2,800 girls and women in Ghana died during childbirth and 60 percent of all births in rural communities occurred without a skilled birth attendant present. (
  • But these 13 global maternal health statistics are great reminders of how lucky women in developed countries are. (
  • Ninety-nine percent of maternal-related deaths occur in developing countries (this includes both women and children), largely related to inadequate or poor quality care. (
  • UNICEF reports that more than 50 percent of women in developing countries deliver without the assistance of a trained healthcare professional. (
  • Participants All women who gave birth in the healthcare organisation between April 2016 and March 2017. (
  • So, on the eve of the 4th World Birth Defects Day, we want to bring birth defects to the forefront of the issues that are considered for improving the health of women and children. (
  • Logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios to describe the association between maternal diabetes status and offspring size, adjusted for maternal pre-pregnancy weight, age and smoking status. (
  • Authors: Jenabi E, Bashirian S, Khazaei S, Basiri Z Abstract This meta-analysis evaluated the association between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children and adolescents. (
  • We investigated the association between maternal and paternal occupational painting, respectively, and the risk of congenital malformations among children. (
  • Advanced paternal age at childbirth is associated with psychiatric disorders in offspring, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. (
  • In a large, population-based cohort, we examined the association between paternal age and offspring eating disorders, and whether that association remains after adjustment for potential confounders (e.g. parental education level) that may be related to late/early selection into fatherhood and to eating disorder incidence. (
  • Maternal low protein diet (LPD) fed during only the preimplantation period of development (0-4.25 days after mating), before return to control diet for the remainder of gestation, induced programming of altered birthweight, postnatal growth rate, hypertension and organ/body-weight ratios in either male or female offspring at up to 12 weeks of age. (
  • We examined state NAS incidence trends using all-payer hospital inpatient delivery discharges compiled in the State Inpatient Databases of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project during 1999-2013. (
  • We found the overall NAS incidence increased 300% from 1.5 to 6.0 per 1,000 hospital births. (
  • Current smoking was associated with an average reduction in birth weight of 191g (95% CI −294, −88) and an increased incidence of intrauterine growth restriction (24% versus 13%, adjusted OR 1.39 (95% CI 1.06, 1.84). (
  • Young adults are an especially appropriate age group for the use of asthma medications as a surrogate measure for asthma, because they have a lower incidence of nonasthma conditions for which these medications are prescribed, such as respiratory infections associated with wheezing (which are more common in children) or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (which is more common in older adults). (
  • The incidence rate rises with maternal age, most notably after age 35. (
  • Some after 30 years of age may lose their ability to speak. (
  • The rate increased the greatest among teens ages 13 to 19 -- a fivefold jump over the seven years of the study. (
  • This study examines the effect of diabetes in pregnancy on offspring weight at birth and ages 1 and 5 years. (
  • Participants 170 508 children conceived from 29 July 2005 and born in 2006-07, followed up to 2014 at age 8-9 years. (
  • Here, we examined the association between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and ASD risk at 7 years of age using the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), a representative cohort of 13,192 children born in the UK from 2000 to 2001. (
  • Maternal age ranged from 21.4 to 38.6 years (29.8+/-4.1 years). (
  • 35 years of age, be non-His- and SAS-callable SUDAAN 11.0 (https:// panic black or of other race, have a high school educa- software to account for PRAMS com- tion or less, be unmarried, and report Medicaid as a plex survey design. (
  • Published by The BMJ, the study showed that children of fathers aged 45 years or more were born 0.12 weeks earlier and had a 14 percent higher risk of being premature (less than 37 weeks) compared to those whose fathers were aged 25 to 34 years. (
  • Maternal age of 25-30 years, maternal education of high school and greater, family income and not drinking during pregnancy were associated with higher scores in development. (
  • The concept of maternal and child health has expanded over the years, which also includes a set of knowledge, practices, and attitudes that aim at the promotion of healthy pregnancies, deliveries, and births and also the prevention of maternal and child mortality [ 1 ]. (
  • Autism spectrum disorders become apparent when the child is around 2-3 years old, so vaccines given up to two years of age were studied. (
  • We also detected no associations when exposures were evaluated as cumulative exposure from birth to 3 months, from birth to 7 months, or from birth to 2 years, or as maximum exposure on a single day during those 3 time periods. (
  • Two years of available data on smoking during pregnancy among adolescents ages 15-19 were averaged and compared for three periods: 1990-1991, 1995-1996, and 2001-2002. (
  • Sensitivity analyses restricted to severe malformations, children of maternal painters with ≥2 years of pre-pregnancy exposure, and firstborn children, and analyses with maternal healthcare assistants and kitchen workers as reference supported the main results. (
  • Also, no associations were found when including diagnoses within the first 10 years of life, when stratifying by maternal age, birth year, and sex, or for paternal construction painters. (
  • Afghanistan has made progress toward improving maternal and child well-being in recent years, despite considerable political upheaval and poverty, according to a comprehensive, systematic case study mainly based on national survey data. (
  • Twenty-nine participants with DS, aged 6 to 14 years, used both types of toothbrushes: electric (ET) and manual (MT). The order of use of the different types of toothbrushes was randomly defined, including a 7-day period with each type with 7-day washout period in between. (
  • e) Proportion of vaccination appointments at age 3 years 5 months to 4 years where parents and carers who may be eligible for the Healthy Start scheme receive information and support to apply. (
  • Ages range from 15 to 18 years old. (
  • Age of partners ranged from 15 to 28 years old. (
  • On average, partners were older than the teenage girls with a mean of 2.91 years difference in age. (
  • A family is defined as highly stressed if at least four of the following characteristics apply: single parent, unplanned pregnancy, childhood dysregulation, high parental stress levels, parental impulsiveness, parental exposure to relationship violence, frequent conflict between spouses or partners, high risk of anxiety disorder or depression, negative childhood experiences of parents, welfare benefit recipients and maternal age under 21 years at the birth of the child . (
  • Children from two to four years of age show the highest susceptibility, as well as adults with reduced gastric acidity and blood type O. The level of susceptibility also increases with reduced immunity such as people with AIDS or malnourished children. (
  • We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a state-based, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of the US noninstitutionalized, civilian population aged 18 years or older. (
  • Dental services are free to all refugees and asylum seekers, and all children aged 0 - 12 years - these groups are identified as priority access groups. (
  • Family Planning emerges as the mission to reduce maternal and child mortality & morbidity in India. (
  • Family Planning will be a key strategy to reduce maternal and child mortalities and morbidities in India, stated Shri J P Nadda, Union Minister of Health and Family Welfare. (
  • At the two-day National Summit held on 5th April, 2016 in New Delhi, The Union Minister of Health and Family Welfare, Shri J P Nadda has stated that family planning could be the key strategy to reduce maternal and child mortalities and morbidities in the country . (
  • The policy formed part of the country's measures to achieve the SDGs to reduce maternal child deaths and to achieve the target of Universal Health Coverage (UHC). (
  • Suicide from psychiatric illness is the main cause of maternal death in the first postpartum year and may be a consequence of untreated postpartum depression (12,13). (
  • Pregnancy indicators showed increased prematurity and cesarean birth. (
  • They can plan to have another cesarean birth (called an elective or planned repeat cesarean birth), or they can plan to have the baby vaginally (called a vaginal birth after cesarean, or VBAC). (
  • You can read this booklet, discuss it with your doctor or midwife, and ask any questions to help you decide whether planning a VBAC or a repeat cesarean birth is best for you. (
  • When the government manages to reduce unwanted and unplanned pregnancies among these two groups of people, it will become easier to reduce the maternal health issue and the cost associated with it. (
  • We then calculated the rate of utilization of various prenatal and intrapartum care services in the two surveys in the overall sample and in subsamples, stratified by maternal education, age, and parity. (
  • These changes in utilization over time were consistently observed across different maternal education, age, and parity groups. (
  • The key emphasis of the Indian National Population Policy formulated in the year 2000 was to reduce the needs for family planning that has remained unmet and towards improving the healthcare infrastructure and attain population stabilization by 2045. (
  • Epidemiological studies have indicated that susceptibility of human adults to hypertension and cardiovascular disease may result from intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight induced by maternal undernutrition. (
  • For 5-17-year-olds, diagnosis age varied by race/ethnicity/language and also by ASD severity. (