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Physician advice and individual behaviors about cardiovascular disease risk reduction--seven states and Puerto Rico, 1997. (1/10474)Cardiovascular disease (CVD) (e.g., heart disease and stroke) is the leading cause of death in the United States and accounted for 959,227 deaths in 1996. Strategies to reduce the risk for heart disease and stroke include lifestyle changes (e.g., eating fewer high-fat and high-cholesterol foods) and increasing physical activity. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and the American Heart Association (AHA) recommend that, as part of a preventive health examination, all primary-care providers counsel their patients about a healthy diet and regular physical activity. AHA also recommends low-dose aspirin use as a secondary preventive measure among persons with existing CVD. To determine the prevalence of physician counseling about cardiovascular health and changes in individual behaviors, CDC analyzed data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for seven states and Puerto Rico. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicate a lower prevalence of counseling and behavior change among persons without than with a history of heart disease or stroke. (+info)
Risk-adjusted capitation based on the Diagnostic Cost Group Model: an empirical evaluation with health survey information. (2/10474)OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive accuracy of the Diagnostic Cost Group (DCG) model using health survey information. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Longitudinal data collected for a sample of members of a Dutch sickness fund. In the Netherlands the sickness funds provide compulsory health insurance coverage for the 60 percent of the population in the lowest income brackets. STUDY DESIGN: A demographic model and DCG capitation models are estimated by means of ordinary least squares, with an individual's annual healthcare expenditures in 1994 as the dependent variable. For subgroups based on health survey information, costs predicted by the models are compared with actual costs. Using stepwise regression procedures a subset of relevant survey variables that could improve the predictive accuracy of the three-year DCG model was identified. Capitation models were extended with these variables. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: For the empirical analysis, panel data of sickness fund members were used that contained demographic information, annual healthcare expenditures, and diagnostic information from hospitalizations for each member. In 1993, a mailed health survey was conducted among a random sample of 15,000 persons in the panel data set, with a 70 percent response rate. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The predictive accuracy of the demographic model improves when it is extended with diagnostic information from prior hospitalizations (DCGs). A subset of survey variables further improves the predictive accuracy of the DCG capitation models. The predictable profits and losses based on survey information for the DCG models are smaller than for the demographic model. Most persons with predictable losses based on health survey information were not hospitalized in the preceding year. CONCLUSIONS: The use of diagnostic information from prior hospitalizations is a promising option for improving the demographic capitation payment formula. This study suggests that diagnostic information from outpatient utilization is complementary to DCGs in predicting future costs. (+info)
Correlates of sexually transmitted bacterial infections among U.S. women in 1995. (3/10474)CONTEXT: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of bacterial origin such as gonorrhea and chlamydial infection can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and infertility. Identifying behaviors and characteristics associated with infection may assist in preventing these often asymptomatic diseases and their sequelae. METHODS: Data from 9,882 sexually active women who participated in the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth describe the characteristics of women who report a history of infection with a bacterial STD or of treatment for PID. Multivariate analysis is used to determine which demographic characteristics and sexual and health-related behaviors affect the likelihood of infection or the occurrence of complications. RESULTS: Overall, 6% of sexually active women reported a history of a bacterial STD, and 8% reported a history of PID. Women who first had sexual intercourse before age 15 were nearly four times as likely to report a bacterial STD, and more than twice as likely to report PID, as were women who first had sex after age 18. Having more than five lifetime sexual partners also was associated with both having an STD and having PID. PID was more common among women reporting a history of a bacterial STD (23%) than among women who reported no such history (7%). In multivariate analyses, age, race, age at first intercourse and lifetime number of sexual partners had a significant effect on the risk of a bacterial STD. Education, age, a history of IUD use, douching and a history of a bacterial STD had a significant impact on the risk of PID, but early onset of intercourse did not, and lifetime number of partners had only a marginal effect. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of characteristics and behaviors that place women at risk of infection with bacterial STDs is not uniform among groups of women. Further, the level of self-reported PID would suggest higher rates of gonorrhea and chlamydial infection than reported. (+info)
Condom use and HIV risk behaviors among U.S. adults: data from a national survey. (4/10474)CONTEXT: How much condom use among U.S. adults varies by type of partner or by risk behavior is unclear. Knowledge of such differentials would aid in evaluating the progress being made toward goals for levels of condom use as part of the Healthy People 2000 initiative. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the 1996 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, an annual household-based probability sample of the noninstitutionalized population aged 12 and older that measures the use of illicit drugs, alcohol and tobacco. The personal behaviors module included 25 questions covering sexual activity in the past year, frequency of condom use in the past year, circumstances of the last sexual encounter and HIV testing. RESULTS: Sixty-two percent of adults reported using a condom at last intercourse outside of an ongoing relationship, while only 19% reported using condoms when the most recent intercourse occurred within a steady relationship. Within ongoing relationships, condom use was highest among respondents who were younger, black, of lower income and from large metropolitan areas. Forty percent of unmarried adults used a condom at last sex, compared with the health objective of 50% for the year 2000. Forty percent of injecting drug users used condoms at last intercourse, compared with the 60% condom use objective for high-risk individuals. Significantly, persons at increased risk for HIV because of their sexual behavior or drug use were not more likely to use condoms than were persons not at increased risk; only 22% used condoms during last intercourse within an ongoing relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial progress has been made toward national goals for increasing condom use. The rates of condom use by individuals at high risk of HIV need to be increased, however, particularly condom use with a steady partner. (+info)
Thyroid volumes and urinary iodine in Swiss school children, 17 years after improved prophylaxis of iodine deficiency. (5/10474)Salt iodine content in Switzerland was raised from 7.5 to 15 mg per kg in 1980, and since then dietary iodine intake has been considered to be sufficient, even though a slight decrease due to imported food has recently been reported. The aim of this study was to establish normal values for thyroid volumes of school children who can be assumed to have had a sufficient iodine intake all their lifetime. Moreover. the present investigation was undertaken to verify that iodine sufficiency had been achieved equally in two regions each served by one of the two Swiss salt producers. Mean iodine concentration in urine spot samples from school children was 16.1 microg/dl, and it was identical in both the city of Lausanne (n=215) and the city of Solothurn (n=208). Thus it can be stated that in both cities (served by two different salt producers) iodine intake is equal and sufficient. Accordingly, thyroid volumes measured by ultrasound in school children aged 6 to 16 years were the same in both Lausanne (n=202) and Solothurn (n=207). Moreover, the age-adjusted median volumes at the 97th percentiles closely agree with and validate provisional international reference values recently proposed by the World Health Organisation and by the International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disease. (+info)
Stress and morale in general practice: a comparison of two health care systems. (6/10474)BACKGROUND: Poor morale and high levels of stress among general practitioners (GPs) are causing concern. Little research has previously been carried out to study possible differences in morale and stress between GPs working in two different but geographically similar health care systems. AIM: To compare perceived levels of stress and morale between GPs working in two different health care systems--one having a state monopoly (Northern Ireland) and the other having mixed private and state funding (Republic of Ireland)--and to look for factors that might help explain any differences in stress levels and morale between the two systems. METHOD: Anonymous and confidential questionnaires were sent to all 986 National Health Service (NHS) GPs in Northern Ireland (NI) and a random sample of 900 GPs in the Republic of Ireland (ROI). A common set of core questions on demographic details, partners and work patterns, perceived levels of stress and morale, safety, violence, and complaints were asked. RESULTS: Response rates were high in both areas: 91% in NI and 78% in the ROI. GPs in NI had significantly higher stress levels and significantly lower levels of morale than GPs in the ROI. The NI sample expect matters to get worse over the following year. Doctors in the ROI were more likely to be single handed and to work from two sites. Also, more GPs in ROI had fears for their safety and had been the subject of physical violence, but fewer had received complaints and medico-legal actions than in NI. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of both groups of doctors report feeling highly stressed but GPs in NI appear more unhappy and have a poorer outlook for the future. It is suggested that the structure, management, and expectations of the NHS have taken a severe toll on its GPs, whereas a system in which doctors have less practice support but more control is good for morale. (+info)
Trends in body weight among American Indians: findings from a telephone survey, 1985 through 1996. (7/10474)OBJECTIVES: This study compared trends in body mass index for American Indian men and women across selected regions of the United States. METHODS: Self-reported data were collected from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. RESULTS: Among women in the Dakotas, New Mexico and Arizona, and Washington and Oregon, average adjusted body mass index increased significantly by 0.1 to 0.2 units per year. Among men in Alaska and the Dakotas, average adjusted body mass index also increased significantly by 0.1 to 0.2 units each year. CONCLUSIONS: Because of rapid increases in average body mass index, some American Indian populations could be burdened by an increased incidence of chronic disease. (+info)
Sexual problems: a study of the prevalence and need for health care in the general population. (8/10474)BACKGROUND: There has been little research carried out on the prevalence and types of sexual dysfunction in the general population, although the indications are that such problems are relatively common. Most common sexual problems are potentially treatable. However GPs have estimated the prevalence of sexual problems to be far lower than survey estimates. OBJECTIVE: To provide an estimate of the prevalence of sexual problems in the general population, and assess the use of and need for professional help for such problems. METHODS: We used an anonymous postal questionnaire survey. The study was set in four general practices in England*, and the study population was a stratified random sample of the adult general population (n = 4000). The subjects were 789 men and 979 women who responded to the questionnaire. The main outcome measures were the presence and type of current sexual problems in men and women, and the provision and use of treatments for sexual problems. RESULTS: A response rate of 44% was obtained. The median age of the responders was 50 years. A third of men (34%) and two-fifths of women (41 %) reported having a current sexual problem. The most common problems were erectile dysfunction (n = 170) and premature ejaculation (n = 88) in men; in women the most widely reported problems were vaginal dryness (n = 186) and infrequent orgasm (n = 166). In men, the proportion of responders reporting sexual problems increased with age, but there was no similar trend in women. Of those responders who reported a sexual problem, 52% said that they would like to receive professional help for this problem, but only one in ten of these people (n = 50) had received such help. CONCLUSION: Among responders there was a high level of reported sexual problems. The most frequently reported problems (vaginal dryness, erectile problems) may be amenable to physical treatment in practice, and yet few had sought or received help. However, many said that they would like to receive help. These figures suggest that there may be an important burden of potentially reversible sexual problems in the general population. (+info)
In the medical field, mental disorders are conditions that affect a person's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, causing significant distress or impairment in daily functioning. Mental disorders are diagnosed based on a set of criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is published by the American Psychiatric Association. The DSM-5 categorizes mental disorders into several broad categories, including: 1. Anxiety disorders: conditions characterized by excessive fear or worry, such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder. 2. Mood disorders: conditions characterized by significant changes in mood, such as major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and dysthymia. 3. Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders: conditions characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking, and abnormal behavior, such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and delusional disorder. 4. Neurodevelopmental disorders: conditions that begin in childhood and affect cognitive and social development, such as autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 5. Personality disorders: conditions characterized by enduring patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that deviate from societal norms and cause significant distress or impairment, such as borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. 6. Substance-related and addictive disorders: conditions characterized by the use of substances or behaviors that cause significant impairment in daily functioning, such as alcohol use disorder, opioid use disorder, and gambling disorder. 7. Eating disorders: conditions characterized by abnormal eating behaviors that cause significant distress or impairment, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Mental disorders can be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors, and they can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. Treatment for mental disorders typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes.
In the medical field, a chronic disease is a long-term health condition that persists for an extended period, typically for more than three months. Chronic diseases are often progressive, meaning that they tend to worsen over time, and they can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. Chronic diseases can affect any part of the body and can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Some examples of chronic diseases include heart disease, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and arthritis. Chronic diseases often require ongoing medical management, including medication, lifestyle changes, and regular monitoring to prevent complications and manage symptoms. Treatment for chronic diseases may also involve rehabilitation, physical therapy, and other supportive care.
Obesity is a medical condition characterized by an excessive accumulation of body fat, which increases the risk of various health problems. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines obesity as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher, where BMI is calculated as a person's weight in kilograms divided by their height in meters squared. Obesity is a complex condition that results from a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. It can lead to a range of health problems, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, certain types of cancer, and respiratory problems. In the medical field, obesity is often treated through a combination of lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and medical interventions, such as medications or bariatric surgery. The goal of treatment is to help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight, reduce their risk of health problems, and improve their overall quality of life.
Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) due to either a lack of insulin production by the pancreas or the body's inability to effectively use insulin. There are two main types of diabetes mellitus: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. This results in little or no insulin production, and the body is unable to regulate blood sugar levels properly. Type 1 diabetes typically develops in childhood or adolescence, but can occur at any age. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes and is characterized by insulin resistance, which means that the body's cells do not respond effectively to insulin. This leads to high blood sugar levels, and the pancreas may eventually become unable to produce enough insulin to keep up with the body's needs. Type 2 diabetes is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and a family history of the disease. Other forms of diabetes include gestational diabetes, which occurs during pregnancy, and secondary diabetes, which is caused by other medical conditions such as kidney disease or certain medications.
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways in the lungs. This can cause symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Asthma can be triggered by a variety of factors, including allergens, irritants, exercise, and respiratory infections. It is a common condition, affecting millions of people worldwide, and can range from mild to severe. Treatment typically involves the use of medications to control inflammation and open up the airways, as well as lifestyle changes to avoid triggers and improve overall lung function.
Occupational diseases are illnesses or injuries that are caused by exposure to hazards or conditions in the workplace. These hazards or conditions can include chemicals, dusts, fumes, radiation, noise, vibration, and physical demands such as repetitive motions or awkward postures. Occupational diseases can affect various systems in the body, including the respiratory system, skin, eyes, ears, cardiovascular system, and nervous system. Examples of occupational diseases include asbestosis, silicosis, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and hearing loss. Occupational diseases are preventable through proper safety measures and regulations in the workplace. Employers are responsible for providing a safe and healthy work environment for their employees, and workers have the right to report hazards and seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms related to their work.
Substance-related disorders are a group of mental health conditions that are caused by the use of drugs or alcohol. These disorders can range from mild to severe and can have a significant impact on a person's life. Substance-related disorders are diagnosed when a person's use of drugs or alcohol causes problems in their daily life, such as problems at work or school, problems with relationships, or legal problems. Substance-related disorders can also lead to physical health problems, such as liver damage or heart disease. Treatment for substance-related disorders typically involves a combination of behavioral therapy and medication.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for more than 17 million deaths each year. CVDs include conditions such as coronary artery disease (CAD), heart failure, arrhythmias, valvular heart disease, peripheral artery disease (PAD), and stroke. These conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, obesity, and a family history of CVDs. Treatment for CVDs may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, surgery.
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infections refer to the presence of the HIV virus in the body. HIV is a retrovirus that attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to infections and diseases. HIV is transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. The most common modes of transmission include unprotected sexual contact, sharing needles or syringes, and from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. HIV infections can be diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of the virus or antibodies produced in response to the virus. Once diagnosed, HIV can be managed with antiretroviral therapy (ART), which helps to suppress the virus and prevent the progression of the disease to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). It is important to note that HIV is not the same as AIDS. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS, but not everyone with HIV will develop AIDS. With proper treatment and management, individuals with HIV can live long and healthy lives.
In the medical field, "Mouth, Edentulous" refers to a condition where an individual has lost all of their natural teeth. This can occur due to various reasons such as tooth decay, gum disease, injury, or aging. An edentulous mouth can affect an individual's ability to chew, speak, and maintain good oral hygiene. Treatment options for an edentulous mouth may include dentures, dental implants, or other prosthetic devices to replace missing teeth and restore function and aesthetics.
Child nutrition disorders refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the growth and development of children due to inadequate or imbalanced nutrition. These disorders can result from a variety of factors, including poor diet, malabsorption, overeating, and genetic or metabolic disorders. Some common examples of child nutrition disorders include: 1. Malnutrition: This refers to a lack of adequate nutrients, such as protein, vitamins, and minerals, in the diet. Malnutrition can result in stunted growth, weakened immune system, and other health problems. 2. Overnutrition: This refers to consuming too much food, leading to obesity and other health problems such as diabetes, heart disease, and high blood pressure. 3. Eating disorders: These are mental health conditions that involve abnormal eating habits, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. 4. Food allergies and intolerances: These are conditions in which the body reacts negatively to certain foods, leading to symptoms such as digestive problems, hives, and difficulty breathing. 5. Nutrient deficiencies: These occur when the body does not get enough of a particular nutrient, such as iron, vitamin D, or calcium, leading to health problems such as anemia, weak bones, and impaired immune function. Child nutrition disorders can have serious long-term consequences for a child's health and development, and it is important for parents and caregivers to be aware of the signs and symptoms of these conditions and seek medical attention if necessary.
In the medical field, "wounds and injuries" refer to any type of damage or harm that is inflicted on the body, typically as a result of an external force or trauma. This can include cuts, scrapes, bruises, burns, fractures, and other types of physical trauma. Wounds can be classified based on their depth and severity. Superficial wounds only penetrate the outer layer of skin (epidermis) and are typically easy to treat. Deeper wounds, such as lacerations or punctures, can penetrate the dermis or subcutaneous tissue and may require more extensive medical attention. Injuries can also be classified based on their cause. For example, a fall may result in both a wound (such as a cut or bruise) and an injury (such as a broken bone or concussion). Injuries can be further classified based on their location, severity, and potential long-term effects. The treatment of wounds and injuries typically involves cleaning and dressing the affected area, administering pain medication if necessary, and monitoring for signs of infection or other complications. In some cases, more extensive medical treatment may be required, such as surgery or physical therapy.
In the medical field, overweight is a condition where a person's body weight is greater than what is considered healthy for their height and body composition. The term "overweight" is often used interchangeably with "obesity," but they are not the same thing. The body mass index (BMI) is a commonly used tool to determine whether a person is overweight or obese. BMI is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared. A BMI of 25 to 29.9 is considered overweight, while a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese. Being overweight can increase the risk of developing a variety of health problems, including heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Therefore, it is important to maintain a healthy weight through a balanced diet and regular physical activity.
Mood disorders are a group of mental health conditions characterized by significant disturbances in mood, emotions, and behavior. These disorders are typically classified into two main categories: depressive disorders and bipolar disorders. Depressive disorders include major depressive disorder (MDD), persistent depressive disorder (PDD), and dysthymia. These disorders are characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyable. Symptoms may also include changes in appetite and sleep patterns, fatigue, and difficulty concentrating. Bipolar disorders, on the other hand, are characterized by extreme mood swings that alternate between periods of mania or hypomania (elevated or irritable mood, increased energy, and decreased need for sleep) and periods of depression. The most common bipolar disorder is bipolar I disorder, which is characterized by at least one manic episode, while bipolar II disorder is characterized by at least one hypomanic episode and one major depressive episode. Other mood disorders include seasonal affective disorder (SAD), which is a type of depression that occurs during the winter months, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), which is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) that affects mood and behavior. Mood disorders can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life, relationships, and ability to function in daily activities. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes.
Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is a medical condition in which the force of blood against the walls of the arteries is consistently too high. This can lead to damage to the blood vessels, heart, and other organs over time, and can increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other health problems. Hypertension is typically defined as having a systolic blood pressure (the top number) of 140 mmHg or higher, or a diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) of 90 mmHg or higher. However, some people may be considered hypertensive if their blood pressure is consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Hypertension can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices (such as a diet high in salt and saturated fat, lack of physical activity, and smoking), and certain medical conditions (such as kidney disease, diabetes, and sleep apnea). It is often a chronic condition that requires ongoing management through lifestyle changes, medication, and regular monitoring of blood pressure levels.
In the medical field, neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors of cells that can occur in any part of the body. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or difficulty moving the affected area. Examples of benign neoplasms include lipomas (fatty tumors), hemangiomas (vascular tumors), and fibromas (fibrous tumors). Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. They can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the location and stage of the cancer. Examples of malignant neoplasms include carcinomas (cancers that start in epithelial cells), sarcomas (cancers that start in connective tissue), and leukemias (cancers that start in blood cells). The diagnosis of neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy (the removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope). Treatment options for neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.
Respiratory tract diseases refer to any medical conditions that affect the organs and structures involved in breathing, including the nose, throat, bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm. These diseases can range from mild to severe and can affect individuals of all ages and genders. Some common respiratory tract diseases include: 1. Asthma: a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that causes wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing. 2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a group of lung diseases that include chronic bronchitis and emphysema, characterized by difficulty breathing and shortness of breath. 3. Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. 4. Tuberculosis: a bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. 5. Influenza: a viral infection that affects the respiratory system and can cause symptoms such as fever, cough, and body aches. 6. Bronchitis: inflammation of the bronchial tubes that can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or irritants. 7. Sinusitis: inflammation of the sinuses that can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or allergies. 8. Emphysema: a chronic lung disease that causes damage to the air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. These diseases can be treated with medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery. Early detection and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Dental caries, also known as tooth decay, is a common dental disease that affects the hard tissues of the teeth, including the enamel, dentin, and pulp. It is caused by the demineralization of tooth enamel due to the production of acid by bacteria in the mouth. The bacteria in the mouth feed on sugars and starches in the food we eat, producing acid as a byproduct. This acid can erode the enamel on the teeth, leading to the formation of cavities. If left untreated, dental caries can progress and cause damage to the underlying dentin and pulp, leading to pain, infection, and tooth loss. Dental caries is a preventable disease through good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing and flossing regularly, using fluoride toothpaste and mouthwash, and limiting sugary and acidic foods and drinks. Early detection and treatment of dental caries can help prevent more serious complications and maintain good oral health.
Depressive disorder, also known as major depressive disorder or clinical depression, is a mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest or pleasure in activities that were once enjoyable. People with depressive disorder may also experience changes in appetite, sleep patterns, energy levels, and cognitive function. Depressive disorder can be a chronic condition that affects a person's ability to function in daily life, and it can also increase the risk of developing other mental health conditions, such as anxiety disorders and substance abuse disorders. Treatment for depressive disorder typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy, and it is important for individuals with depressive disorder to seek professional help as soon as possible to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
Malnutrition is a condition that occurs when a person's diet does not provide enough nutrients, or the body is unable to absorb or utilize the nutrients properly. This can lead to a variety of health problems, including weakness, fatigue, weight loss, and impaired immune function. Malnutrition can be caused by a variety of factors, including poverty, food insecurity, chronic illness, and certain medical conditions such as gastrointestinal disorders or eating disorders. In severe cases, malnutrition can be life-threatening and may require medical intervention.
Respiratory sounds are the sounds produced by the movement of air through the respiratory system. These sounds can be heard with a stethoscope and are an important part of the physical examination of the lungs. There are two main types of respiratory sounds: wheezing and crackles. Wheezing is a high-pitched, whistling sound that is heard during inspiration (breathing in). It is caused by the narrowing of the airways, which can be due to inflammation, mucus production, or spasms of the muscles in the airways. Crackles, also known as rales, are a harsh, crackling or popping sound that is heard during both inspiration and expiration (breathing out). They are caused by the presence of fluid or mucus in the airways, which can be due to inflammation, infection, or other lung diseases. Other types of respiratory sounds include bronchial breath sounds, which are heard during inspiration and expiration and are caused by the movement of air through the bronchi, and adventitious sounds, which are abnormal sounds that are not part of the normal respiratory cycle and can be caused by a variety of conditions, including pneumonia, pleurisy, and lung cancer.
In the medical field, "thinness" refers to a low body weight or a low body mass index (BMI) that is considered below the normal range for an individual's age, sex, and height. Thinness can be a result of a variety of factors, including genetics, diet, exercise, and underlying medical conditions. In some cases, thinness may be a sign of an underlying health problem, such as an eating disorder or a hormonal imbalance. It can also increase the risk of certain health conditions, such as osteoporosis, heart disease, and certain types of cancer. Medical professionals may use various measures to assess thinness, including BMI, waist circumference, and body fat percentage. Treatment for thinness may involve addressing the underlying cause, such as working with a therapist to address an eating disorder, or making lifestyle changes to improve nutrition and increase physical activity.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are infections that are primarily transmitted through sexual contact, including vaginal, anal, and oral sex. These infections can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, and can be transmitted through sexual intercourse, as well as other forms of sexual activity such as oral sex, anal sex, and vaginal sex. STDs can have a wide range of symptoms, from none at all to mild to severe. Some common symptoms of STDs include painful urination, discharge from the vagina or penis, itching or burning in the genital area, painful sexual intercourse, and the appearance of sores or ulcers on the genitals. STDs can have serious health consequences if left untreated, including infertility, chronic pain, and an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer. In addition, some STDs can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth, which can have serious consequences for the health of the child. Prevention of STDs is important, and can include practicing safe sex by using condoms and getting regular testing for STDs. Treatment for STDs typically involves antibiotics or antiviral medications, and may also include lifestyle changes and other forms of medical care.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. It is characterized by fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue. In severe cases, it can lead to anemia, respiratory distress, organ failure, and death. Malaria is primarily found in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. There are four main species of Plasmodium that can cause malaria in humans: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae. Malaria is preventable and treatable, but，。
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a chronic and often relapsing brain disorder characterized by the excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to one's health, relationships, and daily life. In the medical field, alcoholism is diagnosed based on a set of criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). These criteria include: 1. The presence of tolerance, which is the need to consume more alcohol to achieve the same desired effect. 2. The presence of withdrawal symptoms when alcohol use is reduced or stopped. 3. The presence of cravings or a strong desire to drink. 4. The continuation of alcohol use despite negative consequences, such as health problems, relationship problems, or legal problems. 5. The presence of significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning due to alcohol use. Alcoholism is a complex disorder that can be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral therapy, medication, and support groups.
In the medical field, fatigue is a common symptom that can be caused by a variety of factors, including physical or mental exertion, lack of sleep, chronic illness, or medication side effects. Fatigue is characterized by a persistent feeling of tiredness or exhaustion that is not relieved by rest or sleep. Fatigue can be a symptom of many different medical conditions, including anemia, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, heart disease, sleep disorders, and thyroid disorders. It can also be a side effect of certain medications, such as antidepressants or chemotherapy drugs. In some cases, fatigue may be a sign of a more serious underlying condition, such as cancer or a neurological disorder. It is important to discuss any persistent feelings of fatigue with a healthcare provider to determine the cause and appropriate treatment.
Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain disorder characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and tenderness, as well as fatigue, sleep disturbances, and other symptoms. It is a complex condition that affects the central nervous system and is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. The diagnosis of fibromyalgia is based on a combination of symptoms, physical examination, and ruling out other possible causes of pain. The diagnostic criteria include widespread pain for at least three months, tenderness in specific areas of the body, and other symptoms such as fatigue, sleep disturbances, and cognitive difficulties. There is currently no cure for fibromyalgia, but treatment options can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. These may include medications, physical therapy, exercise, stress management techniques, and lifestyle changes.
Tobacco Use Disorder (TUD) is a medical condition characterized by the excessive and compulsive use of tobacco products, despite the harmful effects on an individual's health. TUD is classified into two main types: nicotine dependence and tobacco addiction. Nicotine dependence refers to the physical and psychological dependence on nicotine, which is the primary addictive substance in tobacco products. Symptoms of nicotine dependence include cravings, withdrawal symptoms such as irritability, anxiety, and difficulty concentrating, and an inability to quit smoking despite the desire to do so. Tobacco addiction, on the other hand, is a more complex disorder that involves both physical and psychological dependence on tobacco products. It is characterized by a strong desire to use tobacco, a lack of control over tobacco use, and continued use despite the negative consequences. TUD is a serious medical condition that can lead to a range of health problems, including cancer, heart disease, respiratory diseases, and stroke. Treatment for TUD typically involves a combination of behavioral therapy, medication, and support groups to help individuals quit smoking and manage withdrawal symptoms.
Musculoskeletal diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the muscles, bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and other connective tissues in the body. These diseases can be acute or chronic, and can range from mild to severe. Some common examples of musculoskeletal diseases include osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, back pain, neck pain, muscle strains, tendonitis, bursitis, and fractures. These conditions can cause pain, stiffness, limited mobility, and other symptoms that can significantly impact a person's quality of life. Treatment for musculoskeletal diseases may include medications, physical therapy, exercise, surgery, and other interventions, depending on the specific condition and its severity. Early detection and treatment are important for managing these conditions and preventing long-term complications.
Tobacco smoke pollution refers to the presence of harmful chemicals and toxins in the air that are produced when tobacco is burned. These chemicals and toxins can be inhaled by people who are exposed to tobacco smoke, either directly or indirectly, and can cause a range of health problems. In the medical field, tobacco smoke pollution is often referred to as secondhand smoke or passive smoke. Secondhand smoke is the smoke that is exhaled by smokers and the smoke that is produced when tobacco is burned in cigarettes, cigars, or pipes. It can also include the smoke that is produced by e-cigarettes. Exposure to secondhand smoke has been linked to a number of serious health problems, including lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, and respiratory infections. It can also harm children, causing ear infections, bronchitis, and other health problems. In order to reduce the harmful effects of tobacco smoke pollution, it is important to create smoke-free environments, both indoors and outdoors. This can include laws that prohibit smoking in public places, as well as efforts to educate people about the dangers of tobacco smoke and the benefits of quitting smoking.
In the medical field, pain is defined as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. Pain is a complex phenomenon that involves both physical and emotional components, and it can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, illness, inflammation, and nerve damage. Pain can be acute or chronic, and it can be localized to a specific area of the body or can affect the entire body. Acute pain is typically short-lived and is a normal response to injury or illness. Chronic pain, on the other hand, persists for more than three months and can be caused by a variety of factors, including nerve damage, inflammation, and psychological factors. In the medical field, pain is typically assessed using a pain scale, such as the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), which measures pain intensity on a scale of 0 to 10. Treatment for pain depends on the underlying cause and can include medications, physical therapy, and other interventions.
Arthritis is a medical condition that involves inflammation of one or more joints in the body. It can cause pain, stiffness, and swelling in the affected joints, and can limit mobility and range of motion. There are many different types of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and lupus arthritis, among others. Arthritis can affect people of all ages, but it is most common in older adults. Treatment for arthritis typically involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes, such as exercise and a healthy diet.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that can develop after a person experiences or witnesses a traumatic event, such as a natural disaster, military combat, sexual assault, or physical violence. PTSD is characterized by a cluster of symptoms that can include intrusive thoughts or memories of the traumatic event, avoidance of reminders of the event, negative changes in mood or cognition, and increased arousal or reactivity. These symptoms can significantly impair a person's daily functioning and quality of life. PTSD is typically diagnosed by a mental health professional using a standardized set of criteria, and treatment may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both.
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels due to insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. It is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for about 90-95% of all cases. In type 2 diabetes, the body's cells become resistant to insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps regulate blood sugar levels. As a result, the pancreas may not produce enough insulin to overcome this resistance, leading to high blood sugar levels. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes may include increased thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, blurred vision, slow-healing sores, and unexplained weight loss. If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to serious complications such as heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, nerve damage, and vision loss. Treatment for type 2 diabetes typically involves lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise, as well as medication to help regulate blood sugar levels. In some cases, insulin therapy may be necessary.
In the medical field, body weight refers to the total mass of an individual's body, typically measured in kilograms (kg) or pounds (lbs). It is an important indicator of overall health and can be used to assess a person's risk for certain health conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Body weight is calculated by measuring the amount of mass that a person's body contains, which includes all of the organs, tissues, bones, and fluids. It is typically measured using a scale or other weighing device, and can be influenced by factors such as age, gender, genetics, and lifestyle. Body weight can be further categorized into different types, such as body mass index (BMI), which takes into account both a person's weight and height, and waist circumference, which measures the size of a person's waist. These measures can provide additional information about a person's overall health and risk for certain conditions.
Back pain is a common condition that affects the muscles, ligaments, bones, and nerves of the back. It can range from a dull ache to a sharp stabbing pain, and can be felt in the neck, upper back, lower back, or anywhere along the spine. Back pain can be acute, meaning it lasts for a short period of time (usually less than 12 weeks), or chronic, meaning it persists for more than 12 weeks. Back pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including muscle strain, herniated discs, spinal stenosis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and infections. It can also be caused by poor posture, obesity, smoking, and certain medical conditions such as kidney stones or pregnancy. Treatment for back pain depends on the underlying cause and severity of the pain. It may include over-the-counter pain medication, physical therapy, chiropractic care, acupuncture, and in some cases, surgery. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional to determine the cause of the back pain and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental health conditions characterized by excessive and persistent feelings of worry, fear, and unease. These disorders can interfere with a person's daily life, relationships, and ability to function normally. Anxiety disorders can be classified into several categories, including generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Treatment for anxiety disorders typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).
In the medical field, communicable diseases are infections that can be transmitted from one person to another through various means such as direct contact, respiratory droplets, bodily fluids, or contaminated surfaces. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, and can affect people of all ages, genders, and backgrounds. Examples of communicable diseases include influenza, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, hepatitis B and C, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and foodborne illnesses. These diseases can spread rapidly in crowded or poorly ventilated environments, and can cause serious health complications if left untreated. Preventing the spread of communicable diseases involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and getting vaccinated when possible. Healthcare professionals also play a crucial role in identifying and treating communicable diseases, as well as implementing public health measures to control their spread.
Infant nutrition disorders refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the nutritional status of infants. These disorders can arise due to various factors such as poor feeding habits, inadequate nutrient intake, malabsorption, or metabolic disorders. Some common examples of infant nutrition disorders include: 1. Failure to thrive: This is a condition where an infant fails to gain weight and grow at the expected rate. It can be caused by poor feeding habits, inadequate nutrient intake, or underlying medical conditions. 2. Malnutrition: This refers to a deficiency in one or more essential nutrients, such as protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, or minerals. Malnutrition can lead to a range of health problems, including stunted growth, weakened immune system, and cognitive impairment. 3. Gastrointestinal disorders: These include conditions such as lactose intolerance, food allergies, and inflammatory bowel disease, which can affect an infant's ability to absorb nutrients from food. 4. Metabolic disorders: These are genetic conditions that affect the way the body processes nutrients. Examples include phenylketonuria (PKU), galactosemia, and maple syrup urine disease. Infant nutrition disorders can have serious consequences for an infant's health and development if left untreated. Early detection and appropriate management are crucial to prevent long-term complications.
Alcoholic intoxication is a state of physical and mental impairment caused by the consumption of excessive amounts of alcohol. It is characterized by a range of symptoms, including slurred speech, impaired judgment, loss of coordination, and altered consciousness. In severe cases, alcoholic intoxication can lead to coma, respiratory failure, and even death. It is a common problem in many societies and can have serious social, economic, and health consequences. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as hydration and monitoring for complications, as well as addressing any underlying issues that may have contributed to the intoxication.
Depressive Disorder, Major, also known as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), is a mental health condition characterized by persistent and severe feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest or pleasure in activities that were once enjoyable. People with MDD may also experience changes in appetite and sleep patterns, feelings of fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death or suicide. MDD is a common disorder that affects millions of people worldwide. It can occur at any age and can be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. MDD can have a significant impact on a person's daily life, including their ability to work, socialize, and take care of themselves. Treatment for MDD typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). It is important for people with MDD to seek professional help as soon as possible to receive appropriate treatment and support.
Mobility limitation refers to a reduced ability to move or perform physical activities due to a medical condition, injury, or disability. It can affect an individual's ability to walk, stand, sit, or perform other movements that require physical strength, balance, or coordination. Mobility limitation can be temporary or permanent, and it can range from mild to severe. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including neurological disorders, musculoskeletal conditions, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, and metabolic disorders. In the medical field, mobility limitation is often evaluated and managed by healthcare professionals, including physical therapists, occupational therapists, and rehabilitation specialists. They work with patients to develop personalized treatment plans that aim to improve mobility, reduce pain, and enhance overall function and quality of life.
Chronic bronchitis is a long-term respiratory condition characterized by inflammation and thickening of the lining of the bronchial tubes, which carry air to and from the lungs. It is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is often associated with smoking or exposure to other irritants such as air pollution or dust. The symptoms of chronic bronchitis include a persistent cough that produces mucus, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. These symptoms may be worse in the morning or after exercise, and may be accompanied by fatigue, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Chronic bronchitis is typically diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as chest X-rays or CT scans. Treatment may include medications to manage symptoms, such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, as well as lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and avoiding exposure to irritants. In severe cases, oxygen therapy or lung transplantation may be necessary.
Menorrhagia is a medical condition characterized by excessive or abnormally heavy menstrual bleeding. It is defined as bleeding that lasts for more than 7 days or bleeding that is so heavy that it causes iron deficiency anemia or other health problems. Menorrhagia can be caused by a variety of factors, including hormonal imbalances, uterine fibroids, polyps, or other medical conditions. Treatment for menorrhagia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgery.
Pregnancy complications refer to any medical conditions or problems that arise during pregnancy that can potentially harm the mother or the developing fetus. These complications can range from minor issues that can be easily managed to life-threatening conditions that require immediate medical attention. Some common examples of pregnancy complications include gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, placenta previa, preterm labor, and miscarriage. Other complications may include infections, such as urinary tract infections or sexually transmitted infections, as well as conditions that can affect the baby, such as congenital anomalies or birth defects. Pregnancy complications can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices, underlying medical conditions, and environmental factors. Proper prenatal care and regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can help identify and manage pregnancy complications early on, reducing the risk of complications and improving outcomes for both the mother and the baby.
Sleep disorders are medical conditions that affect the quality, duration, and structure of sleep. They can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle, and underlying medical conditions. Sleep disorders can have a significant impact on a person's physical and mental health, as well as their daily functioning and quality of life. Some common sleep disorders include: 1. Insomnia: Difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or waking up too early. 2. Sleep apnea: A condition in which a person's breathing is repeatedly interrupted during sleep. 3. Restless leg syndrome: A condition in which a person experiences an irresistible urge to move their legs, often accompanied by uncomfortable sensations. 4. Narcolepsy: A neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and sudden, brief episodes of sleep. 5. Parasomnias: Sleep disorders that involve abnormal behaviors or experiences during sleep, such as sleepwalking or sleep talking. Diagnosis of sleep disorders typically involves a sleep study, which is a test that measures a person's sleep patterns and brain activity while they sleep. Treatment options for sleep disorders may include lifestyle changes, medication, and therapy.
Respiration disorders refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the normal functioning of the respiratory system. The respiratory system is responsible for breathing, exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body and the environment, and regulating the pH of the blood. Respiration disorders can be classified into two main categories: obstructive and restrictive. Obstructive disorders occur when there is a blockage or narrowing of the airways, making it difficult to breathe. Examples of obstructive disorders include asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and sleep apnea. Restrictive disorders, on the other hand, occur when the lungs are unable to expand fully, reducing the amount of air that can be inhaled and exhaled. Examples of restrictive disorders include interstitial lung disease, cystic fibrosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Respiration disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, environmental factors, infections, and lifestyle choices such as smoking. Treatment for respiration disorders depends on the specific condition and may include medications, oxygen therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation, and in severe cases, surgery.
Somatoform Disorders are a group of mental health conditions characterized by physical symptoms that cannot be fully explained by a medical condition. People with somatoform disorders often experience persistent and distressing physical symptoms, such as chronic pain, fatigue, and gastrointestinal problems, that are not relieved by medical treatment. The symptoms of somatoform disorders are often vague and difficult to diagnose, and they may mimic the symptoms of a physical illness. Some common somatoform disorders include fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and conversion disorder. Somatoform disorders are often comorbid with other mental health conditions, such as anxiety disorders, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Treatment for somatoform disorders typically involves a combination of psychotherapy and medication, with a focus on addressing the underlying emotional and psychological factors that contribute to the physical symptoms.
In the medical field, a stroke is a medical emergency that occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted or reduced, causing brain cells to die. This can happen in two ways: 1. Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of stroke, accounting for about 85% of all strokes. It occurs when a blood clot blocks a blood vessel in the brain, cutting off blood flow to the affected area. 2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing bleeding into the brain. Hemorrhagic strokes are less common than ischemic strokes, accounting for about 15% of all strokes. Strokes can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the location and severity of the brain damage. Common symptoms include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; dizziness or loss of balance; and severe headache. Prompt medical treatment is crucial for stroke patients, as the sooner treatment is given, the better the chances of recovery. Treatment options may include medications to dissolve blood clots or prevent further clot formation, surgery to remove a blood clot or repair a ruptured blood vessel, and rehabilitation to help patients recover from the effects of the stroke.
Heart diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels. These conditions can range from minor to severe and can affect the heart's ability to pump blood effectively, leading to a variety of symptoms and complications. Some common types of heart diseases include: 1. Coronary artery disease: This is the most common type of heart disease, which occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque. 2. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. 3. Arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms that can cause the heart to beat too fast, too slow, or irregularly. 4. Valvular heart disease: This occurs when the heart valves become damaged or diseased, leading to problems with blood flow. 5. Congenital heart disease: This refers to heart defects that are present at birth. 6. Inflammatory heart disease: This includes conditions such as pericarditis and myocarditis, which cause inflammation of the heart. 7. Heart infections: These include conditions such as endocarditis and myocarditis, which can cause damage to the heart muscle and valves. Treatment for heart diseases depends on the specific condition and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery. Early detection and treatment are important for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.
Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the breast tissue. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign breast neoplasms are usually not life-threatening, but they can cause discomfort or cosmetic concerns. Malignant breast neoplasms, on the other hand, can spread to other parts of the body and are considered a serious health threat. Some common types of breast neoplasms include fibroadenomas, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive ductal carcinoma, and invasive lobular carcinoma.
Rhinitis, allergic, seasonal, is a type of inflammation of the nasal passages that occurs in response to exposure to allergens, such as pollen, mold spores, or dust mites, that are typically present in the environment during certain times of the year. It is also known as seasonal allergic rhinitis or hay fever. Symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis can include sneezing, runny nose, itchy or watery eyes, congestion, and postnasal drip. These symptoms are usually worse in the morning or after exposure to allergens and can be relieved with over-the-counter antihistamines or nasal decongestants. Seasonal allergic rhinitis is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is typically treated with avoidance of allergens, the use of medications to relieve symptoms, and immunotherapy (allergy shots) to reduce sensitivity to allergens over time.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a long-term lung disease characterized by a persistent and progressive airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. It is caused by long-term exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, and chemical fumes. COPD includes two main conditions: chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Chronic bronchitis is characterized by inflammation and thickening of the lining of the bronchial tubes, which leads to increased mucus production and difficulty breathing. Emphysema, on the other hand, involves damage to the air sacs in the lungs, which makes it difficult to exhale and leads to shortness of breath. Symptoms of COPD include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. The severity of symptoms can vary from person to person and can worsen over time. COPD is a progressive disease, and there is currently no cure. However, treatment can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
In the medical field, "Natural Gas" typically refers to a mixture of hydrocarbon gases that occur naturally in the earth's crust, primarily composed of methane, but also containing smaller amounts of other gases such as ethane, propane, butane, and pentane. Natural gas is often used as a source of fuel for heating, cooking, and electricity generation. In the medical field, natural gas is not typically used for medical purposes, but it may be used as a source of energy for medical facilities or as a fuel for medical equipment such as anesthesia machines. It is important to note that natural gas can be flammable and can pose a risk of explosion or fire if not handled properly. Medical facilities that use natural gas should have proper safety protocols in place to prevent accidents.
Urination disorders, also known as urological disorders, refer to a range of conditions that affect the urinary system, including the kidneys, bladder, ureters, and urethra. These disorders can cause a variety of symptoms, such as difficulty starting or stopping urination, frequent or urgent need to urinate, pain or burning during urination, blood in the urine, and incontinence. Some common types of urination disorders include: 1. Overactive bladder (OAB): A condition characterized by an urgent need to urinate, often accompanied by a strong urge to go and difficulty delaying urination. 2. Urinary incontinence: A condition in which a person is unable to control the flow of urine, resulting in leakage. 3. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): Infections that affect the urinary tract, including the bladder, kidneys, ureters, and urethra. 4. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): A condition in which the prostate gland becomes enlarged, causing difficulty urinating. 5. Kidney stones: Hard mineral deposits that form in the kidneys and can cause pain and other symptoms. 6. Kidney failure: A condition in which the kidneys are unable to filter waste products from the blood, leading to a buildup of toxins in the body. 7. Urinary retention: A condition in which the bladder is unable to empty completely, leading to a feeling of fullness and discomfort. Treatment for urination disorders depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.
Neck pain is a common condition that affects the muscles, bones, ligaments, and nerves in the neck. It can range from a mild discomfort to severe pain that limits mobility and daily activities. Neck pain can be acute, meaning it lasts for a short period of time, or chronic, meaning it persists for more than 12 weeks. Neck pain can be caused by a variety of factors, including poor posture, muscle strain, whiplash, herniated discs, osteoarthritis, and cervical radiculopathy (pinched nerve in the neck). Other potential causes of neck pain include infections, tumors, and injuries. Symptoms of neck pain may include stiffness, tenderness, and soreness in the neck, headaches, dizziness, numbness or tingling in the arms or hands, and difficulty moving the neck. Treatment for neck pain may include pain medication, physical therapy, chiropractic care, and in some cases, surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if neck pain is severe or persistent, as it can be a sign of a more serious underlying condition.
Urologic diseases refer to conditions that affect the urinary system, which includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. These diseases can affect any part of the urinary system and can range from minor to life-threatening. Some common urologic diseases include: 1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These are infections that occur in the urinary tract, including the kidneys, bladder, and urethra. 2. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): This is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland that can cause urinary problems in men. 3. Kidney stones: These are hard, mineral deposits that form in the kidneys and can cause pain and other symptoms. 4. Kidney disease: This refers to a range of conditions that affect the kidneys, including kidney failure, chronic kidney disease, and glomerulonephritis. 5. Bladder cancer: This is a type of cancer that starts in the bladder and can spread to other parts of the body. 6. Prostate cancer: This is a type of cancer that starts in the prostate gland and is more common in men. 7. Incontinence: This refers to the inability to control the bladder or bowel. Urologic diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Treatment options for urologic diseases depend on the specific condition and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions.
Tooth diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the teeth and gums. These diseases can range from mild to severe and can cause pain, discomfort, and other symptoms. Some common tooth diseases include: 1. Dental caries (cavities): This is a bacterial infection that causes tooth decay and can lead to the formation of cavities. 2. Gum disease (periodontal disease): This is an infection of the gums that can cause inflammation, bleeding, and eventually tooth loss. 3. Tooth sensitivity: This is a condition where the teeth become sensitive to hot, cold, sweet, or sour foods and drinks. 4. Tooth erosion: This is the gradual wearing away of tooth enamel due to acid erosion from foods and drinks or acid reflux. 5. Tooth abscess: This is an infection that forms in the pulp of a tooth and can cause severe pain and swelling. 6. Tooth fracture: This is a break or crack in the tooth that can occur due to trauma or decay. 7. Tooth decay: This is the breakdown of tooth enamel and dentin caused by bacteria in the mouth. 8. Tooth discoloration: This is a change in the color of the tooth due to stains, aging, or other factors. 9. Tooth wear: This is the gradual wearing down of tooth enamel and dentin due to normal wear and tear or habits such as grinding or clenching. 10. Tooth loss: This is the complete or partial loss of one or more teeth due to decay, gum disease, injury, or other factors.
Diarrhea is a medical condition characterized by the passage of loose, watery stools more than three times a day. It can be acute, meaning it lasts for a short period of time, or chronic, meaning it persists for more than four weeks. Diarrhea can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, food poisoning, medications, underlying medical conditions, and stress. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and irritable bowel syndrome. Diarrhea can cause dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and malnutrition if it persists for an extended period of time. Treatment for diarrhea depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, dietary changes, and fluid replacement therapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Growth disorders refer to conditions that affect the growth and development of an individual. These disorders can affect the rate of growth, the pattern of growth, or the final height of an individual. Growth disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic, hormonal, nutritional, or environmental factors. Some common examples of growth disorders include: 1. Dwarfism: A condition characterized by short stature due to genetic or hormonal factors. 2. Turner Syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects females and is characterized by short stature, infertility, and other physical and developmental abnormalities. 3. Marfan Syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects connective tissue and can cause tall stature, skeletal abnormalities, and cardiovascular problems. 4. Growth Hormone Deficiency: A condition in which the body does not produce enough growth hormone, which can lead to short stature and other physical and developmental abnormalities. 5. Prader-Willi Syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the brain and body and is characterized by short stature, obesity, and other physical and behavioral abnormalities. Treatment for growth disorders depends on the underlying cause and may include hormone therapy, surgery, or other medical interventions. In some cases, growth hormone therapy can be used to stimulate growth in individuals with growth hormone deficiency.
Diabetes complications refer to the various health problems that can arise as a result of having diabetes. These complications can affect various organs and systems in the body, including the eyes, kidneys, heart, blood vessels, nerves, and feet. Some common diabetes complications include: 1. Diabetic retinopathy: Damage to the blood vessels in the retina, which can lead to vision loss or blindness. 2. Diabetic nephropathy: Damage to the kidneys, which can lead to kidney failure. 3. Cardiovascular disease: Increased risk of heart attack, stroke, and other heart problems. 4. Peripheral artery disease: Narrowing or blockage of blood vessels in the legs and feet, which can lead to pain, numbness, and even amputation. 5. Neuropathy: Damage to the nerves, which can cause pain, numbness, and weakness in the hands and feet. 6. Foot ulcers: Sores or wounds on the feet that can become infected and lead to serious complications. 7. Gum disease: Increased risk of gum disease, which can lead to tooth loss. 8. Sexual dysfunction: Impaired sexual function in men and women. It is important for people with diabetes to manage their blood sugar levels and receive regular medical check-ups to prevent or delay the onset of these complications.
In the medical field, a cough is a reflex action that involves the contraction of muscles in the chest and throat to expel air from the lungs. It is a common symptom of many respiratory conditions, including colds, flu, bronchitis, pneumonia, and asthma. A cough can be dry, meaning that no phlegm or mucus is produced, or wet, meaning that mucus is produced. A persistent cough that lasts for more than three weeks or is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, chest pain, or difficulty breathing may be a sign of a more serious condition and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional. Treatment for a cough depends on the underlying cause. For example, a cough caused by a cold or flu may be treated with over-the-counter cough suppressants or expectorants, while a cough caused by a more serious condition may require prescription medication or other medical interventions.
Alcohol-related disorders refer to a group of medical conditions that are caused or exacerbated by excessive or prolonged alcohol consumption. These disorders can affect various parts of the body and can range from mild to severe. Some common alcohol-related disorders include: 1. Alcohol use disorder (AUD): A chronic and often relapsing brain disorder characterized by a strong desire or craving to drink alcohol despite negative consequences. 2. Alcohol dependence: A severe form of AUD that involves a physical and psychological dependence on alcohol. 3. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD): A group of birth defects that occur when a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, which can cause physical, behavioral, and cognitive problems in the child. 4. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome: A group of symptoms that occur when a person who has been drinking heavily suddenly stops drinking. 5. Cirrhosis of the liver: A serious liver disease that can be caused by long-term heavy drinking. 6. Pancreatitis: A condition in which the pancreas becomes inflamed and can be caused by excessive alcohol consumption. 7. Heart disease: A group of conditions that affect the heart, including high blood pressure, heart attack, and stroke, which can be caused by excessive alcohol consumption. 8. Cancer: Excessive alcohol consumption can increase the risk of certain types of cancer, including liver, breast, and colon cancer. Treatment for alcohol-related disorders typically involves a combination of behavioral therapy, medication, and support groups. It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone you know is struggling with alcohol-related disorders.
Low back pain (LBP) is a common condition that affects the lower part of the back, including the lumbar spine, sacrum, and coccyx. It can range from a dull ache to a sharp stabbing pain, and can be either acute or chronic. Acute low back pain is typically short-lived and lasts for a few days to a few weeks. It is often caused by a specific event, such as lifting a heavy object or twisting the back. Chronic low back pain, on the other hand, lasts for more than 12 weeks and can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, poor posture, and underlying medical conditions. Low back pain can be classified based on its location, severity, and duration. It can also be associated with other symptoms, such as numbness, tingling, or weakness in the legs, which can indicate a more serious underlying condition. Treatment for low back pain depends on the underlying cause and severity of the pain. It may include medication, physical therapy, exercise, and lifestyle changes. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat more severe cases of low back pain.
Urinary incontinence is a medical condition characterized by the involuntary loss of urine. It can occur at any age and can be caused by a variety of factors, including weakened pelvic muscles, nerve damage, hormonal changes, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes or multiple sclerosis. There are several types of urinary incontinence, including stress incontinence, urge incontinence, mixed incontinence, and overflow incontinence. Stress incontinence occurs when the bladder leaks urine when the abdominal muscles are squeezed, such as during coughing, laughing, or exercising. Urge incontinence occurs when a person experiences an urgent need to urinate and is unable to reach a bathroom in time. Mixed incontinence is a combination of stress and urge incontinence, while overflow incontinence occurs when the bladder is unable to empty completely, leading to dribbling or leakage. Treatment for urinary incontinence may include lifestyle changes, physical therapy, medication, and surgery, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.
Influenza, Human, also known as the flu, is a highly contagious respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus. It can cause mild to severe illness, and in some cases, can lead to death. The virus is transmitted through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or by touching a surface contaminated with the virus and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes. Symptoms of the flu can include fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills, and fatigue. In severe cases, the flu can lead to pneumonia, which can be life-threatening. The flu is preventable through vaccination, and antiviral medications can be used to treat the illness.
Nocturia is a medical condition characterized by the need to wake up at night to urinate. It is defined as the need to void two or more times during the night, typically defined as between the hours of 10 pm and 6 am. Nocturia can be a symptom of a variety of underlying medical conditions, including urinary tract infections, prostate enlargement, diabetes, and certain medications. It can also be caused by lifestyle factors such as excessive fluid intake, caffeine consumption, and sleep disorders. Nocturia can significantly impact a person's quality of life, leading to disrupted sleep patterns, fatigue, and decreased daytime functioning. Treatment for nocturia depends on the underlying cause and may include lifestyle changes, medications, or medical procedures.
Hypersensitivity, immediate, also known as an allergic reaction, is a type of immune response that occurs when the body reacts to a substance that is normally harmless, such as pollen, certain foods, or medications. In an immediate hypersensitivity reaction, the immune system recognizes the substance as a threat and releases antibodies called immunoglobulin E (IgE) to attack it. This triggers the release of histamine and other chemicals that cause inflammation and other symptoms, such as itching, redness, swelling, and difficulty breathing. Immediate hypersensitivity reactions can be severe and life-threatening, especially if they involve the respiratory system or the cardiovascular system. Treatment typically involves removing the allergen from the environment, administering antihistamines or other medications to reduce symptoms, and in severe cases, using epinephrine to counteract the effects of the allergic reaction.
Coronary disease, also known as coronary artery disease (CAD), is a condition in which the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque. This can lead to reduced blood flow to the heart, which can cause chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, and other symptoms. In severe cases, coronary disease can lead to a heart attack, which occurs when the blood flow to a part of the heart is completely blocked, causing damage to the heart muscle. Coronary disease is a common condition that affects many people, particularly those who are middle-aged or older, and is often associated with other risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes. Treatment for coronary disease may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery.
Eczema is a chronic inflammatory skin condition characterized by red, itchy, and inflamed skin. It can range from mild to severe and can affect people of all ages, including infants and children. There are several types of eczema, including atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, dyshidrotic eczema, and seborrheic dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis is the most common type of eczema and is often associated with a family history of allergies or asthma. Symptoms of eczema can include redness, swelling, itching, and dryness of the skin. In severe cases, the skin may become thickened, cracked, and weepy. Eczema can be triggered by a variety of factors, including environmental factors such as dry air, allergens, and irritants, as well as emotional stress and certain foods. Treatment for eczema typically involves managing symptoms and preventing flare-ups. This may include the use of moisturizers, corticosteroid creams or ointments, antihistamines, and in some cases, immunosuppressive medications. It is important for individuals with eczema to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan.
Rhinitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation and swelling of the lining of the nose. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including allergies, infections, irritants, and certain medications. Symptoms of rhinitis may include a runny or stuffy nose, sneezing, congestion, postnasal drip, and facial pain or pressure. There are several types of rhinitis, including allergic rhinitis, vasomotor rhinitis, and infectious rhinitis. Treatment for rhinitis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, immunotherapy.
Osteoarthritis, also known as degenerative joint disease, is a common condition that affects the knee joint. It is a type of arthritis that occurs when the cartilage that cushions the ends of bones in the joint breaks down, leading to inflammation, pain, and stiffness. Over time, the bones may rub against each other, causing damage to the joint and reducing its ability to move freely. Osteoarthritis of the knee is a common cause of knee pain and disability, particularly in older adults. It can affect one or both knees and can be caused by a variety of factors, including age, injury, and genetics. Treatment options for osteoarthritis of the knee may include medications, physical therapy, and in severe cases, surgery.
In the medical field, disease is defined as a disorder of the body or mind that impairs normal functioning and is associated with signs and symptoms. Diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic, environmental, and infectious agents. Diseases can be classified into various categories based on their characteristics, such as acute or chronic, infectious or non-infectious, and systemic or localized. Acute diseases are those that develop rapidly and have a short duration, while chronic diseases are those that persist for a long time or recur over time. Infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, and can be transmitted from person to person or from animals to humans. Non-infectious diseases, on the other hand, are not caused by microorganisms and can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Diseases can also be classified based on their severity, such as mild, moderate, or severe. Mild diseases may cause minimal symptoms and have a good prognosis, while severe diseases can cause significant symptoms and have a poor prognosis. Overall, the definition of disease in the medical field encompasses a wide range of conditions that can affect the body and mind, and can be caused by various factors.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the joints. It is characterized by inflammation and damage to the lining of the joint capsule, which leads to pain, stiffness, and reduced range of motion. RA can also affect other organs, such as the lungs, heart, and eyes. RA is a systemic disease, meaning that it affects the entire body, not just the joints. It is an inflammatory disease, meaning that it is caused by the immune system attacking healthy cells and tissues in the body. RA is a progressive disease, meaning that it can worsen over time if left untreated. However, with proper treatment, it is possible to manage the symptoms and slow down the progression of the disease. The exact cause of RA is not fully understood, but it is believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Risk factors for RA include being female, having a family history of the disease, and smoking.
Mouth diseases refer to a wide range of medical conditions that affect the oral cavity, including the teeth, gums, tongue, and other structures in the mouth. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, genetics, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Some common mouth diseases include: 1. Dental caries (cavities): A bacterial infection that causes tooth decay and leads to the formation of cavities. 2. Periodontal disease: A group of infections that affect the gums, supporting structures of the teeth, and bone. 3. Oral cancer: A type of cancer that starts in the mouth, including the lips, tongue, gums, and throat. 4. Oral thrush: A fungal infection that affects the mouth and throat. 5. Leukoplakia: A white or gray patch on the inside of the mouth that can be a sign of cancer or other mouth diseases. 6. Oral lichen planus: A chronic inflammatory condition that affects the mouth and can cause painful sores. 7. Oral pemphigus: A rare autoimmune disorder that causes blistering in the mouth and other parts of the body. 8. Oral candidiasis (thrush): A fungal infection that affects the mouth and throat, often seen in people with weakened immune systems. Treatment for mouth diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. It may include medications, surgery, lifestyle changes, and other interventions. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices can help prevent many mouth diseases.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a medical condition characterized by persistent and unexplained fatigue that is not relieved by rest and is accompanied by a range of other symptoms that can include muscle pain, joint pain, headaches, memory problems, and difficulty concentrating. The exact cause of CFS is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to an abnormal immune response or an issue with the body's energy metabolism. CFS can be a debilitating condition that affects a person's ability to work, attend school, and perform daily activities. Treatment for CFS typically involves a combination of medications, lifestyle changes, and therapy to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.
Agricultural Workers' Diseases refers to a group of health conditions that are commonly associated with work in agriculture. These conditions can be caused by exposure to various hazards in the agricultural environment, such as pesticides, fertilizers, dust, and other chemicals. Some of the most common Agricultural Workers' Diseases include: 1. Pesticide Poisoning: Exposure to pesticides can cause a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, headaches, dizziness, and in severe cases, respiratory failure. 2. Respiratory Diseases: Agricultural workers are at risk of developing respiratory diseases due to exposure to dust, fumes, and other irritants. These diseases can include asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and silicosis. 3. Skin Diseases: Agricultural workers are also at risk of developing skin diseases due to exposure to pesticides, fertilizers, and other chemicals. These diseases can include dermatitis, eczema, and skin cancer. 4. Heat Stress: Agricultural workers are often exposed to high temperatures and humidity, which can lead to heat stress and heat exhaustion. 5. Musculoskeletal Disorders: Agricultural workers are at risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders due to the physical demands of their work, such as lifting heavy objects and repetitive motions. 6. Infectious Diseases: Agricultural workers are at risk of developing infectious diseases due to exposure to animals and contaminated water sources. These diseases can include tetanus, hepatitis B, and leptospirosis. Overall, Agricultural Workers' Diseases are a significant public health concern, and efforts are being made to reduce exposure to these hazards and improve the health and safety of agricultural workers.
Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease that occurs when the cartilage that cushions the ends of bones in a joint breaks down, leading to inflammation and pain. Over time, the bones may rub against each other, causing damage to the joint and reducing its range of motion. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis and can affect any joint in the body, but it most commonly affects the knees, hips, spine, and hands. Risk factors for osteoarthritis include age, obesity, injury, and certain medical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment options for osteoarthritis may include medication, physical therapy, lifestyle changes, and in severe cases, joint replacement surgery.
Wasting syndrome, also known as cachexia, is a complex metabolic disorder characterized by muscle wasting, weight loss, and fatigue. It is often associated with chronic diseases such as cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart failure, and HIV/AIDS. In wasting syndrome, the body's metabolism is disrupted, leading to a breakdown of muscle tissue and fat stores. This can result in a loss of muscle mass, which can impair physical function and make it difficult to perform daily activities. Weight loss is also a common symptom of wasting syndrome, and it can occur even when a person is eating enough calories. Wasting syndrome can also cause fatigue, weakness, and anemia, which can further impair a person's ability to function. It can also lead to other complications, such as infections and malnutrition. Treatment for wasting syndrome typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the disorder, as well as providing nutritional support and physical therapy to help maintain muscle mass and function. In some cases, medications may also be used to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.
Zoonoses are infectious diseases that are transmitted from animals to humans. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi, and can be transmitted through direct contact with animals, their bodily fluids, or their feces, or through the bites of infected insects or ticks. Examples of zoonoses include rabies, Lyme disease, brucellosis, and salmonellosis. Zoonoses can be a significant public health concern, as they can spread rapidly and cause serious illness or even death in humans. They can also have a significant economic impact, as they can affect livestock and wildlife populations, and can lead to the closure of farms or the destruction of animals to prevent the spread of disease.
Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the level of glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood. Glucose is the primary source of energy for the body's cells, and it is produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream in response to the body's needs. In the medical field, blood glucose levels are often measured as part of a routine check-up or to monitor the health of people with diabetes or other conditions that affect blood sugar levels. Normal blood glucose levels for adults are typically between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) before a meal and between 80 and 120 mg/dL two hours after a meal. Elevated blood glucose levels, also known as hyperglycemia, can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes, stress, certain medications, and high-carbohydrate meals. Low blood glucose levels, also known as hypoglycemia, can be caused by diabetes treatment that is too aggressive, skipping meals, or certain medications. Monitoring blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes, as it helps them manage their condition and prevent complications such as nerve damage, kidney damage, and cardiovascular disease.
In the medical field, a catastrophic illness is a severe and often life-threatening condition that requires extensive medical treatment and can result in significant long-term disability or death. Catastrophic illnesses can be acute or chronic and may affect any part of the body. Examples of catastrophic illnesses include cancer, heart disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Lou Gehrig's disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), and severe traumatic brain injury. These illnesses can be expensive to treat, and the financial burden can be overwhelming for individuals and families. In some countries, catastrophic illnesses are covered by government health insurance programs or private insurance policies that provide comprehensive coverage for medical expenses related to these conditions.
Sexual dysfunction, physiological refers to a range of sexual problems that are caused by physical factors, such as hormonal imbalances, nerve damage, or medical conditions. These problems can affect any aspect of sexual function, including desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain. Physiological sexual dysfunction can be caused by a variety of factors, including chronic illness, medications, surgeries, and age-related changes. Treatment for physiological sexual dysfunction typically involves addressing the underlying physical cause of the problem, such as through medication, therapy, or lifestyle changes.
Chronic pain is a type of pain that persists for more than 12 weeks and is not relieved by standard medical treatments. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, illness, or underlying medical conditions. Chronic pain can be severe and can significantly impact a person's quality of life, leading to physical and emotional distress, as well as social isolation and disability. Treatment for chronic pain typically involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and other interventions, and may require the involvement of a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals.
Bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) is a condition in which the bronchial tubes (airways) of the lungs become excessively sensitive to stimuli such as cold air, exercise, or allergens. This sensitivity causes the airways to narrow, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing. BHR is a common feature of asthma and other respiratory conditions, and it can also occur in people without a diagnosed respiratory condition. BHR can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including spirometry and bronchial provocation testing. Treatment for BHR typically involves avoiding triggers that cause symptoms, taking medications to open the airways, and using breathing techniques to manage symptoms.
Periodontal diseases are a group of inflammatory conditions that affect the gums and supporting structures of the teeth, including the bone that surrounds the roots of the teeth. These diseases are caused by the buildup of plaque, a sticky film of bacteria that forms on the teeth and gums. If plaque is not removed through regular brushing and flossing, it can harden into tartar, which can irritate the gums and cause inflammation. There are several types of periodontal diseases, including gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis is the mildest form of periodontal disease and is characterized by red, swollen, and tender gums that may bleed easily. If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, which is a more severe form of the disease that can cause the gums to pull away from the teeth, forming pockets that can become infected and filled with bacteria. Over time, periodontitis can lead to the loss of teeth and bone. Periodontal diseases are common and affect millions of people worldwide. Risk factors for periodontal disease include poor oral hygiene, smoking, diabetes, and certain medical conditions such as heart disease and stroke. Treatment for periodontal disease typically involves scaling and root planing, a procedure in which the dentist or periodontist removes plaque and tartar from the teeth and smooths the root surfaces to prevent further buildup. In some cases, more advanced treatments such as gum surgery or antibiotics may be necessary.
Osteoarthritis, Hip is a degenerative joint disease that affects the hip joint. It is the most common form of arthritis in adults and is caused by the breakdown of the cartilage that cushions the bones in the joint. As the cartilage wears away, the bones in the joint rub against each other, causing pain, stiffness, and reduced mobility. Osteoarthritis of the hip can affect one or both hips and can progress slowly over time. It is often associated with aging, but can also occur in younger people as a result of injury or other factors. Treatment options for osteoarthritis of the hip may include pain management, physical therapy, and in severe cases, surgery.
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV is a virus that attacks the immune system, specifically the CD4 cells, which are responsible for fighting off infections and diseases. As the number of CD4 cells decreases, the body becomes more vulnerable to infections and diseases that it would normally be able to fight off. AIDS is typically diagnosed when a person's CD4 cell count falls below a certain level or when they develop certain opportunistic infections or cancers that are commonly associated with HIV. There is currently no cure for AIDS, but antiretroviral therapy (ART) can help to suppress the virus and prevent the progression of the disease. With proper treatment, people with AIDS can live long and healthy lives.
Hypercholesterolemia is a medical condition characterized by abnormally high levels of cholesterol in the blood. Cholesterol is a waxy substance that is produced by the liver and is essential for the normal functioning of the body. However, when levels of cholesterol become too high, it can lead to the formation of plaque in the arteries, which can increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular problems. Hypercholesterolemia can be classified into two types: primary and secondary. Primary hypercholesterolemia is caused by genetic factors and is inherited from one or both parents. Secondary hypercholesterolemia is caused by other medical conditions or lifestyle factors, such as obesity, diabetes, kidney disease, and certain medications. The diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia is typically made through blood tests that measure the levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides in the blood. Treatment for hypercholesterolemia typically involves lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, as well as medications to lower cholesterol levels. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove plaque from the arteries.
In the medical field, birth weight refers to the weight of a newborn baby at the time of delivery. It is typically measured in grams or ounces and is an important indicator of a baby's health and development. Birth weight is influenced by a variety of factors, including the mother's health, nutrition, and lifestyle, as well as the baby's genetics and gestational age. Babies who are born with a low birth weight (less than 2,500 grams or 5.5 pounds) are considered premature or small for gestational age, which can increase their risk of health problems such as respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, and infections. On the other hand, babies who are born with a high birth weight (greater than 4,000 grams or 8.8 pounds) may be at risk for complications such as shoulder dystocia, which can lead to nerve damage or other injuries during delivery. Overall, birth weight is an important measure of a baby's health and development, and healthcare providers closely monitor it during pregnancy and delivery to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and baby.
Anemia is a medical condition characterized by a decrease in the number of red blood cells (RBCs) or a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs. Anemia can be caused by a variety of factors, including iron deficiency, vitamin B12 or folate deficiency, chronic disease, genetic disorders, and certain medications. Symptoms of anemia may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, dizziness, pale skin, and an increased heart rate. Anemia can be diagnosed through a blood test that measures the number of red blood cells and the amount of hemoglobin in the blood. Treatment for anemia depends on the underlying cause and may include dietary changes, supplements, medications, or blood transfusions.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body, such as the brain, spine, and kidneys. TB is spread through the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks, and can be transmitted to others who are nearby. TB is a serious and sometimes fatal disease, but it is treatable with a combination of antibiotics taken over several months. However, if left untreated, TB can be life-threatening and can spread to others. There are two main types of TB: latent TB and active TB. Latent TB is when the bacteria are present in the body but do not cause symptoms or harm. Active TB, on the other hand, is when the bacteria are multiplying and causing symptoms such as coughing, fever, and weight loss. TB is a major global health problem, with an estimated 10 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths each year. It is most common in low- and middle-income countries, where access to healthcare and treatment may be limited.
Dyspnea is a medical term that refers to difficulty breathing or shortness of breath. It can be a symptom of a variety of medical conditions, including respiratory disorders, heart disease, lung disease, and anxiety disorders. Dyspnea can range from mild and occasional to severe and persistent, and it can be a sign of a serious underlying condition that requires medical attention. In some cases, dyspnea may be a symptom of a life-threatening emergency, such as a heart attack or a severe asthma attack.
Metabolic Syndrome X, also known as Syndrome X or Insulin Resistance Syndrome, is a cluster of conditions that increase the risk of developing heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. The five key components of Metabolic Syndrome X are: 1. Abdominal obesity: A waist circumference of 102 cm (40 inches) or more in men and 88 cm (35 inches) or more in women. 2. High blood pressure: A systolic blood pressure of 130 mmHg or higher, or a diastolic blood pressure of 85 mmHg or higher. 3. High fasting blood sugar: A fasting blood sugar level of 100 mg/dL or higher. 4. High triglyceride levels: A triglyceride level of 150 mg/dL or higher. 5. Low HDL cholesterol levels: An HDL cholesterol level of less than 40 mg/dL in men and less than 50 mg/dL in women. These conditions are often found together and can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle, and certain medical conditions. Treatment for Metabolic Syndrome X typically involves lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and may also include medication to manage blood pressure, blood sugar, and cholesterol levels.
Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that is produced by the liver and is also found in some foods. It is an essential component of cell membranes and is necessary for the production of hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D. However, high levels of cholesterol in the blood can increase the risk of developing heart disease and stroke. There are two main types of cholesterol: low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "bad" cholesterol because it can build up in the walls of arteries and lead to plaque formation, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, which is often referred to as "good" cholesterol because it helps remove excess cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for processing.
Sleep initiation and maintenance disorders are a group of sleep disorders that affect a person's ability to fall asleep, stay asleep, or both. These disorders can cause a range of symptoms, including difficulty falling asleep, frequent awakenings during the night, and early morning awakenings. Some common sleep initiation and maintenance disorders include insomnia, sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome, and narcolepsy. These disorders can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life and can lead to a range of physical and mental health problems if left untreated. Treatment for sleep initiation and maintenance disorders typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, medication, and therapy.
In the medical field, poisoning refers to the harmful effects that occur when a person is exposed to a toxic substance, either intentionally or unintentionally. Poisoning can occur through ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact with a toxic substance. The effects of poisoning can vary widely depending on the type and amount of the toxic substance, as well as the individual's age, health status, and other factors. Symptoms of poisoning can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, confusion, seizures, and even coma or death in severe cases. Treatment for poisoning depends on the type and severity of the exposure. In some cases, supportive care such as fluid replacement, oxygen therapy, or medication to manage symptoms may be necessary. In more severe cases, hospitalization and specialized treatment may be required. Prevention of poisoning is the best approach, and this can involve measures such as proper storage and labeling of toxic substances, avoiding exposure to hazardous materials, and educating individuals about the risks associated with certain substances.
In the medical field, weight loss refers to a decrease in body weight as a result of various factors, including diet, exercise, medication, or surgery. Weight loss is often used as a treatment for obesity, which is a medical condition characterized by excessive body fat that can lead to health problems such as heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. Weight loss can also be used as a treatment for other medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and sleep apnea. In some cases, weight loss may be recommended as a preventive measure to reduce the risk of developing these conditions. It is important to note that weight loss should be achieved through a healthy and sustainable approach, such as a balanced diet and regular exercise, rather than through crash diets or extreme measures that can be harmful to the body. Medical professionals can provide guidance and support to help individuals achieve safe and effective weight loss.
In the medical field, "lead" can refer to several different things, including: 1. Lead poisoning: A condition caused by exposure to high levels of lead, which can damage the brain, kidneys, and other organs. Lead poisoning can occur through ingestion of lead-contaminated food or water, inhalation of lead dust or fumes, or absorption through the skin. 2. Lead shield: A protective covering made of lead or lead alloy used to shield patients and medical personnel from ionizing radiation during medical imaging procedures such as X-rays or CT scans. 3. Lead apron: A protective garment worn by medical personnel during procedures involving ionizing radiation to shield the body from exposure to harmful levels of radiation. 4. Lead acetate: A medication used to treat lead poisoning by binding to lead ions in the body and preventing them from being absorbed into the bloodstream. 5. Lead poisoning test: A medical test used to diagnose lead poisoning by measuring the level of lead in the blood or urine.
Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases refer to conditions that affect the digestive system, which includes the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus. These diseases can range from minor to severe and can affect any part of the digestive system. Some common examples of gastrointestinal diseases include: 1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): A condition in which stomach acid flows back up into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms. 2. Peptic ulcers: Sores that develop in the lining of the stomach or duodenum, often caused by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori. 3. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): A group of chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the digestive tract, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. 4. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): A condition characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits that are not related to a structural problem in the digestive system. 5. Celiac disease: An autoimmune disorder in which the body reacts to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. 6. Diverticulitis: An inflammation of small pouches in the wall of the colon. 7. Colorectal cancer: A type of cancer that starts in the colon or rectum. 8. Gastrointestinal infections: Infections caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites that affect the digestive system. These are just a few examples of the many gastrointestinal diseases that can affect people. Treatment for these conditions can vary depending on the specific disease and its severity.
Chronic kidney failure, also known as chronic renal failure, is a condition in which the kidneys are unable to function properly over a long period of time. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes, high blood pressure, and glomerulonephritis. Chronic kidney failure is typically diagnosed when the kidneys are functioning at less than 60% of their normal capacity, and the condition has been present for at least three months. As the kidneys become less functional, they are unable to filter waste products from the blood, leading to a buildup of toxins in the body. This can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, weakness, nausea, and difficulty concentrating. Treatment for chronic kidney failure typically involves managing the underlying cause of the condition, as well as managing symptoms and complications. This may include medications to control blood pressure and blood sugar levels, as well as dietary changes and other lifestyle modifications. In some cases, dialysis or kidney transplantation may be necessary to help the body remove waste products and maintain proper fluid balance.
Demographic and Health Surveys
European Health Examination Survey
Health Survey for England
Iraq Family Health Survey
National Family Health Survey
National Health Interview Survey
World Mental Health survey initiative
Health Information National Trends Survey
National Survey of Health & Development
Health Care in Canada Survey
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
National Survey on Drug Use and Health
National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior
Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe
List of patient-reported quality of life surveys
GP Patient Survey
DDB Needham Life Style Surveys
Australian Marriage Law Postal Survey
British Social Attitudes Survey
Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses
National Comorbidity Survey
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Polish Panel Survey
Response rate (survey)
Baby Tooth Survey
List of household surveys in the United States
Kansas Geological Survey
National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles
Global Reproductive Health Surveys
Anniston Community Health Survey (ACHS) | ATSDR
Scientific Data - Health Care Surveys
Sleep a Neglected Pillar of Health, National Survey Shows
National Health Care Surveys
GHO | Global Information System on Alcohol and Health (GISAH) | National surveys on adults - by country
WHO EMRO | Health surveys | Health topics
Table 2 - Survey on Implementation of One Health Approach for MERS-CoV Preparedness and Control in Gulf Cooperation Council and...
Age-disaggregated analysis of national household survey data on financial hardship due to health care utilization | WHO Centre...
Cherokee Indian health survey
Brain death communication to family members: a survey with health professionals
Details for: Oral health surveys: › WHO HQ Library catalog
Hospitals as health educators: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Effects of early-life poverty on health and human capital in children and adolescents: analyses of national surveys and birth...
Health topics | WHO | Regional Office for Africa
Primary and Secondary Prevention of Coronary Artery Disease: Overview, Risk Assessment and Primary Prevention, Lifestyle...
Nota de apresentação
SciELO RevOdonto - revodonto.bvsalud.org
SLAITS - National Survey of Childrens Health
NHANES - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Homepage
Dis)Incentivizing Patient Satisfaction Metrics: The Unintended Consequences of Institutional Bias - PubMed
US Oral Health Improving, Surveys Show
Browsing EB4 by Subject "Health Surveys"
National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)
A Genomic Survey of Melanoma | National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Browsing by Subject "Health Surveys"
Renewal of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) - KUH - NIDDK
National Biological Survey | Environmental Health Perspectives | Vol. 101, No. 2
NIH Guide: COST SURVEY OF MENTAL HEALTH TREATMENT FOR CHILDREN
Survey Shows Americans Lack Critical Facts about Maintaining Eye Health | National Eye Institute
The China Health and Retirement Survey (CHARLS) | National Institute on Aging
National health care surveys
Grant Abstract: Biodiversity surveys in Indonesia and discovery of health and energy solutions
NIH VideoCast - Survey & Certification for Indian Health Providers - Part 2
Abstract: Future global health jobs and competencies: Views from a survey of global health leaders - Fogarty International...
Dissemination of the tobacco surveys' findings by the VISA NGO, the University of Mauritius and the World Health Organization |...
Standardizing 25-hydroxyvitamin D values from the Canadian Health Measures Survey - PubMed
- Physicians and patients agree on the importance of sleep for health, yet few clinicians obtain a patient sleep history, and few patients discuss their sleep problems with healthcare providers, a new national survey shows. (medscape.com)
- Last, while recognizing the importance of sleep to overall health, very few clinicians routinely take a full sleep history from their patients. (medscape.com)
- Those trends came as 56% of surveyed clinicians reported an increase in negative health burdens due to delayed or inaccessible care. (hfma.org)
- Payment rates for virtual visits have improved, with just 7% of surveyed clinicians reporting that they would like to use video-based care more often but can't because of low payment rates. (hfma.org)
- Guidelines for US hospitals and clinicians on assessment of electronic health record safety using SAFER Guides. (ahrq.gov)
- The users of biocidal disinfectant products often find the labels difficult to read, and are not always aware of the instructions for use, a survey on the use of disinfectant biocides (PT1, PT2, PT4) among 2025 Belgians reveals. (belgium.be)
- To gain insight into the possible explanations for the accidents, 2025 Belgians were surveyed about their use of disinfectants and the reading of the label. (belgium.be)
- Since 1998 the Health Care in Canada (HCIC) survey has served as Canada's Health Care Report Card , a trustable source of national data and peer reviewed health care research findings. (mcgill.ca)
- Click here to access the most recent findings, as well as previous surveys' data. (mcgill.ca)
- We invite you to visit the Survey and Publications pages on the HCIC web site for recent results, past findings or to request HCIC data for your health policy or clinical practice decision making initiatives. (mcgill.ca)
- The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
- The findings of an initial survey in June and July (2020) revealed about half of the 13,000 participants reported clinically significant psychological distress, with about 20% saying they were suffering severe effects. (cardiff.ac.uk)
- While some findings predate COVID-19, recent data reinforces challenges from before the public health emergency that have persisted. (aha.org)
- The survey results echo findings from a U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General report from earlier this year that raised serious concerns about beneficiary access to care and inappropriate coverage and payment denials in the Medicare Advantage program. (aha.org)
- For parents, concerns about the long-term impacts of the pandemic also loom large with nearly half of parents (47%) saying the pandemic had a negative impact on their child's mental health. (kff.org)
- The United States has more than 50,000 contact tracers for the first time since the coronavirus pandemic hit, according to a survey of states conducted by the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security in collaboration with NPR. (npr.org)
- That's four times the number of contact tracers states reported to NPR in its initial survey in late April , but it falls far short of the more than 100,000 that public health experts have been calling for since the pandemic began seven months ago. (npr.org)
- Primary care practices have found that their patients' health is deteriorating during the pandemic. (hfma.org)
- Physicians have seen a deterioration in their patients' health during the pandemic, including with respect to underlying chronic conditions, according to a new survey. (hfma.org)
- The expedited collection and analysis of pre-clinical syndromic data is delivering novel insights into public health conditions during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. (physionet.org)
- The health impact of and governmental response to the COVID 19 pandemic vary widely across countries. (physionet.org)
- Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, most respondents answered the survey via the web in Quarter 4 of 2020, even though all responses in Quarter 1 were from in-person interviews. (samhsa.gov)
- Essential Stories: Black Worker COVID-19 Economic Health Impact Survey finds that the current economic restructuring triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic is compounding the Black jobs crisis in Southern California. (ucla.edu)
- More than half of Black workers surveyed worked in essential or front line sectors pre-pandemic. (ucla.edu)
- As Black workers have navigated overlapping economic and health crises during the pandemic, there has been insufficient systemic support available and accessible to them. (ucla.edu)
- 90% percent of Black women surveyed had an increase in at-home and financial responsibilities during the pandemic, and many of their employers were inflexible in accommodating their needs. (ucla.edu)
- On April 8, 2020, the Public Health Officer issued an Order requiring a one-time disclosure of "Personal Protective Equipment" ("PPE") and ventilator inventories by all businesses, organizations, non-profits, governmental entities, and individuals. (research.net)
- We provide Canada's first publicly available pre-clinical COVID-19 dataset, based on survey responses collected from 294,106 Canadians from March 23rd until July 30th 2020, using a platform developed by Flatten, a Canadian non-profit organization. (physionet.org)
- For the past 20 years, the American Public Health Association has observed National Public Health Week as a time to recognize the contributions of public health and highlight issues that are important to improving our nation's health. (cdc.gov)
- Westat optimizes clients' clinical trials and observational and disease surveillance studies to rapidly generate the intelligence needed to safeguard and improve the nation's health. (westat.com)
Behavioral health services4
- The Round 3 Brandeis Health Plan Survey on Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Services for benefit year 2010 and the Parity Follow-up Survey for benefit year 2012 will provide a current picture of the complex and changing organization of behavioral health services in private health plans. (brandeis.edu)
- The 2012 Parity Follow-up will provide detailed information on how behavioral health services have changed after the initial implementation period and adoption of the final parity regulations. (brandeis.edu)
- Changes in How Health Plans Provide Behavioral Health Services. (brandeis.edu)
- Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research , 36(1):11-24. (brandeis.edu)
- IMSEAR is the collaborative product of Health Literature, Library and Information Services (HELLIS) Network Member Libraries in the WHO South-East Asia Region. (who.int)
- While everybody is now starting to realize how important sleep is, in practice, we don't yet treat sleep as something that is as important as things like diet and exercise and other health behaviors," said Benca. (medscape.com)
- Adult questionnaire includes chronic health conditions and limitations in activity, health behaviors, health care access, health care provider contacts, immunizations, and AIDS knowledge and attitudes. (cdc.gov)
- As part of the Wake Up America survey, 1001 adults with a diagnosis of insomnia or self-reported sleep difficulties and 300 primary care physicians (PCPs) and 152 psychiatrists were asked about their views and attitudes on insomnia care. (medscape.com)
- The KFF/CNN Mental Health in America survey finds that the youngest adults, ages 18-29, are both the group reporting the most concerns with their mental health and also more likely to report they are seeking mental health services, but not always able to access them. (kff.org)
- Three in ten adults under age 30 say they have received mental health services in the past 12 months, but nearly half (47%) say there was a time in the past 12 months when they thought they might need mental health services or medication, but they did not get them. (kff.org)
- Cost was among the most cited reasons for why younger adults, as well as all adults, for why they did not receive the mental health services they need. (kff.org)
- For example, LGBT adults consistently report poorer mental health outcomes on almost all measures throughout the survey. (kff.org)
- While the LGBT group in this survey (and in society, generally) are disproportionately made up of younger adults, even when controlling for age this group reports more negative mental health outcomes than those who do not identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. (kff.org)
- For example, half (51%) of LGBT adults say they thought they needed mental health services in the past year but did not get them and over a third (36%) describe their mental health as either "only fair" or "poor. (kff.org)
- Many adults report experiencing what may be considered a severe mental health crisis among their family members. (kff.org)
- In addition, this group, which has the most direct experience with mental health care in this country, are more likely to believe that mental health issues in both children and adults are at a crisis level in the U.S., and that most people are not able to get the mental health services they need. (kff.org)
- About one month following the launch of the new 988 crisis hotline that will connect people with mental health counselling and resources, most adults (56%) say they have heard "nothing at all" about the new hotline. (kff.org)
- Wales faces a "wave" of mental health problems in the wake of COVID-19, with younger adults, women and people from deprived areas suffering the most, new research has suggested. (cardiff.ac.uk)
- Services need to prepare for this wave of mental health problems with an emphasis on younger adults, women, and in areas of greater deprivation," she said. (cardiff.ac.uk)
- The survey was mailed to 5.56 million randomly sampled adults registered with a National Health Service general practice (representing 99 % of England's adult population). (nih.gov)
- Monday, April 7, marks the beginning of National Public Health Week. (cdc.gov)
- This science informs stakeholder decisions to manage fish and wildlife health and provides environmental exposure information to partners in public health. (usgs.gov)
- How Can We Bridge Gaps in Public Health Knowledge? (westat.com)
- In this age of media saturation and polarization, wrong information can flourish with a detrimental impact on public health. (westat.com)
- Under the law, the information obtained from this survey will remain confidential and will only be used for public health purposes. (research.net)
- Heather Griggs, a registered nurse and operations chief of the Umatilla County Public Health Department contact tracing center in Pendleton, Ore., updates a list of job assignments. (npr.org)
- Only a handful of states currently have enough public health workers to investigate their coronavirus cases, according to an NPR analysis. (npr.org)
- That threshold is "based both on the data that we're seeing and on discussions that we've had with public health officials at the local and state levels. (npr.org)
- When cases rise, they can rise quickly - much faster than a public health team can hire more tracers. (npr.org)
- The Biocides Service of the FPS Public Health and federations Detic and Bioplus-Probois are working together to make biocide labelling more easy to understand and readable. (belgium.be)
- Research from North-America, Africa, and Asia, validates the role of syndromic surveillance data in supplementing public health reports, and in delivering valuable understanding of infectious disease burdens, including assessments of the extent of current COVID-19 testing rates [3, 4, 5]. (physionet.org)
- While these digital health tools are not meant to serve as a substitute for enhanced testing, syndromic reporting via surveys may bolster existing public health systems and provide an opportunity to improve digitally-based infectious disease surveillance. (physionet.org)
- SAMHSA's mission is to lead public health and service delivery efforts that promote mental health, prevent substance misuse, and provide treatments and supports to foster recovery while ensuring equitable access and better outcomes. (samhsa.gov)
- The survey was designed to provide estimates (based on the results of the Woman's Questionnaire) for the whole country, for urban and rural areas in the country, and groups of regions (zones). (go.tz)
- The Sample Child questionnaire includes questions about chronic health conditions, limitation of activities, health status, behavior problems, health care access and utilization, and immunizations. (cdc.gov)
- The results of this study indicated that 80% of the DoD affiliate CF centers are screening patients with CF who are 12 years and older and at least one caregiver at least annually for depression and anxiety with the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module and generalized anxiety disorder screening tool, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
- These include supplemental items that can be added to the CAHPS or SOPS instruments, including experience with Patient-Centered Medical Homes or Health Literacy for CAHPS, and items on health IT, value and efficiency, and workplace safety for SOPS. (westat.com)
World Health Organ2
- In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for any damages arising from the use of the information linked to this section. (who.int)
- Data has been collected by the Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity Programme at the Division of Noncommunicable Diseases and Promoting Health through the Life course, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe together with the Department of Nutrition for Health and Development of the World Health Organization Headquarters. (who.int)
- Control and Prevention (CDC) collects, analyzes, and disseminates data on the Health status of U.S. residents. (cdc.gov)
- The results of surveys, analyses, and studies are made known through a number of data release mechanisms including publications, mainframe computer data files, CD-ROMs and the Internet. (cdc.gov)
- Analyzing and presenting CAHPS and SOPS survey data through reports, chartbooks, presentations, and publications. (westat.com)
- The researchers are currently preparing to reopen the survey to collect more data from participants to examine how the ongoing COVID-19 crisis continues to impact daily life, what particular factors act as stressors and further analysis of how age affected responses and experiences. (cardiff.ac.uk)
- The Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS) is part of the worldwide Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) programme, which is designed to collect data on fertility, family planning, and maternal and child health. (go.tz)
- Multivariate analyses of observational data from the 2009/2010 English General Practice Patient Survey. (nih.gov)
- Assessment of health information technology-related outpatient diagnostic delays in the US Veterans Affairs health care system: a qualitative study of aggregated root cause analysis data. (ahrq.gov)
- Funding for the data collection and analysis was partially provided by the European Commission Directorate General for Health and Food Safety. (who.int)
- 4) How familiar are CF BH teams with the use of the U.S. Military 's Behavioral Health Data Portal (BHDP)? (bvsalud.org)
- Updating existing surveys to ensure that they remain current, relevant, and consistent with changes in the health care delivery system, existing standards of practice, and survey best practices. (westat.com)
- Yet respondents continue to rate the level of 'unusual strain' on their practices due to COVID-19 at around the same levels" that the ongoing series of surveys has found since late August, said a PCC analysis of the survey . (hfma.org)
- The survey responses included 42% from health system-owned practices, and those larger organizations shared the concern about deteriorating patient health. (hfma.org)
- The first survey was done in 1991-92 followed by the Tanzania Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Survey (TKAPS) in 1994. (go.tz)
- The AHA report offers a number of solutions for policymakers to reduce the risk and burden of certain commercial health insurer practices while still enabling insurers to compete on quality, benefit package design, provider networks and other important aspects of coverage. (aha.org)
- Contingency planning for electronic health record-based care continuity: a survey of recommended practices. (ahrq.gov)
- Surveys on Patient Safety Culture™ (SOPS®), which ask health care providers and staff in hospitals, medical offices, nursing homes, community pharmacies, and ambulatory surgery centers about the extent to which their organizational culture supports patient safety. (westat.com)
- Behavioral Health Screening in Military Cystic Fibrosis Centers: A Survey. (bvsalud.org)
- five program directors and three nurse coordinators) from all six affiliate CF centers in the DoD completed a 23-item web-based survey . (bvsalud.org)
- 1994-07-20T00:15:31-04:00 https://ximage.c-spanvideo.org/eyJidWNrZXQiOiJwaWN0dXJlcy5jLXNwYW52aWRlby5vcmciLCJrZXkiOiJGaWxlc1wvZTU4XC8wNTg3NTYtbS5qcGciLCJlZGl0cyI6eyJyZXNpemUiOnsiZml0IjoiY292ZXIiLCJoZWlnaHQiOjUwNn19fQ== Members of Rock the Vote spoke during the release of a youth survey on health care reform. (c-span.org)
- Information is collected from parents or caregivers who know about the child's health. (census.gov)
- While age is one of the strongest factors predicting negative mental health outcomes, there are other demographics that are strongly correlated with poorer self-rated mental health. (kff.org)
- These factors include access to - and quality of - health care, family interactions, parental health, neighborhood characteristics, as well as school and after-school experiences. (census.gov)
- The Current Population Survey (CPS) is a monthly survey that provides current estimates and trends in employment, unemployment, earnings, and other characteristics of the general labor force, the population as a whole, and various population subgroups. (health.gov)
- Adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and health status, sexual minorities were about one and one-half times more likely than heterosexual people to report unfavorable experiences with each of four aspects of primary care. (nih.gov)
- We anticipate you will find the content within informative and of value as together we strive for the best possible Canadian health policy and care. (mcgill.ca)
- This content should include a strong opening sentence describing the health topic in the Eastern Mediterranean (include key words "Eastern Mediterranean" and health topic name for search engine optimization). (who.int)
- This guide describes the content of the New Zealand Health Survey (NZHS) for the period July 2014 to June 2015. (health.govt.nz)
- A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC , for Health Content Provider (www.urac.org). (medlineplus.gov)
- Sexual minorities suffer both poorer health and worse healthcare experiences. (nih.gov)
- Maintaining databases of survey results to help users understand how their results compare to other health care organizations. (westat.com)
- The AHA advocates on behalf of our nearly 5,000 member hospitals, health systems and other health care organizations, our clinician partners - including more than 270,000 affiliated physicians, 2 million nurses and other caregivers - and the 43,000 health care leaders who belong to our professional membership groups. (aha.org)
- Responses have included more screening for social determinants of health and increased virtual visits. (hfma.org)
- The survey responses were validated against the documents submitted by Member States and against other resources, such as previous WHO publications, academic literature, partner agency databases as well as regional monitoring initiatives. (who.int)
- Among those who had a family member who experienced a severe mental health crisis, over four in ten say it had a major impact on their own mental health or their family's relationship, and one in five say it had a major impact on the family's financial situation. (kff.org)
- If the family's investment behavior importantly influences health outcome, then longer long-term improvements in overall health may depend less on improved flows of health information, and more on a gradual spread of a longer-term outlook among larger portions of the population. (ssrn.com)
- The independent source for health policy research, polling, and news. (kff.org)
- Westat's clinical research solutions help clients efficiently bring important treatments and therapeutics to market to tackle chronic health conditions and emerging infectious diseases. (westat.com)
- The health and healthcare of sexual minorities have recently been identified as priorities for health research and policy. (nih.gov)
- A sociotechnical framework for safety-related electronic health record research reporting: the SAFER reporting framework. (ahrq.gov)
- Challenges in patient safety improvement research in the era of electronic health records. (ahrq.gov)
- Researchers at the Heller School's Institute for Behavioral Health, Brandeis University are leading this research initiative. (brandeis.edu)
- Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. is conducting the survey, as they have for the prior two rounds. (brandeis.edu)
- The National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) is sponsored by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau of the Health Resources and Services Administration, an Agency in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (census.gov)
- In addition to most of the same questions included in these two surveys, the 1996 TDHS added more detailed questions on AIDS, maternal mortality, and female circumcision. (go.tz)
- The report, which includes results of surveys conducted by the AHA, found 78% of hospitals and health systems reported their experience working with commercial insurers is getting worse, with fewer than 1% reporting it was getting better. (aha.org)
- The AHA fielded the surveys in 2019 with more than 200 hospitals responding and again between December 2021 and February 2022 with 772 hospitals responding. (aha.org)
- Hospitals and health systems report growing rates of delays and denials for medically necessary care and that appeals frequently result in insurers overturning their earlier decisions. (aha.org)
- The tactics highlighted can delay patient care and put even more strain on an already overburdened workforce, with 95% of hospitals and health systems reporting increases in staff time spent seeking prior authorization approvals. (aha.org)
- From health videos to yoga classes, many hospitals offer information families need to stay healthy. (medlineplus.gov)
- Many hospitals have a free online health library. (medlineplus.gov)
- Many hospitals offer health fairs. (medlineplus.gov)
- Everybody thinks that sleep should be a pillar of health, but there is a big communication gap between patients and healthcare providers that may keep patients with insomnia from effective treatment," Ruth Benca, MD, PhD, with Wake Forest University School of Medicine and Atrium Health Wake Forest Baptist, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, told Medscape Medical News . (medscape.com)
- Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS®), which asks patients about their experiences with health plans and the care they receive from doctors, nurses, and staff in medical offices and other health care facilities. (westat.com)
- To compare the health and healthcare experiences of sexual minorities with heterosexual people of the same gender, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. (nih.gov)
- The surveys come at an important time, following rapid changes in the health care system, including the recent federal mental health parity law and national healthcare reform legislation. (brandeis.edu)
- The Wake-Up America: The Night & Day Impact of Insomnia Survey was conducted online between September and October 2021 by The Harris Poll on behalf of Idorsia Pharmaceuticals. (medscape.com)
- Cite this: Sleep a Neglected Pillar of Health, National Survey Shows - Medscape - Jun 10, 2022. (medscape.com)
- WASHINGTON (November 2, 2022) - A new report and infographic from the American Hospital Association (AHA) released today highlights how some commercial health insurers apply policies that can cause dangerous delays in care for patients, result in undue burden on health care providers and add billions of dollars in unnecessary costs to the health care system. (aha.org)
- Savers make consumption choices that improve their health, accumulate fewer ailments and enjoy lower mortality rates. (ssrn.com)
- The NSCH is also designed to assess the prevalence and impact of special health care needs among children in the US and explores the extent to which children with special health care needs (CSHCN) have medical homes, adequate health insurance, access to needed services, and adequate care coordination. (census.gov)
- The results of this survey, he said, "underscore the mismatch in satisfaction with current insomnia therapeutics between patients with insomnia and providers who treat insomnia. (medscape.com)
- And although the study had an interesting design - a group of people with insomnia were compared with a group of physicians who treat insomnia - Lakhan said he'd like to see further survey studies that actually link patients' perceptions with those of their actual treating physicians to determine the degree of mismatch across the board. (medscape.com)
- Each year the U.S. spends about $3.65 trillion on health care yet hundreds of thousands of hospital patients die as a result of medical errors. (westat.com)
- Health systems are promoting their disease-control protocols to lure patients back for essential in-person care. (hfma.org)
- Patients deserve comprehensive health coverage with the protections they were promised when they signed up. (aha.org)
- In a letter sent to Health and Human Services Secretary Xavier Becerra and Department of Labor Secretary Martin Walsh, the AHA stressed the importance of comprehensive coverage for patients and urged the Administration to take additional actions to ensure adequate oversight of commercial health insurers. (aha.org)
- Health plan decisions can influence patients' access to care and the cost and quality of care they receive. (brandeis.edu)
- More than 1,000 attendees from federal and regional governments, academia, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector converged on the Renaissance Washington DC Downtown Hotel August 6-8 for the 2012 National Conference on Health Statistics. (cdc.gov)
- The American Hospital Association (AHA) is a not-for-profit association of health care provider organizations and individuals that are committed to the health improvement of their communities. (aha.org)
- Owned by the Ministry of Health and licensed for reuse under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence . (health.govt.nz)
- Exploring the sociotechnical intersection of patient safety and electronic health record implementation. (ahrq.gov)
- The paper reports on the results of a study of the health status of 4,917 middle age couples in the HRS. (ssrn.com)
- Workarounds and test results follow-up in electronic health record-based primary care. (ahrq.gov)
- Graphical display of diagnostic test results in electronic health records: a comparison of 8 systems. (ahrq.gov)
- Information overload and missed test results in electronic health record-based settings. (ahrq.gov)
- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA). (rti.org)
- The report and a synthesis of the user survey is available under the Publications of the website biocide.be. (belgium.be)
- It provides an overview of information on selected indicators from the WHO Global Nutrition Policy Survey. (who.int)
- Applying requisite imagination to safeguard electronic health record transitions. (ahrq.gov)
- Nearly half of Medicare beneficiaries are enrolled in a private Medicare Advantage health plan, and enrollment in these plans is growing at a rate of nearly 10% per year, raising the importance of ensuring adequate oversight in the program. (aha.org)
- Creating an oversight infrastructure for electronic health record-related patient safety hazards. (ahrq.gov)
- Professor Snowden, from Cardiff University's School of Psychology, said: "While we need science to fight the physical consequences of disease and reduce rates of infection, we also need to understand the consequences actions such as lockdowns have on the mental health and wellbeing of people so that any treatment is not worse than the disease it aims to cure. (cardiff.ac.uk)
- It outlines the history of the NZHS and its development into a continuous survey, describes the process for developing the adult and child questionnaires for 2014/15, and gives an overview of each section of the survey. (health.govt.nz)
- The first round of the Brandeis Survey in 1999 provided the first in-depth, nationally representative information about both administrative and clinical aspects of behavioral health care provided by private health plans through their managed care products. (brandeis.edu)
- An overwhelming majority of the public (90%) think there is a mental health crisis in the U.S. today, with most people saying the opioid epidemic, mental health issues in children and teenagers, and severe mental illness are at crisis level in the country. (kff.org)
- Founded in 1898, the AHA provides insight and education for health care leaders and is a source of information on health care issues and trends. (aha.org)
- You can also find support groups for people with diabetes, long-term (chronic) pain, and other health issues. (medlineplus.gov)
- As in June and August , NPR assumed workers are calling 10 contacts per case and that tracers reach 45% of contacts and follow up with them every other day - a conservative estimate, to reflect the real-world challenges health workers face. (npr.org)
- While education as such matters less after inclusion of savings and other variables, it still affects choices about consumption that affects health, though its effect is not explained by better information. (ssrn.com)
- It also affects the rate of ill health, holding constant consumption decisions and existing maladies. (ssrn.com)
- This has been the case each time NPR has surveyed states. (npr.org)
- Improving the safety of health information technology requires shared responsibility: it is time we all step up. (ahrq.gov)
- The survey is designed so that the sample scheduled for each week is representative of the target population and the weekly samples are additive over time. (cdc.gov)
- This group also reports that the cost of mental health care services may be prohibitive to seeking care with four in ten (39%) saying people like them are not able to get the mental health services they need and a large majority of those with lower incomes saying the cost of mental health care is a "big problem" in the United States. (kff.org)
- You also may be able to find ways to save money on health supplies and services. (medlineplus.gov)
- A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. (medlineplus.gov)