Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.
The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.
The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
A piperidine botanical insecticide.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Perception of three-dimensionality.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
The status of health in urban populations.
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.
Management of public health organizations or agencies.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
The status of health in rural populations.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.
Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)
Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.
Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.
Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.
Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.
All deaths reported in a given population.
Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.
The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Individuals or groups with no or inadequate health insurance coverage. Those falling into this category usually comprise three primary groups: the medically indigent (MEDICAL INDIGENCY); those whose clinical condition makes them medically uninsurable; and the working uninsured.
Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.
The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.
Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.
Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A quality-of-life scale developed in the United States in 1972 as a measure of health status or dysfunction generated by a disease. It is a behaviorally based questionnaire for patients and addresses activities such as sleep and rest, mobility, recreation, home management, emotional behavior, social interaction, and the like. It measures the patient's perceived health status and is sensitive enough to detect changes or differences in health status occurring over time or between groups. (From Medical Care, vol.xix, no.8, August 1981, p.787-805)
State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Healthy People Programs are a set of health objectives to be used by governments, communities, professional organizations, and others to help develop programs to improve health. It builds on initiatives pursued over the past two decades beginning with the 1979 Surgeon General's Report, Healthy People, Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives, and Healthy People 2010. These established national health objectives and served as the basis for the development of state and community plans. These are administered by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP). Similar programs are conducted by other national governments.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.
City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.
Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.
A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)
Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.
Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.
Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.
A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.
Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.
A self-evaluation of health status.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.
Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.
Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.
The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
The study of the social determinants and social effects of health and disease, and of the social structure of medical institutions or professions.
The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)
Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.
The geographic area of the southeastern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not included. The states usually included in this region are Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, West Virginia, and Virginia.
The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.
Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
"Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.
Telephone surveys are conducted to monitor prevalence of the major behavioral risks among adults associated with premature MORBIDITY and MORTALITY. The data collected is in regard to actual behaviors, rather than on attitudes or knowledge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 1984.
A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.

The health related quality of life of the employees in the Greek hospitals: assessing how healthy are the health workers. (1/2192)

BACKGROUND: The main aim of the study was to assess the health status and health related quality of life of the personnel of the Hellenic Network of Health Promotion Hospitals. The instrument used was SF-36. An additional aim was to contribute to the validation of the SF-36. METHODS: The study instrument was administered to 347 randomly selected employees from seven hospitals within major Athens area. Completed questionnaire were obtained by 292 employees. The statistical significance of the observed differences was tested with parametric (t-test and ANOVA) and non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney and Kruskall-Wallis). Also, since the Greek national norms have not been published yet, the mean scores on all eight SF-36 dimensions of this study were compared with the U.S and several European national norms just to assess the extent to what there are significant differences between a Greek healthy population and the general populations of several other countries. RESULTS: Medical doctors and technical personnel (mostly engineers) reported better health status than nurses and administrative and auxiliary personnel; women reported poorer health status than men on all eight SF-36 dimensions; younger employees reported poorer health status than their older counterpartners. Moreover the mean scores on all SF-36 dimensions reported by the participants on this study were considerably lower than the U.S and many European national norms. Also the study results constitute an indication of the SF-36 construct validity. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show that there are major and intense health inequalities among the employees in Greek hospitals.  (+info)

Socioeconomic differences in the burden of disease in Sweden. (2/2192)

OBJECTIVE: We sought to analyse how much of the total burden of disease in Sweden, measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), is a result of inequalities in health between socioeconomic groups. We also sought to determine how this unequal burden is distributed across different disease groups and socioeconomic groups. METHODS: Our analysis used data from the Swedish Burden of Disease Study. We studied all Swedish men and women in three age groups (15-44, 45-64, 65-84) and five major socioeconomic groups. The 18 disease and injury groups that contributed to 65% of the total burden of disease were analysed using attributable fractions and the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality. FINDINGS: About 30% of the burden of disease among women and 37% of the burden among men is a differential burden resulting from socioeconomic inequalities in health. A large part of this unequally distributed burden falls on unskilled manual workers. The largest contributors to inequalities in health for women are ischaemic heart disease, depression and neurosis, and stroke. For men, the largest contributors are ischaemic heart disease, alcohol addiction and self-inflicted injuries. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to use socioeconomic differences, measured by socioeconomic position, to assess the burden of disease using DALYs. We found that in Sweden one-third of the burden of the diseases we studied is unequally distributed. Studies of socioeconomic inequalities in the burden of disease that take both mortality and morbidity into account can help policy-makers understand the magnitude of inequalities in health for different disease groups.  (+info)

Asthma patient education opportunities in predominantly minority urban communities. (3/2192)

Disenfranchised ethnic minority communities in the urban United States experience a high burden of asthma. Conventional office-based patient education often is insufficient to promote proper asthma management and coping practices responsive to minority patients' environments. This paper explores existing and alternative asthma information and education sources in three urban minority communities in western New York State to help design other practical educational interventions. Four focus groups (n = 59) and four town hall meetings (n = 109) were conducted in one Hispanic and two black communities. Focus groups included adult asthmatics or caretakers of asthmatics, and town meetings were open to all residents. A critical theory perspective informed the study. Asthma information and education sources, perceptions of asthma and ways of coping were elicited through semi-structured interviews. Data analysis followed a theory-driven immersion-crystallization approach. Several asthma education and information resources from the health care system, media, public institutions and communities were identified. Intervention recommendations highlighted asthma workshops that recognize participants as teachers and learners, offer social support, promote advocacy, are culturally appropriate and community-based and include health care professionals. Community-based, group health education couched on people's experiences and societal conditions offers unique opportunities for patient asthma care empowerment in minority urban communities.  (+info)

Socioeconomic risk, parenting during the preschool years and child health age 6 years. (4/2192)

BACKGROUND: Parent child relationships and parenting processes are emerging as potential life course determinants of health. Parenting is socially patterned and could be one of the factors responsible for the negative effects of social inequalities on health, both in childhood and adulthood. This study tests the hypothesis that some of the effect of socioeconomic risk on health in mid childhood is transmitted via early parenting. METHODS: Prospective cohort study in 10 USA communities involving 1041 mother/child pairs, selected at birth at random with conditional sampling. EXPOSURES: income, maternal education, maternal age, lone parenthood, ethnic status and objective assessments of mother child interaction in the first 4 years of life covering warmth, negativity and positive control. OUTCOMES: mother's report of child's health in general at 6 years. Modelling: multiple regression analyses with statistical testing of mediational processes. RESULTS: All five indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) were correlated with all three measures of parenting, such that low SES was associated with poor parenting. Among the measures of parenting maternal warmth was independently predictive of future health, and among the socioeconomic variables maternal education, partner presence and 'other ethnic group' proved predictive. Measures of parenting significantly mediated the impact of measures of SES on child health. CONCLUSIONS: Parenting mediates some, but not all of the detectable effects of socioeconomic risk on health in childhood. As part of a package of measures that address other determinants, interventions to support parenting are likely to make a useful contribution to reducing childhood inequalities in health.  (+info)

Inequality in the health status of workers in small-scale enterprises. (5/2192)

BACKGROUND: Small-scale enterprises (SSEs) usually share poorer resources for promoting occupational health. AIM: To investigate inequality of health status among SSEs in Japan. METHOD: A cross-sectional, multiple-centred study was carried out using the periodical health check-up data for the fiscal year 2000 to compare the age-adjusted proportions of workers with hypertension (HT), hyperlipidaemia, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and obesity and of current smokers by size of enterprise, i.e. or=1000 employees in Japan. RESULTS: From five leading occupational health organizations, data were collected for 9833 enterprises with a total of 436 729 subjects, 302 383 males and 134 346 females. The proportions of workers in SSEs with or=50 male employees. The prevalence of smokers in SSEs with or=50 male employees. These proportions showed a significantly increasing tendency with decreasing size of male workforce. CONCLUSION: Despite the cross-sectional design and only adjusting age as a potential confounder, higher proportions of HT, IGT, obesity and smoking in male workers were found in SSEs compared to larger organizations.  (+info)

Possible socioeconomic and ethnic disparities in quality of life in a cohort of breast cancer survivors. (6/2192)

BACKGROUND: This paper describes the ethnic and socioeconomic correlates of functioning in a cohort of long-term nonrecurring breast cancer survivors. METHODS: Participants (n = 804) in this study were women from the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) Study, a population-based, multicenter, multiethnic, prospective study of women newly diagnosed with in situ or Stages I to IIIA breast cancer. Measurements occurred at three timepoints following diagnosis. Outcomes included standardized measures of functioning (MOS SF-36). RESULTS: Overall, these long-term survivors reported values on two physical function subscales of the SF-36 slightly lower than population norms. Black women reported statistically significantly lower physical functioning (PF) scores (P = 0.01), compared with White and Hispanic women, but higher mental health (MH) scores (P < 0.01) compared with White and Hispanic women. In the final adjusted model, race was significantly related to PF, with Black participants and participants in the "Other" ethnic category reporting poorer functioning compared to the White referent group (P < 0.01, 0.05). Not working outside the home, being retired or disabled and being unemployed (on leave, looking for work) were associated with poorer PF compared to currently working (both P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: These data indicate that race/ethnicity influences psychosocial functioning in breast cancer survivors and can be used to identify need for targeted interventions to improve functioning.  (+info)

Health inequalities with the National Statistics-Socioeconomic classification: disease risk factors and health in the 1958 British birth cohort. (7/2192)

BACKGROUND: Health inequalities using the new National Statistics socioeconomic classification (NS-SEC) have so far been assessed using only general measures of health, with little known about inequality for specific health outcomes. Preliminary analyses show that self-employed workers, distinguished for the first time by NS-SEC, show increased mortality risk in the last 5 years of working life. We examined health inequalities for multiple disease risk factors and health outcomes, with particular reference to cardiorespiratory risk in the self-employed. METHODS: 8952 participants in the 1958 British birth cohort with information on adult occupation and disease risk factors at 45 years. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, glycosylated haemoglobin, total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), von Willebrand factor, total immunoglobulin E (IgE), one-second forced expiratory volume, 4 kHz hearing threshold, visual impairment, depressive symptoms, anxiety, chronic widespread pain and self-rated health were measured. RESULTS: Routine workers had poorer health than professional workers for most outcomes examined, except HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, t-PA and IgE in men; total cholesterol and IgE in women. Patterns of inequality varied depending on the outcome but rarely showed linear trend across the classes. Relative to professionals, own account workers (self-employed) did not show consistently increased levels of cardiorespiratory risk markers. CONCLUSIONS: Health inequalities are seen with NS-SEC across diverse outcomes for men and women. In mid-life, self-employed workers do not have an adverse cardiorespiratory risk profile.  (+info)

Race and risk of schizophrenia in a US birth cohort: another example of health disparity? (8/2192)

BACKGROUND: Immigrant groups in Western Europe have markedly increased rates of schizophrenia. The highest rates are found in ethnic groups that are predominantly black. Separating minority race/ethnicity from immigration in Western Europe is difficult; in the US, these issues can be examined separately. Here we compared rates of schizophrenia between whites and African Americans and evaluated whether the association was mediated by socioeconomic status (SES) of family of origin in a US birth cohort. METHODS: Study subjects were offspring of women enrolled during pregnancy at Alameda County Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Plan clinics (1959-66) in the Child Health and Development Study. For schizophrenia spectrum disorders, 12 094 of the 19 044 live births were followed over 1981-97. The analysis is restricted to cohort members whose mothers identified as African American or white at intake. Stratified proportional hazards regression was the method of analysis; the robustness of findings to missing data bias was assessed using multiple imputation. RESULTS: African Americans were about 3-fold more likely than whites to be diagnosed with schizophrenia [Rate Ratio (RR) = 3.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.71-6.27]. After adjusting for indicators of family SES at birth, the RR was about 2-fold (RR = 1.92; 95% CI: 0.86-4.28). Using multiple imputation in the model including family SES indicators, the RR for race and schizophrenia was strengthened in comparison with the estimate obtained without imputation. CONCLUSION: The data indicate substantially elevated rates of schizophrenia among African Americans in comparison with whites in this birth cohort. The association may have been partly but not wholly mediated by an effect of race on family SES.  (+info)

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.


Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

Some common types of mental disorders include:

1. Anxiety disorders: These conditions cause excessive worry, fear, or anxiety that interferes with daily life. Examples include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder.
2. Mood disorders: These conditions affect a person's mood, causing feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or anger that persist for weeks or months. Examples include depression, bipolar disorder, and seasonal affective disorder.
3. Personality disorders: These conditions involve patterns of thought and behavior that deviate from the norm of the average person. Examples include borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder.
4. Psychotic disorders: These conditions cause a person to lose touch with reality, resulting in delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized thinking. Examples include schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and brief psychotic disorder.
5. Trauma and stressor-related disorders: These conditions develop after a person experiences a traumatic event, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
6. Dissociative disorders: These conditions involve a disconnection or separation from one's body, thoughts, or emotions. Examples include dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as multiple personality disorder) and depersonalization disorder.
7. Neurodevelopmental disorders: These conditions affect the development of the brain and nervous system, leading to symptoms such as difficulty with social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors. Examples include autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Rett syndrome.

Mental disorders can be diagnosed by a mental health professional using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which provides criteria for each condition. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy, depending on the specific disorder and individual needs.

There are two main types of status epilepticus:

1. Generalized status epilepticus: This type affects the entire brain and is characterized by severe convulsions, loss of consciousness, and muscle stiffness.
2. Focal status epilepticus: This type affects only one part of the brain and can cause more subtle symptoms, such as weakness or numbness in a limb, speech difficulties, or confusion.

The diagnosis of status epilepticus is based on clinical findings, medical history, and electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. Treatment typically involves prompt administration of anticonvulsant medications, such as benzodiazepines or barbiturates, to control seizures and prevent further brain damage. In severe cases, sedation, mechanical ventilation, or anesthesia may be required to support the patient's vital functions.

The prognosis for status epilepticus depends on several factors, including the underlying cause, the severity of the seizure, and the promptness and effectiveness of treatment. In general, the earlier the treatment is initiated, the better the outcome. However, long-term neurological and cognitive deficits can occur in some cases.

Preventive measures for status epilepticus include proper management of underlying conditions that may trigger seizures, such as epilepsy or head trauma, and avoiding triggers like alcohol or drugs. Additionally, prompt medical attention should be sought if seizure warning signs are present, such as changes in sensation, confusion, or convulsions.

Etymology: [O.E. mund, mouth + L. dentatus, toothed.]

Synonyms: Toothless mouth.

Source: Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, 1913

In layman's terms, this definition is saying that a mouth, edentulous refers to a mouth without teeth. This can be due to various reasons such as tooth loss due to decay, injury, or other factors. The term is used in the medical field, specifically in dentistry, to describe a patient who requires dentures or other prosthetic devices to replace missing teeth.

In conclusion, mouth, edentulous is a medical term used to describe a toothless mouth, and it is commonly used in dentistry to identify patients who require dentures or other prosthetic devices to restore their dental health.

Some common types of tooth diseases include:

1. Caries (cavities): A bacterial infection that causes the decay of tooth enamel, leading to holes or cavities in the teeth.
2. Periodontal disease (gum disease): An infection of the tissues surrounding the teeth, including the gums, periodontal ligament, and jawbone.
3. Tooth sensitivity: Pain or discomfort when eating or drinking hot or cold foods and beverages due to exposed dentin or gum recession.
4. Dental abscesses: Infections that can cause pain, swelling, and pus in the teeth and gums.
5. Tooth erosion: Wear away of the tooth enamel caused by acidic foods and drinks or certain medical conditions.
6. Tooth grinding (bruxism): The habit of grinding or clenching the teeth, which can cause wear on the teeth, jaw pain, and headaches.
7. Dental malocclusion: Misalignment of the teeth, which can cause difficulty chewing, speaking, and other oral health problems.
8. Tooth loss: Loss of one or more teeth due to decay, gum disease, injury, or other causes.

Prevention and treatment of tooth diseases usually involve good oral hygiene practices such as brushing, flossing, and regular dental check-ups. In some cases, more advanced treatments such as fillings, crowns, root canals, or extractions may be necessary.

There are several types of diabetes mellitus, including:

1. Type 1 DM: This is an autoimmune condition in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, resulting in a complete deficiency of insulin production. It typically develops in childhood or adolescence, and patients with this condition require lifelong insulin therapy.
2. Type 2 DM: This is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for around 90% of all cases. It is caused by a combination of insulin resistance (where the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin) and impaired insulin secretion. It is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and a diet high in sugar and unhealthy fats.
3. Gestational DM: This type of diabetes develops during pregnancy, usually in the second or third trimester. Hormonal changes and insulin resistance can cause blood sugar levels to rise, putting both the mother and baby at risk.
4. LADA (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults): This is a form of type 1 DM that develops in adults, typically after the age of 30. It shares features with both type 1 and type 2 DM.
5. MODY (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young): This is a rare form of diabetes caused by genetic mutations that affect insulin production. It typically develops in young adulthood and can be managed with lifestyle changes and/or medication.

The symptoms of diabetes mellitus can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

1. Increased thirst and urination
2. Fatigue
3. Blurred vision
4. Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
5. Tingling or numbness in hands and feet
6. Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections
7. Flu-like symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and stomach pain
8. Dark, velvety skin patches (acanthosis nigricans)
9. Yellowish color of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
10. Delayed healing of cuts and wounds

If left untreated, diabetes mellitus can lead to a range of complications, including:

1. Heart disease and stroke
2. Kidney damage and failure
3. Nerve damage (neuropathy)
4. Eye damage (retinopathy)
5. Foot damage (neuropathic ulcers)
6. Cognitive impairment and dementia
7. Increased risk of infections and other diseases, such as pneumonia, gum disease, and urinary tract infections.

It is important to note that not all individuals with diabetes will experience these complications, and that proper management of the condition can greatly reduce the risk of developing these complications.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

1. Chronic bronchitis: This condition causes inflammation of the bronchial tubes (the airways that lead to the lungs), which can cause coughing and excessive mucus production.
2. Emphysema: This condition damages the air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult for the body to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide.

The main causes of COPD are smoking and long-term exposure to air pollution, although genetics can also play a role. Symptoms of COPD can include shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing, particularly during exercise or exertion. The disease can be diagnosed through pulmonary function tests, chest X-rays, and blood tests.

There is no cure for COPD, but there are several treatment options available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These include medications such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, pulmonary rehabilitation programs, and lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and increasing physical activity. In severe cases, oxygen therapy may be necessary to help the patient breathe.

Prevention is key in avoiding the development of COPD, and this includes not smoking and avoiding exposure to air pollution. Early detection and treatment can also help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. With proper management, many people with COPD are able to lead active and productive lives.

Symptoms may include sensitivity, discomfort, visible holes or stains on teeth, bad breath, and difficulty chewing or biting. If left untreated, dental caries can progress and lead to more serious complications such as abscesses, infections, and even tooth loss.

To prevent dental caries, it is essential to maintain good oral hygiene habits, including brushing your teeth at least twice a day with fluoride toothpaste, flossing daily, and using mouthwash regularly. Limiting sugary foods and drinks and visiting a dentist for regular check-ups can also help prevent the disease.

Dental caries is treatable through various methods such as fillings, crowns, root canals, extractions, and preventive measures like fissure sealants and fluoride applications. Early detection and prompt treatment are crucial to prevent further damage and restore oral health.

There are several different types of obesity, including:

1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.

Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:

1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.

There are several types of periodontal diseases, including:

1. Gingivitis: This is the mildest form of periodontal disease, characterized by redness, swelling, and bleeding of the gums. It is reversible with proper treatment and good oral hygiene.
2. Periodontitis: This is a more severe form of periodontal disease, characterized by the destruction of the periodontal ligament and the jawbone. It can cause teeth to become loose or fall out.
3. Advanced periodontitis: This is the most severe form of periodontal disease, characterized by extensive bone loss and severe gum damage.
4. Periodontal abscess: This is a pocket of pus that forms in the gum tissue as a result of the infection.
5. Peri-implantitis: This is a condition that affects the tissues surrounding dental implants, similar to periodontal disease.

The causes and risk factors for periodontal diseases include:

1. Poor oral hygiene
2. Smoking
3. Diabetes
4. Genetic predisposition
5. Hormonal changes during pregnancy or menopause
6. Poor diet
7. Stress
8. Certain medications

The symptoms of periodontal diseases can include:

1. Redness, swelling, and bleeding of the gums
2. Bad breath
3. Loose teeth or teeth that feel like they are shifting in their sockets
4. Pus between the teeth and gums
5. Changes in the way teeth fit together when biting down

Treatment for periodontal diseases typically involves a combination of professional cleaning, antibiotics, and changes to oral hygiene habits at home. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue and restore the health of the teeth and gums.

Preventing periodontal diseases includes:

1. Brushing teeth at least twice a day with a fluoride toothpaste
2. Flossing once a day to remove plaque from between the teeth
3. Using an antibacterial mouthwash
4. Eating a balanced diet and avoiding sugary or acidic foods
5. Quitting smoking
6. Maintaining regular dental check-ups and cleanings.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

1. Coronary artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart.
2. Heart failure: A condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms that can be too fast, too slow, or irregular.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves that control blood flow through the heart.
5. Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy): Disease of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure.
6. Congenital heart disease: Defects in the heart's structure and function that are present at birth.
7. Peripheral artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the arms, legs, and other organs.
8. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg.
9. Pulmonary embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, which can be caused by a blood clot or other debris.
10. Stroke: A condition in which there is a lack of oxygen to the brain due to a blockage or rupture of blood vessels.

1. Tooth decay (cavities): A bacterial infection that causes tooth enamel to break down, leading to holes in the teeth.
2. Periodontal disease: An infection of the gums and bone that support the teeth, caused by bacteria.
3. Gingivitis: Inflammation of the gums, usually caused by poor oral hygiene or smoking.
4. Oral thrush: A fungal infection of the mouth, typically affecting people with weakened immune systems.
5. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections: Viral infections that cause sores on the lips, tongue, or gums.
6. Cold sores: Caused by the herpes simplex virus, these are small, painful blisters that appear on the lips, nose, or mouth.
7. Canker sores: Small, shallow ulcers that develop on the inside of the mouth, tongue, lips, or gums.
8. Leukoplakia: A condition where thick, white patches form on the insides of the mouth, usually due to excessive tobacco use or other irritants.
9. Oral cancer: Cancer that develops in any part of the mouth, including the lips, tongue, gums, or throat.
10. Dry mouth (xerostomia): A condition where the mouth does not produce enough saliva, which can increase the risk of tooth decay and other problems.

These are just a few examples of mouth diseases. It's important to maintain good oral hygiene and visit a dentist regularly to help prevent these conditions and ensure early detection and treatment if they do occur.

Acute wounds and injuries are those that occur suddenly and heal within a relatively short period of time, usually within a few days or weeks. Examples of acute wounds include cuts, scrapes, and burns. Chronic wounds and injuries, on the other hand, are those that persist over a longer period of time and may not heal properly, leading to long-term complications. Examples of chronic wounds include diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and chronic back pain.

Wounds and injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, sports injuries, violence, and medical conditions such as diabetes or circulatory problems. Treatment for wounds and injuries depends on the severity of the injury and may include cleaning and dressing the wound, applying antibiotics, immobilizing broken bones, and providing pain management. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissues or restore function.

Preventive measures for wounds and injuries include wearing appropriate protective gear during activities such as sports or work, following safety protocols to avoid accidents, maintaining proper hygiene and nutrition to prevent infection, and seeking medical attention promptly if an injury occurs.

Overall, wounds and injuries can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper treatment and management of wounds and injuries can help to promote healing, reduce the risk of complications, and improve long-term outcomes.

1. Asbestosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos fibers.
2. Carpal tunnel syndrome: a nerve disorder caused by repetitive motion and pressure on the wrist.
3. Mesothelioma: a type of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos.
4. Pneumoconiosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling dust from mining or other heavy industries.
5. Repetitive strain injuries: injuries caused by repetitive motions, such as typing or using vibrating tools.
6. Skin conditions: such as skin irritation and dermatitis caused by exposure to chemicals or other substances in the workplace.
7. Hearing loss: caused by loud noises in the workplace.
8. Back injuries: caused by lifting, bending, or twisting.
9. Respiratory problems: such as asthma and other breathing difficulties caused by exposure to chemicals or dust in the workplace.
10. Cancer: caused by exposure to carcinogens such as radiation, certain chemicals, or heavy metals in the workplace.

Occupational diseases can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as they often develop gradually over time and may not be immediately attributed to the work environment. In some cases, these diseases may not appear until years after exposure has ended. It is important for workers to be aware of the potential health risks associated with their job and take steps to protect themselves, such as wearing protective gear, following safety protocols, and seeking regular medical check-ups. Employers also have a responsibility to provide a safe work environment and follow strict regulations to prevent the spread of occupational diseases.

Types of Substance-Related Disorders:

1. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive consumption of alcohol, leading to impaired control over drinking, social or personal problems, and increased risk of health issues.
2. Opioid Use Disorder (OUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of opioids, such as prescription painkillers or heroin, leading to withdrawal symptoms when the substance is not available.
3. Stimulant Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of stimulants, such as cocaine or amphetamines, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
4. Cannabis Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of cannabis, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
5. Hallucinogen Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of hallucinogens, such as LSD or psilocybin mushrooms, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.

Causes and Risk Factors:

1. Genetics: Individuals with a family history of substance-related disorders are more likely to develop these conditions.
2. Mental health: Individuals with mental health conditions, such as depression or anxiety, may be more likely to use substances as a form of self-medication.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to substances at an early age, peer pressure, and social environment can increase the risk of developing a substance-related disorder.
4. Brain chemistry: Substance use can alter brain chemistry, leading to dependence and addiction.


1. Increased tolerance: The need to use more of the substance to achieve the desired effect.
2. Withdrawal: Experiencing symptoms such as anxiety, irritability, or nausea when the substance is not present.
3. Loss of control: Using more substance than intended or for longer than intended.
4. Neglecting responsibilities: Neglecting responsibilities at home, work, or school due to substance use.
5. Continued use despite negative consequences: Continuing to use the substance despite physical, emotional, or financial consequences.


1. Physical examination: A doctor may perform a physical examination to look for signs of substance use, such as track marks or changes in heart rate and blood pressure.
2. Laboratory tests: Blood or urine tests can confirm the presence of substances in the body.
3. Psychological evaluation: A mental health professional may conduct a psychological evaluation to assess symptoms of substance-related disorders and determine the presence of co-occurring conditions.


1. Detoxification: A medically-supervised detox program can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce the risk of complications.
2. Medications: Medications such as methadone or buprenorphine may be prescribed to manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.
3. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and contingency management are effective behavioral therapies for treating substance use disorders.
4. Support groups: Joining a support group such as Narcotics Anonymous can provide a sense of community and support for individuals in recovery.
5. Lifestyle changes: Making healthy lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.

It's important to note that diagnosis and treatment of substance-related disorders is a complex process and should be individualized based on the specific needs and circumstances of each patient.

Asthma can cause recurring episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These symptoms occur when the muscles surrounding the airways contract, causing the airways to narrow and swell. This can be triggered by exposure to environmental allergens or irritants such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, or respiratory infections.

There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment typically includes inhaled corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, bronchodilators to open up the airways, and rescue medications to relieve symptoms during an asthma attack.

Asthma is a common condition that affects people of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in children. According to the American Lung Association, more than 25 million Americans have asthma, and it is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children under the age of 18.

While there is no cure for asthma, early diagnosis and proper treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the condition.

There are several types of tooth loss, including:

1. Anterior tooth loss: This occurs when one or more front teeth are missing.
2. Posterior tooth loss: This occurs when one or more back teeth are missing.
3. Bilateral tooth loss: This occurs when there is a loss of teeth on both sides of the dental arch.
4. Unilateral tooth loss: This occurs when there is a loss of teeth on one side of the dental arch.
5. Complete tooth loss: This occurs when all teeth are missing from the dental arch.
6. Partial tooth loss: This occurs when only some teeth are missing from the dental arch.

Tooth loss can cause various problems such as difficulty chewing and biting food, speech difficulties, and changes in the appearance of the face and smile. It can also lead to other oral health issues such as shifting of the remaining teeth, bone loss, and gum recession.

Treatment options for tooth loss vary depending on the cause and severity of the condition. Some possible treatments include dentures, implants, bridges, and crowns. It is important to seek professional dental care if you experience any type of tooth loss to prevent further complications and restore oral health.

The exact cause of depressive disorder is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Some common risk factors for developing depressive disorder include:

* Family history of depression
* Traumatic events, such as abuse or loss
* Chronic stress
* Substance abuse
* Chronic illness or chronic pain

There are several different types of depressive disorders, including:

* Major depressive disorder (MDD): This is the most common type of depression, characterized by one or more major depressive episodes in a person's lifetime.
* Persistent depressive disorder (PDD): This type of depression is characterized by persistent, low-grade symptoms that last for two years or more.
* Bipolar disorder: This is a mood disorder that involves periods of both depression and mania or hypomania.
* Postpartum depression (PPD): This is a type of depression that occurs in women after childbirth.
* Severe depression: This is a severe and debilitating form of depression that can interfere with daily life and relationships.

Treatment for depressive disorder typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, such as antidepressant medications and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Other forms of therapy, such as psychodynamic therapy or interpersonal therapy, may also be effective. Lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep, can also help manage symptoms.

It's important to seek professional help if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of depressive disorder. With proper treatment, many people are able to recover from depression and lead fulfilling lives.

Type 2 diabetes can be managed through a combination of diet, exercise, and medication. In some cases, lifestyle changes may be enough to control blood sugar levels, while in other cases, medication or insulin therapy may be necessary. Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels and follow-up with a healthcare provider are important for managing the condition and preventing complications.

Common symptoms of type 2 diabetes include:

* Increased thirst and urination
* Fatigue
* Blurred vision
* Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
* Tingling or numbness in the hands and feet
* Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections

If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to a range of complications, including:

* Heart disease and stroke
* Kidney damage and failure
* Nerve damage and pain
* Eye damage and blindness
* Foot damage and amputation

The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is not known, but it is believed to be linked to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as:

* Obesity and excess body weight
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet and nutrition
* Age and family history
* Certain ethnicities (e.g., African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native American)
* History of gestational diabetes or delivering a baby over 9 lbs.

There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but it can be managed and controlled through a combination of lifestyle changes and medication. With proper treatment and self-care, people with type 2 diabetes can lead long, healthy lives.

Being overweight can increase the risk of various health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. It can also affect a person's mental health and overall quality of life.

There are several ways to assess whether someone is overweight or not. One common method is using the BMI, which is calculated based on height and weight. Another method is measuring body fat percentage, which can be done with specialized tools such as skinfold calipers or bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA).

Losing weight and maintaining a healthy weight can be achieved through a combination of diet, exercise, and lifestyle changes. Some examples of healthy weight loss strategies include:

* Eating a balanced diet that is high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein sources
* Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, running, swimming, or weight training
* Avoiding fad diets and quick fixes
* Getting enough sleep and managing stress levels
* Setting realistic weight loss goals and tracking progress over time.

Examples of communicable diseases include:

1. Influenza (the flu)
2. Measles
3. Tuberculosis (TB)
5. Malaria
6. Hepatitis B and C
7. Chickenpox
8. Whooping cough (pertussis)
9. Meningitis
10. Pneumonia

Communicable diseases can be spread through various means, including:

1. Direct contact with an infected person: This includes touching, hugging, shaking hands, or sharing food and drinks with someone who is infected.
2. Indirect contact with contaminated surfaces or objects: Pathogens can survive on surfaces for a period of time and can be transmitted to people who come into contact with those surfaces.
3. Airborne transmission: Some diseases, such as the flu and TB, can be spread through the air when an infected person talks, coughs, or sneezes.
4. Infected insect or animal bites: Diseases such as malaria and Lyme disease can be spread through the bites of infected mosquitoes or ticks.

Prevention and control of communicable diseases are essential to protect public health. This includes:

1. Vaccination: Vaccines can prevent many communicable diseases, such as measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), and influenza.
2. Personal hygiene: Frequent handwashing, covering the mouth when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick can help prevent the spread of diseases.
3. Improved sanitation and clean water: Proper disposal of human waste and adequate water treatment can reduce the risk of disease transmission.
4. Screening and testing: Identifying and isolating infected individuals can help prevent the spread of disease.
5. Antibiotics and antiviral medications: These drugs can treat and prevent some communicable diseases, such as bacterial infections and viral infections like HIV.
6. Public education: Educating the public about the risks and prevention of communicable diseases can help reduce the spread of disease.
7. Contact tracing: Identifying and monitoring individuals who have been in close contact with someone who has a communicable disease can help prevent further transmission.
8. Quarantine and isolation: Quarantine and isolation measures can be used to control outbreaks by separating infected individuals from those who are not infected.
9. Improved healthcare infrastructure: Adequate healthcare facilities, such as hospitals and clinics, can help diagnose and treat communicable diseases early on, reducing the risk of transmission.
10. International collaboration: Collaboration between countries and global organizations is crucial for preventing and controlling the spread of communicable diseases that are a threat to public health worldwide, such as pandemic flu and SARS.

Some common examples of respiratory tract diseases include:

1. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
2. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the airways (bronchi) that can cause coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing.
3. Asthma: A chronic condition that causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A progressive condition that makes it difficult to breathe due to damage to the lungs over time.
5. Tuberculosis: An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily affects the lungs.
6. Laryngitis: Inflammation of the voice box (larynx) that can cause hoarseness and difficulty speaking.
7. Tracheitis: Inflammation of the trachea, or windpipe, that can cause coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing.
8. Croup: An infection of the throat and lungs that can cause a barky cough and difficulty breathing.
9. Pleurisy: Inflammation of the lining around the lungs (pleura) that can cause chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing.
10. Pertussis (whooping cough): An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis that can cause coughing fits and difficulty breathing.

These are just a few examples of the many different types of respiratory tract diseases that exist. Each one has its own unique symptoms, causes, and treatment options.

In the medical field, fatigue is often evaluated using a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to determine its underlying cause. Treatment for fatigue depends on the underlying cause, but may include rest, exercise, stress management techniques, and medication.

Some common causes of fatigue in the medical field include:

1. Sleep disorders, such as insomnia or sleep apnea
2. Chronic illnesses, such as diabetes, heart disease, or arthritis
3. Infections, such as the flu or a urinary tract infection
4. Medication side effects
5. Poor nutrition or hydration
6. Substance abuse
7. Chronic stress
8. Depression or anxiety
9. Hormonal imbalances
10. Autoimmune disorders, such as thyroiditis or lupus.

Fatigue can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as:

1. Anemia
2. Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
3. Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)
4. Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid)
5. Chronic fatigue syndrome
6. Fibromyalgia
7. Vasculitis
8. Cancer
9. Heart failure
10. Liver or kidney disease.

It is important to seek medical attention if fatigue is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, pain, or difficulty breathing. A healthcare professional can diagnose and treat the underlying cause of fatigue, improving overall quality of life.

In the medical field, dyspnea is often evaluated using a numerical rating scale called the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale. This scale rates dyspnea on a scale of 0 to 5, with 0 indicating no shortness of breath and 5 indicating extreme shortness of breath.

Dyspnea can be a symptom of many different conditions, including:

1. Respiratory problems such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia.
2. Heart conditions such as heart failure and coronary artery disease.
3. Other underlying medical conditions such as anemia, lung disease, and liver failure.
4. Neurological conditions such as stroke and multiple sclerosis.
5. Psychological conditions such as anxiety and depression.

Assessment of dyspnea involves a thorough medical history and physical examination, including listening to the patient's lung sounds and assessing their oxygen saturation levels. Diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays, electrocardiograms (ECGs), and blood tests may also be ordered to determine the underlying cause of dyspnea.

Treatment of dyspnea depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, oxygen therapy, and other interventions such as pulmonary rehabilitation. In some cases, dyspnea may be a symptom of a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention.

There are two types of hypertension:

1. Primary Hypertension: This type of hypertension has no identifiable cause and is also known as essential hypertension. It accounts for about 90% of all cases of hypertension.
2. Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication. It accounts for about 10% of all cases of hypertension.

Some common causes of secondary hypertension include:

* Kidney disease
* Adrenal gland disorders
* Hormonal imbalances
* Certain medications
* Sleep apnea
* Cocaine use

There are also several risk factors for hypertension, including:

* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Family history of hypertension
* Obesity
* Lack of exercise
* High sodium intake
* Low potassium intake
* Stress

Hypertension is often asymptomatic, and it can cause damage to the blood vessels and organs over time. Some potential complications of hypertension include:

* Heart disease (e.g., heart attacks, heart failure)
* Stroke
* Kidney disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease)
* Vision loss (e.g., retinopathy)
* Peripheral artery disease

Hypertension is typically diagnosed through blood pressure readings taken over a period of time. Treatment for hypertension may include lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, stress management), medications, or a combination of both. The goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

There are several different types of pain, including:

1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.
2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.
3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.
5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.

The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:

1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.
2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.
3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.
4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.
5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.
6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.
7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.
8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.

It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.

1. Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM): This type of malnutrition is caused by a lack of protein and energy in the diet. It is common in developing countries and can lead to weight loss, weakness, and stunted growth in children.
2. Iron deficiency anemia: This type of malnutrition is caused by a lack of iron in the diet, which is necessary for the production of hemoglobin in red blood cells. Symptoms include fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
3. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies: Malnutrition can also be caused by a lack of essential vitamins and minerals such as vitamin A, vitamin D, calcium, and iodine. Symptoms vary depending on the specific deficiency but can include skin problems, impaired immune function, and poor wound healing.
4. Obesity: This type of malnutrition is caused by consuming too many calories and not enough nutrients. It can lead to a range of health problems including diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease.

Signs and symptoms of malnutrition can include:

* Weight loss or weight gain
* Fatigue or weakness
* Poor wound healing
* Hair loss
* Skin problems
* Increased infections
* Poor appetite or overeating
* Digestive problems such as diarrhea or constipation
* Impaired immune function

Treatment for malnutrition depends on the underlying cause and may include:

* Dietary changes: Eating a balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrient-rich foods can help to correct nutrient deficiencies.
* Nutritional supplements: In some cases, nutritional supplements such as vitamins or minerals may be recommended to help address specific deficiencies.
* Medical treatment: Certain medical conditions that contribute to malnutrition, such as digestive disorders or infections, may require treatment with medication or other interventions.

Prevention is key, and there are several steps you can take to help prevent malnutrition:

* Eat a balanced diet that includes a variety of nutrient-rich foods.
* Avoid restrictive diets or fad diets that limit specific food groups.
* Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water.
* Avoid excessive alcohol consumption, which can interfere with nutrient absorption and lead to malnutrition.
* Maintain a healthy weight through a combination of a balanced diet and regular exercise.

It is important to note that malnutrition can be subtle and may not always be easily recognizable. If you suspect you or someone you know may be experiencing malnutrition, it is important to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

The causes of colorectal neoplasms are not fully understood, but factors such as age, genetics, diet, and lifestyle have been implicated. Symptoms of colorectal cancer can include changes in bowel habits, blood in the stool, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Screening for colorectal cancer is recommended for adults over the age of 50, as it can help detect early-stage tumors and improve survival rates.

There are several subtypes of colorectal neoplasms, including adenomas (which are precancerous polyps), carcinomas (which are malignant tumors), and lymphomas (which are cancers of the immune system). Treatment options for colorectal cancer depend on the stage and location of the tumor, but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.

Research into the causes and treatment of colorectal neoplasms is ongoing, and there has been significant progress in recent years. Advances in screening and treatment have improved survival rates for patients with colorectal cancer, and there is hope that continued research will lead to even more effective treatments in the future.

1. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative joint disease that affects the cartilage and bone in the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation in the joints, leading to pain, swelling, and deformity.
3. Fibromyalgia: A chronic condition characterized by widespread muscle pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbances.
4. Tendinitis: Inflammation of a tendon, which can cause pain and stiffness in the affected area.
5. Bursitis: Inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that cushion joints, leading to pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
6. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the median nerve in the wrist, leading to numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and fingers.
7. Sprains and strains: Injuries to the ligaments or muscles, often caused by sudden twisting or overstretching.
8. Back pain: Pain in the back that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as muscle strain, herniated discs, or spinal stenosis.
9. Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by weak and brittle bones, leading to an increased risk of fractures.
10. Clubfoot: A congenital deformity in which the foot is turned inward and downward.

These are just a few examples of musculoskeletal diseases, and there are many more conditions that can affect the muscles, bones, and joints. Treatment options for these conditions can range from conservative methods such as physical therapy and medication to surgical interventions. It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe symptoms in your musculoskeletal system.

1. Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of stroke, accounting for about 87% of all strokes. It occurs when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked, reducing blood flow to the brain.
2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing bleeding in the brain. High blood pressure, aneurysms, and blood vessel malformations can all cause hemorrhagic strokes.
3. Transient ischemic attack (TIA): Also known as a "mini-stroke," a TIA is a temporary interruption of blood flow to the brain that lasts for a short period of time, usually less than 24 hours. TIAs are often a warning sign for a future stroke and should be taken seriously.

Stroke can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the location and severity of the damage to the brain. Some common symptoms include:

* Weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg
* Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
* Sudden vision loss or double vision
* Dizziness, loss of balance, or sudden falls
* Severe headache
* Confusion, disorientation, or difficulty with memory

Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability and can have a significant impact on the quality of life for survivors. However, with prompt medical treatment and rehabilitation, many people are able to recover some or all of their lost functions and lead active lives.

The medical community has made significant progress in understanding stroke and developing effective treatments. Some of the most important advances include:

* Development of clot-busting drugs and mechanical thrombectomy devices to treat ischemic strokes
* Improved imaging techniques, such as CT and MRI scans, to diagnose stroke and determine its cause
* Advances in surgical techniques for hemorrhagic stroke
* Development of new medications to prevent blood clots and reduce the risk of stroke

Despite these advances, stroke remains a significant public health problem. According to the American Heart Association, stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the United States and the leading cause of long-term disability. In 2017, there were over 795,000 strokes in the United States alone.

There are several risk factors for stroke that can be controlled or modified. These include:

* High blood pressure
* Diabetes mellitus
* High cholesterol levels
* Smoking
* Obesity
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet

In addition to these modifiable risk factors, there are also several non-modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as age (stroke risk increases with age), family history of stroke, and previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).

The medical community has made significant progress in understanding the causes and risk factors for stroke, as well as developing effective treatments and prevention strategies. However, more research is needed to improve outcomes for stroke survivors and reduce the overall burden of this disease.

There are several symptoms of RA, including:

1. Joint pain and stiffness, especially in the hands and feet
2. Swollen and warm joints
3. Redness and tenderness in the affected areas
4. Fatigue, fever, and loss of appetite
5. Loss of range of motion in the affected joints
6. Firm bumps of tissue under the skin (rheumatoid nodules)

RA can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, blood tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or ultrasound. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and biologic agents. Lifestyle modifications such as exercise and physical therapy can also be helpful in managing symptoms and improving quality of life.

There is no cure for RA, but early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can help to slow the progression of the disease and reduce symptoms. With proper management, many people with RA are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.

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Such socioeconomic status-related health disparities is present in every nation around the world, including developed regions. ... The existence of health disparity implies that health equity does not exist in many parts of the world. Equity in health refers ... Determinants of health, Feminism and health, Men's health, Women's health, Health equity, Sex differences in humans). ... Overall, the term "health disparities", or "health inequalities", is widely understood as the differences in health between ...
... or any other differences related to socioeconomic status or environmental factors. However, the largest disparities are most ... Center for Health Disparities Research Texas Center for Health Disparities Hispanic Health Disparities Research Center ( ... on Native Elder Health Disparities Center for the Study of Health Disparities Center for Interdisciplinary Health Disparities ... Arizona Health Disparities Center Brooklyn Center for Health Disparities (Arthur Ashe Institute for Urban Health) Iowa Center ...
O'Connell, Joan; Manson, Spero; Yi, Rong; Acton, Kelly; Wilson, Charlton (2010). "Racial Disparities in Health Status" (PDF). ... "Changing Patterns in Health Behaviors and Risk Factors Related to Cardiovascular Disease Among American Indians and Alaska ... Studies have also shown diabetes to be a major health problem in the Navajo Nation; a 1997 study released by the American ... American Public Health Association. April 2010. Retrieved 18 November 2016. Will, Julie C.; Strauss, Karen F.; Mendlein, James ...
Adler is known for her research on health behaviors, health disparities, and social determinants of health. Adler has been the ... Health Affairs, 21(2), 60-76. Adler, N. E., & Ostrove, J. M. (1999). Socioeconomic status and health: what we know and what we ... Health Psychology, 19(6), 586-592. Adler, N. E., & Newman, K. (2002). Socioeconomic disparities in health: pathways and ... Socioeconomic status and health: the challenge of the gradient. American Psychologist, 49(1), 15-24. Adler, N. E., Epel, E. S ...
While socioeconomic status (SES) is a contributing factor in race health disparities, it does not account for all the variation ... "Mental Health Disparities: Diverse Populations". "Mental Health Disparities: Diverse Populations". en:History_of_Native_ ... National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Minority stress § Health outcomes among African Americans Black ... There are significant disparities in health outcomes between the five racial groups recognized by the U.S. Census. These health ...
... a Career Fighting Disparities and Fostering Equity". Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. doi:10.1007/s40615-020- ... Retrieved 2020-08-21.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) "About the Founder". Minority Health Institute. 2017-05-17. ... He also launched the Minority Health Institute, which looks to take on racism in healthcare and improve the health of ... CS1 maint: url-status, Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with hCards, CS1 ...
... is to generate and disseminate knowledge to reduce racial/ethnic and social class disparities in health status and health care ... Research on Health Disparities, and Training program (Project EXPORT). The mission of the Hopkins Center for Health Disparities ... "Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities: Overview of the EHDIC Study." Journal of Urban Health. 2008 Jan;85(1): ... strives to eradicate disparities in health and health care among racial and ethnic groups, socioeconomic groups, and ...
Kent, Jessica (5 February 2020). "Rural Health Disparities Linked to Socioeconomic Status, Care Access". HealthItAnalytics. ... mental health, socioeconomic status, physical ability, or other socially significant identifiers. Diversity in a rural context ... Implications for rural health research and policy". SSM - Population Health. 6: 72-74. doi:10.1016/j.ssmph.2018.08.009. PMC ... CS1 maint: url-status, CS1 errors: missing periodical, Articles needing additional references from November 2020, All articles ...
Segregation, health risks, and wealth disparities all relate to poverty. According to a study in the Journal of Economics, ... In 1988, disability and familial status (the presence or anticipated presence of children under 18 in a household) were added ( ... The differences in temperature contribute to health disparities and premature heat-related deaths. Neighborhood effects are ... Poor areas suffer from educational disparities, and a poor education translates into earnings disparities. Those who earn less ...
Luo ZC, Wilkins R, Kramer MS (June 2004). "Disparities in pregnancy outcomes according to marital and cohabitation status". ... health status and self-esteem as term controls. Various structural magnetic resonance studies found consistent reductions in ... The World Health Organization (WHO) suggests 1.5-2 g of calcium supplements daily, for pregnant women who have low levels of ... Geneva: World Health Organization. Rumbold AR, Crowther CA, Haslam RR, Dekker GA, Robinson JS (April 2006). "Vitamins C and E ...
"Spirit of EAGLES". Cancer Health Disparities Initiative. Retrieved 2020-08-31. Salmon Kaur, Judith (2005). "The promise and the ... Retrieved 2020-08-31.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) "In the Loop: Her grandmother told her she was 'meant to be a ... CS1 maint: url-status, Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with hCards, ... In 2007 Kaur published the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, which identified that despite the progress the ...
Health Status, and Health Disparities in the United States and Canada: Results of a Cross-National Population-Based Survey". ... In a study of health disparities across Canada and the US, the US consistently had far more pronounced racial health inequities ... Given this information, the health status of white Americans has gained increasing importance due to the differences in health ... "Constructing whiteness in health disparities research". Health and Illness at the Intersections of Gender, Race, and Class. ...
According to the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparity (NIMHD) sponsored lecture about Health Disparity ... Office of Minority Health. (n.d.)". "NIMHD Grantee Talks Asian Health Disparity Research , Feature Story". NIMHD. Retrieved ... Thus, to classify and generalize health disparities to such a heterogeneous group may not be beneficial; however, a few health ... In general, ethnic groups have their own health disparities. Vietnamese and Filipino Americans tend to have poorer health ...
This publication highlighted several racial disparities in health status during apartheid. In 1984, he completed his Internship ... In 1992, he started his specialist training in public health, completing his Fellowship in Public Health Medicine with the ... Oxford Textbook of Global Public Health. Oxford Textbooks in Public Health (Seventh ed.). Oxford, New York: Oxford University ... "Abdool Karims Receive Prestigious Global Health Award , Columbia Public Health". Retrieved 20 ...
These health effects are not equally distributed across the U.S population; there are demographic disparities by race, ... Socioeconomic Status (SES) is an individual's or group's sociological and economic status in society. Low socioeconomic status ... "Socioeconomic Status". Retrieved 2017-04-24. "Health, Income, and Inequality". Retrieved 2017-04-24. ... People of lower socioeconomic status may more frequently have poor health, thus the effects of air pollution can incur ...
These health effects are not equally distributed across the U.S population; there are demographic disparities by race, ... Retrieved 30 December 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) (choose "Chart view"; use download link) ● Data for 2020 ... Used electronics are the quickest-growing source of waste and can have serious health impacts. The United States is the world ... This includes implications for agriculture, the economy, human health and indigenous peoples, and it is seen as a national ...
Fall 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) "Investigators Earn $1.3 Million Grant for Health Disparities Research". ... Reisser, Peggy (2020-02-14). "UTHSC Researcher's Career Focused on Reducing Health Disparities in her Hometown". UTHSC News. ... Shelley White-Means is an American health economist who is a professor at The University of Tennessee Health Science Center ( ... implications for addressing health disparities." Medical Care Research and Review 66, no. 4 (2009): 436-455. White-Means, ...
Other reviews have found not enough evidence to determine if water fluoridation reduces oral-health social disparities. Health ... "The impact of socioeconomic status and race-ethnicity on dental health". Sociol Perspect. 50 (1): 7-25. doi:10.1525/sop.2007.50 ... Petersen PE (June 2008). "World Health Organization global policy for improvement of oral health--World Health Assembly 2007". ... Vargas CM, Ronzio CR (June 2006). "Disparities in early childhood caries". BMC Oral Health. 6 (Suppl 1): S3. doi:10.1186/1472- ...
... resulting in new disparities of health outcomes as well as exacerbating existing health and economic disparities. The pandemic ... studies used shared the result of socioeconomic status and comorbidity burdens being the reason for COVID-19 racial disparities ... Racial disparities in the public health and socioeconomic impacts of COVID-19 have also been attributed to racial capitalism. ... Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. 8 (4): 1012-1025. doi:10.1007/s40615-020-00857-w. ISSN 2196-8837. PMC 7500252 ...
"Disparities in Distribution of Particulate Matter Emission Sources by Race and Poverty Status". American Journal of Public ... Health implications of living in proximity to mining operations include effects such as pregnancy complications, mental health ... Environmental racism impacts the health of the communities affected by poor environments. Various factors that can cause health ... The Lancet Planetary Health (November 2018). "Environmental racism: time to tackle social injustice". The Lancet Planetary ...
"Can neighborhood green space mitigate health inequalities? A study of socio-economic status and mental health". Health & Place ... Health disparities existing within and amongst communities make this issue of paramount importance. The correlation between ... The World Health Organization considers urban green spaces as important to human health. These areas have a positive impact on ... Kingsley, Marianne (April 2019). "Commentary - Climate change, health and green space co-benefits". Health Promotion and ...
"Socioeconomic Status and Health: The Potential Role of Environmental Risk Exposure." Annual Review of Public Health 23: 303-331 ... "Environmental Health Disparities: A Framework Integrating Psychosocial and Environmental Concepts". Environmental Health ... in the United States Poverty Health equity Race and health Race and health in the United States Social determinants of health ... "Disparities in distribution of particulate matter emission sources by race and poverty status." American Journal of Public ...
Health disparities refer to gaps in the quality of health and health care across racial and ethnic groups. The US Health ... Differences in health status, health outcomes, life expectancy, and many other indicators of health in different racial and ... Public health researchers and policy makers are working to reduce health disparities. Health effects of racism are now a major ... Some researchers separate definitions of health inequality from health disparity by preventability. Health inequalities are ...
"Disparities in Distribution of Particulate Matter Emission Sources by Race and Poverty Status". American Journal of Public ... "Urban Air Pollution and Health Inequities: A Workshop Report". Environmental Health Perspectives. 109 (s3): 357-374. 1 June ... Another complexity not entirely documented is how the shape of PM can affect health, except for the needle-like shape of ... Particulate mass is not a proper measure of the health hazard, because one particle of 10 μm diameter has approximately the ...
According to research, socioeconomic discrimination affects health outcomes in three ways- 1) health status, 2) quality of ... Health disparities generated through the Hindu caste system have been a major roadblock in realizing these goals. The Dalit ( ... "Rural Health Care System in India". "Central Government Health Scheme". "Universal Health Insurance Scheme". "Aam Aadmi Bima ... Literacy, economic status, and health are positively correlated with each other. Improved literacy rates, especially in women ...
LGBT minority group health disparities Healthcare inequality LGBT people in prison#Health care Minority stress and health ... This disparity is particularly extreme for lesbians (compared to homosexual men) because they have a double minority status, ... which all contribute to health disparities. LGBT health outcomes are strongly influenced by social support networks, peers, and ... "Out for Health" Center of Excellence for Transgender Health Publications on health and social care compiled by research from ...
"Health inequities and their causes". Retrieved 2021-10-21. Braveman, Paula (2006). "Health disparities and health ... BMC Public Health 8, 1-13 (2008). Schulz, A. J. et al. Associations Between Socioeconomic Status and Allostatic Load: Effects ... Braveman, P. Health disparities and health equity: concepts and measurement. Annu. Rev. Public Health 27, 167-194 (2006). ... J Epidemiol Community Health 67, 966-972 (2013). (CS1 errors: missing periodical, CS1 maint: url-status, Orphaned articles from ...
"Why getting drought relief to Minnesota farmers may hinge on the state health commissioner's job status". MinnPost. 2021-09-24 ... "Advocates say Minnesota leaders failed to 'meet the moment' in tackling racial disparities". Star Tribune. Retrieved 2021-10-11 ... Retrieved 2021-10-11.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) Samantha Vang at Minnesota Legislators Past & Present Official ... Retrieved 2021-10-11.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) Turtinen, Melissa. "Bill would end commercial turtle harvesting ...
Armenian Health Network, Archived from the original on 7 February 2007. "Cervical Cancer: Statistics , Cancer.Net". ... HPV vaccination status does not change screening rates. A number of recommended options exist for screening those 30 to 65. ... Singh GK, Miller BA, Hankey BF, Edwards BK (September 2004). "Persistent area socioeconomic disparities in U.S. incidence of ... In November 2020, the World Health Organization, under backing from the World Health Assembly, set out a strategy to eliminate ...
The group shed a light on the disparities in the numbers of black people applying for voter registration and those who were ... Central Alabama Veterans Health Care System East Campus - Locations. Retrieved on July 12, 2013. "00496492v1p2.pdf" ( ... Retrieved March 5, 2021.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States ... Retrieved March 5, 2021.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) Sitton, Claude (September 11, 1963). "Wallace Ends ...
"Starting a Rural Health Clinic - A How-To Manual" (PDF). 2004. "Healthcare Disparities and Barriers - Factsheets - ... eliminating the grandfather clause for RHCs that had allowed them to retain their status despite the fact that the RHC's ... Department of Health and Human Services Office of the Inspector General. National Rural Health Association RHC topic page Rural ... "Rural Health Clinics (RHC) , HPSA Acumen". HPSA Acumen. Retrieved 2018-06-22. "Update to Rural Health Clinic (RHC) All ...
"The Health and Social Isolation of American Veterans Denied Veterans Affairs Disability Compensation". Health & Social Work 42 ... status corresponded to their PTSD diagnostic status, as determined by a semi-structured diagnostic interview. ... For current ... Murdoch, Maureen; Hodges, James; Cowper, Diane; Fortier, Larry; van Ryn, Michelle (April 2003). "Racial disparities in VA ... Mental health professionals document the results of Initial and Review PTSD C&P exams on a Disability Benefits Questionnaire ( ...
The education system has played a role in determining the economic and social status of Filipino-Americans since they first ... More ethnic features also seemed to heighten income disparity only for female participants, meaning that immigrants of any ... researchers found that darker skin was associated with lower income and poorer physical health for both females and males. ...
Wikisource text Levin, J. (2001), God, Faith and Health: Exploring the Spirituality-Health Connection, New York: Wiley, ISBN ... The overall effect is expected to be a growing cultural disparity. The idea that religiosity arises from the human need for ... Kay, A.C.; Jimenez, M.C.; Jost, J.T. (2002). "Sour Grapes, Sweet Lemons, and the Anticipatory Rationalization of the Status Quo ... Overall, slight health benefits have been found fairly consistently across studies. Three main pathways to explain this trend ...
Global health, Public health, Health policy, International law, World Health Organization, United Nations Economic and Social ... Monthly Status of Treaty Adherence, 1 January 2005. Narcotic Drugs under International Control ("Yellow List") The chemical ... A failed 24 March 2003 European Parliament committee report noted the disparity in how drugs are regulated under the two ... Article 3 states that for a drug to be placed in a Schedule, the World Health Organization must make the findings required for ...
There is a significant disparity in the research conducted in the health sector. It is claimed that only 10% of the health ... DYE B (2010). "Trends in Oral Health by Poverty Status as Measured by Healthy People 2010 Objectives". Public Health Reports. ... World Health Organization, 2008. The 8th Global Conference on Health Promotion (2014). Health in all policies: Helsinki ... which further hampers public health interventions to reduce obesity rates and accelerates health disparities along SES lines. ...
Rural residents report overall poorer health and more physical limitations, with 12% rating their health as fair or poor, ... While supermarkets are expanding to areas in which they once did not exist, there is still a disparity when it comes to ... food choice bound by family and household socioeconomic status remained as a personal challenge, but social and physical ... Health Canada divides areas into buffer zones, with people's homes, schools, or workplaces as the center. The Euclidean ...
"Poisonous KO?" Author: D. Lederman "Haloperidol". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original ... "Klitschko-Wach: Conflicting Statements on Fight Status". Retrieved 8 December 2017. "Klitschko-Wach ... a nearly six-fold disparity. Klitschko was scheduled to face David Haye on 20 June 2009, but Haye pulled out within weeks of ... with a hard shot over the course of twelve rounds is less great than the champions from the past that sacrificed their health ...
... a growing global health disparity." Occupational Environmental Medicine. (2008) Vol 65. No 11 doi: 10.1136/oem.2008.040907 ( ... Although they are from the Singaporean middle class, they are stuck at almost the same level and share status with the third ... "A systematic review of working conditions and occupational health among immigrants in Europe and Canada." BMC Public Health ( ... The first group is made up of expatriate wives who are often reduced to dependent spouse status by immigration laws. The second ...
"Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2018". September 10, 2019. "Current Status of State Medicaid Expansion ... This disparity has been linked to lower provider rates of participation in Medicaid programs vs Medicare or commercial ... Research shows that Medicaid improves health outcomes, health insurance coverage, access to health care, recipients' financial ... "Health Reform Monitoring Survey". Retrieved December 5, 2016. Robert Pear (May 24, 2013). "States' Policies on Health Care ...
Retrieved 2020-06-11.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) "Delaware Health Secretary Dr. Kara Odom Walker steps down from ... researching health disparities and working to understand how best to provide high quality, coordinated care with patients' ... During that time, she also received a Master of Public Health degree in Health Policy and Management from Johns Hopkins ... Retrieved 2020-06-10.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) (CS1 maint: url-status, Articles with short description, Short ...
... and population health and foreign direct investment. Alsan is the co-director of the Health Care Delivery Initiative of J-PAL ... CS1 maint: url-status, Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles with hCards, Articles with ... Alsan has conducted additional research on COVID-19 behaviours and knowledge related disparities. Alsan is on the Social ... a master's in international public health from the Harvard School of Public Health, an MD from Loyola University magna cum ...
Courts were given more discretion in sentencing by the Kimbrough v. United States (2007) decision, and the disparity was ... July 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) Initiative, Prison Policy; Wagner, Wendy Sawyer and Peter. "Mass ... American Journal of Public Health. 104 (3): 448-454. doi:10.2105/ajph.2013.301786. PMC 3953792. PMID 24432948. Khalek, Rania. ... url-status (link) "[T]he world population ...was estimated to have reached 7,800,000,000 people as of March 2020." Meanwhile, " ...
Retrieved from Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI). (2012). Disparities in primary health care ... showed that participants experienced improved health behaviors and health status (Lorig, Sobel, Ritter, Laurent, & Hobbs, 2001 ... Retrieved from Ministry of Health and Long Term Care. (2011). Rural and northern health care framework. ... Health Services Health services, particularly those designed to maintain and promote health, to prevent disease, and to restore ...
A greater threshold for presuming that disparities are due to discrimination, such as an odds ratio of 2-3, is less likely to ... and some laws include disability status and other traits as well. A violation of Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act may be ... claims brought under Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 Marietta Memorial Hospital Employee Health Benefit Plan v. ... For example, suppose that we are attempting to investigate whether or not a pay disparity between two groups is due to ...
Retrieved September 11, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) "Philippine Economy Grew by 7.2 percent in 2013". ... However, major problems remain, mainly related to alleviating the wide income and growth disparities between the country's ... the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Labor Organization (ILO), etc. When President Carlos P. Garcia won the ... OFW remittances is also credited for the Philippines' recent economic growth resulting in investment status upgrades from ...
Williams, DR; Mohammed, SA (February 2009). "Discrimination and racial disparities in health: evidence and needed research". ... Harvard School of Public Health. 2014-06-11. Retrieved 2021-06-17. "Committee on Socioeconomic Status (CSES) Leadership Awards ... is the Florence Sprague Norman and Laura Smart Norman Professor of Public Health at the Harvard School of Public Health, as ... Williams then studied public health and sociology. Williams holds a Master of Public Health from Loma Linda University and an ...
The U.S. Sentencing Commission first called for reform of the 100:1 sentencing disparity in 1994 after a year-long study on the ... Bill Summary & Status - 111th Congress (2009-2010) - S.1789 - CRS Summary Archived 2016-07-04 at the Wayback Machine, thomas. ... public health data has found that two-thirds of crack users are white or Hispanic. Third, the Act does not reduce sentences for ... The law also contained minimum sentences and other disparities between the two forms of the drug. In the three decades prior to ...
"Health In Slavery". Archived from the original on October 3, 2006. Galenson, David W. (March 1984). "The Rise and Fall of ... This case was significant because it established the disparity between his sentence as a black man and that of the two white ... We all know of its status as an "archipelago" (in Solzhenitsyn's words) of penal slavery, inflicted on millions and held as a ... By the time of the American Revolution, the status of slave had been institutionalized as a racial caste associated with ...
... has lower electricity related health risks than Coal, Oil, & gas. ...the health burdens are appreciably smaller ... Renewables 2014 Global Status Report" (PDF). Butler, Nick (3 September 2018). "The challenge for nuclear is to recover its ... Nuclear power cost trends show large disparity by nation, design, build rate and the establishment of familiarity in expertise ... "Health effects of radiation and other health problems in the aftermath of nuclear accidents, with an emphasis on Fukushima" ( ...
Our Health Matters Too!"; it included the first social media campaign to address disparities in physical and mental health ... protected status or claim of discrimination. This Section of the Constitution shall be in all respects self-executing. This led ... "Bi the way, our health matters too!" - It's Bisexual Health Awareness Month!". GLAAD. 3 March 2014. Cruz, Eliel (2014-06-21). " ... Bisexual health was one of eight workshop tracks at the conference, and the "NAMES Project" quilt was displayed with bisexual ...
... a modified health care system and an added pension tier for new workers and a broadened effort to reduce the disparity in pay ... During this time, Garcetti personally made a request to fire officials to check the status of a private residence in Bell ...
This disparity of expectations is mobilizing factor behind a significant number of student federations. The student federations ... Retrieved 12 September 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) "The all influential APMSO is now a shadow of its former ... health, employment and sports." The PYC has promoted the role of youth in politics through educational conferences and lobbying ... Retrieved 12 September 2021.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) "The Malala you won't hear about". ...
"Health & Family Welfare Department" (PDF). Health Statistics - Primary Health Centres. Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 10 ... "Official status for Urdu in some West Bengal Areas". The Hindu, 2 April 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2020. "Multilingual Bengal". The ... The gender disparity (the difference between female and male literacy rates) was 22.89%. See also - List of West Bengal ... In 2014, Mejia CD block had 1 rural hospital, 1 block primary health centre and 3 primary health centres with 44 beds and 5 ...
The proportion of health care spending has also dramatically increased as Japan's older population spends more time in ... This means that money and social status are important for men in dating. According to a 2010 survey, 61% of single Japanese men ... In 2014, the Supreme Court of Japan declared the disparities in voting power violate the Constitution, but the ruling Liberal ... As recently as the early-1970s, the cost of public pensions, health care, and welfare services for the aged amounted to only ...
In 2014, Ratua II CD Block had 1 block primary health centre and 2 primary health centres, with total 40 beds and 10 doctors ( ... The gender disparity (the difference between female and male literacy rates) was 4.28%. See also - List of West Bengal ... Gauda was rebuilt and restored to the status of capital city by the Hussain Shahi sultans"... With the ascent of Akbar to the ... "Health & Family Welfare Department". Health Statistics. Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 14 November 2018. (Pages using the ...
CS1 maint: url-status, Health activism, Industrial relations, Ageism, Human resource management, Workplace, Menopause, Middle ... "Menopause and Culture". Norfolk Community Health and Care. Retrieved 2022-07-29. "Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Menopause". ... url-status (link) Brewis, Jo (2020-06-06). "The health and socioeconomic impact on menopausal women of working from home". Case ... There are clear health and safety implications for women, their colleagues, and the general public, if we do not support, ...
... submitted a proposal to The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) to study the health-related risk ... Age disparity in sexual relationships Child sexuality Romeo and Juliet laws By country Adolescent sexuality in Canada ... Better indicators of whether or not girls were having sex were their employment and school status. Girls who were not attending ... "Adolescent Sexual Health in Europe and the US". Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-04-01. "'Let's Talk ...
... and others who strive to improve the health of the public through chronic disease prevention. ... and others who strive to improve the health of the public through chronic disease prevention. ... is a peer-reviewed electronic journal established by the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. ... is a peer-reviewed electronic journal established by the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W ... Address by Mr Jens Stoltenberg, Prime Minister of Norway, at the sixtieth World Health Assembly, Geneva, Tuesday, 15 May 2007 ... Address by Ms Thoraya Ahmed Obaid, Executive Director, United Nations Population Fund at the sixtieth World Health Assembly, ...
Health Status Disparities. Violence. Humans. New York City. United States 2. What is the status of womens health and health ... Start Over You searched for: Subjects Health Status Disparities ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Health Status Disparities ... Health Status. Health Status Disparities. Patient Satisfaction -- statistics & numerical data. Quality of Health Care -- ... Health Status. Insurance Coverage. Medicaid. Volunteers. Causality. Disease. Health Status Disparities. Mental Disorders. ...
... and Health Disparities on Academic P Triple Jeopardy of Minority Status, Social Stressors, and Health Disparities on Academic ... In this study, we evaluated the role of minority status, as well as pandemic-related social stressors and health disparities on ... to identify participants of minority status as well as pandemic-related prevalence of social stressors and health disparities ... Sami S; Center for Health Equity, Department of Health Science and Human Ecology, California State University-San Bernardino, ...
Results of search for su:{Health status disparities} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently available ... The economics of the social determinants of health and health inequalities: a resource book by World Health Organization. ... Communicating the economics of social determinants of health and health inequalities by World Health Organization. ... by World Health Organization.. Material type: Text; Format: print Publication details: Geneva : World Health Organization, 2015 ...
Organize a working group of stakeholders, including health disparities communities, to develop more consistent nomenclature in ...
Health disparities refer to differences in the health status of different groups of people. Read more. ... Health Disparities is the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities ... Indian Health Disparities (Indian Health Service) * National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports (Agency for Healthcare ... Health disparities are health differences between different groups of people. These health differences may include:. *How many ...
... together OA investigators with others who have expertise in health disparities to exchange ideas regarding how/why disparities ... and speakers highlighted mechanisms through which behavioral and biomedical science integration can lead to better health in OA ... The Health Disparities in Osteoarthritis (OA) workshop brought ... status are fundamental in determining health disparities. He ... Day 1: NIH VideoCast - Health Disparities in Osteoarthritis (Day 1). *Day 2: NIH VideoCast - Health Disparities in ...
Health disparities refer to differences in the health status of different groups of people. Read more. ... Health Disparities is the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities ... Indian Health Disparities (Indian Health Service) * National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports (Agency for Healthcare ... Health disparities are health differences between different groups of people. These health differences may include:. *How many ...
Sudans health status. The key national health indicators reveal that the overall Sudans health status is low (8,17). Moreover ... This poor status of health is largely associated with low financial and human resources allocated to the health sector. In ... The unequal distribution of the health resources has resulted in significant regional disparities in provision of health care ... Despite the measures taken to improve health status and reduce health inequalities, the study results show that the ...
Health Status Disparities* * Humans * Nutritional Status* * Obesity / epidemiology* * Pandemics * Pneumonia, Viral / ... Covid-19 and Disparities in Nutrition and Obesity N Engl J Med. 2020 Sep 10;383(11):e69. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp2021264. Epub 2020 ...
Instrumentation, Construction, Education, Health Disparity Endowment Grants, or Meeting Awards * Resource Facilities ... Research and Institutional Resources Health Disparities Endowment Grants - Capacity Building (S21) * Research and Student ... Phased awards and ESI status: For phased awards, the activity code of both phases must be listed on this page for a PD/PI to ... For example, transitioning to the R33 phase of an R21/R33 or R61/R33 phased award disqualifies PD/PIs from ESI status since R33 ...
Health Policy [‎6]‎. Health Status Disparities [‎1]‎. Health Status Indicators [‎5]‎. Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo [‎ ...
Health Disparities Among American Indians and Alaska Natives: Enormous Hurdles and Opportunities to Advance Health Status ... Health Disparities Among American Indians and Alaska Natives: Enormous Hurdles and Opportunities to Advance Health Status ... American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) have long experienced lower health status than other U.S. populations do. AI/ANs ... educational attainment and income are the indicators most commonly used to measure the effect of socioeconomic status on health ...
... the director of the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities focuses on health and health care disparities ... The Minority Health and Health Disparities Population Laboratory, led Dr. Eliseo Pérez-Stable, who is also ... Hispanic/Latino heritage group disparities in sleep and the sleep-cardiovascular health relationship by housing tenure status ... Minority Health and Health Disparities Population. The Minority Health and Health Disparities Population Laboratory, led Dr. ...
... and sustainability of evidence-based mental health practices and services. ... Improve disparities in mental health status, service utilization, and treatment outcomes. *Develop strategies using ... COVID-19 Public Health Information From CDC. COVID-19 Research Information From NIH (español). National Institutes of Health. U ... The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), a component of the U.S. ...
Final statement from the previous lender(s), showing $0 balances or paid-in-full status ... Health Disparities Research: Research that focuses on minority and other health disparity populations; ... Health Disparities ✔ Clinical Disadvantaged ✔ Contraception & Infertility ✔ REACH ✔ Intramural AIDS ✔ Clinical ✔ General ✔ ... Not only does it indicate the wealth of Health Disparities Research portfolios throughout each NIH IC, it also allows NIH ICs ...
Health Services Accessibility--economics. Health Services Needs and Demand--economics. Health Status. Minority Groups. United ... and the National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NCMHD) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), hopes to ... and the National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NCMHD) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), hopes to ... Economic perspectives on health disparities / OBSSR and NCMHD. Author: National Institutes of Health (U.S.). Office of ...
... community partners to share perspectives on essential technologies for all aspects of clinical care related to the health of ... These disparities have persisted and increased. They are not explained by socioeconomic or education status. Leading causes of ... Inequitable delivery of health care services also results in racial and ethnic disparities in maternal health. ... National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD); National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences ( ...
... and prioritize health and consider issues of health equity. ... change agents and action on health. *health status and ... views regarding social determinants of health and disparities,/li> ,li>change agents and action on health,/li> ,li>health ... status and experiences,/li> ,li>views of the role of government in health,/li> ,li>general views on equity and health equity,/ ... Gauging peoples perceptions of health and measuring progress toward a Culture of Health in the United States.. Since 2013, the ...
Socioeconomic Status and Health Disparities in Lung Function Despite improvements in air quality and reductions in tobacco use ...
socioeconomic status. Poorer patients and those living in poorer regions of the country have less access to quality health care ... lack of access to health insurance and health care, concerns about medical bills or missed work, or a lack of health literacy. ... A: Health care professionals should tell every patient who comes into their office to take off their socks during exams. Health ... He has become a national voice on the impact of health disparities in underserved communities. ...
The mission of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is to discover how the environment affects people in ... Health & Education. * *Health & Education. * Brochures & Fact Sheets If you are giving a presentation about an environmental ... to explore potential mediators of socio-economic status disparities in prostate cancer risk. The authors interviewed NHW men in ... is expanding and accelerating its contributions to scientific knowledge of human health and the environment, and to the health ...
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) for The Health Disparities and Health Equity Research Initiative What is the Common Fund? ... Applications from ESIs will be reviewed along with all other applications; however, reviewers will be informed of ESI status. ... General FAQs for The Health Disparities and Health Equity Research Initiative General FAQs for The Health Disparities and ... but which is expected to address health disparities and advance health equity in a designated health disparities population may ...
... such public health gain may not benefit all individuals equally. Using the data from a U.S. representative serial cross- ... sectional survey study during 1995-2019, we found that disparities in current cig … ... Association between marital status and cigarette smoking: Variation by race and ethnicity. Ramsey MW Jr, Chen-Sankey JC, Reese- ... 1 Division of Intramural Research, National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. ...
  • Lack of in- a new or reestablished ecologic niche, or the spread of or- formation about the health status of these populations upon ganisms that carry resistance or mechanisms of resistance arrival and their need for and use of medical services in the to antimicrobial drugs ( 2 ). (
  • As with all mobile populations, United States hinders development of public health policy, education, and provision of adequate clinical care. (
  • Infl uenza A disparities of care experienced by these populations. (
  • In- health status of these populations. (
  • The Minority Health and Health Disparities Population Laboratory, led Dr. Eliseo Pérez-Stable, who is also the director of the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities focuses on health and health care disparities among racial and ethnic minority populations. (
  • Dr. Pérez-Stable's research interests have centered on improving the health of racial/ethnic minorities and underserved populations, advancing patient-centered care, improving cross-cultural communication skills among health care professionals, and promoting diversity in the biomedical research workforce. (
  • Recognized as a leader in Latino health care and disparities research, Dr. Pérez-Stable has spent more than 30 years leading research on smoking cessation and tobacco control policy in Latino populations in the United States and Latin America. (
  • Diaz A, Baweja R, Bonatakis JK, Baweja R. Global health disparities in vulnerable populations of psychiatric patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. (
  • In this narrative review, we examine the impact of the pandemic on significant global health disparities affecting vulnerable populations of psychiatric patients: People of diverse ethnic background and color, children with disabilities, sexual and gender minorities, pregnant women, mature adults, and those patients living in urban and rural communities. (
  • The research centers and hubs will work collaboratively to design and implement research projects to address the biological, behavioral, environmental, sociocultural, and structural factors that affect maternal morbidity and mortality in populations that experience health disparities. (
  • The data reflect the health disparity experienced by low-income minority populations in the United States and emphasize a need to plan additional services that target hypertension, heart disease, obesity, diabetes, and mental health disorders such as anxiety and depression. (
  • Systematic violations of migrant workers' human rights and striking health disparities among these populations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are the norm in member countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). (
  • According Wake Forest School of Law Visiting Professor Emily Benfer, over the last decade, the concept of health justice has emerged and developed as a framework for eradicating health inequality, particularly among vulnerable populations and historically marginalized groups. (
  • Health justice calls for policy makers to provide access to basic health-related rights and protections, and supports elimination of health disparities," Benfer said, noting the strategy is especially important for protecting marginalized populations during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. (
  • The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the health inequities that have existed in minority populations over many years. (
  • The Local Office on Minority Health's mission is to provide leadership that is dedicated to reducing and eliminating disparities and inequities in the health status of the minoritized populations within the City of Dayton and Montgomery County. (
  • The program is dedicated to eliminating health disparities in minority communities through monitoring and reporting the health status of minority populations, informing, educating and empowering people, mobilizing community partnerships and actions, and developing policies and plans to support health efforts. (
  • Monitor and report on the health status of minoritized populations. (
  • In this study, we evaluated the role of minority status, as well as pandemic -related social stressors and health disparities on short- and long-term academic performances of college students . (
  • Cross-sectional analysis using descriptive and bivariate statistics were used to identify participants of minority status as well as pandemic -related prevalence of social stressors and health disparities and their roles on academic performance . (
  • Poor academic performance was significantly related to being food insecure, experiences of discrimination, serious psychological distress , and low daytime wakefulness during the pandemic but only significantly based on minority status. (
  • Institutes of higher education , when tasked with developing post- pandemic policies to address equity gaps in academic success , may benefit their students by integrating system-wide holistic approach to support, including interventions on basic needs support and health and resilience building. (
  • The COVID-19 pandemic is also highlighting societal and health care inequities. (
  • The COVID-19 pandemic has brought the idea of significant disparities in health care to the forefront of our national attention," says Dr. Krishnan. (
  • services due to the COVID-19 pandemic says a panel of senior global health experts advising the UN Secretary-General. (
  • Mothers, newborns, young children and adolescents are losing 20% of their health and social services because of the pandemic, according to a new report from a panel senior global health experts. (
  • As the public health response to the COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve, considerable progress has been made. (
  • Because racial and ethnic groups are not represented equally in all occupations, differences in job characteristics may help explain racial/ethnic health disparities. (
  • The racial and ethnic disparities in these maternal health outcomes are stark. (
  • Leading marketing campaign to promote health behavior related to COVID-19 guidelines. (
  • By improving race and ethnicity data collection and reporting, we continue to increase our understanding of health disparities related to COVID-19. (
  • East Mediterr Health J. 2020;26(9):1105-1114. (
  • On January 30, 2020, the WHO declared the COVID-19 outbreak a global health emergency. (
  • The Centers of Excellence initiative is part of NIH's Implementing a Maternal health and PRegnancy Outcomes Vision for Everyone (IMPROVE) initiative , launched in 2020 in response to the high rates of maternal morbidity and mortality in the United States. (
  • The conference is part of the Health Justice: Engaging Critical Perspectives Initiative, which also encompasses a series of virtual workshops held in summer 2020, a face-to-face conference tentatively planned for October 7-8, 2021, and an accompanying symposium issue to be published in the Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics. (
  • Using data collected by the Commonwealth Fund for its 2020 survey of 11 advanced nations, the researchers analyzed the information for differences between the rural and urban participants in each country, looking at 10 indicators in three domains: health status and socioeconomic risk factors, affordability of care, and access to care. (
  • In conjunction with the work of the agencies Local Office on Minority Health, Public Health - Dayton & Montgomery County developed a COVID-19 Community Health Equity Education & Outreach Plan and Task Force in an effort to address these inequities. (
  • Mobilize community partnerships and actions to combat health disparities and inequities. (
  • Even though many health care providers have seen these inequities firsthand in their own clinical experience, it was still surprising to see the strength of the association between socioeconomic position and the care available to mothers. (
  • Methods: This prospective study with an analytical component investigated vitamin D status of healthy undergraduate students at two time points (winter and summer) at Stellenbosch University. (
  • While there may be no agreed-upon methods to evaluate the quality of education on health disparities, effectiveness checks should be conducted. (
  • This component will address public health significance in areas of surveillance, prevention, treatment, dental care utilization, health policy, evaluation of Federal health programs, standardization of new methods, and oral health disparities. (
  • This entry was posted in Social determinants and tagged Data Collection , Health Status Disparities , Methods , Social Determinants of Health by Editor Equity/Equidad - CG . (
  • Health disparities are health differences between different groups of people. (
  • Health disparities are differences in access to health care and overall health status between different population groups 1 . (
  • Health disparities "phrase references black-white differences as well health disadvantages characteristic of other ethnic groups "of color," such as Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans" (Coreil, 2010 p. 167). (
  • Health disparities are differences in health among groups of people that are linked to social, economic, geographic, and/or environmental disadvantage ( social determinants of health ), and health equity is achieved when everyone has a fair and just opportunity to attain their highest level of health. (
  • The CDC had postulated that large numbers of patients could require medical care concurrently, resulting in overloaded public health and healthcare systems and, potentially, elevated rates of hospitalizations and deaths. (
  • This standard requires that healthcare leaders and organizations actively address health inequity at the patient and community levels. (
  • Int J Environ Res Public Health;20(13)2023 Jun 28. (
  • In addition, beginning in 2023, The Joint Commission standard LD.04.03.08: Reducing health care disparities is a quality and safety priority will be applied broadly. (
  • Lower socioeconomic status, obesity, physical inactivity, lack of sports participation, increased television viewing, and sleep disruption were associated with greater behavioral problems. (
  • Policies aimed at modifying obesity-related behaviors and social environment may lead to improved behavioral/emotional health in both immigrant and native children. (
  • However, few studies have examined the impact of nativity/immigrant status, obesity, and obesity-related risk factors on behavioral outcomes among children [ 10 - 13 ]. (
  • Additionally, most studies of obesity-related effects on children's mental health have used nonnationally representative samples [ 4 ]. (
  • Obesity-related behaviors are one possible mechanism through which ethnic and social factors might influence behavioral and mental health disparities in children [ 4 , 11 ]. (
  • To identify disparities between surveyed farmworkers and Sonoma County residents overall, age-adjusted prevalence estimates were developed by using indirect standardization to the adult (≥18 years) Sonoma County sample from the California Health Interview Survey for 2011-2012. (
  • Comparing diabetes prevalence between African Americans and Whites of similar socioeconomic status. (
  • Disparities in the prevalence of diabetes: is it race/ethnicity or socioeconomic status? (
  • World Health Organization. (
  • The Sonoma County Farmworker Health Survey (FHS) was conducted to describe the health and well-being of adult farmworkers in Sonoma County, California, and to identify preventable health disparities for this population. (
  • Social Science & Medicine-Population Health, 3 , 497-505. (
  • Our findings show that the distributions of health resources, based on population size, were highly unequal among the 18 states of Sudan. (
  • Moreover, the government needs to use health resource allocation models that take into account the population size and health outcomes variables in each state in future health strategies. (
  • Several studies have shown that inequitable geographical distribution of health resources is a major problem that hinders population access to health care services (3-5). (
  • Nonetheless, the government of Sudan strives to provide equitable health care services to the whole population. (
  • Thus, it is immensely important to carry out research on the inequality of geographic distribution of health care resources in Sudan to enable the country to set strategies for improving population access to health care services. (
  • In South Africa few studies have been conducted to determine the vitamin D status of the healthy population. (
  • Through statistical analysis of 469 anonymous patient questionnaires, we identified prevalent health conditions in this patient population and compared these rates to regional and national data. (
  • In 2012, the Tennessee Department of Health included the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) module in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a telephone survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, to analyze how ACEs affect the State's general population. (
  • Despite the rapid increase in the population, behavioral health disparities among immigrant children are not well studied. (
  • p>The 2018 survey measures the attitudes, values, and beliefs of a probability-based representative sample of adults in the United States on issues related to a Culture of Health. (
  • This report provides an overview of the 2018 National Survey of Health Attitudes , including survey development and content, and a top-line summary of descriptive statistics. (
  • Equity, social determinants and public health programmes / editors Erik Blas and Anand Sivasankara Kurup. (
  • Improving equity in health by addressing social determinants / edited by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health Knowledge Networks, Jennifer H Lee and Ritu Sadana. (
  • In line with the long-term plan objectives, the national health sector medium-term plan (2012-2016) also marks equity in access and utilization of health services (13). (
  • The National Institutes of Health seek to establish Maternal Health Research Centers of Excellence to develop and evaluate innovative approaches to reduce pregnancy-related complications and deaths-also known as maternal morbidity and mortality -and promote maternal health equity. (
  • On Friday, Oct. 2, American University Washington College of Law Health Law and Policy Program , in partnership with ChangeLab Solutions and the Saint Louis University Institute for Healing Justice and Equity (IHJE), presented "Health Justice: Engaging Critical Perspectives in Health Law and Policy " - a virtual conference that addressed structural racism, poverty, and other social determinants of health. (
  • When people think about health policy, they think directly and solely about health care outcomes, said Associate Professor Jamila Michener, co-director of the Cornell Center for Health Equity. (
  • Having different types of groups "at the table" when defining and fixing issues within health policy allows the conversation to be more community- and equity-centered said Xavier Morales, executive director of The Praxis Project. (
  • Public Health has adjusted its approach to foster equity in vaccination efforts by allocating vaccine to our minoritized communities, starting with our Black and African American residents with plans to expand targeted opportunities to additional vulnerable demographics. (
  • Because occupational exposures are largely preventable through proper workplace controls, the recognition of occupational causes of disease can provide an opportunity for interventions that can bring about health equity. (
  • This entry was posted in Equity , Social determinants , Universal health coverage and tagged Capacity Building , Global Health , Health Status Disparities , International Cooperation , Research , Social Determinants of Health by Editor Equity/Equidad - DB . (
  • This entry was posted in Health disparities , Universal health coverage and tagged Health Policy , Health Status Disparities , National Health Programs , Teaching Materials by Editor Equity/Equidad - CG . (
  • Importantly, these questions also serve to expand the evidence base to accelerate progress toward reducing COVID-19 health disparities and achieving health equity in prevention, testing, treatment, and management of post-COVID conditions. (
  • However, health equity science remains a fundamental consideration for all priority questions, and there is some overlap in health equity science activities across questions. (
  • Two recent studies by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) explore job complexity as a factor that contributes to racial health disparities. (
  • An innovative occupational approach to improve health and wellbeing, meeting the occupational needs within this community are critically analysed, whilst exploring the potential role for an OT in primary care. (
  • Occupational contributions to respiratory health disparities. (
  • Occupation is an important contributor to disparities in respiratory disease, affecting financial status, health-care access, and exposure to hazardous substances. (
  • In addition, the study also aims to measure the relations between density of health resources and health outcomes. (
  • State-level data on health resources and health outcomes obtained from the Sudan Health Statistical Report of 2016 were used to calculate inequality indices, drawing Lorenz curves, and calculating Spearman's correlation analysis between health resource density and health-related outcomes. (
  • Moreover, many studies show that there is a positive correlation between the availability of health resources and health outcomes represented by life expectancy and mortality rates (6,7). (
  • The questions included self-rated general health, diabetes and hypertension, and body mass index. (
  • and (3) Relationships of migration- and environment-related social determinants of health with chronic diseases, such as diabetes. (
  • Additionally, more than 65,000 people each year experience severe maternal morbidities, which raise the risk of future health concerns, including high blood pressure, diabetes, and mental health conditions. (
  • Bancks MP, Kershaw K, Carson AP, Gordon-Larsen P, Schreiner PJ, Carnethon MR. Association of modifiable risk factors in young adulthood with racial disparity in incident type 2 diabetes during middle adulthood. (
  • The BSC received a report on NCEH/ATSDR's proposal to integrate social and behavioral sciences (SBS) into its environmental health programs and activities. (
  • 11-13 Some student initiatives take place outside of the clinic setting, and include home care visits with geriatric patients, providing health care information to emergency department patients, and conducting behavioral counseling as part of a smoking intervention. (
  • The 2007 National Survey of Children's Health was used to develop an 11-item factor-based behavioral problems index (BPI) and a dichotomous serious behavioral problems (SBP) measure. (
  • Sociodemographic and behavioral factors accounted for 37.0% and 48.5% of ethnic-immigrant disparities in BPI and SBP, respectively. (
  • Behavioral and emotional problems in children have significant impacts on their health and wellbeing [ 1 - 4 ]. (
  • Children with emotional and behavioral problems are more likely to have poor academic performance, to repeat a grade in school, to face school suspension, and to develop behavioral and mental health problems in adulthood and are less likely to engage in social activities outside of school [ 1 - 4 ]. (
  • Evidence also suggests that emotional and behavioral problems in children have an adverse effect on their parents' mental health and subjective wellbeing and are associated with increased levels of parental and familial stress [ 1 , 2 , 5 ]. (
  • A number of studies have analyzed gender, racial/ethnic, and socioeconomic variations in children's mental health and behavioral problems [ 3 - 9 ]. (
  • It is often hypothesized that children in immigrant families may be at greater risk for behavioral and emotional health problems than children of native- or US-born parents due to the stresses associated with immigration, acculturation, and their ethnic-minority status [ 10 , 14 ]. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) convened a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC), National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (NCEH/ATSDR) on November 18-19, 2004, in Atlanta, Georgia. (
  • A group of experts was brought together by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) to review the pertinent scientific evidence and to develop a clear, concise 'public health message' regarding physical activity. (
  • Many health systems publish community health needs assessments (CHNA) which is a good starting point when investigating which disparities are locally prevalent. (
  • But we're also working with our public health allies to recognize the agency of community, and how we need to build knowledge to help institute taxes and other interventions. (
  • NHANES is critical for monitoring oral health status, risk indicators for disease, and access to preventive and treatment services. (
  • According to the paper, "The US had statistically significant geographic health disparities in 5 of the 10 indicators, the most of any country, followed by Switzerland (4), the UK and Australia (3 each), and France and Germany (2 each). (
  • This study aims to describe and analyse the inequality in geographic distribution of public sector's physical and human health resources in Sudan. (
  • Canada, Norway and the Netherlands had no statistically significant geographic health disparities. (
  • Keeping promises, measuring results: commission on information and accountability for Women's and Children's health. (
  • The aim of this study was to explore the joint effect of race/ethnicity and insurance status/expected payer or income on children's health care quality. (
  • Hazardous Substances and Health Effects Workgroup did not present during this meeting. (
  • After visitors and temporary residents to the United States may these issues and needs are clarifi ed, intervention programs represent a risk for public health through introduction of should be developed to increase access and decrease the infections or vaccine-preventable diseases. (
  • PERSPECTIVE ventions geared toward promoting health and well-being Health Regulations for Visitors and Temporary for the visitors and temporary residents and public health Residents to the United States protection to host communities. (
  • Each Center will partner with community collaborators, such as state and local public health agencies, community health centers, and faith-based organizations. (
  • Am J Public Health. (
  • International guidelines for cigarette health warnings have been established under Article 11 of the WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)-the first international treaty devoted to public health. (
  • The Dayton & Montgomery County Local Office of Minority Health is a program funded by a grant from the Ohio Commission on Minority Health, in partnership with Public Health - Dayton & Montgomery County. (
  • Implemented vaccine attitude survey to provide community members with opportunity to voice their concerns and worries about the vaccine directly to the health department, to be used to inform Public Health messaging efforts and vaccination approach. (
  • This knowledge helps us create more equitable public health policies and prevention strategies. (
  • Physical Activity and Public Health -- Recom. (
  • A concise 'public health message' was developed to express the recommendations of the panel. (
  • It remains important to collect data-driven information on key priority areas that can help CDC and public health partners continue to fill critical scientific gaps, build on knowledge gained and advances made, and inform evidence-based decision-making for continued intervention through public health surveillance and epidemiologic research. (
  • Within these topic areas, 15 priority public health science questions relate to the broad scope of CDC's scientific work, both in the United States and globally, including public health surveillance, epidemiologic research, implementation science, and evaluation. (
  • This Science Agenda is intended to inform efforts by the broader public health research community. (
  • Key activities of public health importance that fall within the question domain are noted under each question. (
  • Triple Jeopardy of Minority Status, Social Stressors, and Health Disparities on Academic Performance of College Students. (
  • Eliseo J. Pérez-Stable, M.D. is Director of the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD) and Principal Investigator in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). (
  • Inform, educate, and empower the local community on minority health topic. (
  • Develop policies and plans to support minority health efforts. (
  • Dr. Henry Falk will serve as Director of the Coordinating Center for Environmental Health and Injury Prevention. (
  • Strategies For Improving Health Inequalities For The. (
  • Describe strategies to increase vaccination rates and highlight important health disparities. (
  • These organizations and institutions, providers of health services, communities, and individuals must also implement effective strategies that promote the adoption of physically active lifestyles. (
  • Participants aged 13 to 15 years must have a health proxy signed by a parent/guardian to participate in the oral health examination. (
  • For oral health data collected in the mobile examination center, detailed information and instructions are discussed in the NHANES 2000 Oral Health Training Manual. (
  • For oral health data collected during the home interview, detailed information and instructions are described in the NHANES 2000 Home Interview Training Manual. (
  • One of up to seven trained oral health recorders is paired with a licensed dentist to form a dental examination team. (
  • During the home interview, oral health data are collected by trained interviewers. (
  • Detailed placement and reading instructions are discussed in the NHANES Oral Health Training and Home Interview Training Manuals. (
  • Each chapter specifies procedures to be used for each of the oral health subcomponents. (
  • In 2008, the Regional Committee for Africa endorsed the Ouagadougou Declaration on Primary Health Care and Health Systems in Africa, 4 urging Member States to continue investing in national health systems. (
  • The unequal distribution of the health resources has resulted in significant regional disparities in provision of health care services. (
  • Maldistribution of health resources has been one of the leading health care problems in many countries (2). (
  • Therefore, equitable distribution of health resources in developing countries is of paramount importance, as many of these countries face severe shortages in physical and human resources to provide essential health care services (8,9). (
  • The long-term strategic plan for health sector (2003-2027) aims to provide equitable, accessible, affordable, efficient and quality health care services (12). (
  • As a result, the distributions of health resources have been highly unequal, reflecting significant regional disparities in provision of health care services (13-15). (
  • Contact a health care provider if you have questions about your health. (
  • 1 ,2 These nations provide health care coverage universally, whereas 46.6 million United States residents (15.9%) are without health insurance. (
  • There are many other people, though, who exceed the income limits to receive free health care coverage but make an insufficient income to pay out-of-pocket for their health insurance. (
  • The importance of free medical clinics as part of the health care safety net was underscored by a survey of 106 free clinics in the Midwestern United States that showed they cared for over 200,000 patients in a single year. (
  • The exploitation and abuse of migrant laborers is well documented, yet there is a troubling paucity of literature examining their plight with regard to health care, a basic tenet of human rights. (
  • Clinical Commissioning Group Following the Health and Social Care Act (2012), CCG's were established all over the UK to commission services to meet the needs of the community in its catchment area. (
  • These tiers were voluntary and municipal hospitals supervised by Regional hospital boards, family doctors, dentists, opticians and pharmacists who were self-employed professionals contracted to the NHS to provide services so that patients did not pay directly and local health authorities like community clinics that provided services such as immunisations, maternity care and school medical services controlled by a local authority Medical Health. (
  • This included the abolition of primary care trusts (PCTs) and strategic health authorities (SHAs), and the introduction of clinical commissioning groups (CCGs) and Health watch England. (
  • HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE ACT 2012 The Health and Social Care Act 2012 came into force with crucial principles including new structures and arrangements in health care services to safeguard and strengthen the future of NHS and maintain the modernisation plan. (
  • In this Act, many new changes has been made to a number of existing Acts, National Health Services Act (NHS 2006), in order to enable health care system to tackle the existing challenges and also avoid any potential crisis in future. (
  • The potential for vaccination to contribute to even greater mortality reduction and accelerate attainment of the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDG), particularly MDG4, can be realized with further improvements in vaccination coverage and large-scale introduction of new vaccines targeting an increasing number of infectious diseases. (
  • 2 The health burden from tobacco reflects the wide range of smoking-related diseases: causal links have been identified for 10 types of cancer as well as 18 other diseases. (
  • Immunization activities, Child Health Days and Immunization plus Days have contributed to the improved coverage. (
  • Detailed analysis of regional routine immunization coverage rates reveals disparities between countries. (
  • Research conducted in the United States on racial/ethnic health disparities and socioeconomic status (SES) has not fully considered occupation. (
  • Additionally, the Centers will support training and professional development of maternal health researchers, including those from backgrounds underrepresented in the biomedical research workforce. (
  • // Science & Research // Scientific Shorts // How can we prepare our trainees to address health disparities? (
  • This committee selected 15 other workshop discussants on the basis of their research expertise in issues related to the health implications of physical activity. (
  • Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa, 2009. (
  • Clinic staff asked patients to fill out a Health Risk Assessment questionnaire that addressed their chronic disease and illness history, mental health, social support, substance use, income, education, and housing. (
  • Recently, this impression has been reinforced by new scientific evidence linking regular physical activity to a wide array of physical and mental health benefits. (
  • Inequality of health resources is a worldwide phenomenon but it is more predominant in developing countries (1). (
  • CDC recommends universal indoor masking for all teachers, staff, students, and visitors to K-12 schools, regardless of vaccination status. (
  • Therefore, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's (ACGME) Clinical Learning Environment Review (CLER) program has included, as an educational priority, a curriculum focused on addressing health disparities, with emphasis on social determinants of health and cultural competency 3 . (
  • Providing education to medical residents and fellows has been identified as a critical step toward eliminating health disparities and preventing the recurrence of past medical misdoings. (
  • The role will involve working within operating theatres inside hospitals to support patients throughout their time during certain operations, or 'periopertive journey' (Health Education England, 2014b). (
  • Hispanic/Latino heritage group disparities in sleep and the sleep-cardiovascular health relationship by housing tenure status in the United States. (
  • Mothers who are Hispanic or who come from rural or low socioeconomic status neighborhoods are less likely to have their child's critical heart condition diagnosed before birth, according to a new study in the journal Circulation . (
  • Part of the reason health justice isn't actualized in the present moment is because folks who don't have access to health justice, also don't have power. (
  • This review examines disparities in access to urban green space (UGS) based on socioeconomic status (SES) and race-ethnicity in Global South cities. (
  • Through the PRISMA approach and five inclusion criteria, we identified 46 peer-reviewed articles that measured SES or racial-ethnic disparities in access to UGS in Global South cities. (
  • The IAP report estimates that the disruptions of health systems along with the decreased access to food could contribute to over 56,000 additional maternal deaths in six months, with increases of up to 38.6% in maternal deaths per month. (
  • Especially worrisome are declines in access to life-saving vaccines for children and maternal health services due to closures and movement restrictions. (
  • Through a review of available literature, including official reports, scientific papers, and media reports, the paper discusses the responsibility of employers, governments, and the global community in mitigating these problems and reveals the paucity of systematic data on the health of migrant workers in the Gulf. (
  • For example, while Canada is one of the nations that had no urban-rural disparities, there is a serious shortage of clinicians in some rural areas of Canada. (
  • For these groups, health disparities are often linked or caused by discrimination correlated with socio-economic status. (
  • As curricula regarding health disparities are developed within departments, the faculty charged with presenting this material may not be adequately prepared to discuss complicated topics like culture, bias, and discrimination related to health disparities. (
  • check also tag CHILD or specific HN - 2008 FX - Adolescent Nutrition FX - Infant Nutrition DH - Maternal Nutrition DI - 052505 MN - SP6.021.072 MS - Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the INFANT as well as herself. (
  • This suggests that different experiences of job complexity may be an important factor in creating racial health disparities. (
  • Health warnings on tobacco packages have emerged as an important medium for communicating the health risks of tobacco use to consumers. (
  • He added that because families are skipping routine checkups they may also be missing important developmental milestones in their children that may warn them of underlying health conditions. (
  • The conference featured three unique panel discussions with leading scholars and advocates , which discussed securing distributive justice, valuing human dignity, and empowering communities in order address to the most pressing challenges in health law and policy. (
  • We couldn't be more excited that several hundred researchers, organizers, government officials, NGO staffers, health professionals, and students from across multiple disciplines are joining us today," said Health Law and Policy Program Director and Professor Lindsay Wiley , who welcomed attendees alongside ChangeLab Solutions CEO Sarah de Guia and Professor Ruqaiijah Yearby, IHJE executive director and co-founder. (
  • And part of what I do is think about how the structures how we have in place now, in terms of health and other types of public policy, shape who has this power. (
  • Gerard Anderson, PhD, professor of health policy and management at Johns Hopkins University and professor of international health at John Hopkins School of Medicine, told Medscape that this is the key. (
  • In addition to the large size of the country, this may be related to the global shortage of doctors, suggests study co-author Munira Gunja, MPH, senior researcher in the international health policy program of the Commonwealth Fund. (