Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
Management of public health organizations or agencies.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)
Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
The status of health in rural populations.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
The status of health in urban populations.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.
Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.
Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.
Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.
Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.
Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.
A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.
Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.
The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.
Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.
Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.
The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.
An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.
Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.
Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.
The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.
The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.
State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
Great Britain is not a medical term, but a geographical name for the largest island in the British Isles, which comprises England, Scotland, and Wales, forming the major part of the United Kingdom.
Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.
Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.
Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.
Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.
Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.
Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.
The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).
The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.
The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.
Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.
Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.
Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.
A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.
Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.
Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.
The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.
The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.
Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.
That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.
The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.
Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.
Financial support of research activities.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'England' is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, known for its rich history, cultural heritage, and contributions to medical science. However, in a medical context, it may refer to the location of a patient, healthcare provider, or research study, but it is not a term with a specific medical meaning.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.
All organized methods of funding.
Programs and activities sponsored or administered by local, state, or national governments.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.
Procedures, strategies, and theories of planning.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Federative Republic of Brazil. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or science, I'd be happy to help answer those!
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.
The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.
The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.
Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.
An iterative questionnaire designed to measure consensus among individual responses. In the classic Delphi approach, there is no interaction between responder and interviewer.
Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.
Contracts between an insurer and a subscriber or a group of subscribers whereby a specified set of health benefits is provided in return for a periodic premium.
Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.
The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.
Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.
Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)
The circulation or wide dispersal of information.
Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.
The practice of nursing in the work environment.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.

Effect of discussion and deliberation on the public's views of priority setting in health care: focus group study. (1/868)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the extent to which people change their views about priority setting in health care as a result of discussion and deliberation. DESIGN: A random sample of patients from two urban general practices was invited to attend two focus group meetings, a fortnight apart. SETTING: North Yorkshire Health Authority. SUBJECTS: 60 randomly chosen patients meeting in 10 groups of five to seven people. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences between people's views at the start of the first meeting and at the end of the second meeting, after they have had an opportunity for discussion and deliberation, measured by questionnaires at the start of the first meeting and the end of the second meeting. RESULTS: Respondents became more reticent about the role that their views should play in determining priorities and more sympathetic to the role that healthcare managers play. About a half of respondents initially wanted to give lower priority to smokers, heavy drinkers, and illegal drug users, but after discussion many no longer wished to discriminate against these people. CONCLUSION: The public's views about setting priorities in health care are systematically different when they have been given an opportunity to discuss the issues. If the considered opinions of the general public are required, surveys that do not allow respondents time or opportunity for reflection may be of doubtful value.  (+info)

Diabetes care: who are the experts? (2/868)

OBJECTIVES: To identify issues that patients and professionals consider important in diabetes care and differences in their priorities for care and to determine patients' and professionals' judgements of the relative importance of their chosen priorities. DESIGN: Structured group interviews using the nominal group technique. SETTING: Five district health authorities on Tyneside. SUBJECTS: Five nominal groups: expert (seven), non-expert (seven) health care professionals; insulin dependent (four), non-insulin dependent patients (eight); and carers of diabetic patients (eight). MAIN MEASURES: Items important in diabetes care to each nominal group (themes of care), ranked into a series of "top 10" items for each group, and allocated a score according to relative importance to individual members; scores were standardised by individual weighting and group weighting for comparison within and between groups. RESULTS: Patients and professionals agreed that information given to patients, interaction between professionals and patients, patient autonomy, and access were important for good diabetes care, but the importance assigned to each differed. Thus the professionals emphasised empathy and aspects of good communication and patients the desire to know enough to live a "normal" life. Differences were also found within the patient groups; these related to changes in patients' needs at specific points in the development of their illness and in their orientations to care. CONCLUSION: Patients differ from professionals in their orientation to diabetes care, and they can, and should, be involved in setting priorities for care. Since these priorities are dynamic further work is needed to explore the nature of patient satisfaction with diabetes care.  (+info)

Policy priorities in diabetes care: a Delphi study. (3/868)

OBJECTIVES: To produce policy priorities for improving care of diabetes based on the findings of original research into patient and professional opinions of diabetes care in South Tyneside. To judge the feasibility of implementing these priorities as policy. DESIGN: A two round Delphi survey with a panel of 28 inverted question markexperts. inverted question mark In the first round each respondent produced a list of recommendations based on the findings of a report of patients' and professionals' opinions of diabetes care. 20 respondents produced a total of 180 recommendations, reviewed by a monitoring panel to produce a summary list of 28 recommendations. In the second round respondents rated each recommendation on two 5 point Likert scales. SETTING: Mainly Tyneside but also other parts of England. SUBJECTS: 28 healthcare professionals, including patients and patients' representatives. MAIN MEASURES: Voting by experts on how important each recommendation was to improving diabetes care service, and how likely the recommendation was to be implemented in the next five years. RESULTS: There was a high degree of consensus among respondents about recommendations considered important and likely to be implemented--namely, those concerned with improving communications between doctors in hospital and in general practice, and improving communications with patients. Respondents were more pessimistic about the prospects of implementing the recommendations than about their importance. Respondents thought that standards were important for improving care, and half would stop payments to general practice diabetic clinics that did not keep to district standards for diabetes care. For two recommendations a mismatch occurred between the importance of the recommendations and likelihood of implementation. This may reflect the practical problems of implementing recommendations. 18 of the 22 respondents thought that the study was useful in generating recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: The Delphi technique is a useful method for determining priorities for diabetes care and in assessing the feasibility of implementing recommendations.  (+info)

Breastfeeding promotion and priority setting in health. (4/868)

An increase in exclusive breastfeeding prevalence can substantially reduce mortality and morbidity among infants. In this paper, estimates of the costs and impacts of three breastfeeding promotion programmes, implemented through maternity services in Brazil, Honduras and Mexico, are used to develop cost-effectiveness measures and these are compared with other health interventions. The results show that breastfeeding promotion can be one of the most cost-effective health interventions for preventing cases of diarrhoea, preventing deaths from diarrhoea, and gaining disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The benefits are substantial over a broad range of programme types. Programmes starting with the removal of formula and medications during delivery are likely to derive a high level of impact per unit of net incremental cost. Cost-effectiveness is lower (but still attractive relative to other interventions) if hospitals already have rooming-in and no bottle-feeds; and the cost-effectiveness improves as programmes become well-established. At an annual cost of about 30 to 40 US cents per birth, programmes starting with formula feeding in nurseries and maternity wards can reduce diarrhoea cases for approximately $0.65 to $1.10 per case prevented, diarrhoea deaths for $100 to $200 per death averted, and reduce the burden of disease for approximately $2 to $4 per DALY. Maternity services that have already eliminated formula can, by investing from $2 to $3 per birth, prevent diarrhoea cases and deaths for $3.50 to $6.75 per case, and $550 to $800 per death respectively, with DALYs gained at $12 to $19 each.  (+info)

Promoting audit in primary care: roles and relationships of medical audit advisory groups and their managers. (5/868)

OBJECTIVES: To investigate perceptions of family health service authorities and medical audit advisory groups of advisory groups' involvement in clinical audit and wider quality issues; communication with the authorities; and manager satisfaction. DESIGN: National postal questionnaire survey in 1994. SETTING: All family health services authority districts in England and Wales. SUBJECTS: Chief executives or other responsible authority officers and advisory group chairpersons in each district. MAIN MEASURES: Priorities of advisory group and authority for audit; involvement of advisory group in wider quality issues; communication of information to, and contacts with, the authority and its involvement in planning the future work of the advisory group; and authorities' satisfaction. RESULTS: Both groups' views about audit were similar and broadly consistent with current policy. Advisory group involvement in wider quality issues was extensive, and the majority of both groups thought this appropriate. Much of the information about their activities collected by advisory groups was not passed on to the authority. The most frequent contact between the two groups was the advisory group's annual report, but formal personal contact was the most valued. Most authority respondents thought their views had been recognised in the advisory group's planning of future work; only a small minority were not satisfied with their advisory groups. Dissatisfied respondents received less information from their advisory groups, had less contact with them, and thought they had less input into their plans. There was some evidence that advisory groups in the "dissatisfied districts" were less involved in clinical audit and with their authorities in wider quality issues. CONCLUSIONS: Most advisory groups are developing their activities in clinical audit and have expanded their scope of work. The quality and availability of information about progress with audit is a cause for concern to both groups.  (+info)

Developing a plan for primary health care facilities in Soweto, South Africa. Part II: Applying locational criteria. (6/868)

This article is the second of a two-part series describing the development of a ten-year plan for primary health care facility development in Soweto. The first article concentrated on the political problems and general methodological approach of the project. This second article describes how the technical problem of planning in the context of scanty information was overcome. The reasoning behind the various assumptions and criteria which were used to assist the planning of the location of facilities is explained, as well as the process by which they were applied. The merits and limitations of this planning approach are discussed, and it is suggested that the approach may be useful to other facility planners, particularly in the developing world.  (+info)

Gender and equity in health sector reform programmes: a review. (7/868)

This paper reviews current literature and debates about Health Sector Reform (HSR) in developing countries in the context of its possible implications for women's health and for gender equity. It points out that gender is a significant marker of social and economic vulnerability which is manifest in inequalities of access to health care and in women's and men's different positioning as users and producers of health care. Any analysis of equity must therefore include a consideration of gender issues. Two main approaches to thinking about gender issues in health care are distinguished--a 'women's health' approach, and a 'gender inequality' approach. The framework developed by Cassels (1995), highlighting six main components of HSR, is used to try to pinpoint the implications of HSR in relation to both of these approaches. This review makes no claim to sociological or geographical comprehensiveness. It attempts instead to provide an analysis of the gender and women's health issues most likely to be associated with each of the major elements of HSR and to outline an agenda for further research. It points out that there is a severe paucity of information on the actual impact of HSR from a gender point of view and in relation to substantive forms of vulnerability (e.g. particular categories of women, specific age groups). The use of generic categories, such as 'the poor' or 'very poor', leads to insufficient disaggregation of the impact of changes in the terms on which health care is provided. This suggests the need for more carefully focused data collection and empirical research.  (+info)

Opening the debate on DALYs (disability-adjusted life years). (8/868)

The 1993 World Development Report is proving to be an influential document for the development of the health sector policies in developing countries. One important aspect of the Report concerns its proposals for Disability Adjusted Life Years as a measure of health change and hence effectiveness of interventions. This article comments on the use of such measures in the health policy arena.  (+info)

Health Priorities are key areas of focus in healthcare that receive the greatest attention, resources, and efforts due to their significant impact on overall population health. These priorities are typically determined by evaluating various health issues and factors such as prevalence, severity, mortality rates, and social determinants of health. By addressing health priorities, healthcare systems and public health organizations aim to improve community health, reduce health disparities, and enhance the quality of life for individuals. Examples of health priorities may include chronic diseases (such as diabetes or heart disease), mental health, infectious diseases, maternal and child health, injury prevention, and health promotion through healthy lifestyles.

Public health is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts of society." It focuses on improving the health and well-being of entire communities, populations, and societies, rather than individual patients. This is achieved through various strategies, including education, prevention, surveillance of diseases, and promotion of healthy behaviors and environments. Public health also addresses broader determinants of health, such as access to healthcare, housing, food, and income, which have a significant impact on the overall health of populations.

Health policy refers to a set of decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a population. It is formulated by governmental and non-governmental organizations with the objective of providing guidance and direction for the management and delivery of healthcare services. Health policies address various aspects of healthcare, including access, financing, quality, and equity. They can be designed to promote health, prevent disease, and provide treatment and rehabilitation services to individuals who are sick or injured. Effective health policies require careful consideration of scientific evidence, ethical principles, and societal values to ensure that they meet the needs of the population while being fiscally responsible.

The "delivery of health care" refers to the process of providing medical services, treatments, and interventions to individuals in order to maintain, restore, or improve their health. This encompasses a wide range of activities, including:

1. Preventive care: Routine check-ups, screenings, immunizations, and counseling aimed at preventing illnesses or identifying them at an early stage.
2. Diagnostic services: Tests and procedures used to identify and understand medical conditions, such as laboratory tests, imaging studies, and biopsies.
3. Treatment interventions: Medical, surgical, or therapeutic treatments provided to manage acute or chronic health issues, including medications, surgeries, physical therapy, and psychotherapy.
4. Acute care services: Short-term medical interventions focused on addressing immediate health concerns, such as hospitalizations for infections, injuries, or complications from medical conditions.
5. Chronic care management: Long-term care and support provided to individuals with ongoing medical needs, such as those living with chronic diseases like diabetes, heart disease, or cancer.
6. Rehabilitation services: Programs designed to help patients recover from illnesses, injuries, or surgeries, focusing on restoring physical, cognitive, and emotional function.
7. End-of-life care: Palliative and hospice care provided to individuals facing terminal illnesses, with an emphasis on comfort, dignity, and quality of life.
8. Public health initiatives: Population-level interventions aimed at improving community health, such as disease prevention programs, health education campaigns, and environmental modifications.

The delivery of health care involves a complex network of healthcare professionals, institutions, and systems working together to ensure that patients receive the best possible care. This includes primary care physicians, specialists, nurses, allied health professionals, hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, and public health organizations. Effective communication, coordination, and collaboration among these stakeholders are essential for high-quality, patient-centered care.

"World Health" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is often used in the context of global health, which can be defined as:

"The area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. It emphasizes trans-national health issues, determinants, and solutions; involves many disciplines within and beyond the health sciences and engages stakeholders from across sectors and societies." (World Health Organization)

Therefore, "world health" could refer to the overall health status and health challenges faced by populations around the world. It encompasses a broad range of factors that affect the health of individuals and communities, including social, economic, environmental, and political determinants. The World Health Organization (WHO) plays a key role in monitoring and promoting global health, setting international standards and guidelines, and coordinating responses to global health emergencies.

Public Health Administration refers to the leadership, management, and coordination of public health services and initiatives at the local, state, or national level. It involves overseeing and managing the development, implementation, and evaluation of policies, programs, and services aimed at improving the health and well-being of populations. This may include addressing issues such as infectious disease control, chronic disease prevention, environmental health, emergency preparedness and response, and health promotion and education.

Public Health Administration requires a strong understanding of public health principles, leadership and management skills, and the ability to work collaboratively with a variety of stakeholders, including community members, healthcare providers, policymakers, and other organizations. The ultimate goal of Public Health Administration is to ensure that public health resources are used effectively and efficiently to improve the health outcomes of populations and reduce health disparities.

Health status is a term used to describe the overall condition of an individual's health, including physical, mental, and social well-being. It is often assessed through various measures such as medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and self-reported health assessments. Health status can be used to identify health disparities, track changes in population health over time, and evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare interventions.

Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants, and to improve their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual behavior change to include social and environmental interventions that can positively influence the health of individuals, communities, and populations. Health promotion involves engaging in a wide range of activities, such as advocacy, policy development, community organization, and education that aim to create supportive environments and personal skills that foster good health. It is based on principles of empowerment, participation, and social justice.

Health services accessibility refers to the degree to which individuals and populations are able to obtain needed health services in a timely manner. It includes factors such as physical access (e.g., distance, transportation), affordability (e.g., cost of services, insurance coverage), availability (e.g., supply of providers, hours of operation), and acceptability (e.g., cultural competence, language concordance).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), accessibility is one of the key components of health system performance, along with responsiveness and fair financing. Improving accessibility to health services is essential for achieving universal health coverage and ensuring that everyone has access to quality healthcare without facing financial hardship. Factors that affect health services accessibility can vary widely between and within countries, and addressing these disparities requires a multifaceted approach that includes policy interventions, infrastructure development, and community engagement.

Health behavior can be defined as a series of actions and decisions that individuals take to protect, maintain or promote their health and well-being. These behaviors can include activities such as engaging in regular exercise, eating a healthy diet, getting sufficient sleep, practicing safe sex, avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption, and managing stress.

Health behaviors are influenced by various factors, including knowledge and attitudes towards health, beliefs and values, cultural norms, social support networks, environmental factors, and individual genetic predispositions. Understanding health behaviors is essential for developing effective public health interventions and promoting healthy lifestyles to prevent chronic diseases and improve overall quality of life.

Health surveys are research studies that collect data from a sample population to describe the current health status, health behaviors, and healthcare utilization of a particular group or community. These surveys may include questions about various aspects of health such as physical health, mental health, chronic conditions, lifestyle habits, access to healthcare services, and demographic information. The data collected from health surveys can be used to monitor trends in health over time, identify disparities in health outcomes, develop and evaluate public health programs and policies, and inform resource allocation decisions. Examples of national health surveys include the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

Health care reform refers to the legislative efforts, initiatives, and debates aimed at improving the quality, affordability, and accessibility of health care services. These reforms may include changes to health insurance coverage, delivery systems, payment methods, and healthcare regulations. The goals of health care reform are often to increase the number of people with health insurance, reduce healthcare costs, and improve the overall health outcomes of a population. Examples of notable health care reform measures in the United States include the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and Medicare for All proposals.

Population surveillance in a public health and medical context refers to the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health-related data for a defined population over time. It aims to monitor the health status, identify emerging health threats or trends, and evaluate the impact of interventions within that population. This information is used to inform public health policy, prioritize healthcare resources, and guide disease prevention and control efforts. Population surveillance can involve various data sources, such as vital records, disease registries, surveys, and electronic health records.

The term "developing countries" is a socio-economic classification used to describe nations that are in the process of industrialization and modernization. This term is often used interchangeably with "low and middle-income countries" or "Global South." The World Bank defines developing countries as those with a gross national income (GNI) per capita of less than US $12,695.

In the context of healthcare, developing countries face unique challenges including limited access to quality medical care, lack of resources and infrastructure, high burden of infectious diseases, and a shortage of trained healthcare professionals. These factors contribute to significant disparities in health outcomes between developing and developed nations.

Mental health is a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community. It involves the emotional, psychological, and social aspects of an individual's health. Mental health is not just the absence of mental illness, it also includes positive characteristics such as resilience, happiness, and having a sense of purpose in life.

It is important to note that mental health can change over time, and it is possible for an individual to experience periods of good mental health as well as periods of poor mental health. Factors such as genetics, trauma, stress, and physical illness can all contribute to the development of mental health problems. Additionally, cultural and societal factors, such as discrimination and poverty, can also impact an individual's mental health.

Mental Health professionals like psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers and other mental health counselors use different tools and techniques to evaluate, diagnose and treat mental health conditions. These include therapy or counseling, medication, and self-help strategies.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition emphasizes that health is more than just the absence of illness, but a positive state of well-being in which an individual is able to realize their own potential, cope with normal stresses of life, work productively, and contribute to their community. It recognizes that physical, mental, and social factors are interconnected and can all impact a person's overall health. This definition also highlights the importance of addressing the social determinants of health, such as poverty, education, housing, and access to healthcare, in order to promote health and prevent disease.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection is a viral illness that progressively attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to other infections and diseases. The virus primarily infects CD4+ T cells, a type of white blood cell essential for fighting off infections. Over time, as the number of these immune cells declines, the body becomes increasingly vulnerable to opportunistic infections and cancers.

HIV infection has three stages:

1. Acute HIV infection: This is the initial stage that occurs within 2-4 weeks after exposure to the virus. During this period, individuals may experience flu-like symptoms such as fever, fatigue, rash, swollen glands, and muscle aches. The virus replicates rapidly, and the viral load in the body is very high.
2. Chronic HIV infection (Clinical latency): This stage follows the acute infection and can last several years if left untreated. Although individuals may not show any symptoms during this phase, the virus continues to replicate at low levels, and the immune system gradually weakens. The viral load remains relatively stable, but the number of CD4+ T cells declines over time.
3. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome): This is the most advanced stage of HIV infection, characterized by a severely damaged immune system and numerous opportunistic infections or cancers. At this stage, the CD4+ T cell count drops below 200 cells/mm3 of blood.

It's important to note that with proper antiretroviral therapy (ART), individuals with HIV infection can effectively manage the virus, maintain a healthy immune system, and significantly reduce the risk of transmission to others. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for improving long-term health outcomes and reducing the spread of HIV.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

Health planning is a systematic process of creating strategies, policies, and goals to improve the health of a population and ensure the provision of adequate and accessible healthcare services. It involves assessing the health needs of the community, establishing priorities, developing interventions, and implementing and evaluating programs to address those needs. The ultimate goal of health planning is to optimize the health status of the population, reduce health disparities, and make efficient use of resources in the healthcare system. This process typically involves collaboration among various stakeholders, including healthcare professionals, policymakers, community members, and advocacy groups.

An "attitude to health" is a set of beliefs, values, and behaviors that an individual holds regarding their own health and well-being. It encompasses their overall approach to maintaining good health, preventing illness, seeking medical care, and managing any existing health conditions.

A positive attitude to health typically includes:

1. A belief in the importance of self-care and taking responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, getting enough sleep, and avoiding harmful behaviors such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Regular check-ups and screenings to detect potential health issues early on.
4. Seeking medical care when necessary and following recommended treatment plans.
5. A willingness to learn about and implement new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Developing a strong support network of family, friends, and healthcare professionals.

On the other hand, a negative attitude to health may involve:

1. Neglecting self-care and failing to take responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in unhealthy behaviors such as sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, lack of sleep, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Avoidance of regular check-ups and screenings, leading to delayed detection and treatment of potential health issues.
4. Resistance to seeking medical care or following recommended treatment plans.
5. Closed-mindedness towards new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Lack of a support network or reluctance to seek help from others.

Overall, an individual's attitude to health can significantly impact their physical and mental well-being, as well as their ability to manage and overcome any health challenges that may arise.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Health care surveys are research tools used to systematically collect information from a population or sample regarding their experiences, perceptions, and knowledge of health services, health outcomes, and various other health-related topics. These surveys typically consist of standardized questionnaires that cover specific aspects of healthcare, such as access to care, quality of care, patient satisfaction, health disparities, and healthcare costs. The data gathered from health care surveys are used to inform policy decisions, improve healthcare delivery, identify best practices, allocate resources, and monitor the health status of populations. Health care surveys can be conducted through various modes, including in-person interviews, telephone interviews, mail-in questionnaires, or online platforms.

Primary health care is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as:

"Essential health care that is based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford. It forms an integral part both of the country's health system, of which it is the central function and main focus, and of the overall social and economic development of the community. It is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work, and constitutes the first element of a continuing health care process."

Primary health care includes a range of services such as preventive care, health promotion, curative care, rehabilitation, and palliative care. It is typically provided by a team of health professionals including doctors, nurses, midwives, pharmacists, and other community health workers. The goal of primary health care is to provide comprehensive, continuous, and coordinated care to individuals and families in a way that is accessible, affordable, and culturally sensitive.

"Cost of Illness" is a medical-economic concept that refers to the total societal cost associated with a specific disease or health condition. It includes both direct and indirect costs. Direct costs are those that can be directly attributed to the illness, such as medical expenses for diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and medications. Indirect costs include productivity losses due to morbidity (reduced efficiency while working) and mortality (lost earnings due to death). Other indirect costs may encompass expenses related to caregiving or special education needs. The Cost of Illness is often used in health policy decision-making, resource allocation, and evaluating the economic impact of diseases on society.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Health care rationing refers to the deliberate limitation or restriction of medical services, treatments, or resources provided to patients based on specific criteria or guidelines. These limitations can be influenced by various factors such as cost-effectiveness, scarcity of resources, evidence-based medicine, and clinical appropriateness. The primary goal of health care rationing is to ensure fair distribution and allocation of finite medical resources among a population while maximizing overall health benefits and minimizing harm.

Rationing can occur at different levels within the healthcare system, including individual patient care decisions, insurance coverage policies, and governmental resource allocation. Examples of rationing include prioritizing certain treatments based on their proven effectiveness, restricting access to high-cost procedures with limited clinical benefits, or setting age limits for specific interventions.

It is important to note that health care rationing remains a controversial topic due to ethical concerns about potential disparities in care and the balance between individual patient needs and societal resource constraints.

Quality of health care is a term that refers to the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge. It encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Clinical effectiveness: The use of best available evidence to make decisions about prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and care. This includes considering the benefits and harms of different options and making sure that the most effective interventions are used.
2. Safety: Preventing harm to patients and minimizing risks associated with healthcare. This involves identifying potential hazards, implementing measures to reduce errors, and learning from adverse events to improve systems and processes.
3. Patient-centeredness: Providing care that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values. This includes ensuring that patients are fully informed about their condition and treatment options, involving them in decision-making, and providing emotional support throughout the care process.
4. Timeliness: Ensuring that healthcare services are delivered promptly and efficiently, without unnecessary delays. This includes coordinating care across different providers and settings to ensure continuity and avoid gaps in service.
5. Efficiency: Using resources wisely and avoiding waste, while still providing high-quality care. This involves considering the costs and benefits of different interventions, as well as ensuring that healthcare services are equitably distributed.
6. Equitability: Ensuring that all individuals have access to quality healthcare services, regardless of their socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, gender, age, or other factors. This includes addressing disparities in health outcomes and promoting fairness and justice in healthcare.

Overall, the quality of health care is a multidimensional concept that requires ongoing evaluation and improvement to ensure that patients receive the best possible care.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Health services needs refer to the population's requirement for healthcare services based on their health status, disease prevalence, and clinical guidelines. These needs can be categorized into normative needs (based on expert opinions or clinical guidelines) and expressed needs (based on individuals' perceptions of their own healthcare needs).

On the other hand, health services demand refers to the quantity of healthcare services that consumers are willing and able to pay for, given their preferences, values, and financial resources. Demand is influenced by various factors such as price, income, education level, and cultural beliefs.

It's important to note that while needs represent a population's requirement for healthcare services, demand reflects the actual utilization of these services. Understanding both health services needs and demand is crucial in planning and delivering effective healthcare services that meet the population's requirements while ensuring efficient resource allocation.

Health services refer to the delivery of healthcare services, including preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services. These services are typically provided by health professionals such as doctors, nurses, and allied health personnel in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, community health centers, and long-term care facilities. Health services may also include public health activities such as health education, surveillance, and health promotion programs aimed at improving the health of populations. The goal of health services is to promote and restore health, prevent disease and injury, and improve the quality of life for individuals and communities.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), also known as Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), are a group of diseases or infections that spread primarily through sexual contact, including vaginal, oral, and anal sex. They can also be transmitted through non-sexual means such as mother-to-child transmission during childbirth or breastfeeding, or via shared needles.

STDs can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe, and some may not show any symptoms at all. Common STDs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV/AIDS, human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), hepatitis B, and pubic lice.

If left untreated, some STDs can lead to serious health complications, such as infertility, organ damage, blindness, or even death. It is important to practice safe sex and get regular screenings for STDs if you are sexually active, especially if you have multiple partners or engage in high-risk behaviors.

Preventive measures include using barrier methods of protection, such as condoms, dental dams, and female condoms, getting vaccinated against HPV and hepatitis B, and limiting the number of sexual partners. If you suspect that you may have an STD, it is important to seek medical attention promptly for diagnosis and treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Urban Population" is not a medical term. It is a demographic term used to describe the portion of a country's population that lives in areas classified as urban. The United Nations defines an urban area as a city, town, or other agglomeration with a population of 20,000 or more. However, the specific definition can vary by country and organization.

In contrast, medical terms typically refer to conditions, diseases, symptoms, treatments, or healthcare-related concepts. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to help if I can!

"Health personnel" is a broad term that refers to individuals who are involved in maintaining, promoting, and restoring the health of populations or individuals. This can include a wide range of professionals such as:

1. Healthcare providers: These are medical doctors, nurses, midwives, dentists, pharmacists, allied health professionals (like physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, dietitians, etc.), and other healthcare workers who provide direct patient care.

2. Public health professionals: These are individuals who work in public health agencies, non-governmental organizations, or academia to promote health, prevent diseases, and protect populations from health hazards. They include epidemiologists, biostatisticians, health educators, environmental health specialists, and health services researchers.

3. Health managers and administrators: These are professionals who oversee the operations, finances, and strategic planning of healthcare organizations, such as hospitals, clinics, or public health departments. They may include hospital CEOs, medical directors, practice managers, and healthcare consultants.

4. Health support staff: This group includes various personnel who provide essential services to healthcare organizations, such as medical records technicians, billing specialists, receptionists, and maintenance workers.

5. Health researchers and academics: These are professionals involved in conducting research, teaching, and disseminating knowledge related to health sciences, medicine, public health, or healthcare management in universities, research institutions, or think tanks.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines "health worker" as "a person who contributes to the promotion, protection, or improvement of health through prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, palliation, health promotion, and health education." This definition encompasses a wide range of professionals working in various capacities to improve health outcomes.

Health services research (HSR) is a multidisciplinary field of scientific investigation that studies how social factors, financing systems, organizational structures and processes, health technologies, and personal behaviors affect access to healthcare, the quality and cost of care, and ultimately, our health and well-being. The goal of HSR is to inform policy and practice, improve system performance, and enhance the health and well-being of individuals and communities. It involves the use of various research methods, including epidemiology, biostatistics, economics, sociology, management science, political science, and psychology, to answer questions about the healthcare system and how it can be improved.

Examples of HSR topics include:

* Evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different healthcare interventions and technologies
* Studying patient-centered care and patient experiences with the healthcare system
* Examining healthcare workforce issues, such as shortages of primary care providers or the impact of nurse-to-patient ratios on patient outcomes
* Investigating the impact of health insurance design and financing systems on access to care and health disparities
* Analyzing the organization and delivery of healthcare services in different settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities
* Identifying best practices for improving healthcare quality and safety, reducing medical errors, and eliminating wasteful or unnecessary care.

Health Insurance is a type of insurance that covers the whole or a part of the risk of a person incurring medical expenses, spreading the risk over a large number of persons. By purchasing health insurance, insured individuals pay a premium to an insurance company, which then pools those funds with other policyholders' premiums to pay for the medical care costs of individuals who become ill or injured. The coverage can include hospitalization, medical procedures, prescription drugs, and preventive care, among other services. The goal of health insurance is to provide financial protection against unexpected medical expenses and to make healthcare services more affordable.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Health education is the process of providing information and strategies to individuals and communities about how to improve their health and prevent disease. It involves teaching and learning activities that aim to empower people to make informed decisions and take responsible actions regarding their health. Health education covers a wide range of topics, including nutrition, physical activity, sexual and reproductive health, mental health, substance abuse prevention, and environmental health. The ultimate goal of health education is to promote healthy behaviors and lifestyles that can lead to improved health outcomes and quality of life.

Oral health is the scientific term used to describe the overall health status of the oral and related tissues, including the teeth, gums, palate, tongue, and mucosal lining. It involves the absence of chronic mouth and facial pain, oral and pharyngeal (throat) cancers, oral soft tissue lesions, birth defects such as cleft lip and palate, and other diseases and disorders that affect the oral cavity.

Good oral health also means being free of decay, gum disease, and other oral infections that can damage the teeth, gums, and bones of the mouth. It is essential to maintain good oral hygiene through regular brushing, flossing, and dental check-ups to prevent dental caries (cavities) and periodontal disease (gum disease).

Additionally, oral health is closely linked to overall health and well-being. Poor oral health has been associated with various systemic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory infections, and stroke. Therefore, maintaining good oral health can contribute to improved general health and quality of life.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Health expenditures refer to the total amount of money spent on health services, goods, and resources in a given period. This can include expenses for preventive care, medical treatments, medications, long-term care, and administrative costs. Health expenditures can be made by individuals, corporations, insurance companies, or governments, and they can be measured at the national, regional, or household level.

Health expenditures are often used as an indicator of a country's investment in its healthcare system and can reflect the overall health status of a population. High levels of health expenditures may indicate a strong commitment to healthcare, but they can also place a significant burden on individuals, businesses, and governments. Understanding patterns and trends in health expenditures is important for policymakers, healthcare providers, and researchers who are working to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and accessibility of healthcare services.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

Environmental health is a branch of public health that focuses on the study of how environmental factors, including physical, chemical, and biological factors, impact human health and disease. It involves the assessment, control, and prevention of environmental hazards in order to protect and promote human health and well-being.

Environmental health encompasses a wide range of issues, such as air and water quality, food safety, waste management, housing conditions, occupational health and safety, radiation protection, and climate change. It also involves the promotion of healthy behaviors and the development of policies and regulations to protect public health from environmental hazards.

The goal of environmental health is to create safe and healthy environments that support human health and well-being, prevent disease and injury, and promote sustainable communities. This requires a multidisciplinary approach that involves collaboration between various stakeholders, including policymakers, researchers, healthcare providers, community organizations, and the public.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Occupational health is a branch of medicine that focuses on the physical, mental, and social well-being of workers in all types of jobs. The goal of occupational health is to prevent work-related injuries, illnesses, and disabilities, while also promoting the overall health and safety of employees. This may involve identifying and assessing potential hazards in the workplace, implementing controls to reduce or eliminate those hazards, providing education and training to workers on safe practices, and conducting medical surveillance and screenings to detect early signs of work-related health problems.

Occupational health also involves working closely with employers, employees, and other stakeholders to develop policies and programs that support the health and well-being of workers. This may include promoting healthy lifestyles, providing access to mental health resources, and supporting return-to-work programs for injured or ill workers. Ultimately, the goal of occupational health is to create a safe and healthy work environment that enables employees to perform their jobs effectively and efficiently, while also protecting their long-term health and well-being.

Health status disparities refer to differences in the health outcomes that are observed between different populations. These populations can be defined by various sociodemographic factors such as race, ethnicity, sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, age, disability, income, education level, and geographic location. Health status disparities can manifest as differences in rates of illness, disease prevalence or incidence, morbidity, mortality, access to healthcare services, and quality of care received. These disparities are often the result of systemic inequities and social determinants of health that negatively impact certain populations, leading to worse health outcomes compared to other groups. It is important to note that health status disparities are preventable and can be addressed through targeted public health interventions and policies aimed at reducing health inequities.

"Age distribution" is a term used to describe the number of individuals within a population or sample that fall into different age categories. It is often presented in the form of a graph, table, or chart, and can provide important information about the demographic structure of a population.

The age distribution of a population can be influenced by a variety of factors, including birth rates, mortality rates, migration patterns, and aging. Public health officials and researchers use age distribution data to inform policies and programs related to healthcare, social services, and other areas that affect the well-being of populations.

For example, an age distribution graph might show a larger number of individuals in the younger age categories, indicating a population with a high birth rate. Alternatively, it might show a larger number of individuals in the older age categories, indicating a population with a high life expectancy or an aging population. Understanding the age distribution of a population can help policymakers plan for future needs and allocate resources more effectively.

National health programs are systematic, large-scale initiatives that are put in place by national governments to address specific health issues or improve the overall health of a population. These programs often involve coordinated efforts across various sectors, including healthcare, education, and social services. They may aim to increase access to care, improve the quality of care, prevent the spread of diseases, promote healthy behaviors, or reduce health disparities. Examples of national health programs include immunization campaigns, tobacco control initiatives, and efforts to address chronic diseases such as diabetes or heart disease. These programs are typically developed based on scientific research, evidence-based practices, and public health data, and they may be funded through a variety of sources, including government budgets, grants, and private donations.

Health status indicators are measures used to assess and monitor the health and well-being of a population. They provide information about various aspects of health, such as mortality rates, morbidity rates, prevalence of chronic diseases, lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, and access to healthcare services. These indicators can be used to identify trends and disparities in health outcomes, inform policy decisions, allocate resources, and evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions. Examples of health status indicators include life expectancy, infant mortality rate, prevalence of diabetes, smoking rates, and access to primary care.

Patient acceptance of health care refers to the willingness and ability of a patient to follow and engage in a recommended treatment plan or healthcare regimen. This involves understanding the proposed medical interventions, considering their potential benefits and risks, and making an informed decision to proceed with the recommended course of action.

The factors that influence patient acceptance can include:

1. Patient's understanding of their condition and treatment options
2. Trust in their healthcare provider
3. Personal beliefs and values related to health and illness
4. Cultural, linguistic, or socioeconomic barriers
5. Emotional responses to the diagnosis or proposed treatment
6. Practical considerations, such as cost, time commitment, or potential side effects

Healthcare providers play a crucial role in facilitating patient acceptance by clearly communicating information, addressing concerns and questions, and providing support throughout the decision-making process. Encouraging shared decision-making and tailoring care plans to individual patient needs and preferences can also enhance patient acceptance of health care.

Public health practice is a multidisciplinary approach that aims to prevent disease, promote health, and protect communities from harmful environmental and social conditions through evidence-based strategies, programs, policies, and interventions. It involves the application of epidemiological, biostatistical, social, environmental, and behavioral sciences to improve the health of populations, reduce health disparities, and ensure equity in health outcomes. Public health practice includes a wide range of activities such as disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, health promotion, community engagement, program planning and evaluation, policy analysis and development, and research translation. It is a collaborative and systems-based approach that involves partnerships with various stakeholders, including communities, healthcare providers, policymakers, and other organizations to achieve population-level health goals.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

Mental health services refer to the various professional health services designed to treat and support individuals with mental health conditions. These services are typically provided by trained and licensed mental health professionals, such as psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, mental health counselors, and marriage and family therapists. The services may include:

1. Assessment and diagnosis of mental health disorders
2. Psychotherapy or "talk therapy" to help individuals understand and manage their symptoms
3. Medication management for mental health conditions
4. Case management and care coordination to connect individuals with community resources and support
5. Psychoeducation to help individuals and families better understand mental health conditions and how to manage them
6. Crisis intervention and stabilization services
7. Inpatient and residential treatment for severe or chronic mental illness
8. Prevention and early intervention services to identify and address mental health concerns before they become more serious
9. Rehabilitation and recovery services to help individuals with mental illness achieve their full potential and live fulfilling lives in the community.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

The term "Integrated Delivery of Healthcare" refers to a coordinated and seamless approach to providing healthcare services, where different providers and specialists work together to provide comprehensive care for patients. This model aims to improve patient outcomes by ensuring that all aspects of a person's health are addressed in a holistic and coordinated manner.

Integrated delivery of healthcare may involve various components such as:

1. Primary Care: A primary care provider serves as the first point of contact for patients and coordinates their care with other specialists and providers.
2. Specialty Care: Specialists provide care for specific medical conditions or diseases, working closely with primary care providers to ensure coordinated care.
3. Mental Health Services: Mental health providers work alongside medical professionals to address the mental and emotional needs of patients, recognizing that mental health is an essential component of overall health.
4. Preventive Care: Preventive services such as screenings, vaccinations, and health education are provided to help prevent illnesses and promote overall health and well-being.
5. Chronic Disease Management: Providers work together to manage chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer, using evidence-based practices and coordinated care plans.
6. Health Information Technology: Electronic health records (EHRs) and other health information technologies are used to facilitate communication and coordination among providers, ensuring that all members of the care team have access to up-to-date patient information.
7. Patient Engagement: Patients are actively engaged in their care, with education and support provided to help them make informed decisions about their health and treatment options.

The goal of integrated delivery of healthcare is to provide high-quality, cost-effective care that meets the unique needs of each patient, while also improving overall population health.

The Health Care Sector is a segment of the economy that includes companies and organizations that provide goods and services to treat patients with medical conditions, as well as those that work to maintain people's health through preventative care and health education. This sector includes hospitals, clinics, physician practices, dental practices, pharmacies, home health care agencies, nursing homes, laboratories, and medical device manufacturers, among others.

The Health Care Sector is often broken down into several subsectors, including:

1. Providers of healthcare services, such as hospitals, clinics, and physician practices.
2. Payers of healthcare costs, such as insurance companies and government agencies like Medicare and Medicaid.
3. Manufacturers of healthcare products, such as medical devices, pharmaceuticals, and biotechnology products.
4. Distributors of healthcare products, such as wholesalers and pharmacy benefit managers.
5. Providers of healthcare information technology, such as electronic health record systems and telemedicine platforms.

The Health Care Sector is a significant contributor to the economy in many countries, providing employment opportunities and contributing to economic growth. However, it also faces significant challenges, including rising costs, an aging population, and increasing demands for access to high-quality care.

The "attitude of health personnel" refers to the overall disposition, behavior, and approach that healthcare professionals exhibit towards their patients or clients. This encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Interpersonal skills: The ability to communicate effectively, listen actively, and build rapport with patients.
2. Professionalism: Adherence to ethical principles, confidentiality, and maintaining a non-judgmental attitude.
3. Compassion and empathy: Showing genuine concern for the patient's well-being and understanding their feelings and experiences.
4. Cultural sensitivity: Respecting and acknowledging the cultural backgrounds, beliefs, and values of patients.
5. Competence: Demonstrating knowledge, skills, and expertise in providing healthcare services.
6. Collaboration: Working together with other healthcare professionals to ensure comprehensive care for the patient.
7. Patient-centeredness: Focusing on the individual needs, preferences, and goals of the patient in the decision-making process.
8. Commitment to continuous learning and improvement: Staying updated with the latest developments in the field and seeking opportunities to enhance one's skills and knowledge.

A positive attitude of health personnel contributes significantly to patient satisfaction, adherence to treatment plans, and overall healthcare outcomes.

The World Health Organization (WHO) is not a medical condition or term, but rather a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health. Here's a brief description:

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as the global authority on public health issues. Established in 1948, WHO's primary role is to coordinate and collaborate with its member states to promote health, prevent diseases, and ensure universal access to healthcare services. WHO is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and has regional offices around the world. It plays a crucial role in setting global health standards, monitoring disease outbreaks, and providing guidance on various public health concerns, including infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases, mental health, environmental health, and maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health.

Women's health is a branch of healthcare that focuses on the unique health needs, conditions, and concerns of women throughout their lifespan. It covers a broad range of topics including menstruation, fertility, pregnancy, menopause, breast health, sexual health, mental health, and chronic diseases that are more common in women such as osteoporosis and autoimmune disorders. Women's health also addresses issues related to gender-based violence, socioeconomic factors, and environmental impacts on women's health. It is aimed at promoting and maintaining the physical, emotional, and reproductive well-being of women, and preventing and treating diseases and conditions that disproportionately affect them.

Community health services refer to a type of healthcare delivery that is organized around the needs of a specific population or community, rather than individual patients. These services are typically focused on preventive care, health promotion, and improving access to care for underserved populations. They can include a wide range of services, such as:

* Primary care, including routine check-ups, immunizations, and screenings
* Dental care
* Mental health and substance abuse treatment
* Public health initiatives, such as disease prevention and health education programs
* Home health care and other supportive services for people with chronic illnesses or disabilities
* Health services for special populations, such as children, the elderly, or those living in rural areas

The goal of community health services is to improve the overall health of a population by addressing the social, economic, and environmental factors that can impact health. This approach recognizes that healthcare is just one factor in determining a person's health outcomes, and that other factors such as housing, education, and income also play important roles. By working to address these underlying determinants of health, community health services aim to improve the health and well-being of entire communities.

Rural health is a branch of healthcare that focuses on the unique health challenges and needs of people living in rural areas. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines rural health as "the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in the rural population."

Rural populations often face disparities in healthcare access and quality compared to their urban counterparts. Factors such as geographic isolation, poverty, lack of transportation, and a shortage of healthcare providers can contribute to these disparities. Rural health encompasses a broad range of services, including primary care, prevention, chronic disease management, mental health, oral health, and emergency medical services.

The goal of rural health is to improve the health outcomes of rural populations by addressing these unique challenges and providing high-quality, accessible healthcare services that meet their needs. This may involve innovative approaches such as telemedicine, mobile health clinics, and community-based programs to reach people in remote areas.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Exercise is defined in the medical context as a physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive, with the primary aim of improving or maintaining one or more components of physical fitness. Components of physical fitness include cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Exercise can be classified based on its intensity (light, moderate, or vigorous), duration (length of time), and frequency (number of times per week). Common types of exercise include aerobic exercises, such as walking, jogging, cycling, and swimming; resistance exercises, such as weightlifting; flexibility exercises, such as stretching; and balance exercises. Exercise has numerous health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases, improving mental health, and enhancing overall quality of life.

Urban health is a branch of public health that focuses on the unique health challenges and disparities faced by urban populations. It encompasses the physical, mental, and social well-being of people living in urban areas, which are characterized by high population density, diverse cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds, and unique environmental exposures.

Urban health addresses a range of issues, including infectious diseases, chronic conditions, injuries, violence, and mental health disorders, as well as the social determinants of health such as housing, education, income, and access to healthcare services. It also considers the impact of urbanization on health, including the effects of pollution, noise, crowding, and lack of green spaces.

The goal of urban health is to promote health equity and improve the overall health outcomes of urban populations by addressing these challenges through evidence-based interventions, policies, and programs that are tailored to the unique needs of urban communities.

Child health services refer to a range of medical and supportive services designed to promote the physical, mental, and social well-being of children from birth up to adolescence. These services aim to prevent or identify health problems early, provide treatment and management for existing conditions, and support healthy growth and development.

Examples of child health services include:

1. Well-child visits: Regular checkups with a pediatrician or other healthcare provider to monitor growth, development, and overall health.
2. Immunizations: Vaccinations to protect against infectious diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, polio, and hepatitis B.
3. Screening tests: Blood tests, hearing and vision screenings, and other diagnostic tests to identify potential health issues early.
4. Developmental assessments: Evaluations of a child's cognitive, emotional, social, and physical development to ensure they are meeting age-appropriate milestones.
5. Dental care: Preventive dental services such as cleanings, fluoride treatments, and sealants, as well as restorative care for cavities or other dental problems.
6. Mental health services: Counseling, therapy, and medication management for children experiencing emotional or behavioral challenges.
7. Nutrition counseling: Education and support to help families make healthy food choices and promote good nutrition.
8. Chronic disease management: Coordinated care for children with ongoing medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes, or cerebral palsy.
9. Injury prevention: Programs that teach parents and children about safety measures to reduce the risk of accidents and injuries.
10. Public health initiatives: Community-based programs that promote healthy lifestyles, provide access to healthcare services, and address social determinants of health such as poverty, housing, and education.

Regional health planning is a process that involves the systematic assessment, analysis, and prioritization of healthcare needs for a defined geographic population in a specific region. It aims to develop and implement strategies, programs, and services to address those needs in a coordinated and efficient manner. This collaborative approach often involves various stakeholders, such as healthcare providers, public health officials, community leaders, and advocates, working together to improve the overall health and well-being of the population in that region.

The medical definition of 'Regional Health Planning' can be outlined as follows:

1. Systematic assessment: A comprehensive evaluation of the healthcare needs, resources, and infrastructure within a specific region, taking into account demographic, epidemiological, and socioeconomic factors that influence health outcomes.
2. Analysis: The examination of data and information gathered during the assessment to identify gaps, priorities, and opportunities for improvement in healthcare services and delivery.
3. Prioritization: The process of ranking healthcare needs and issues based on their urgency, impact, and feasibility of intervention, to ensure that resources are allocated effectively and efficiently.
4. Strategy development: The creation of evidence-based, data-driven plans and interventions aimed at addressing the prioritized health needs and improving the overall health of the regional population.
5. Collaboration: The active engagement and partnership of various stakeholders, including healthcare providers, public health officials, community leaders, and advocates, in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of regional health initiatives.
6. Coordination: The alignment and integration of healthcare services, programs, and policies across different levels and sectors to ensure seamless care and avoid duplication of efforts.
7. Continuous improvement: The ongoing monitoring and evaluation of regional health programs and interventions to assess their effectiveness, make adjustments as needed, and incorporate new evidence and best practices into future planning efforts.

Health literacy is the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions. It encompasses a wide range of skills including reading, writing, numeracy, listening, speaking, and critical thinking abilities, as well as the ability to apply these skills to everyday health situations.

Health literacy is not just about an individual's ability to read and understand health information, but also about how healthcare systems communicate and provide information to patients. It involves the interaction between patients and healthcare providers, as well as the complexity of health systems and services.

Limited health literacy can have a significant impact on a person's health outcomes, including increased rates of hospitalization, poorer disease management, and higher healthcare costs. Therefore, improving health literacy is an important public health goal that can help reduce health disparities and improve overall population health.

Community health planning is a systematic and continuous process that involves assessing the health needs and resources of a defined population, setting priorities for health improvement, and developing and implementing action plans to achieve those priorities. It is a collaborative effort between various stakeholders, including community members, healthcare providers, public health professionals, and other relevant organizations. The goal of community health planning is to improve the overall health and well-being of the community by addressing the social, environmental, and economic factors that impact health. This process typically involves the following steps:

1. Needs assessment: Identifying the health needs and priorities of the community through data collection and analysis, including demographic information, health status indicators, and healthcare utilization patterns.
2. Resource assessment: Identifying the available resources in the community, such as healthcare facilities, public health programs, and community-based organizations that can be leveraged to address the identified needs.
3. Priority setting: Determining the most pressing health issues that need to be addressed based on the needs and resource assessments. This involves engaging stakeholders in a participatory process to identify shared priorities.
4. Plan development: Developing an action plan that outlines specific strategies, activities, and timelines for addressing the identified priorities. The plan should also include indicators for measuring progress and evaluating outcomes.
5. Implementation: Putting the action plan into practice by engaging community members, healthcare providers, and other stakeholders in implementing the strategies and activities outlined in the plan.
6. Evaluation: Monitoring and evaluating the progress of the action plan to ensure that it is achieving the desired outcomes and making adjustments as needed.

Community health planning is an essential component of public health practice because it helps to ensure that resources are allocated effectively, priorities are aligned with community needs, and interventions are tailored to the unique characteristics of the population being served.

Rural health services refer to the healthcare delivery systems and facilities that are located in rural areas and are designed to meet the unique health needs of rural populations. These services can include hospitals, clinics, community health centers, mental health centers, and home health agencies, as well as various programs and initiatives aimed at improving access to care, addressing health disparities, and promoting health and wellness in rural communities.

Rural health services are often characterized by longer travel distances to healthcare facilities, a greater reliance on primary care and preventive services, and a higher prevalence of certain health conditions such as chronic diseases, injuries, and mental health disorders. As a result, rural health services must be tailored to address these challenges and provide high-quality, affordable, and accessible care to rural residents.

In many countries, rural health services are supported by government policies and programs aimed at improving healthcare infrastructure, workforce development, and telehealth technologies in rural areas. These efforts are critical for ensuring that all individuals, regardless of where they live, have access to the healthcare services they need to maintain their health and well-being.

"Health manpower" is a term that refers to the number and type of healthcare professionals (such as doctors, nurses, allied health professionals, and support staff) who are available to provide healthcare services in a particular area or system. It's an important consideration in healthcare planning and policy, as the availability and distribution of health manpower can have a significant impact on access to care, quality of care, and health outcomes.

Therefore, medical definition of 'Health Manpower' could be: "The composition and distribution of healthcare professionals who are available to deliver healthcare services, including their skills, training, and experience. Health manpower is an essential component of healthcare systems and is influenced by factors such as population needs, workforce supply, and government policies."

Health facilities, also known as healthcare facilities, are organizations that provide health services, treatments, and care to individuals in need of medical attention. These facilities can include various types of establishments such as hospitals, clinics, doctor's offices, dental practices, long-term care facilities, rehabilitation centers, and diagnostic imaging centers.

Health facilities are designed to offer a range of services that promote health, prevent illness, diagnose and treat medical conditions, and provide ongoing care for patients with chronic illnesses or disabilities. They may also offer educational programs and resources to help individuals maintain their health and well-being.

The specific services offered by health facilities can vary widely depending on the type and size of the facility, as well as its location and target population. However, all health facilities are required to meet certain standards for safety, quality, and patient care in order to ensure that patients receive the best possible treatment and outcomes.

Quality Assurance in the context of healthcare refers to a systematic approach and set of activities designed to ensure that health care services and products consistently meet predetermined standards of quality and safety. It includes all the policies, procedures, and processes that are put in place to monitor, assess, and improve the quality of healthcare delivery.

The goal of quality assurance is to minimize variability in clinical practice, reduce medical errors, and ensure that patients receive evidence-based care that is safe, effective, timely, patient-centered, and equitable. Quality assurance activities may include:

1. Establishing standards of care based on best practices and clinical guidelines.
2. Developing and implementing policies and procedures to ensure compliance with these standards.
3. Providing education and training to healthcare professionals to improve their knowledge and skills.
4. Conducting audits, reviews, and evaluations of healthcare services and processes to identify areas for improvement.
5. Implementing corrective actions to address identified issues and prevent their recurrence.
6. Monitoring and measuring outcomes to evaluate the effectiveness of quality improvement initiatives.

Quality assurance is an ongoing process that requires continuous evaluation and improvement to ensure that healthcare delivery remains safe, effective, and patient-centered.

Health resources refer to the personnel, facilities, equipment, and supplies that are used in the delivery of healthcare services. This includes:

1. Human resources: Healthcare professionals such as doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and allied health professionals.

2. Physical resources: Hospitals, clinics, laboratories, and other healthcare facilities.

3. Technological resources: Medical equipment and technology used for diagnosis and treatment, such as MRI machines, CT scanners, and electronic health records.

4. Financial resources: Funding for healthcare services, including public and private insurance, government funding, and out-of-pocket payments.

5. Informational resources: Research findings, evidence-based practices, and health education materials that inform healthcare decision-making.

The adequate availability, distribution, and utilization of these health resources are crucial for ensuring access to quality healthcare services and improving population health outcomes.

Research, in the context of medicine, is a systematic and rigorous process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information in order to increase our understanding, develop new knowledge, or evaluate current practices and interventions. It can involve various methodologies such as observational studies, experiments, surveys, or literature reviews. The goal of medical research is to advance health care by identifying new treatments, improving diagnostic techniques, and developing prevention strategies. Medical research is typically conducted by teams of researchers including clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals. It is subject to ethical guidelines and regulations to ensure that it is conducted responsibly and with the best interests of patients in mind.

Preventive health services refer to measures taken to prevent diseases or injuries rather than curing them or treating their symptoms. These services include screenings, vaccinations, and counseling aimed at preventing or identifying illnesses in their earliest stages. Examples of preventive health services include:

1. Screenings for various types of cancer (e.g., breast, cervical, colorectal)
2. Vaccinations against infectious diseases (e.g., influenza, pneumococcal pneumonia, human papillomavirus)
3. Counseling on lifestyle modifications to reduce the risk of chronic diseases (e.g., smoking cessation, diet and exercise counseling, alcohol misuse screening and intervention)
4. Screenings for cardiovascular disease risk factors (e.g., cholesterol levels, blood pressure, body mass index)
5. Screenings for mental health conditions (e.g., depression)
6. Preventive medications (e.g., aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in certain individuals)

Preventive health services are an essential component of overall healthcare and play a critical role in improving health outcomes, reducing healthcare costs, and enhancing quality of life.

Community Health Centers (CHCs) are primary care facilities that provide comprehensive and culturally competent health services to medically underserved communities, regardless of their ability to pay. CHCs are funded through various sources, including the federal government's Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). They aim to reduce health disparities and improve health outcomes for vulnerable populations by providing access to high-quality preventive and primary care services.

CHCs offer a range of services, such as medical, dental, and behavioral health care, as well as enabling services like case management, transportation, and language interpretation. They operate on a sliding fee scale basis, ensuring that patients pay based on their income and ability to pay. CHCs also engage in community outreach and education to promote health awareness and prevention.

Maternal health services refer to the preventative, diagnostic, and treatment-based healthcare services provided during pregnancy, childbirth, and postnatal period. These services aim to ensure the best possible health outcomes for mothers throughout their reproductive years, including family planning, preconception care, antenatal care, delivery, postpartum care, and management of chronic conditions or complications that may arise during pregnancy and childbirth.

The World Health Organization (WHO) outlines several critical components of maternal health services:

1. Antenatal care: Regular check-ups to monitor the mother's and fetus's health, identify potential risks, provide essential interventions, and offer counseling on nutrition, breastfeeding, and birth preparedness.
2. Delivery care: Skilled attendance during childbirth, including normal vaginal delivery and assisted deliveries (forceps or vacuum extraction), and access to emergency obstetric care for complications such as hemorrhage, eclampsia, obstructed labor, and sepsis.
3. Postnatal care: Continuum of care for mothers and newborns during the first six weeks after childbirth, focusing on recovery, early detection and management of complications, immunization, family planning, and psychosocial support.
4. Family planning: Access to modern contraceptive methods, counseling on fertility awareness, and safe abortion services where legal, to enable women to plan their pregnancies and space their children according to their reproductive intentions.
5. Management of chronic conditions: Comprehensive care for pregnant women with pre-existing or pregnancy-induced medical conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and mental health disorders.
6. Preconception care: Identification and management of risk factors before conception to optimize maternal and fetal health outcomes.
7. Prevention and management of gender-based violence: Screening, counseling, and referral services for women experiencing intimate partner violence or sexual violence during pregnancy and childbirth.
8. Health promotion and education: Community-based interventions to raise awareness about the importance of maternal health, promote positive health behaviors, and reduce barriers to accessing healthcare services.

Maternal health services should be accessible, affordable, acceptable, and equitable for all women, regardless of their age, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or geographical location. Adequate investment in maternal health infrastructure, human resources, and service delivery models is essential to achieve universal health coverage and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030.

I must clarify that I'm a helpful assistant and not a doctor, but I can tell you that 'politics' is not a term used in medicine. Politics refers to the activities associated with the governance of a country or area, especially the debate or conflict among individuals or groups having or hoping to achieve power. If you have any medical questions, feel free to ask!

Resource allocation in a medical context refers to the process of distributing and managing healthcare resources, such as budget, staff, equipment, and supplies, in an efficient and equitable manner to meet the health needs of a population. This involves prioritizing the use of resources to maximize benefits, improve patient outcomes, and ensure fair access to healthcare services. It is a critical aspect of healthcare planning and management, particularly in situations where resources are limited or there are competing demands for them.

I'm happy to help! However, it's important to note that while "social justice" is a term used in many fields, including public health and medicine, it does not have a single, universally accepted medical definition. Instead, the concept of social justice in healthcare is generally understood as the pursuit of fairness, equity, and equality in the distribution of healthcare resources, opportunities, and outcomes.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines social justice as "the fair and equitable distribution of social determinants of health, which are conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age, including the health system." According to this definition, social justice in healthcare requires addressing the root causes of health disparities, such as poverty, discrimination, and lack of access to education and employment opportunities.

The American Public Health Association (APHA) defines social justice as "the distribution of resources, benefits, and burdens of society to all individuals and groups. When principles of social justice are applied, the resulting distribution is equitable and all members of society have a fair opportunity to benefit from the resources, benefits, and burdens."

In summary, while there may not be a single medical definition of social justice, it is generally understood as the pursuit of fairness, equity, and equality in healthcare and health outcomes. This involves addressing the root causes of health disparities and ensuring that all individuals have access to the resources and opportunities they need to achieve optimal health.

Reproductive health, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), is "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes. It implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life, the capability to reproduce, and the freedom to decide if, when, and how often to do so. It also includes their right to access information and services that enable them to do this."

This definition emphasizes not only the biological aspects of reproduction but also the social and personal dimensions of sexuality and reproductive health. It recognizes that individuals have the right to make informed choices about their reproductive lives, and it highlights the importance of access to information and services in realizing these rights.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "policy making" is not a medical term per se. It refers to the process of formulating or establishing official guidelines or rules, such as public policies or organizational policies, that govern decisions and actions. In the context of healthcare, policy making can refer to the development of guidelines, laws, regulations, and procedures that govern the delivery, financing, and accessibility of medical care and health promotion activities.

Examples of policy making in healthcare include:

* Developing clinical practice guidelines for the management of specific medical conditions
* Establishing reimbursement policies for medical procedures or treatments
* Implementing regulations to ensure patient safety and quality of care
* Creating public health policies to address population health issues, such as tobacco control or obesity prevention.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Interviews" is a broad topic that isn't typically a medical term or subject. However, interviews can certainly be a part of medical settings and procedures, such as job interviews for healthcare positions, patient interviews during medical consultations, or research interviews in clinical studies.

In the context of medical education, an interview might refer to the process by which medical schools evaluate applicants for admission, known as the medical school interview. This is a critical component of the application process and typically involves one-on-one conversations between the applicant and an admissions committee member or a series of multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) with various evaluators.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Interviews as Topic" in a medical setting, I'd be happy to help further!

An Electronic Health Record (EHR) is a digital version of a patient's medical history that is stored and maintained electronically rather than on paper. It contains comprehensive information about a patient's health status, including their medical history, medications, allergies, test results, immunization records, and other relevant health information. EHRs can be shared among authorized healthcare providers, which enables better coordination of care, improved patient safety, and more efficient delivery of healthcare services.

EHRs are designed to provide real-time, patient-centered records that make it easier for healthcare providers to access up-to-date and accurate information about their patients. They can also help reduce errors, prevent duplicative tests and procedures, and improve communication among healthcare providers. EHRs may include features such as clinical decision support tools, which can alert healthcare providers to potential drug interactions or other health risks based on a patient's medical history.

EHRs are subject to various regulations and standards to ensure the privacy and security of patients' health information. In the United States, for example, EHRs must comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Privacy Rule, which sets national standards for the protection of personal health information.

Public health nursing is a specialty practice area of nursing that focuses on the prevention and management of health issues in communities and populations. It involves the assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation of interventions aimed at promoting health, preventing disease, and addressing environmental factors that impact the health of populations. Public health nurses often work in community-based settings such as public health departments, schools, and non-profit organizations to provide care and education to individuals and families, promote health equity, and advocate for policies that improve the overall health of communities.

"Health occupations" is a broad term that refers to careers or professions involved in the delivery, management, and improvement of health services. These occupations encompass a wide range of roles, including but not limited to:

1. Healthcare providers: This group includes medical doctors (MDs), doctors of osteopathic medicine (DOs), nurses, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, dentists, dental hygienists, optometrists, pharmacists, and other professionals who provide direct patient care.
2. Allied health professionals: These are healthcare workers who provide diagnostic, technical, therapeutic, and support services. Examples include respiratory therapists, radiologic technologists, dietitians, occupational therapists, physical therapists, speech-language pathologists, and medical laboratory scientists.
3. Public health professionals: This group focuses on preventing diseases and promoting community health. They work in various settings, such as government agencies, non-profit organizations, and academic institutions, addressing public health issues like infectious disease control, environmental health, health education, and policy development.
4. Health administrators and managers: These professionals oversee the operations of healthcare facilities, including hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, and managed care organizations. They ensure that resources are used efficiently, that services meet quality standards, and that regulatory requirements are met.
5. Health educators: These individuals work in various settings to promote health awareness and teach individuals and communities about healthy behaviors and practices.
6. Health information specialists: Professionals in this field manage and analyze health data, maintain medical records, and ensure the security and privacy of patient information.

Overall, health occupations play a crucial role in maintaining, promoting, and restoring the health and well-being of individuals and communities.

Organizational decision-making is a management process in which a group or team within an organization makes a judgment or choice among several options or alternatives to achieve specific goals or objectives. This process involves collecting and analyzing information, evaluating alternatives, selecting the best option, and implementing and monitoring the decision. It often requires collaboration, communication, and consensus-building among team members with diverse perspectives and expertise. Effective organizational decision-making can lead to better outcomes, improved performance, and increased innovation, while poor decision-making can result in missed opportunities, wasted resources, and decreased competitiveness.

Occupational Health Services (OHS) refer to a branch of healthcare that focuses on the prevention and management of health issues that arise in the workplace or are caused by work-related factors. These services aim to promote and maintain the highest degree of physical, mental, and social well-being of workers in all occupations.

OHS typically includes:

1. Health surveillance and screening programs to identify early signs of work-related illnesses or injuries.
2. Occupational health education and training for employees and managers on topics such as safe lifting techniques, hazard communication, and bloodborne pathogens exposure control.
3. Ergonomic assessments and interventions to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders and other work-related injuries.
4. Development and implementation of policies and procedures to address workplace health and safety issues.
5. Case management and return-to-work programs for employees who have been injured or become ill on the job.
6. Medical monitoring and treatment of work-related injuries and illnesses, including rehabilitation and disability management services.
7. Collaboration with employers to identify and address potential health hazards in the workplace, such as chemical exposures, noise pollution, or poor indoor air quality.

Overall, Occupational Health Services play a critical role in protecting the health and safety of workers, reducing the burden of work-related illnesses and injuries, and promoting a healthy and productive workforce.

Health plan implementation is not a medical term per se, but rather a term used in the context of healthcare management and administration. It refers to the process of putting into action the plans, strategies, and policies of a health insurance or healthcare benefit program. This includes activities such as:

1. Designing and structuring health benefits and coverage options
2. Developing provider networks and reimbursement rates
3. Establishing procedures for claims processing and utilization management
4. Implementing care management programs to improve health outcomes and reduce costs
5. Communicating the plan details to members and providers
6. Ensuring compliance with relevant laws, regulations, and accreditation standards

The goal of health plan implementation is to create a well-functioning healthcare benefit program that meets the needs of its members while managing costs and ensuring quality care.

Health Services Administration (HSA) is not a medical term per se, but rather a field of study and practice within healthcare management. Here's a definition that encompasses its meaning:

Health Services Administration (HSA) refers to the planning, directing, coordinating, and supervising of health services in hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, public health agencies, and other medical facilities. It involves managing financial resources, developing organizational policies, ensuring quality assurance, maintaining regulatory compliance, and promoting efficient delivery of healthcare services to improve patient outcomes and overall population health. HSA professionals may hold titles such as hospital administrator, clinical director, or healthcare executive.

A Health Benefit Plan for Employees refers to a type of insurance policy that an employer provides to their employees as part of their benefits package. These plans are designed to help cover the costs of medical care and services for the employees and sometimes also for their dependents. The specific coverage and details of the plan can vary depending on the terms of the policy, but they typically include a range of benefits such as doctor visits, hospital stays, prescription medications, and preventative care. Employers may pay all or part of the premiums for these plans, and employees may also have the option to contribute to the cost of coverage. The goal of health benefit plans for employees is to help protect the financial well-being of workers by helping them manage the costs of medical care.

"Health services for the aged" is a broad term that refers to medical and healthcare services specifically designed to meet the unique needs of elderly individuals. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), health services for the aged should be "age-friendly" and "person-centered," meaning they should take into account the physical, mental, and social changes that occur as people age, as well as their individual preferences and values.

These services can include a range of medical and healthcare interventions, such as:

* Preventive care, including vaccinations, cancer screenings, and other routine check-ups
* Chronic disease management, such as treatment for conditions like diabetes, heart disease, or arthritis
* Rehabilitation services, such as physical therapy or occupational therapy, to help elderly individuals maintain their mobility and independence
* Palliative care and end-of-life planning, to ensure that elderly individuals receive compassionate and supportive care in their final days
* Mental health services, including counseling and therapy for conditions like depression or anxiety
* Social services, such as transportation assistance, meal delivery, or home care, to help elderly individuals maintain their quality of life and independence.

Overall, the goal of health services for the aged is to promote healthy aging, prevent disease and disability, and provide high-quality, compassionate care to elderly individuals, in order to improve their overall health and well-being.

Health planning guidelines are a set of recommendations and principles that provide direction for the development, implementation, and evaluation of health services and public health programs. These guidelines serve as a framework to ensure that health planning is evidence-based, equitable, efficient, and effective in addressing the priority health needs of a population. They typically cover various aspects such as:

1. Needs assessment: Identifying and prioritizing the health needs of a population through data collection, analysis, and consultation with stakeholders.
2. Resource allocation: Determining how to distribute resources fairly and efficiently to address priority health issues and ensure equitable access to healthcare services.
3. Service delivery: Establishing standards for the provision of high-quality, patient-centered care that is accessible, affordable, and culturally sensitive.
4. Monitoring and evaluation: Developing systems to track progress towards health goals, measure outcomes, and make data-driven decisions for continuous quality improvement.
5. Stakeholder engagement: Encouraging collaboration and partnership among various stakeholders, including healthcare providers, policymakers, community organizations, and the public, to ensure that health planning efforts are inclusive, participatory, and responsive to local needs and preferences.
6. Ethical considerations: Ensuring that health planning processes and decisions respect human rights, promote social justice, and protect vulnerable populations from discrimination and marginalization.
7. Flexibility and adaptability: Recognizing the need for regular review and revision of health planning guidelines to accommodate changing circumstances, emerging evidence, and new priorities.

Program Evaluation is a systematic and objective assessment of a healthcare program's design, implementation, and outcomes. It is a medical term used to describe the process of determining the relevance, effectiveness, and efficiency of a program in achieving its goals and objectives. Program evaluation involves collecting and analyzing data related to various aspects of the program, such as its reach, impact, cost-effectiveness, and quality. The results of program evaluation can be used to improve the design and implementation of existing programs or to inform the development of new ones. It is a critical tool for ensuring that healthcare programs are meeting the needs of their intended audiences and delivering high-quality care in an efficient and effective manner.

Public Health Informatics (PHI) is the systematic application of information and computer science and technology to public health practice, research, and learning. It involves the development and implementation of information systems to support public health functions including surveillance, prevention, preparedness, and response. PHI also includes the analysis of public health data to improve decision-making, as well as the training and education of public health professionals in the use of these technologies. The ultimate goal of PHI is to enhance the efficiency, effectiveness, and overall quality of public health services.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Organizational Objectives" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a general management and business concept. Organizational objectives are the goals or targets that an organization aims to achieve through its operations and functions. These can include financial objectives like profitability and growth, as well as non-financial objectives related to areas like quality, innovation, social responsibility, and employee satisfaction.

In a healthcare setting, organizational objectives might include improving patient outcomes, increasing patient satisfaction, reducing costs, implementing new treatments or technologies, enhancing community health, and maintaining ethical standards.

"State Health Plans" is a general term that refers to the healthcare coverage programs offered or managed by individual states in the United States. These plans can be divided into two main categories: Medicaid and state-based marketplaces.

1. **Medicaid**: This is a joint federal-state program that provides healthcare coverage to low-income individuals, families, and qualifying groups, such as pregnant women, children, elderly people, and people with disabilities. Each state administers its own Medicaid program within broad federal guidelines, and therefore, the benefits, eligibility criteria, and enrollment processes can vary from state to state.

2. **State-based Marketplaces (SBMs)**: These are online platforms where individuals and small businesses can compare and purchase health insurance plans that meet the standards set by the Affordable Care Act (ACA). SBMs operate in accordance with federal regulations, but individual states have the flexibility to design their own marketplace structure, manage their own enrollment process, and determine which insurers can participate.

It is important to note that state health plans are subject to change based on federal and state laws, regulations, and funding allocations. Therefore, it is always recommended to check the most recent and specific information from the relevant state agency or department.

Qualitative research is a methodological approach in social sciences and healthcare research that focuses on understanding the meanings, experiences, and perspectives of individuals or groups within a specific context. It aims to gather detailed, rich data through various techniques such as interviews, focus groups, observations, and content analysis. The findings from qualitative research are typically descriptive and exploratory, providing insights into processes, perceptions, and experiences that may not be captured through quantitative methods.

In medical research, qualitative research can be used to explore patients' experiences of illness, healthcare providers' perspectives on patient care, or the cultural and social factors that influence health behaviors. It is often used in combination with quantitative methods to provide a more comprehensive understanding of complex health issues.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Great Britain" is not a medical concept or condition. It is a geographical and political term referring to the largest island in the British Isles, on which the majority of England, Scotland, and Wales are located. It's also used to refer to the political union of these three countries, which is called the United Kingdom. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.

A needs assessment in a medical context is the process of identifying and evaluating the health needs of an individual, population, or community. It is used to determine the resources, services, and interventions required to address specific health issues and improve overall health outcomes. This process often involves collecting and analyzing data on various factors such as demographics, prevalence of diseases, access to healthcare, and social determinants of health. The goal of a needs assessment is to ensure that resources are allocated effectively and efficiently to meet the most pressing health needs and priorities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "International Cooperation" is not a medical term. It refers to the collaboration and exchange of resources and information between countries or international organizations in various fields, including politics, economics, culture, environment, and security, among others. In the context of healthcare and medicine, international cooperation can involve joint research projects, sharing of data and clinical trial results, collaborative efforts to combat global health issues (such as infectious diseases or chronic conditions), capacity building in low-resource settings, and standardizing medical practices and guidelines across countries.

Health Care Coalitions (HCCs) are multi-disciplinary, multi-agency partnerships that are organized at the local or regional level to enhance emergency preparedness and response capabilities for the healthcare system. The primary goal of HCCs is to facilitate communication, coordination, and collaboration among healthcare organizations and other key stakeholders, such as emergency management agencies, public health departments, and community organizations.

HCCs typically focus on preparing for and responding to emergencies that can impact the healthcare system, including natural disasters, mass casualty incidents, infectious disease outbreaks, and cyber attacks. They may develop plans and procedures for addressing these threats, provide training and education to members, and conduct exercises to test their capabilities.

The membership of HCCs can vary but typically includes hospitals, long-term care facilities, home health agencies, emergency medical services providers, public health departments, mental/behavioral health organizations, and other stakeholders involved in healthcare delivery and emergency response. By working together, these organizations can help ensure that the healthcare system is better prepared to meet the needs of their communities during emergencies.

Healthcare Quality Indicators (QIs) are measurable elements that can be used to assess the quality of healthcare services and outcomes. They are often based on evidence-based practices and guidelines, and are designed to help healthcare providers monitor and improve the quality of care they deliver to their patients. QIs may focus on various aspects of healthcare, such as patient safety, clinical effectiveness, patient-centeredness, timeliness, and efficiency. Examples of QIs include measures such as rates of hospital-acquired infections, adherence to recommended treatments for specific conditions, and patient satisfaction scores. By tracking these indicators over time, healthcare organizations can identify areas where they need to improve, make changes to their processes and practices, and ultimately provide better care to their patients.

Reproductive health services refer to the provision of health care services that aim to enhance reproductive health and well-being. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), reproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system and its functions and processes.

Reproductive health services may include:

1. Family planning: This includes counseling, education, and provision of contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote planned pregnancies.
2. Maternal and newborn health: This includes antenatal care, delivery services, postnatal care, and newborn care to ensure safe pregnancy and childbirth.
3. Sexual health: This includes counseling, testing, and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS, and education on sexual health and responsible sexual behavior.
4. Infertility services: This includes diagnosis and treatment of infertility, including assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).
5. Abortion services: This includes safe abortion services, post-abortion care, and counseling to prevent unsafe abortions and reduce maternal mortality and morbidity.
6. Menstrual health: This includes providing access to menstrual hygiene products, education on menstrual health, and treatment of menstrual disorders.
7. Adolescent reproductive health: This includes providing age-appropriate sexual and reproductive health education, counseling, and services to adolescents.

Reproductive health services aim to promote sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), which include the right to access information, education, and services; the right to make informed choices about one's own body and reproduction; and the right to be free from discrimination, coercion, and violence in relation to one's sexuality and reproduction.

Women's health services refer to medical services that are specifically designed, focused on, or tailored to the unique physiological and psychological needs of women, throughout various stages of their lives. These services encompass a wide range of healthcare areas including:

1. Gynecology and obstetrics - covering routine preventive care, family planning, prenatal and postnatal care, as well as management of gynecological conditions like menstrual disorders, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and reproductive system cancers (e.g., cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer).
2. Breast health - including breast cancer screening, diagnostics, treatment, and survivorship care, as well as education on breast self-examination and risk reduction strategies.
3. Mental health - addressing women's mental health concerns such as depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), eating disorders, and perinatal mood disorders, while also considering the impact of hormonal changes, life events, and societal expectations on emotional wellbeing.
4. Sexual health - providing care for sexual concerns, dysfunctions, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as offering education on safe sexual practices and promoting healthy relationships.
5. Cardiovascular health - addressing women's specific cardiovascular risks, such as pregnancy-related complications, and managing conditions like hypertension and high cholesterol to prevent heart disease, the leading cause of death for women in many countries.
6. Bone health - focusing on prevention, diagnosis, and management of osteoporosis and other bone diseases that disproportionately affect women, particularly after menopause.
7. Menopause care - providing support and treatment for symptoms related to menopause, such as hot flashes, sleep disturbances, and mood changes, while also addressing long-term health concerns like bone density loss and heart disease risk.
8. Preventive care - offering routine screenings and vaccinations specific to women's health needs, including cervical cancer screening (Pap test), breast cancer screening (mammography), human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and osteoporosis screening.
9. Education and counseling - empowering women with knowledge about their bodies, sexual and reproductive health, and overall wellbeing through evidence-based resources and support.
10. Integrative care - addressing the whole person, including mental, emotional, and spiritual wellbeing, by incorporating complementary therapies like acupuncture, mindfulness, and yoga into treatment plans as appropriate.

Health services for Indigenous people refer to medical and healthcare provision that is specifically designed, delivered, and organized to meet the unique cultural, historical, and social needs of indigenous populations. These services aim to address the health disparities and inequalities that often exist between indigenous and non-indigenous populations. They are typically community-based and involve traditional healing practices, as well as modern medical interventions. Indigenous health services may also incorporate cultural safety training for healthcare providers to ensure respectful and appropriate care.

Urban health services refer to the provision of healthcare and public health programs in urban areas, designed to meet the unique needs and challenges of urban populations. These services encompass a wide range of facilities, professionals, and interventions that aim to improve the health and well-being of people living in urban environments. They often address issues such as infectious diseases, chronic conditions, mental health, environmental hazards, and social determinants of health that are prevalent or amplified in urban settings. Examples of urban health services include hospital systems, community health centers, outreach programs, and policy initiatives focused on improving the health of urban populations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "poverty" is not a medical condition or term. It is a social condition defined by the World Bank as "pronounced deprivation in well-being," and measured through indicators such as income, consumption, and access to basic services. Poverty can have significant impacts on health outcomes and healthcare access, but it is not considered a medical diagnosis. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try my best to help answer them!

'Government Financing' in the context of healthcare refers to the role of government in funding healthcare services, programs, and infrastructure. This can be achieved through various mechanisms such as:

1. Direct provision of healthcare services: The government operates and funds its own hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare facilities, where it employs healthcare professionals to deliver care.
2. Public insurance programs: The government establishes and manages health insurance programs, like Medicare and Medicaid in the United States, which provide coverage for specific populations and reimburse healthcare providers for services delivered to enrollees.
3. Tax subsidies and incentives: Governments may offer tax breaks or other financial incentives to encourage private investments in healthcare infrastructure, research, and development.
4. Grants and loans: Government agencies can provide funding to healthcare organizations, researchers, and educational institutions in the form of grants and loans for specific projects, programs, or initiatives.
5. Public-private partnerships (PPPs): Governments collaborate with private entities to jointly fund and manage healthcare services, facilities, or infrastructure projects.

Government financing plays a significant role in shaping healthcare systems and ensuring access to care for vulnerable populations. The extent of government involvement in financing varies across countries, depending on their political, economic, and social contexts.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

"Public policy" is not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of politics, government, and public administration. It refers to a course or principle of action adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or organization to guide decisions and achieve specific goals related to public health, safety, or welfare.

However, in the context of healthcare and medicine, "public policy" often refers to laws, regulations, guidelines, and initiatives established by government entities to promote and protect the health and well-being of the population. Public policies in healthcare aim to ensure access to quality care, reduce health disparities, promote public health, regulate healthcare practices and industries, and address broader social determinants of health. Examples include Medicaid and Medicare programs, laws mandating insurance coverage for certain medical procedures or treatments, and regulations governing the safety and efficacy of drugs and medical devices.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is not a medical term per se, but it is a government organization that oversees and provides funding for many public health initiatives, services, and institutions in the United States. Here's a brief definition:

The HHS is a cabinet-level department in the US federal government responsible for protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. It achieves this by promoting effective and efficient delivery of high-quality healthcare, conducting critical medical research through its agencies, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and enforcing public health laws and regulations, including those related to food safety, through its agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Additionally, HHS oversees the Medicare and Medicaid programs, which provide healthcare coverage for millions of elderly, disabled, and low-income Americans.

Healthcare disparities refer to differences in the quality, accessibility, and outcomes of healthcare that are systematically related to social or economic disadvantage. These disparities may exist between different racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, gender, sexual orientation, geographic, or disability status groups. They can result from a complex interplay of factors including provider bias, patient-provider communication, health system policies, and structural racism, among others. Healthcare disparities often lead to worse health outcomes and reduced quality of life for disadvantaged populations.

Allied health personnel refers to a group of healthcare professionals who are licensed or regulated to provide specific services within the healthcare system. They work in collaboration with physicians and other healthcare providers to deliver comprehensive medical care. Allied health personnel include various disciplines such as:

1. Occupational therapists
2. Physical therapists
3. Speech-language pathologists
4. Audiologists
5. Respiratory therapists
6. Dietitians and nutritionists
7. Social workers
8. Diagnostic medical sonographers
9. Radiologic technologists
10. Clinical laboratory scientists
11. Genetic counselors
12. Rehabilitation counselors
13. Therapeutic recreation specialists

These professionals play a crucial role in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of various medical conditions and are essential members of the healthcare team.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Program Development" is not a medical term. It is a general term that refers to the process of creating, planning, and implementing a new program or project, typically in a business, education, or community setting. In a healthcare context, it might refer to the development of a new healthcare service, treatment program, or educational initiative.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to try and help!

"Family Health" is not a term that has a single, widely accepted medical definition. However, in the context of healthcare and public health, "family health" often refers to the physical, mental, and social well-being of all members of a family unit. It includes the assessment, promotion, and prevention of health conditions that affect individual family members as well as the family as a whole.

Family health may also encompass interventions and programs that aim to strengthen family relationships, communication, and functioning, as these factors can have a significant impact on overall health outcomes. Additionally, family health may involve addressing social determinants of health, such as poverty, housing, and access to healthcare, which can affect the health of families and communities.

Overall, family health is a holistic approach to healthcare that recognizes the importance of considering the needs and experiences of all family members in promoting and maintaining good health.

I'm not able to provide a medical definition of "social responsibility" as it is not a term that has a specific meaning within the field of medicine. However, I can tell you that social responsibility generally refers to the idea that individuals and organizations have a duty to act in the best interests of society and to contribute to its overall well-being. This might involve taking actions to protect the environment, promote social justice, or support the needs of vulnerable populations. In a medical context, this could mean providing care to underserved communities, engaging in public health advocacy, or conducting research that addresses important societal issues.

Adolescent health services refer to medical and related services that are specifically designed to meet the unique physical, mental, emotional, and social needs of young people between the ages of 10-24 years. These services encompass a broad range of interventions, including preventive care, acute and chronic disease management, reproductive health care, mental health services, substance use treatment, and health promotion and education. The goal of adolescent health services is to support young people in achieving optimal health and well-being as they navigate the complex transitions of adolescence and early adulthood. Such services may be provided in a variety of settings, including primary care clinics, schools, community health centers, and specialized youth clinics.

Personal Health Records (PHRs) are defined as:

"An electronic application through which individuals can access, manage and share their health information, and that of others for whom they are authorized, in a private, secure, and confidential environment." (Institute of Medicine, 2011)

PHRs typically contain personal health information such as medical history, medication lists, allergies, test results, and other relevant health data. They can be managed and controlled by the individual and may be connected to or separate from electronic health records maintained by healthcare providers. PHRs allow individuals to have more active roles in managing their own health and communicating with their healthcare team.

"Men's Health" is not strictly defined in the medical field, but it generally refers to the branch of healthcare that focuses on the specific health concerns and needs of men. This can include issues related to reproductive health, sexual health, hormonal health, chronic conditions that disproportionately affect men (like heart disease and prostate cancer), mental health, and lifestyle factors that impact male health (such as diet, exercise, and stress management). It also promotes health education, prevention, and early detection of diseases and conditions that are common in men.

A rural population refers to people who live in areas that are outside of urban areas, typically defined as having fewer than 2,000 residents and lacking certain infrastructure and services such as running water, sewage systems, and paved roads. Rural populations often have less access to healthcare services, education, and economic opportunities compared to their urban counterparts. This population group can face unique health challenges, including higher rates of poverty, limited access to specialized medical care, and a greater exposure to environmental hazards such as agricultural chemicals and industrial pollutants.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

School health services refer to the health programs and services provided within schools by qualified healthcare professionals or specialists. These services aim to improve the overall well-being, academic success, and development of students by addressing both their physical and mental health needs. Examples of school health services include:

1. Health screenings: Routine vision, hearing, dental, and other health screenings to identify any potential issues early on.
2. Immunizations: Ensuring students are up-to-date with required immunizations and providing education about the importance of vaccinations.
3. Chronic disease management: Helping students manage chronic conditions such as asthma, diabetes, or epilepsy through individualized care plans and coordination with healthcare providers.
4. Mental health services: Providing counseling, therapy, and support for students dealing with emotional or behavioral challenges, including anxiety, depression, or trauma.
5. Health education: Teaching students about various health topics, such as nutrition, hygiene, sexual health, substance abuse prevention, and safety practices.
6. Case management: Coordinating care and providing resources for students with complex medical needs or social determinants of health challenges.
7. First aid and emergency care: Providing immediate medical attention in case of injuries or illnesses that occur during school hours.
8. Referrals to community resources: Connecting students and families with local healthcare providers, support services, and other resources as needed.

The goal of school health services is to create a safe, healthy, and supportive learning environment that promotes the overall well-being of all students.

Community Mental Health Services (CMHS) refer to mental health care services that are provided in community settings, as opposed to traditional hospital-based or institutional care. These services are designed to be accessible, comprehensive, and coordinated, with the goal of promoting recovery, resilience, and improved quality of life for individuals with mental illnesses.

CMHS may include a range of services such as:

1. Outpatient care: Including individual and group therapy, medication management, and case management services provided in community clinics or healthcare centers.
2. Assertive Community Treatment (ACT): A team-based approach to providing comprehensive mental health services to individuals with severe and persistent mental illnesses who may have difficulty engaging in traditional outpatient care.
3. Crisis intervention: Including mobile crisis teams, emergency psychiatric evaluations, and short-term residential crisis stabilization units.
4. Supported housing and employment: Services that help individuals with mental illnesses to live independently in the community and to obtain and maintain competitive employment.
5. Prevention and early intervention: Programs that aim to identify and address mental health issues before they become more severe, such as suicide prevention programs, bullying prevention, and early psychosis detection and treatment.
6. Peer support: Services provided by individuals who have personal experience with mental illness and can offer support, guidance, and advocacy to others who are struggling with similar issues.
7. Family education and support: Programs that provide information, resources, and support to family members of individuals with mental illnesses.

The goal of CMHS is to provide accessible, comprehensive, and coordinated care that meets the unique needs of each individual and helps them to achieve their recovery goals in the community setting.

A Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) is a type of managed care organization (MCO) that provides comprehensive health care services to its members, typically for a fixed monthly premium. HMOs are characterized by a prepaid payment model and a focus on preventive care and early intervention to manage the health of their enrolled population.

In an HMO, members must choose a primary care physician (PCP) who acts as their first point of contact for medical care and coordinates all aspects of their healthcare needs within the HMO network. Specialist care is generally only covered if it is referred by the PCP, and members are typically required to obtain medical services from providers that are part of the HMO's network. This helps to keep costs down and ensures that care is coordinated and managed effectively.

HMOs may also offer additional benefits such as dental, vision, and mental health services, depending on the specific plan. However, members may face higher out-of-pocket costs if they choose to receive care outside of the HMO network. Overall, HMOs are designed to provide comprehensive healthcare coverage at a more affordable cost than traditional fee-for-service insurance plans.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

Cooperative behavior, in a medical or healthcare context, refers to the actions and attitudes displayed by individuals or groups working together to achieve a common goal related to health and well-being. This may involve patients following their healthcare providers' advice, healthcare professionals collaborating to diagnose and treat medical conditions, or communities coming together to promote healthy behaviors and environments. Cooperative behavior is essential for positive health outcomes, as it fosters trust, communication, and shared decision-making between patients and healthcare providers, and helps to ensure that everyone involved in the care process is working towards the same goal.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Organizational Case Studies" is not a medical term. It is a term that is used in various fields including business, management, and social sciences to describe the analysis of a specific organization or a particular aspect of its functioning. An organizational case study typically involves an in-depth examination of an organization, including its structure, culture, processes, and outcomes, with the aim of understanding its performance, challenges, and opportunities for improvement.

In healthcare, case studies are often used to examine specific clinical scenarios or patient cases. However, "Organizational Case Studies" in a medical context might refer to the study of healthcare organizations, such as hospitals or clinics, to analyze their management practices, quality of care, financial performance, and other factors that can impact patient outcomes and overall organizational success.

The United States Public Health Service (USPHS) is not a medical term per se, but I can certainly provide a definition and overview of it in the context of public health and healthcare.

The USPHS is a division of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and is responsible for promoting and protecting the health of the nation, particularly focusing on preventing and controlling infectious diseases and other health threats. The USPHS is composed of eight uniformed service components: the Surgeon General's Office, the Commissioned Corps, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), the Indian Health Service (IHS), and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).

The Commissioned Corps of the USPHS is a group of uniformed healthcare professionals who are appointed by the President and commissioned as officers. They serve in various capacities within the federal government, including research, clinical care, health policy, and emergency response. The Surgeon General serves as the head of the USPHS and is responsible for providing advice to the President and HHS Secretary on matters related to public health.

The USPHS plays a critical role in responding to public health emergencies, such as natural disasters, infectious disease outbreaks, and bioterrorism attacks. They also work to address health disparities and promote health equity by providing healthcare services to underserved populations, including American Indians and Alaska Natives through the IHS. Additionally, the USPHS supports research and surveillance efforts aimed at understanding and addressing various public health issues, such as tobacco use, substance abuse, and mental health.

Comprehensive health care is a type of medical care that aims to meet the majority of an individual's physical, emotional, and social needs, through a coordinated and integrated system of preventative, acute, and long-term care services. It is designed to provide a continuum of care that is accessible, efficient, and effective in addressing the whole person's health status, including all aspects of prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and management of both physical and mental health conditions.

Comprehensive health care may include a wide range of services such as preventative screenings, routine check-ups, immunizations, acute care for illnesses or injuries, chronic disease management, mental health counseling, rehabilitation, and end-of-life care. It is typically delivered through a network of healthcare providers, including primary care physicians, specialists, hospitals, clinics, and community-based organizations, who work together to provide coordinated and patient-centered care.

The goal of comprehensive health care is to improve health outcomes, enhance quality of life, and reduce health disparities by addressing the social determinants of health, such as poverty, education, housing, and nutrition, that can impact an individual's overall health status. It recognizes that healthcare is just one component of a larger system of factors that influence a person's health and well-being, and seeks to create a more holistic approach to medical care that addresses the full range of factors that contribute to good health.

Health Planning Support refers to the various activities and resources provided to assist healthcare organizations, governments, and other stakeholders in the development and implementation of health planning initiatives. These services can include:

1. Data Analysis: This involves the collection, interpretation, and presentation of health data to inform decision-making and policy development.
2. Technical Assistance: This includes providing expertise and guidance on health planning processes, such as needs assessment, priority setting, and resource allocation.
3. Research and Evaluation: This involves conducting research to evaluate the effectiveness of health programs and interventions, and providing evidence to inform future planning efforts.
4. Stakeholder Engagement: This includes facilitating collaboration and communication among different stakeholders, such as healthcare providers, patients, policymakers, and community organizations, to ensure that all voices are heard in the planning process.
5. Capacity Building: This involves providing training and education to build the skills and knowledge of health planners and other stakeholders, enabling them to effectively participate in and lead health planning initiatives.

Overall, Health Planning Support is designed to help healthcare organizations and governments make informed decisions about how to allocate resources and plan for the future, with the goal of improving health outcomes and reducing health disparities.

Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a systematic process used to compare the costs and benefits of different options to determine which one provides the greatest net benefit. In a medical context, CBA can be used to evaluate the value of medical interventions, treatments, or policies by estimating and monetizing all the relevant costs and benefits associated with each option.

The costs included in a CBA may include direct costs such as the cost of the intervention or treatment itself, as well as indirect costs such as lost productivity or time away from work. Benefits may include improved health outcomes, reduced morbidity or mortality, and increased quality of life.

Once all the relevant costs and benefits have been identified and quantified, they are typically expressed in monetary terms to allow for a direct comparison. The option with the highest net benefit (i.e., the difference between total benefits and total costs) is considered the most cost-effective.

It's important to note that CBA has some limitations and can be subject to various biases and assumptions, so it should be used in conjunction with other evaluation methods to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the value of medical interventions or policies.

"State Medicine" is not a term that has a widely accepted or specific medical definition. However, in general terms, it can refer to the organization, financing, and delivery of healthcare services and resources at the national or regional level, overseen and managed by the government or state. This can include public health initiatives, regulation of healthcare professionals and institutions, and the provision of healthcare services through publicly funded programs.

In some contexts, "State Medicine" may also refer to the practice of using medical treatments or interventions as a means of achieving political or social objectives, such as reducing crime rates or improving economic productivity. However, this usage is less common and more controversial.

"Public health in the context of schools refers to the science and practice of protecting and improving the health of populations in school settings. It involves the implementation of evidence-based policies, programs, and practices to prevent disease and injury, promote healthy behaviors, and ensure that students are able to learn and thrive in a safe and healthy environment. This can include efforts to address issues such as infectious disease outbreaks, chronic disease prevention, mental health promotion, environmental health concerns, and injury prevention. Public health in schools is a multidisciplinary field that draws on expertise from fields such as medicine, nursing, nutrition, psychology, social work, education, and public health."

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Government Agencies" is a very broad term and does not have a specific medical definition. Government agencies are administrative bodies of a government that carry out certain legislated functions, and these can cover a wide range of areas, including public health, environmental protection, workplace safety, and many others.

However, if you're interested in learning about government agencies that deal with health-related matters, here are a few examples:

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): A federal agency in the United States that conducts and supports public health activities to decrease preventable diseases, injuries, and disabilities.
2. National Institutes of Health (NIH): A US government agency responsible for biomedical and health-related research. It comprises 27 institutes and centers focusing on various disease areas and other health issues.
3. Food and Drug Administration (FDA): A US government agency that oversees the safety of food, dietary supplements, medications, vaccines, cosmetics, medical devices, and radiation-emitting products.
4. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): A US government agency responsible for protecting human health and the environment by enforcing regulations related to air and water quality, hazardous waste disposal, pesticides, and other environmental concerns.
5. World Health Organization (WHO): An international organization that coordinates global health initiatives, sets international health standards, and provides technical assistance to member countries in addressing various health issues.

These are just a few examples of government agencies that deal with health-related matters. If you have a specific agency or area of interest, I'd be happy to help provide more information!

Biomedical research is a branch of scientific research that involves the study of biological processes and diseases in order to develop new treatments and therapies. This type of research often involves the use of laboratory techniques, such as cell culture and genetic engineering, as well as clinical trials in humans. The goal of biomedical research is to advance our understanding of how living organisms function and to find ways to prevent and treat various medical conditions. It encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including molecular biology, genetics, immunology, pharmacology, and neuroscience, among others. Ultimately, the aim of biomedical research is to improve human health and well-being.

Maternal-Child Health (MCH) Centers are healthcare facilities specifically designed to provide comprehensive care for women, mothers, and children. These centers offer a wide range of services that focus on improving the health outcomes of mothers, infants, young children, and adolescents. The primary goal is to promote and maintain the overall well-being of these populations by addressing their unique healthcare needs through various stages of life.

MCH Centers typically provide services such as:

1. Prenatal care: Regular check-ups and screenings for pregnant women to monitor the health of both the mother and the developing fetus, ensuring a healthy pregnancy and timely identification of potential complications.
2. Family planning and reproductive health: Counseling, education, and access to various contraceptive methods to help individuals and couples plan their families and prevent unintended pregnancies.
3. Immunizations and well-child visits: Vaccinations and routine healthcare check-ups for infants, children, and adolescents to ensure they receive proper immunization protection and timely identification of developmental or health issues.
4. Nutrition counseling: Guidance on healthy eating habits and appropriate nutrition for pregnant women, new mothers, and young children to support optimal growth and development.
5. Mental health services: Counseling, therapy, and support groups for mothers and children dealing with emotional, behavioral, or mental health concerns.
6. Parent education and support: Classes, workshops, and support groups focused on child development, parenting skills, and family dynamics to promote positive parent-child relationships and strengthen families.
7. Chronic disease management: Specialized care for mothers and children with existing medical conditions, such as asthma, diabetes, or heart disease, to help manage their symptoms and improve overall health outcomes.
8. Referral services: Connections to specialized healthcare providers, community resources, and social support services when necessary to ensure comprehensive care and address any complex needs.

MCH Centers may be standalone facilities or integrated into larger healthcare systems, such as hospitals or community clinics. They play a crucial role in promoting health equity by providing accessible, high-quality healthcare services tailored to the unique needs of mothers and children from diverse backgrounds and communities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "public opinion" is not a term that has a medical definition. Public opinion refers to the collective views, attitudes, and beliefs held by a group or society about a particular issue or topic. It is typically formed through interaction, discussion, and various forms of communication within a community or population. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medicine, I'd be happy to help with those!

Health communication is the scientific field that uses communication strategies and methods to inform and influence individual health behaviors and organizational, community, and public policies. It combines disciplines such as psychology, sociology, anthropology, and public health to develop and disseminate messages that will improve health literacy, engage individuals in self-care, and promote positive changes in healthcare systems and policy. Health communication can be used to increase awareness of health issues, prevent the spread of diseases, reduce risky behaviors, and promote healthy lifestyles. It encompasses a wide range of activities including interpersonal communication between patients and healthcare providers, mass media campaigns, social marketing, patient education materials, and community-based participatory research.

Health Planning Councils are regional organizations that are responsible for developing, implementing, and evaluating healthcare plans and services within a specific geographic area. The primary goal of these councils is to improve the overall health of the population they serve by identifying healthcare needs, setting priorities, and coordinating resources to address those needs.

Health Planning Councils typically consist of a diverse group of stakeholders, including healthcare providers, consumers, advocates, and other community members. They may be responsible for a variety of tasks, such as:

1. Conducting needs assessments to identify the health needs and priorities of the population they serve.
2. Developing strategic plans to address those needs and priorities.
3. Allocating resources to support the implementation of healthcare services and programs.
4. Monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of healthcare services and programs.
5. Advocating for policies and practices that promote health equity and improve access to care.

Health Planning Councils may operate at the state, regional, or local level, depending on the specific structure and organization of the healthcare system in which they are located. They play a critical role in ensuring that healthcare resources are used efficiently and effectively to improve the health outcomes of the populations they serve.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Private Sector" is not a medical definition. It is an economic and sociopolitical term that refers to businesses and organizations which are not owned or controlled by the government. They can be privately owned and operated for profit, such as corporations, partnerships, and sole proprietorships, or they can be non-profit organizations, such as charities and advocacy groups. The private sector is distinct from the "Public Sector," which includes entities that are owned and controlled by the government, like public schools, hospitals, and other services provided by the state.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Interinstitutional Relations" is not a commonly used medical term. Instead, it is more frequently used in the context of social sciences, particularly in relation to organizations and their interactions with each other. In this context, interinstitutional relations refers to the relationships, cooperative arrangements, and communication between different organizations or institutions.

However, if you are looking for a term related to medical institutions or healthcare organizations, you might be interested in "Interprofessional Relations" or "Interdisciplinary Collaboration." These terms describe the interactions, coordination, and cooperation among various healthcare professionals and disciplines to provide comprehensive and high-quality patient care.

Consumer participation in the context of healthcare refers to the active involvement and engagement of patients, families, caregivers, and communities in their own healthcare decision-making processes and in the development, implementation, and evaluation of health policies, programs, and services. It emphasizes the importance of patient-centered care, where the unique needs, preferences, values, and experiences of individuals are respected and integrated into their healthcare.

Consumer participation can take many forms, including:

1. Patient-provider communication: Consumers engage in open and honest communication with their healthcare providers to make informed decisions about their health.
2. Shared decision-making: Consumers work together with their healthcare providers to weigh the benefits and risks of different treatment options and make evidence-based decisions that align with their values, preferences, and goals.
3. Patient education: Consumers receive accurate, timely, and understandable information about their health conditions, treatments, and self-management strategies.
4. Patient advocacy: Consumers advocate for their own health needs and rights, as well as those of other patients and communities.
5. Community engagement: Consumers participate in the development, implementation, and evaluation of health policies, programs, and services that affect their communities.
6. Research partnerships: Consumers collaborate with researchers to design, conduct, and disseminate research that is relevant and meaningful to their lives.

Consumer participation aims to improve healthcare quality, safety, and outcomes by empowering individuals to take an active role in their own health and well-being, and by ensuring that healthcare systems are responsive to the needs and preferences of diverse populations.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Australia" is not a medical term or concept. It is the world's largest island and smallest continent, located in the Southern Hemisphere, surrounded by the Pacific and Indian Oceans. It is composed of many diverse ecosystems, including deserts, rainforests, and coastal areas, and is home to a wide variety of unique plant and animal species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you!

"Marketing of Health Services" refers to the application of marketing principles and strategies to promote, sell, and deliver health care services to individuals, families, or communities. This can include activities such as advertising, public relations, promotions, and sales to increase awareness and demand for health services, as well as researching and analyzing consumer needs and preferences to tailor health services to better meet those needs. The ultimate goal of marketing in health services is to improve access to and utilization of high-quality health care while maintaining ethical standards and ensuring patient satisfaction.

"Research Support as Topic" is not a specific medical term or diagnosis. However, in the context of medical literature and research, "research support" refers to the resources, funding, and infrastructure that enable and facilitate the conduct of scientific research. This can include financial support from various sources such as government agencies, private organizations, or institutions; access to laboratory facilities, equipment, and databases; and technical assistance in study design, data collection and analysis, and manuscript preparation.

When "research support" is designated as a topic in medical literature, it typically refers to articles that discuss the various aspects of research funding, ethics, and management, including best practices for grant writing, financial conflict of interest disclosures, and responsible conduct of research. It may also include studies that examine the impact of research support on the quality, quantity, and outcomes of scientific research.

Educational status refers to the level or stage of education that a person has reached. It can be used to describe an individual's educational background, achievements, and qualifications. Educational status can be categorized in various ways, including by level (e.g., elementary school, high school, college, graduate school), years of schooling completed, or type of degree earned (e.g., bachelor's, master's, doctoral).

In medical settings, educational status may be used as a demographic variable to describe the characteristics of a patient population or to identify potential disparities in health outcomes based on education level. Research has shown that higher levels of education are often associated with better health outcomes, including lower rates of chronic diseases and improved mental health. Therefore, understanding a patient's educational status can help healthcare providers tailor their care and education strategies to meet the unique needs and challenges of each individual.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "England" is not a medical term or concept. It is one of the four constituent countries that make up the United Kingdom, along with Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. England is located in the southern part of Great Britain, which is the largest island of the British Isles.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "History, 20th Century" is a broad and complex topic that refers to the events, developments, and transformations that occurred throughout the world during the 1900s. It is not a medical term or concept. If you're interested in learning more about this historical period, I would recommend consulting a history textbook, reputable online resources, or speaking with a historian. They can provide detailed information about the political, social, economic, and cultural changes that took place during the 20th century.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Health Fairs" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in general terms, health fairs are community events organized to promote health awareness and education. They are often hosted by hospitals, clinics, or other healthcare organizations and feature various screenings, educational booths, and activities aimed at promoting overall wellness. Healthcare professionals may also be present to provide information, answer questions, and offer advice on a range of health-related topics.

Organized financing in a medical context generally refers to the planning and coordination of financial resources and arrangements to support healthcare programs, services, or research. This can involve various funding sources, such as governmental agencies, private insurance, charitable organizations, and individual donors. The goal of organized financing is to ensure sustainable and equitable access to high-quality healthcare for all individuals, while also promoting cost-effective and efficient use of resources. Organized financing may also include efforts to address financial barriers to care, such as high out-of-pocket costs or lack of insurance coverage, and to promote transparency and accountability in the use of healthcare funds.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Government Programs" is a very broad term and can encompass many different fields, including healthcare, social services, education, and more. If you're looking for a medical definition related to government programs, you might be referring to initiatives like Medicare, Medicaid, or the Affordable Care Act in the United States, which are government-run health insurance programs or policies.

1. Medicare: A federal health insurance program in the United States, primarily for people 65 and older, but also for some younger people with disabilities and those with end-stage renal disease. Medicare provides coverage for hospitalization, doctor visits, and other healthcare services.

2. Medicaid: A joint federal-state health insurance program in the United States that provides coverage to low-income individuals, including children, pregnant women, elderly adults, and people with disabilities. Medicaid covers a range of medical services, including hospital stays, doctor visits, and long-term care.

3. The Affordable Care Act (ACA): Also known as "Obamacare," the ACA is a United States healthcare reform law that aims to increase the quality and affordability of health insurance, lower the uninsured rate, and regulate the health insurance industry. The ACA includes provisions such as mandated insurance coverage, subsidies for low-income individuals, and protections for those with pre-existing conditions.

Please provide more context if you were looking for information on a different government program related to the medical field.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "social class" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a sociological concept that refers to the grouping of individuals in a society based on their shared economic and social positions. This can include factors such as income, education, occupation, and wealth.

However, social class can have an impact on health outcomes and access to healthcare. For example, people in lower socioeconomic groups are more likely to experience chronic diseases, mental health disorders, and have limited access to quality healthcare services compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups. This relationship is often referred to as the "social determinants of health."

There is no standard medical definition for "health food" as it can be subjective and may vary. However, health food generally refers to foods that are considered beneficial to one's health due to their high nutritional value or low levels of unhealthy components such as added sugars, saturated fats, and artificial ingredients.

These foods often include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats. Some people may also consider certain fortified or functional foods, such as those with added vitamins, minerals, or other nutrients, to be health foods. However, it's important to note that the term "health food" is not strictly regulated, so claims about the health benefits of certain foods should be evaluated critically and supported by scientific evidence.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Local Government" is not a medical term. It refers to a level of government that is responsible for administering public services within a specific geographic area, typically smaller than a state or province. Local governments may include entities such as counties, municipalities, cities, towns, and villages. They are usually responsible for providing services such as police and fire protection, emergency medical services, waste management, local road maintenance, and public education. It is not directly related to the practice of medicine or healthcare.

I'm happy to help, but I must clarify that "planning techniques" is not a medical term per se. However, in the context of healthcare and medicine, planning techniques can refer to various methods and approaches used to organize, coordinate, and implement care plans for patients. These techniques are often utilized by healthcare professionals, such as doctors, nurses, and social workers, to ensure that patients receive high-quality, evidence-based care that meets their individual needs and goals.

Here are some examples of planning techniques commonly used in healthcare:

1. Advance Care Planning (ACP): A process that helps individuals plan for future medical care in the event they become unable to make decisions for themselves. This can include creating an advance directive, such as a living will or healthcare power of attorney.
2. Goal-Setting: A collaborative process between patients and healthcare providers to establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) goals for treatment and care.
3. Care Mapping: A visual tool used to map out a patient's care plan, including their medical history, diagnoses, treatments, and support needs. This can help healthcare providers coordinate care and ensure that all team members are on the same page.
4. Root Cause Analysis (RCA): A problem-solving technique used to identify the underlying causes of medical errors or adverse events, with the goal of preventing similar incidents from occurring in the future.
5. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA): A proactive risk assessment tool used to identify potential failures in a system or process, and to develop strategies to mitigate those risks.
6. Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) Cycle: A continuous quality improvement technique that involves planning a change, implementing the change, studying its effects, and then acting on the results to make further improvements.

These are just a few examples of the many planning techniques used in healthcare. The specific methods and approaches used will depend on the individual patient's needs, as well as the context and resources available within the healthcare system.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "leadership" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Leadership is a concept that relates to the ability of an individual or an organization's management to set and achieve challenging goals, take swift and decisive action, outperform the competition, and inspire others to perform at their best.

In healthcare settings, leadership refers to the skills, behaviors, and attitudes of those in positions of authority within a healthcare organization. Effective healthcare leaders are able to create a positive organizational culture, communicate a clear vision, motivate and engage staff, manage resources effectively, and ensure high-quality patient care. They must also be able to adapt to changing circumstances, make informed decisions based on data and evidence, and work collaboratively with other healthcare professionals and stakeholders.

Decision-making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. In a medical context, decision-making refers to the process by which healthcare professionals and patients make choices about medical tests, treatments, or management options based on a thorough evaluation of available information, including the patient's preferences, values, and circumstances.

The decision-making process in medicine typically involves several steps:

1. Identifying the problem or issue that requires a decision.
2. Gathering relevant information about the patient's medical history, current condition, diagnostic test results, treatment options, and potential outcomes.
3. Considering the benefits, risks, and uncertainties associated with each option.
4. Evaluating the patient's preferences, values, and goals.
5. Selecting the most appropriate course of action based on a careful weighing of the available evidence and the patient's individual needs and circumstances.
6. Communicating the decision to the patient and ensuring that they understand the rationale behind it, as well as any potential risks or benefits.
7. Monitoring the outcomes of the decision and adjusting the course of action as needed based on ongoing evaluation and feedback.

Effective decision-making in medicine requires a thorough understanding of medical evidence, clinical expertise, and patient preferences. It also involves careful consideration of ethical principles, such as respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice. Ultimately, the goal of decision-making in healthcare is to promote the best possible outcomes for patients while minimizing harm and respecting their individual needs and values.

Insurance coverage, in the context of healthcare and medicine, refers to the financial protection provided by an insurance policy that covers all or a portion of the cost of medical services, treatments, and prescription drugs. The coverage is typically offered by health insurance companies, employers, or government programs such as Medicare and Medicaid.

The specific services and treatments covered by insurance, as well as the out-of-pocket costs borne by the insured individual, are determined by the terms of the insurance policy. These terms may include deductibles, copayments, coinsurance, and coverage limits or exclusions. The goal of insurance coverage is to help individuals manage the financial risks associated with healthcare expenses and ensure access to necessary medical services.

I'm happy to help, but I need to clarify that "residence characteristics" is not a commonly used medical term. It is more related to the field of public health or epidemiology. However, if you are asking for the characteristics of a residence that could be relevant to medical or health research, they might include:

1. Housing type (single-family home, apartment, mobile home, etc.)
2. Age and condition of the housing unit
3. Presence of environmental hazards (lead paint, asbestos, radon, etc.)
4. Quality of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems
5. Access to clean water and sanitation facilities
6. Safety features (smoke detectors, carbon monoxide detectors, etc.)
7. Presence of pests (rodents, cockroaches, bed bugs, etc.)
8. Neighborhood characteristics (crime rates, access to healthy food options, walkability, etc.)

These factors can all have an impact on the health outcomes of individuals and communities, and are often studied in public health research.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "social values" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in a broader social context, "social values" refer to the beliefs, principles, and standards that a group or society holds in regard to what is considered important, desirable, or acceptable. These values can influence attitudes, behaviors, and decisions related to health and healthcare. They may also impact medical research, policy-making, and patient care.

I must apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. The term "internationality" is not a commonly used medical term with a specific definition in the field of medicine or healthcare. It is a more general term that can refer to the quality or state of being international or global in scope, relevance, or application. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help clarify those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "United Nations" is a political and international organization, not a medical concept or term. The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that was established on October 24, 1945, to promote international cooperation and prevent conflicts. It is headquartered in New York City, and its member states work together to address various global issues, such as peace and security, climate change, human rights, and sustainable development.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help!

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

I apologize, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or condition. It is the largest country in both South America and Latin America by land area and population. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, please provide more information and I will do my best to help.

Patient satisfaction is a concept in healthcare quality measurement that reflects the patient's perspective and evaluates their experience with the healthcare services they have received. It is a multidimensional construct that includes various aspects such as interpersonal mannerisms of healthcare providers, technical competence, accessibility, timeliness, comfort, and communication.

Patient satisfaction is typically measured through standardized surveys or questionnaires that ask patients to rate their experiences on various aspects of care. The results are often used to assess the quality of care provided by healthcare organizations, identify areas for improvement, and inform policy decisions. However, it's important to note that patient satisfaction is just one aspect of healthcare quality and should be considered alongside other measures such as clinical outcomes and patient safety.

Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is a medical approach that combines the best available scientific evidence with clinical expertise and patient values to make informed decisions about diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. It emphasizes the use of systematic research, including randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses, to guide clinical decision making. EBM aims to provide the most effective and efficient care while minimizing variations in practice, reducing errors, and improving patient outcomes.

Communicable disease control is a branch of public health that focuses on preventing and controlling the spread of infectious diseases within a population. The goal is to reduce the incidence and prevalence of communicable diseases through various strategies, such as:

1. Surveillance: Monitoring and tracking the occurrence of communicable diseases in a population to identify trends, outbreaks, and high-risk areas.
2. Prevention: Implementing measures to prevent the transmission of infectious agents, such as vaccination programs, education campaigns, and environmental interventions (e.g., water treatment, food safety).
3. Case management: Identifying, diagnosing, and treating cases of communicable diseases to reduce their duration and severity, as well as to prevent further spread.
4. Contact tracing: Identifying and monitoring individuals who have been in close contact with infected persons to detect and prevent secondary cases.
5. Outbreak response: Coordinating a rapid and effective response to disease outbreaks, including the implementation of control measures, communication with affected communities, and evaluation of interventions.
6. Collaboration: Working closely with healthcare providers, laboratories, policymakers, and other stakeholders to ensure a coordinated and comprehensive approach to communicable disease control.
7. Research: Conducting research to better understand the epidemiology, transmission dynamics, and prevention strategies for communicable diseases.

Effective communicable disease control requires a multidisciplinary approach that combines expertise in medicine, epidemiology, microbiology, public health, social sciences, and healthcare management.

The conservation of natural resources refers to the responsible use and management of natural resources, such as water, soil, minerals, forests, and wildlife, in a way that preserves their availability for future generations. This may involve measures such as reducing waste and pollution, promoting sustainable practices, protecting habitats and ecosystems, and engaging in careful planning and decision-making to ensure the long-term sustainability of these resources. The goal of conservation is to balance the needs of the present with the needs of the future, so that current and future generations can continue to benefit from the many goods and services that natural resources provide.

Dental health services refer to medical care and treatment provided for the teeth and mouth. This can include preventative care, such as dental cleanings and exams, as well as restorative treatments like fillings, crowns, and root canals. Dental health services may also include cosmetic procedures, such as teeth whitening or orthodontic treatment to straighten crooked teeth. In addition to these services, dental health professionals may provide education on oral hygiene and the importance of maintaining good dental health. These services are typically provided by dentists, dental hygienists, and other dental professionals in a variety of settings, including private dental practices, community health clinics, and hospitals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "State Government" is not a medical term. It refers to the level of government in the United States that is responsible for governing each of the individual states. This includes executives (such as governors), legislative bodies (like state senates and houses of representatives), and courts.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I'd be happy to try and help answer those for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "government" is a political or administrative concept and does not have a medical definition. In general, it refers to the group of people who govern a community or country, or the system by which they govern. This could include elected officials, appointed leaders, and bureaucracies that oversee various functions such as public health, education, and infrastructure. However, in the context of your question, I assume you may be interested in how government policies and systems can impact health and healthcare. If you have any specific questions related to this or another topic, please let me know!

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "disabled persons" are those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which may hinder their participation in society on an equal basis with others. The term "disability" is not meant to be understood as a 'personal tragedy' but rather as a complex interaction between the features of a person's body and mind, the activities they wish to perform and the physical and social barriers they encounter in their environment.

It's important to note that the term 'disabled persons' has been largely replaced by 'people with disabilities' or 'persons with disabilities' in many contexts, as it is considered more respectful and empowering to put the person first, rather than focusing on their disability. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) uses the term "persons with disabilities" throughout its text.

The Delphi technique is a structured communication method used to reach a consensus through a series of rounds of questionnaires or surveys. It was originally developed as a way for experts to share their opinions and come to an agreement on a particular topic, even when they may not be able to meet in person. The process typically involves:

1. Identifying a panel of experts in the relevant field.
2. Developing a series of questions or statements related to the topic at hand.
3. Distributing the questions or statements to the panel and collecting their responses.
4. Analyzing the responses and providing feedback to the panel.
5. Repeating steps 3-4 for multiple rounds until a consensus is reached or it becomes clear that a consensus cannot be achieved.

The Delphi technique is often used in healthcare and other fields to gather expert opinions on controversial or complex topics, such as setting clinical guidelines or developing new technologies. It can help to ensure that the perspectives of a diverse group of experts are taken into account, and that the final consensus reflects a broad range of viewpoints.

Universal coverage is a term used in healthcare policy to describe a system in which all residents of a particular country or region have access to necessary healthcare services, regardless of their ability to pay. This can be achieved through various mechanisms, such as mandatory health insurance, government provision of care, or a mix of public and private financing.

The goal of universal coverage is to ensure that everyone has access to essential medical services, including preventive care, doctor visits, hospitalizations, and prescription medications, without facing financial hardship due to medical expenses. Universal coverage can help reduce disparities in healthcare access and outcomes, improve overall population health, and provide economic benefits by reducing the burden of uncompensated care on healthcare providers and taxpayers.

It's important to note that universal coverage does not necessarily mean that all healthcare services are provided for free or at no cost to the individual. Rather, it means that everyone has access to a basic level of care, and that out-of-pocket costs are kept affordable through various mechanisms such as cost-sharing, subsidies, or risk pooling.

A Prepaid Health Plan (PHP), also known as a Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) or Point of Service (POS) plan, is a type of health insurance in which the insured pays a fixed, prepaid fee for access to specific healthcare services. These plans typically have a network of healthcare providers with whom they have contracts to provide services at reduced rates. The insured must choose a primary care physician (PCP) from within the network who will coordinate their care and refer them to specialists as needed, also within the network. Prepaid health plans may not cover services received outside of the designated network, except in emergency situations.

Health Insurance Reimbursement refers to the process of receiving payment from a health insurance company for medical expenses that you have already paid out of pocket. Here is a brief medical definition of each term:

1. Insurance: A contract, represented by a policy, in which an individual or entity receives financial protection or reimbursement against losses from an insurance company. The company pools clients' risks to make payments more affordable for the insured.
2. Health: Refers to the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
3. Reimbursement: The act of refunding or compensating a person for expenses incurred, especially those that have been previously paid by the individual and are now being paid back by an insurance company.

In the context of health insurance, reimbursement typically occurs when you receive medical care, pay the provider, and then submit a claim to your insurance company for reimbursement. The insurance company will review the claim, determine whether the services are covered under your policy, and calculate the amount they will reimburse you based on your plan's benefits and any applicable co-pays, deductibles, or coinsurance amounts. Once this process is complete, the insurance company will issue a payment to you to cover a portion or all of the costs you incurred for the medical services.

A research design in medical or healthcare research is a systematic plan that guides the execution and reporting of research to address a specific research question or objective. It outlines the overall strategy for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data to draw valid conclusions. The design includes details about the type of study (e.g., experimental, observational), sampling methods, data collection techniques, data analysis approaches, and any potential sources of bias or confounding that need to be controlled for. A well-defined research design helps ensure that the results are reliable, generalizable, and relevant to the research question, ultimately contributing to evidence-based practice in medicine and healthcare.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Ontario" is not a medical term. It is the name of a province in Canada, similar to how "California" is the name of a state in the United States. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health conditions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

In medical terminology, a budget is not explicitly defined. However, in a general sense, it refers to a financial plan that outlines the anticipated costs and expenses for a specific period. In healthcare, budgets can be used by hospitals, clinics, or other medical facilities to plan for and manage their finances.

A healthcare organization's budget may include expenses related to:

* Salaries and benefits for staff
* Equipment and supply costs
* Facility maintenance and improvements
* Research and development expenses
* Insurance and liability coverage
* Marketing and advertising costs

Budgets can help healthcare organizations manage their finances effectively, allocate resources efficiently, and make informed decisions about spending. They may also be used to plan for future growth and expansion.

A Public Sector, in the context of healthcare, refers to the portion of a country's health system that is managed and funded by the government. This sector provides medical services through state-owned hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare facilities, as well as through publicly financed programs such as Medicare and Medicaid in the United States or the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom. The public sector aims to ensure that all citizens have access to necessary medical care, regardless of their ability to pay. It is often funded through taxes and is accountable to the public for its performance.

"Academies and Institutes" in a medical context typically refer to organizations that are dedicated to advancing knowledge, research, and education in a specific field of medicine or healthcare. These organizations often bring together experts and leaders in the field to share knowledge, conduct research, and develop guidelines or policies. They may also provide training and certification for healthcare professionals.

Examples of medical academies and institutes include:

* The National Academy of Medicine (NAM) in the United States, which provides independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation on medical and health issues.
* The Royal College of Physicians (RCP) in the United Kingdom, which is a professional body dedicated to improving the practice of medicine, with a particular focus on physicians.
* The American Heart Association (AHA) and the American College of Cardiology (ACC), which are two leading organizations focused on cardiovascular disease and healthcare.
* The World Health Organization (WHO) is an international organization that coordinates and directs global health activities, including research, policy-making, and service delivery.

These institutions play a crucial role in shaping medical practice and policy by providing evidence-based recommendations and guidelines, as well as training and certification for healthcare professionals.

Social support in a medical context refers to the resources and assistance provided by an individual's social network, including family, friends, peers, and community groups. These resources can include emotional, informational, and instrumental support, which help individuals cope with stress, manage health conditions, and maintain their overall well-being.

Emotional support involves providing empathy, care, and encouragement to help an individual feel valued, understood, and cared for. Informational support refers to the provision of advice, guidance, and knowledge that can help an individual make informed decisions about their health or other aspects of their life. Instrumental support includes practical assistance such as help with daily tasks, financial aid, or access to resources.

Social support has been shown to have a positive impact on physical and mental health outcomes, including reduced stress levels, improved immune function, better coping skills, and increased resilience. It can also play a critical role in promoting healthy behaviors, such as adherence to medical treatments and lifestyle changes.

'Vulnerable populations' is a term used in public health and medicine to refer to groups of individuals who are at a higher risk of negative health outcomes or have limited access to healthcare services. These populations can be defined by various sociodemographic, economic, and environmental factors, including:

1. Age: Older adults and children, especially those with chronic medical conditions, are often considered vulnerable populations due to their increased susceptibility to illness and reduced ability to access care.
2. Race/Ethnicity: Racial and ethnic minorities may face barriers to healthcare access, discrimination, and systemic inequities that contribute to poorer health outcomes.
3. Socioeconomic status: Individuals with low income, limited education, or unstable housing are more likely to experience health disparities due to reduced access to quality healthcare, nutritious food, and safe living environments.
4. Disability status: People with disabilities may face physical, communication, or attitudinal barriers that limit their ability to access healthcare services and contribute to poorer health outcomes.
5. Sexual orientation and gender identity: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) individuals often experience discrimination and stigma in healthcare settings, which can negatively impact their health and access to care.
6. Immigration status: Undocumented immigrants and refugees may face legal barriers to healthcare access, language barriers, and fear of deportation that contribute to poorer health outcomes.
7. Geographic location: Rural areas and urban "food deserts" often lack adequate healthcare resources and access, leading to health disparities for residents in these regions.
8. Incarceration status: Individuals involved in the criminal justice system may experience limited access to healthcare services and face unique health challenges related to their incarceration.
9. Mental health status: People with mental illness or substance use disorders are often considered vulnerable populations due to stigma, discrimination, and reduced access to quality care.

It is important to note that these factors can intersect and compound the vulnerabilities faced by individuals within these groups. Addressing the needs of vulnerable populations requires a comprehensive approach that addresses social determinants of health, systemic inequities, and barriers to healthcare access.

Demography is the statistical study of populations, particularly in terms of size, distribution, and characteristics such as age, race, gender, and occupation. In medical contexts, demography is often used to analyze health-related data and trends within specific populations. This can include studying the prevalence of certain diseases or conditions, identifying disparities in healthcare access and outcomes, and evaluating the effectiveness of public health interventions. Demographic data can also be used to inform policy decisions and allocate resources to address population health needs.

Government regulation in the context of medicine refers to the rules, guidelines, and laws established by government agencies to control, monitor, and standardize various aspects of healthcare. These regulations are designed to protect patients, promote public health, ensure quality of care, and regulate the healthcare industry. Examples of government regulation in medicine include:

1. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations for drug approval, medical device clearance, and food safety.
2. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) regulations for healthcare reimbursement, quality measures, and program eligibility.
3. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations for workplace safety in healthcare settings.
4. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations to minimize environmental impacts from healthcare facilities and pharmaceutical manufacturing.
5. State medical boards' regulations for licensing, disciplining, and monitoring physicians and other healthcare professionals.
6. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations for patient privacy and data security.
7. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) regulations for laboratory testing quality and standards.
8. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulations to prevent deceptive or unfair trade practices in healthcare marketing and advertising.
9. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) guidelines for evidence-based practice and patient safety.
10. Public Health Service Act (PHSA) regulations related to infectious diseases, bioterrorism preparedness, and substance abuse treatment.

"Employment" is a term that is commonly used in the context of social sciences and law rather than medicine. It generally refers to the state or condition of being employed, which means an individual is engaged in a job or occupation, providing services to an employer in exchange for compensation, such as wages or salary. Employment may involve various types of work arrangements, including full-time, part-time, temporary, contract, or freelance positions.

In the context of medicine and public health, employment is often discussed in relation to its impact on health outcomes, healthcare access, and socioeconomic status. For instance, research has shown that unemployment or underemployment can negatively affect mental and physical health, while stable employment can contribute to better health outcomes and overall well-being. Additionally, employment may influence an individual's ability to afford healthcare, medications, and other essential needs, which can impact their health status.

In summary, the medical definition of 'employment' pertains to the state or condition of being engaged in a job or occupation, providing services to an employer for compensation. Employment has significant implications for health outcomes, healthcare access, and socioeconomic status.

A "health transition" is not a term that has a single, widely accepted medical definition. However, in the context of healthcare and patient care, it often refers to the process of shifting an individual's care from one setting or provider to another. This can occur when a patient is discharged from the hospital to home care, moves from pediatric to adult healthcare services, or transitions between different specialists or levels of care.

The goal of a health transition is to ensure that the patient receives continuous and coordinated care, with clear communication between providers and a smooth handoff of responsibility for the patient's care. A successful health transition can help to improve outcomes, reduce the risk of readmissions, and enhance patient satisfaction.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "information dissemination" is not a medical term per se, but rather a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine. It refers to the process of spreading or distributing information to a specific audience or the public.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, information dissemination often relates to sharing clinical guidelines, research findings, public health messages, or patient education materials with healthcare professionals, patients, or the general public. This can occur through various channels, such as scientific conferences, peer-reviewed journals, newsletters, websites, social media platforms, and other communication methods.

The goal of information dissemination in medicine is to ensure that accurate, evidence-based, and up-to-date information reaches the intended audience, ultimately improving healthcare quality, patient outcomes, and decision-making processes.

Disaster planning in a medical context refers to the process of creating and implementing a comprehensive plan for responding to emergencies or large-scale disasters that can impact healthcare facilities, services, and patient care. The goal of disaster planning is to minimize the impact of such events on the health and well-being of patients and communities, ensure continuity of medical services, and protect healthcare infrastructure and resources.

Disaster planning typically involves:

1. Risk assessment: Identifying potential hazards and assessing their likelihood and potential impact on healthcare facilities and services.
2. Developing a disaster plan: Creating a detailed plan that outlines the steps to be taken before, during, and after a disaster to ensure the safety of patients, staff, and visitors, as well as the continuity of medical care.
3. Training and education: Providing training and education to healthcare personnel on disaster preparedness, response, and recovery.
4. Exercises and drills: Conducting regular exercises and drills to test the effectiveness of the disaster plan and identify areas for improvement.
5. Resource management: Identifying and securing necessary resources, such as medical supplies, equipment, and personnel, to support disaster response efforts.
6. Communication and coordination: Establishing clear communication protocols and coordinating with local emergency responders, public health authorities, and other healthcare facilities to ensure a coordinated response to disasters.
7. Recovery and restoration: Developing plans for restoring medical services and infrastructure after a disaster has occurred.

Disaster planning is an essential component of healthcare delivery and is critical to ensuring the safety and well-being of patients and communities during emergencies or large-scale disasters.

Occupational health nursing is a specialized area of nursing practice that focuses on the prevention and management of work-related illnesses, injuries, and disabilities. It involves the assessment, evaluation, and control of hazards and risks in the workplace to promote and protect the health and well-being of workers. Occupational health nurses provide comprehensive healthcare services, including health promotion, disease prevention, education, counseling, and rehabilitation, to help workers maintain their optimal health and productivity. They work closely with employers, employees, and other healthcare professionals to develop and implement effective occupational health programs that meet the specific needs of the workplace and its workers. Occupational health nursing is a holistic approach to healthcare that recognizes the interdependence between work, health, and well-being.

An ethnic group is a category of people who identify with each other based on shared ancestry, language, culture, history, and/or physical characteristics. The concept of an ethnic group is often used in the social sciences to describe a population that shares a common identity and a sense of belonging to a larger community.

Ethnic groups can be distinguished from racial groups, which are categories of people who are defined by their physical characteristics, such as skin color, hair texture, and facial features. While race is a social construct based on physical differences, ethnicity is a cultural construct based on shared traditions, beliefs, and practices.

It's important to note that the concept of ethnic groups can be complex and fluid, as individuals may identify with multiple ethnic groups or switch their identification over time. Additionally, the boundaries between different ethnic groups can be blurred and contested, and the ways in which people define and categorize themselves and others can vary across cultures and historical periods.

Community-institutional relations in a medical context generally refers to the interactions and relationships between healthcare institutions, such as hospitals or clinics, and the communities they serve. This can include initiatives and programs aimed at promoting community health, addressing social determinants of health, and building trust and engagement with community members. It may also involve collaborations and partnerships with other organizations, such as community-based organizations, public health agencies, and local government entities, to address shared health concerns and improve overall community wellbeing. Effective community-institutional relations can help to ensure that healthcare institutions are responsive to the needs of their communities and contribute to positive health outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pilot projects" is not a medical term per se. Instead, it is a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine, to describe a small-scale initiative that is implemented on a temporary basis to evaluate its feasibility, effectiveness, or impact before deciding whether to expand or continue it.

In the context of healthcare, pilot projects might involve testing new treatment protocols, implementing innovative care models, or introducing technology solutions in a limited setting to assess their potential benefits and drawbacks. The results of these projects can help inform decisions about broader implementation and provide valuable insights for improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare services.

Costs refer to the total amount of resources, such as money, time, and labor, that are expended in the provision of a medical service or treatment. Costs can be categorized into direct costs, which include expenses directly related to patient care, such as medication, supplies, and personnel; and indirect costs, which include overhead expenses, such as rent, utilities, and administrative salaries.

Cost analysis is the process of estimating and evaluating the total cost of a medical service or treatment. This involves identifying and quantifying all direct and indirect costs associated with the provision of care, and analyzing how these costs may vary based on factors such as patient volume, resource utilization, and reimbursement rates.

Cost analysis is an important tool for healthcare organizations to understand the financial implications of their operations and make informed decisions about resource allocation, pricing strategies, and quality improvement initiatives. It can also help policymakers and payers evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different treatment options and develop evidence-based guidelines for clinical practice.

Maternal welfare is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in a general sense, it refers to the physical, mental, and social well-being of a woman during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. It encompasses various factors such as access to quality healthcare services, nutrition, emotional support, and a safe and healthy environment.

Maternal welfare is an essential component of maternal health, which aims to ensure that women have a positive and safe pregnancy and childbirth experience, free from complications and harm. It involves addressing issues related to maternal mortality and morbidity, prenatal care, family planning, and reproductive rights.

Promoting maternal welfare requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes healthcare providers, policymakers, community leaders, and families working together to ensure that women have access to the resources and support they need to maintain their health and well-being during pregnancy and beyond.

Administrative personnel in a medical context typically refer to individuals who work in healthcare facilities or organizations, but do not provide direct patient care. Their roles involve supporting the management and operations of the healthcare system through various administrative tasks. These responsibilities may include managing schedules, coordinating appointments, handling billing and insurance matters, maintaining medical records, communicating with patients and other staff members, and performing various clerical duties.

Examples of administrative personnel in a medical setting might include medical office assistants, medical receptionists, medical billers, medical coders, medical transcriptionists, and healthcare administrators. While they do not provide direct patient care, their work is essential to ensuring the smooth functioning of healthcare services and the overall quality of patient care.

The Federal Government, in the context of medical definitions, typically refers to the national government of a country that has a federal system of government. In such a system, power is divided between the national government and regional or state governments. The Federal Government is responsible for matters that affect the entire nation, such as foreign policy, national defense, and regulating interstate commerce, including certain aspects of healthcare policy and regulation.

In the United States, for example, the Federal Government plays a significant role in healthcare through programs like Medicare, Medicaid, and the Affordable Care Act (ACA), which are designed to ensure access to affordable healthcare services for specific populations or address broader health reform initiatives. The Federal Government also regulates food and drugs through agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). These federal entities work to ensure the safety, efficacy, and security of medical products, foods, and public health.

Medical mass screening, also known as population screening, is a public health service that aims to identify and detect asymptomatic individuals in a given population who have or are at risk of a specific disease. The goal is to provide early treatment, reduce morbidity and mortality, and prevent the spread of diseases within the community.

A mass screening program typically involves offering a simple, quick, and non-invasive test to a large number of people in a defined population, regardless of their risk factors or symptoms. Those who test positive are then referred for further diagnostic tests and appropriate medical interventions. Examples of mass screening programs include mammography for breast cancer detection, PSA (prostate-specific antigen) testing for prostate cancer, and fecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer.

It is important to note that mass screening programs should be evidence-based, cost-effective, and ethically sound, with clear benefits outweighing potential harms. They should also consider factors such as the prevalence of the disease in the population, the accuracy and reliability of the screening test, and the availability and effectiveness of treatment options.

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

Environmental exposure refers to the contact of an individual with any chemical, physical, or biological agent in the environment that can cause a harmful effect on health. These exposures can occur through various pathways such as inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. Examples of environmental exposures include air pollution, water contamination, occupational chemicals, and allergens. The duration and level of exposure, as well as the susceptibility of the individual, can all contribute to the risk of developing an adverse health effect.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country in South Asia, the second-most populous country in the world, known for its rich history, diverse culture, and numerous contributions to various fields including medicine. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

A public health professional is a trained and educated individual who works to improve the health and well-being of communities and populations through education, research, policy development, and advocacy. A public health professional in the field of education may work in various settings such as universities, colleges, public health departments, non-profit organizations, or government agencies.

Their responsibilities typically include:

1. Developing and implementing educational programs to promote healthy behaviors and prevent disease and injury.
2. Conducting research to identify the health needs and concerns of communities and developing strategies to address them.
3. Advocating for policies and practices that support public health and promote health equity.
4. Collaborating with other professionals, such as healthcare providers, community leaders, and policymakers, to develop and implement effective public health interventions.
5. Evaluating the impact of public health programs and using data to inform decision-making and improve outcomes.

To become a public health professional in education, one typically needs to have at least a master's degree in public health or a related field, such as health education, health promotion, or health services administration. Some positions may require a doctoral degree or additional certifications. Relevant work experience, such as internships or volunteer work, is also valuable for gaining practical skills and making professional connections.

Organizational efficiency is a management concept that refers to the ability of an organization to produce the desired output with minimal waste of resources such as time, money, and labor. It involves optimizing processes, structures, and systems within the organization to achieve its goals in the most effective and efficient manner possible. This can be achieved through various means, including the implementation of best practices, the use of technology to automate and streamline processes, and the continuous improvement of skills and knowledge among employees. Ultimately, organizational efficiency is about creating value for stakeholders while minimizing waste and maximizing returns on investment.

Managed care programs are a type of health insurance plan that aims to control healthcare costs and improve the quality of care by managing the utilization of healthcare services. They do this by using a network of healthcare providers who have agreed to provide services at reduced rates, and by implementing various strategies such as utilization review, case management, and preventive care.

In managed care programs, there is usually a primary care physician (PCP) who acts as the patient's main doctor and coordinates their care within the network of providers. Patients may need a referral from their PCP to see specialists or access certain services. Managed care programs can take various forms, including Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs), Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs), Point-of-Service (POS) plans, and Exclusive Provider Organizations (EPOs).

The goal of managed care programs is to provide cost-effective healthcare services while maintaining or improving the quality of care. They can help patients save money on healthcare costs by providing coverage for a range of services at lower rates than traditional fee-for-service plans, but they may also limit patient choice and require prior authorization for certain procedures or treatments.

Consumer satisfaction in a medical context refers to the degree to which a patient or their family is content with the healthcare services, products, or experiences they have received. It is a measure of how well the healthcare delivery aligns with the patient's expectations, needs, and preferences. Factors that contribute to consumer satisfaction may include the quality of care, communication and interpersonal skills of healthcare providers, accessibility and convenience, affordability, and outcomes. High consumer satisfaction is associated with better adherence to treatment plans, improved health outcomes, and higher patient loyalty.

Medical Informatics, also known as Healthcare Informatics, is the scientific discipline that deals with the systematic processing and analysis of data, information, and knowledge in healthcare and biomedicine. It involves the development and application of theories, methods, and tools to create, acquire, store, retrieve, share, use, and reuse health-related data and knowledge for clinical, educational, research, and administrative purposes. Medical Informatics encompasses various areas such as bioinformatics, clinical informatics, consumer health informatics, public health informatics, and translational bioinformatics. It aims to improve healthcare delivery, patient outcomes, and biomedical research through the effective use of information technology and data management strategies.

Social determinants of health (SDOH) refer to the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age that have an impact on their health and quality of life. These factors include but are not limited to:

* Economic stability (e.g., poverty, employment, food security)
* Education access and quality
* Health care access and quality
* Neighborhood and built environment (e.g., housing, transportation, parks and recreation)
* Social and community context (e.g., discrimination, incarceration, social support)

SDOH are responsible for a significant portion of health inequities and can have a greater impact on health than genetic factors or individual behaviors. Addressing SDOH is critical to improving overall health and reducing disparities in health outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "life style" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the way an individual or group lives, including their habits, behaviors, and preferences in areas such as diet, exercise, recreation, and stress management. Some lifestyle factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes and risk for certain diseases. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical meaning.

Family practice, also known as family medicine, is a medical specialty that provides comprehensive and continuous care to patients of all ages, genders, and stages of life. Family physicians are trained to provide a wide range of services, including preventive care, diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic illnesses, management of complex medical conditions, and providing health education and counseling.

Family practice emphasizes the importance of building long-term relationships with patients and their families, and takes into account the physical, emotional, social, and psychological factors that influence a person's health. Family physicians often serve as the primary point of contact for patients within the healthcare system, coordinating care with other specialists and healthcare providers as needed.

Family practice is a broad and diverse field, encompassing various areas such as pediatrics, internal medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, geriatrics, and behavioral health. The goal of family practice is to provide high-quality, patient-centered care that meets the unique needs and preferences of each individual patient and their family.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Human Rights" is a social, political, and legal concept, rather than a medical one. Human rights are basic rights and freedoms to which all individuals are entitled, regardless of nationality, sex, ethnicity, religion, language, or any other status. They include civil and political rights, such as the right to life, liberty, and freedom of expression; as well as social, cultural and economic rights, like the right to participate in culture, the right to food, and the right to work and receive an education.

However, in the context of healthcare, human rights are crucial. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognizes the right to medical care and the right to enjoy the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. Healthcare providers have a responsibility to respect and protect their patients' human rights, ensuring that they receive care without discrimination, that their privacy is protected, and that they are involved in decisions regarding their healthcare.

Violations of human rights can significantly impact an individual's health and well-being, making the promotion and protection of human rights a critical public health issue.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Health Systems Agencies" is not a widely recognized or established medical term or concept with a specific definition. It may refer to organizations that work on healthcare system design, implementation, regulation, or improvement, but the exact meaning can vary depending on the context. If you could provide more context or specify the particular agencies you're interested in, I would be happy to help further!

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

Holistic health is a concept in medicine that considers the whole person, including their physical, mental, emotional, social, and spiritual well-being, in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of illness. It emphasizes the importance of these different aspects of an individual's life in maintaining optimal health and preventing disease.

The goal of holistic health is to achieve a state of balance and harmony within the body, mind, and spirit, and to empower individuals to take responsibility for their own health and well-being. Holistic healthcare practitioners may use a variety of treatments, including conventional medical therapies, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches, lifestyle modifications, and self-care techniques, to help patients achieve this balance and improve their overall quality of life.

It's important to note that while the concept of holistic health is gaining popularity, it is not a substitute for conventional medical care and should be used in conjunction with, not instead of, evidence-based medical treatments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Europe" is a geographical and political designation, rather than a medical one. It refers to the continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Europe is made up of approximately 50 countries, depending on how one defines a "country."

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help answer them!

The term "Theoretical Models" is used in various scientific fields, including medicine, to describe a representation of a complex system or phenomenon. It is a simplified framework that explains how different components of the system interact with each other and how they contribute to the overall behavior of the system. Theoretical models are often used in medical research to understand and predict the outcomes of diseases, treatments, or public health interventions.

A theoretical model can take many forms, such as mathematical equations, computer simulations, or conceptual diagrams. It is based on a set of assumptions and hypotheses about the underlying mechanisms that drive the system. By manipulating these variables and observing the effects on the model's output, researchers can test their assumptions and generate new insights into the system's behavior.

Theoretical models are useful for medical research because they allow scientists to explore complex systems in a controlled and systematic way. They can help identify key drivers of disease or treatment outcomes, inform the design of clinical trials, and guide the development of new interventions. However, it is important to recognize that theoretical models are simplifications of reality and may not capture all the nuances and complexities of real-world systems. Therefore, they should be used in conjunction with other forms of evidence, such as experimental data and observational studies, to inform medical decision-making.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

'Guidelines' in the medical context are systematically developed statements or sets of recommendations designed to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available evidence, including scientific studies, expert opinions, and patient values. Guidelines may cover a wide range of topics, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention, screening, and management of various diseases and conditions. They aim to standardize care, improve patient outcomes, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote efficient use of healthcare resources.

Patient education, as defined by the US National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), is "the teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs. It includes the patient's understanding of his or her condition and the necessary procedures for self, assisted, or professional care." This encompasses a wide range of activities and interventions aimed at helping patients and their families understand their medical conditions, treatment options, self-care skills, and overall health management. Effective patient education can lead to improved health outcomes, increased patient satisfaction, and better use of healthcare resources.

Mortality, in medical terms, refers to the state or condition of being mortal; the quality or fact of being subject to death. It is often used in reference to the mortality rate, which is the number of deaths in a specific population, divided by the size of that population, per a given time period. This can be used as a measure of the risk of death among a population.

In the context of healthcare, "Information Services" typically refers to the department or system within a healthcare organization that is responsible for managing and providing various forms of information to support clinical, administrative, and research functions. This can include:

1. Clinical Information Systems: These are electronic systems that help clinicians manage and access patient health information, such as electronic health records (EHRs), computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems, and clinical decision support systems.

2. Administrative Information Systems: These are electronic systems used to manage administrative tasks, such as scheduling appointments, billing, and maintaining patient registries.

3. Research Information Services: These provide support for research activities, including data management, analysis, and reporting. They may also include bioinformatics services that deal with the collection, storage, analysis, and dissemination of genomic and proteomic data.

4. Health Information Exchange (HIE): This is a system or service that enables the sharing of clinical information between different healthcare organizations and providers.

5. Telemedicine Services: These allow remote diagnosis and treatment of patients using telecommunications technology.

6. Patient Portals: Secure online websites that give patients convenient, 24-hour access to their personal health information.

7. Data Analytics: The process of examining data sets to draw conclusions about the information they contain, often with the intention of predicting future trends or behaviors.

8. Knowledge Management: The process of identifying, capturing, organizing, storing, and sharing information and expertise within an organization.

The primary goal of healthcare Information Services is to improve the quality, safety, efficiency, and effectiveness of patient care by providing timely, accurate, and relevant information to the right people in the right format.

Dental health surveys are epidemiological studies that aim to assess the oral health status and related behaviors of a defined population at a particular point in time. These surveys collect data on various aspects of oral health, including the prevalence and severity of dental diseases such as caries (tooth decay), periodontal disease (gum disease), and oral cancer. They also gather information on factors that influence oral health, such as dietary habits, oral hygiene practices, access to dental care, and socioeconomic status.

The data collected in dental health surveys are used to identify trends and patterns in oral health, plan and evaluate public health programs and policies, and allocate resources for oral health promotion and disease prevention. Dental health surveys may be conducted at the local, regional, or national level, and they can target specific populations such as children, adolescents, adults, or older adults.

The methods used in dental health surveys include clinical examinations, interviews, questionnaires, and focus groups. Clinical examinations are conducted by trained dentists or dental hygienists who follow standardized protocols to assess the oral health status of participants. Interviews and questionnaires are used to collect information on demographic characteristics, oral health behaviors, and attitudes towards oral health. Focus groups can provide insights into the perceptions and experiences of participants regarding oral health issues.

Overall, dental health surveys play a critical role in monitoring and improving the oral health of populations and reducing oral health disparities.

Community networks, in the context of public health and medical care, typically refer to local or regional networks of healthcare providers, organizations, and resources that work together to provide integrated and coordinated care to a defined population. These networks can include hospitals, clinics, primary care providers, specialists, mental health services, home health agencies, and other community-based organizations.

The goal of community networks is to improve the overall health outcomes of the population they serve by ensuring that individuals have access to high-quality, coordinated care that meets their unique needs. Community networks can also help to reduce healthcare costs by preventing unnecessary hospitalizations and emergency department visits through better management of chronic conditions and prevention efforts.

Effective community networks require strong partnerships, clear communication, and a shared commitment to improving the health of the community. They may be organized around geographic boundaries, such as a city or county, or around specific populations, such as individuals with chronic illnesses or low-income communities.

National Health Insurance (NHI) in the United States does not refer to a specific federal program, but rather it is often used to describe the concept of universal healthcare financing, where all residents have access to necessary healthcare services, and the costs are shared among the entire population.

However, the closest equivalent to NHI in the US is Medicare, which is a federal social insurance program that provides health insurance coverage to people aged 65 and older, some younger people with disabilities, and people with end-stage renal disease. It is not a true NHI system because it does not cover all residents of the country.

Therefore, there is no widely accepted medical definition of 'National Health Insurance, United States' in the context of an actual existing program or policy.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

"Diffusion of Innovation" is a theory that describes how new ideas, products, or methods spread within a population or society. It was first introduced by Everett M. Rogers in his book "Diffusion of Innovations" in 1962. The theory explains the process and factors that influence the adoption and implementation of an innovation over time.

The diffusion of innovation model includes five stages:

1. Knowledge: Individuals become aware of the innovation but lack further information about it.
2. Persuasion: Individuals form a positive or negative opinion about the innovation and consider adopting it.
3. Decision: Individuals decide whether to adopt or reject the innovation.
4. Implementation: Individuals put the innovation into practice.
5. Confirmation: Individuals seek reinforcement of their decision to continue using the innovation or, in some cases, to reverse their decision and abandon it.

The theory also identifies five categories of adopters based on their willingness to adopt an innovation:

1. Innovators: Those who are willing to take risks and try new ideas early on.
2. Early Adopters: Those who have social networks, respect, and influence and are opinion leaders in their communities.
3. Early Majority: Those who deliberate before adopting an innovation but eventually adopt it.
4. Late Majority: Those who are skeptical about the innovation and only adopt it when it becomes mainstream or necessary.
5. Laggards: Those who resist change and are the last to adopt an innovation.

In medical contexts, diffusion of innovation theory can be applied to understand how new treatments, drugs, or medical devices spread within healthcare systems and communities. It can help healthcare professionals and policymakers develop strategies to promote evidence-based practices and improve patient outcomes.

African Americans are defined as individuals who have ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. This term is often used to describe people living in the United States who have total or partial descent from enslaved African peoples. The term does not refer to a single ethnicity but is a broad term that includes various ethnic groups with diverse cultures, languages, and traditions. It's important to note that some individuals may prefer to identify as Black or of African descent rather than African American, depending on their personal identity and background.

Interdisciplinary communication in a medical context refers to the exchange of information and ideas between professionals from different healthcare disciplines, such as doctors, nurses, pharmacists, social workers, and therapists. This form of communication is essential for coordinating patient care, making informed treatment decisions, and ensuring that all members of the healthcare team are aware of the patient's needs, goals, and progress. Effective interdisciplinary communication can help to improve patient outcomes, increase patient satisfaction, and reduce medical errors. It typically involves clear, concise, and respectful communication, often through regular meetings, shared documentation, and collaborative decision-making processes.

Rehabilitation is a process that aims to optimize an individual's health, functional ability, and quality of life through the diagnosis and treatment of health conditions, including injuries, diseases, or disabilities. This multidisciplinary approach often involves a team of healthcare professionals such as physicians, nurses, physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech-language pathologists, psychologists, and social workers.

Rehabilitation programs are tailored to the unique needs and goals of each patient and may include various interventions, such as:

1. Physical therapy to improve strength, flexibility, balance, and mobility
2. Occupational therapy to help individuals perform daily activities and maintain independence
3. Speech-language therapy to address communication and swallowing difficulties
4. Psychological counseling and support to cope with emotional challenges and stress related to the health condition
5. Vocational rehabilitation to assist with job training, education, and employment opportunities
6. Case management to coordinate care and ensure access to necessary resources and services
7. Pain management to alleviate discomfort and improve functional ability
8. Use of assistive devices and technology to facilitate independence and safety

Rehabilitation is an essential component of healthcare that focuses on restoring function, reducing disability, and promoting overall well-being for individuals with various health challenges.

"Social change" is not a medical term, but it refers to the alterations in human interactions and relationships that transform cultural patterns, social institutions, and organizational structures within societies over time. While not a medical concept itself, social change can have significant impacts on health and healthcare. For example, shifts in societal values and norms around tobacco use or access to mental health services can influence public health outcomes and healthcare delivery.

Health Planning Organizations (HPOs) are entities that are responsible for planning, coordinating, and evaluating health services within a specific geographic area. The primary goal of HPOs is to ensure the delivery of high-quality, cost-effective healthcare services that meet the needs of the population they serve.

HPOs may be involved in various activities, including:

1. Needs assessment: Identifying the health needs and priorities of the population, including any disparities or inequities in access to care.
2. Resource allocation: Deciding how to allocate resources to address identified needs and priorities.
3. Service planning: Developing plans for the delivery of healthcare services that are evidence-based, efficient, and effective.
4. Quality improvement: Monitoring and evaluating the quality of healthcare services and implementing strategies to improve them.
5. Coordination: Coordinating the delivery of healthcare services across different providers and settings to ensure continuity of care.
6. Advocacy: Advocating for policies and practices that promote health equity, access to care, and improved health outcomes.

HPOs can take various forms, including local health departments, regional health authorities, hospital networks, and other types of collaborative entities. They may be public or private, non-profit or for-profit, and their governance structures and funding mechanisms can vary widely.

Overall, the role of HPOs is to ensure that healthcare services are designed and delivered in a way that meets the needs of the population, improves health outcomes, and promotes health equity.

Capacity building, in the context of healthcare and medicine, refers to the process of developing and strengthening the skills, knowledge, systems, and resources needed to improve the delivery and accessibility of healthcare services. This can involve a range of activities, including training and education for healthcare professionals, improving infrastructure and technology, establishing policies and guidelines, and promoting community engagement and participation. The goal of capacity building is to enhance the overall performance and sustainability of healthcare systems, ultimately leading to better health outcomes for individuals and populations.

"Medically uninsured" is not a term that has an official medical definition. However, it generally refers to individuals who do not have health insurance coverage. This can include those who cannot afford it, those who are not offered coverage through their employer, and those who are ineligible for government-sponsored programs like Medicaid or Medicare. Being medically uninsured can lead to financial strain if an individual experiences a medical emergency or needs ongoing care, as they will be responsible for paying for these services out of pocket.

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) is a US law designed to provide privacy standards to protect patients' medical records and other health information. It sets limits on who can look at and receive your protected health information (PHI), such as doctors, hospitals and healthcare clearinghouses. It also gives patients more control over their health information by setting rules for how it can be used or disclosed. Additionally, HIPAA establishes penalties for violations of the privacy rule.

HIPAA is enforced by the Department of Health and Human Services' Office for Civil Rights (OCR). It applies to covered entities, such as healthcare providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses, that handle protected health information. Business associates of these covered entities, such as claims processing companies, also must comply with HIPAA regulations.

HIPAA is composed of several rules, including the Privacy Rule, Security Rule, Breach Notification Rule, and Enforcement Rule. These rules establish national standards for the protection of certain health information. The Privacy Rule establishes guidelines for how protected health information can be used and disclosed, while the Security Rule sets forth requirements for protecting electronic PHI. The Breach Notification Rule requires covered entities to notify affected individuals, the Secretary of HHS, and in some cases the media, following a breach of unsecured PHI. The Enforcement Rule provides for investigations and penalties for violations of the HIPAA rules.

In summary, HIPAA is a US law that establishes national standards to protect individuals' medical records and personal health information by setting guidelines for how it can be used and disclosed, as well as requirements for protecting electronic PHI. It applies to healthcare providers, health plans, and healthcare clearinghouses, as well as their business associates.

A physician is a healthcare professional who practices medicine, providing medical care and treatment to patients. Physicians may specialize in various fields of medicine, such as internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, psychiatry, or radiology, among others. They are responsible for diagnosing and treating illnesses, injuries, and disorders; prescribing medications; ordering and interpreting diagnostic tests; providing counseling and education to patients; and collaborating with other healthcare professionals to provide comprehensive care. Physicians may work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, private practices, and academic medical centers. To become a physician, one must complete a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) degree program and pass licensing exams to practice medicine in their state.

Activities of Daily Living (ADL) are routine self-care activities that individuals usually do every day without assistance. These activities are widely used as a measure to determine the functional status and independence of a person, particularly in the elderly or those with disabilities or chronic illnesses. The basic ADLs include:

1. Personal hygiene: Bathing, washing hands and face, brushing teeth, grooming, and using the toilet.
2. Dressing: Selecting appropriate clothes and dressing oneself.
3. Eating: Preparing and consuming food, either independently or with assistive devices.
4. Mobility: Moving in and out of bed, chairs, or wheelchairs, walking independently or using mobility aids.
5. Transferring: Moving from one place to another, such as getting in and out of a car, bath, or bed.

There are also more complex Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) that assess an individual's ability to manage their own life and live independently. These include managing finances, shopping for groceries, using the telephone, taking medications as prescribed, preparing meals, and housekeeping tasks.

Health education in the context of dentistry refers to the process of educating and informing individuals, families, and communities about oral health-related topics, including proper oral hygiene practices, the importance of regular dental checkups and cleanings, the risks and consequences of poor oral health, and the relationship between oral health and overall health. The goal of dental health education is to empower individuals to take control of their own oral health and make informed decisions about their dental care. This can be achieved through various methods such as lectures, demonstrations, printed materials, and interactive activities. Dental health education may also cover topics related to nutrition, tobacco and alcohol use, and the prevention and treatment of oral diseases and conditions.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

In the medical context, communication refers to the process of exchanging information, ideas, or feelings between two or more individuals in order to facilitate understanding, cooperation, and decision-making. Effective communication is critical in healthcare settings to ensure that patients receive accurate diagnoses, treatment plans, and follow-up care. It involves not only verbal and written communication but also nonverbal cues such as body language and facial expressions.

Healthcare providers must communicate clearly and empathetically with their patients to build trust, address concerns, and ensure that they understand their medical condition and treatment options. Similarly, healthcare teams must communicate effectively with each other to coordinate care, avoid errors, and provide the best possible outcomes for their patients. Communication skills are essential for all healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, therapists, and social workers.

Personal health services refer to healthcare services that are tailored to an individual's specific needs, preferences, and goals. These services can include preventive care, such as vaccinations and screenings, as well as medical treatments for acute and chronic conditions. Personal health services may be provided by a variety of healthcare professionals, including doctors, nurses, physician assistants, and allied health professionals.

The goal of personal health services is to promote the overall health and well-being of the individual, taking into account their physical, mental, emotional, and social needs. This approach recognizes that each person is unique and requires a customized plan of care to achieve their optimal health outcomes. Personal health services may be delivered in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, private practices, and long-term care facilities.

Health facility administration refers to the management and oversight of medical and healthcare facilities, including hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, and other types of healthcare organizations. This involves ensuring that the facility is run efficiently and effectively, with a focus on providing high-quality patient care and maintaining compliance with relevant laws and regulations.

Health facility administration typically includes a wide range of responsibilities, such as:

* Developing and implementing policies and procedures
* Managing budgets and finances
* Overseeing staff recruitment, training, and performance evaluation
* Ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements and standards
* Coordinating with other healthcare professionals and organizations to provide comprehensive care
* Planning and coordinating facility operations and resources
* Developing and implementing quality improvement initiatives

Health facility administrators must have a strong understanding of medical and healthcare practices and procedures, as well as business and management principles. They must be able to communicate effectively with staff, patients, and other stakeholders, and be skilled in problem-solving, decision-making, and leadership. Many health facility administrators have a background in healthcare or business administration, and may hold degrees such as a Master of Health Administration (MHA) or a Master of Business Administration (MBA).

Developed countries, also known as high-income countries or industrialized nations, are sovereign states that have advanced economies and highly developed infrastructure. These countries typically have high levels of industrialization, urbanization, and technological development, along with a high standard of living and access to quality healthcare, education, and social services.

The World Bank defines developed countries as those with a gross national income (GNI) per capita of $12,695 or more in 2020. Examples of developed countries include the United States, Canada, Germany, France, Japan, Australia, and many others in Western Europe and Asia.

It's important to note that the term "developed" is relative and can change over time as a country's economy and infrastructure advance or decline. Additionally, there are significant disparities within developed countries, with some regions or populations experiencing poverty, inequality, and lack of access to basic needs and services.

Consumer advocacy in a medical context refers to the process of representing and supporting the rights and interests of patients and healthcare consumers. Consumer advocates work to ensure that individuals receive safe, effective, and affordable healthcare services, and that they are empowered to make informed decisions about their own care. This may involve promoting transparency and accountability in the healthcare system, advocating for policies that protect patient rights, and providing education and support to help consumers navigate the complex world of healthcare. Consumer advocacy can take many forms, including individual case advocacy, class action lawsuits, policy reform efforts, and public awareness campaigns.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "workplace" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. The term "workplace" generally refers to a place where people work or carry out their jobs. It could be an office, a factory, a construction site, a retail store, or any other location where work-related activities take place.

If you're looking for a term related to health or medicine that describes a physical location, some examples might include "healthcare facility," "clinic," "hospital," "operating room," or "examination room." If you could provide more context or clarify what you're looking for, I'd be happy to help further!

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Multivariate analysis is a statistical method used to examine the relationship between multiple independent variables and a dependent variable. It allows for the simultaneous examination of the effects of two or more independent variables on an outcome, while controlling for the effects of other variables in the model. This technique can be used to identify patterns, associations, and interactions among multiple variables, and is commonly used in medical research to understand complex health outcomes and disease processes. Examples of multivariate analysis methods include multiple regression, factor analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis.

Public Health Dentistry is defined as the science and art of preventing and controlling dental diseases and promoting oral health through organized community efforts. It involves the planning, organization, implementation, and evaluation of services designed to improve the oral health of populations, rather than individuals. This field of dentistry focuses on the importance of addressing social determinants of health, advocating for policies that benefit oral health, and conducting research to inform public health practice and policy. Public Health Dentists work in a variety of settings including public health departments, community health centers, dental schools, and non-profit organizations to promote oral health and reduce oral health disparities.

**Referral:**
A referral in the medical context is the process where a healthcare professional (such as a general practitioner or primary care physician) sends or refers a patient to another healthcare professional who has specialized knowledge and skills to address the patient's specific health condition or concern. This could be a specialist, a consultant, or a facility that provides specialized care. The referral may involve transferring the patient's care entirely to the other professional or may simply be for a consultation and advice.

**Consultation:**
A consultation in healthcare is a process where a healthcare professional seeks the opinion or advice of another professional regarding a patient's medical condition. This can be done in various ways, such as face-to-face meetings, phone calls, or written correspondence. The consulting professional provides their expert opinion to assist in the diagnosis, treatment plan, or management of the patient's condition. The ultimate decision and responsibility for the patient's care typically remain with the referring or primary healthcare provider.

Morbidity, in medical terms, refers to the state or condition of being diseased or unhealthy. It is used to describe the incidence or prevalence of a particular disease or health condition within a population, or the presence of multiple diseases or health conditions in an individual. Morbidity can also refer to the complications or symptoms associated with a disease or injury. In clinical settings, morbidity may be used to assess a patient's overall health status and their response to treatment.

The European Union (EU) is not a medical term or organization, but rather a political and economic union of 27 European countries. It is primarily involved in matters related to policy, law, and trade, and does not have a direct role in the provision or regulation of healthcare services, except in certain specific areas such as pharmaceutical regulations and cross-border healthcare directives.

Therefore, there is no medical definition for "European Union."

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tanzania" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in East Africa. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "prejudice" is not a term that has a medical definition in the same way that a term like "myocardial infarction" (heart attack) does. Prejudice is a psychological or sociological concept that refers to preconceived opinions or attitudes about a person or group that are not based on reason or actual experience. It often involves stereotypes and can lead to discrimination or unfair treatment. While prejudice itself is not a medical condition, it can certainly have impacts on mental and physical health, both for those who experience it and for those who hold such biases.

In the context of medical science, culture refers to the growth of microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, under controlled conditions in a laboratory setting. This process is used to identify and study the characteristics of these microorganisms, including their growth patterns, metabolic activities, and sensitivity to various antibiotics or other treatments.

The culture medium, which provides nutrients for the microorganisms to grow, can be modified to mimic the environment in which the organism is typically found. This helps researchers to better understand how the organism behaves in its natural habitat.

In addition to its use in diagnosis and research, culture is also an important tool in monitoring the effectiveness of treatments and tracking the spread of infectious diseases.

Practice guidelines, also known as clinical practice guidelines, are systematically developed statements that aim to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available scientific evidence, consensus of expert opinion, and consideration of patient preferences. Practice guidelines can cover a wide range of topics, including diagnosis, management, prevention, and treatment options for various medical conditions. They are intended to improve the quality and consistency of care, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote evidence-based medicine. However, they should not replace clinical judgment or individualized patient care.

Minority Health is a term used to describe the health status and disparities that affect racial, ethnic, sexual, and gender minority populations. According to the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (NIMHD), minority health refers to "the study of differences in health status or events and access to health care across racial and ethnic groups."

Minority health disparities are differences in the incidence, prevalence, mortality, and burden of diseases and other adverse health conditions that exist among minorities and other population groups. These disparities are often related to social, economic, and environmental factors, such as poverty, lack of access to quality healthcare, discrimination, and limited educational opportunities.

Minority Health is an important field of study because it helps to identify and address the health needs and challenges faced by marginalized populations. By understanding and addressing these disparities, healthcare providers can develop more effective strategies to improve the health outcomes of minority populations and reduce health inequities.

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for the term "China." Generally, it is used to refer to:

1. The People's Republic of China (PRC), which is a country in East Asia. It is the most populous country in the world and the fourth largest by geographical area. Its capital city is Beijing.
2. In a historical context, "China" was used to refer to various dynasties and empires that existed in East Asia over thousands of years. The term "Middle Kingdom" or "Zhongguo" (中国) has been used by the Chinese people to refer to their country for centuries.
3. In a more general sense, "China" can also be used to describe products or goods that originate from or are associated with the People's Republic of China.

If you have a specific context in which you encountered the term "China" related to medicine, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Netherlands" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Western Europe, known for its artistic heritage, elaborate canal system, and legalized marijuana and prostitution. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Environmental monitoring is the systematic and ongoing surveillance, measurement, and assessment of environmental parameters, pollutants, or other stressors in order to evaluate potential impacts on human health, ecological systems, or compliance with regulatory standards. This process typically involves collecting and analyzing data from various sources, such as air, water, soil, and biota, and using this information to inform decisions related to public health, environmental protection, and resource management.

In medical terms, environmental monitoring may refer specifically to the assessment of environmental factors that can impact human health, such as air quality, water contamination, or exposure to hazardous substances. This type of monitoring is often conducted in occupational settings, where workers may be exposed to potential health hazards, as well as in community-based settings, where environmental factors may contribute to public health issues. The goal of environmental monitoring in a medical context is to identify and mitigate potential health risks associated with environmental exposures, and to promote healthy and safe environments for individuals and communities.

Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) is a collaborative research approach that involves community members, organizational representatives, and researchers in all aspects of the research process. It is a partnership between researchers and communities that equitably involves all parties in the research to address and respond to community-identified issues. CBPR aims to combine knowledge and action for social change to improve community health and wellbeing. This approach recognizes the strengths and expertise of both community members and researchers, and it integrates scientific research methods with community knowledge and experiential wisdom. CBPR is guided by specific principles, including co-learning, capacity building, and reciprocal sharing of power and resources, to ensure that the research is relevant, accessible, and beneficial to the community.

Depression is a mood disorder that is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities. It can also cause significant changes in sleep, appetite, energy level, concentration, and behavior. Depression can interfere with daily life and normal functioning, and it can increase the risk of suicide and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of depression is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. There are several types of depression, including major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder. Treatment for depression typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.

Cost control in a medical context refers to the strategies and practices employed by healthcare organizations to manage and reduce the costs associated with providing patient care while maintaining quality and safety. The goal is to optimize resource allocation, increase efficiency, and contain expenses without compromising the standard of care. This may involve measures such as:

1. Utilization management: Reviewing and monitoring the use of medical services, tests, and treatments to ensure they are necessary, appropriate, and evidence-based.
2. Case management: Coordinating patient care across various healthcare providers and settings to improve outcomes, reduce unnecessary duplication of services, and control costs.
3. Negotiating contracts with suppliers and vendors to secure favorable pricing for medical equipment, supplies, and pharmaceuticals.
4. Implementing evidence-based clinical guidelines and pathways to standardize care processes and reduce unwarranted variations in practice that can drive up costs.
5. Using technology such as electronic health records (EHRs) and telemedicine to streamline operations, improve communication, and reduce errors.
6. Investing in preventive care and wellness programs to keep patients healthy and reduce the need for costly interventions and hospitalizations.
7. Continuously monitoring and analyzing cost data to identify trends, opportunities for improvement, and areas of potential waste or inefficiency.

A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a systematic process that uses an array of data sources and assessment tools to identify and evaluate potential beneficial and adverse health effects of a proposed policy, program, project, or plan (referred to as the "proposal") on a population's health. The primary goal of an HIA is to provide evidence-based recommendations to minimize negative health impacts and maximize positive impacts, contributing to more equitable, healthy, and sustainable outcomes for all affected communities.

HIA typically involves six main steps:

1. Screening: Determining whether an HIA is needed and feasible based on the potential health impacts of the proposal.
2. Scoping: Identifying the objectives, key stakeholders, and significant health issues to be addressed in the assessment.
3. Assessment: Gathering and analyzing data related to the determinants of health that may be affected by the proposal, including physical, social, cultural, and economic factors.
4. Recommendations: Developing evidence-based recommendations to address potential health impacts and integrating them into the decision-making process.
5. Reporting: Presenting the findings and recommendations in a clear and concise manner to key stakeholders, including policymakers, community members, and other interested parties.
6. Monitoring and evaluation: Tracking the implementation of HIA recommendations and evaluating their impact on health outcomes over time.

HIA can be applied to various sectors, such as transportation, land use planning, housing, energy, and agriculture, among others. It is a valuable tool for promoting health equity and ensuring that the social, economic, and environmental determinants of health are considered in decision-making processes.

Occupational diseases are health conditions or illnesses that occur as a result of exposure to hazards in the workplace. These hazards can include physical, chemical, and biological agents, as well as ergonomic factors and work-related psychosocial stressors. Examples of occupational diseases include respiratory illnesses caused by inhaling dust or fumes, hearing loss due to excessive noise exposure, and musculoskeletal disorders caused by repetitive movements or poor ergonomics. The development of an occupational disease is typically related to the nature of the work being performed and the conditions in which it is carried out. It's important to note that these diseases can be prevented or minimized through proper risk assessment, implementation of control measures, and adherence to safety regulations.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

... "prioritization in health care and health research", "priority determination", "health priorities", and "agenda-setting". ... health spending by governments vastly outpaces international health aid, so governments set most health priorities." Non- ... Priority-setting can occur at the following levels:: 5 health budget level (i.e. deciding how much to spend on health overall) ... In global health, priority-setting is a term used for the process and strategy of deciding which health interventions to carry ...
Andrew S. Robertson (May 2016). "Preserving an Incentive for Global Health R&D: The Priority Review Voucher Secondary Market". ... The priority review voucher program is a program that grants a voucher for priority review to a drug developer as an incentive ... The FDA goal for completing a priority review is six months. Priority review status can apply both to drugs that are used to ... Priority review should not, however, be confused with accelerated approval or fast track designation. Priority review does not ...
The primary cleanup goal is to reduce the risks to human health and human health in the environment through a combination of ... The National Priorities List (NPL) is the priority list of hazardous waste sites in the United States eligible for long-term ... "TOXMAP® Environmental Health e-Maps". Bethesda, MD: U.S. National Library of Medicine. 2010-07-26. Archived from the original ... EPA then uses the HRS to review any available data on the site to determine whether its environmental or health risks are ...
"House Republicans Unveil Health-Insurance Proposal". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2016-09-15. "CBPP: Board of ... "What Is the Center on Budget and Policy Priorities?". Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Retrieved 17 April 2015. Radin, ... The Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP) is a progressive American think tank that analyzes the impact of federal and ... Callahan, David (July 30, 2014). "Will Atlantic's Big Bet on the Center for Budget and Policy Priorities Pay Off?". Inside ...
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 19 (15): 9120. doi:10.3390/ijerph19159120. ISSN 1660-4601. ... Grey ordinal priority approach (OPA-G) Fuzzy ordinal priority approach (OPA-F) Interval ordinal priority approach Aggregating ... Rough ordinal priority approach Robust ordinal priority spproach (OPA-R) Hybrid OPA-Fuzzy EDAS Hybrid DEA-OPA model Hybrid ... Ordinal priority approach (OPA) is a multiple-criteria decision analysis method that aids in solving the group decision-making ...
Disease Control Priorities: Improving Health and Reducing Poverty (PDF). Disease Control Priorities, Third Edition. Vol. 9. ... What's New, What's Needed" (Breman, Alilio, and Mills 2004) with the Multilateral Initiative on Malaria Priorities in Health ( ... The Disease Control Priorities Project (DCPP) is an ongoing project that aims to determine priorities for disease control ... "Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, Second Edition". Disease Control Priorities Project (mirrored on the World ...
"Wonder Egg Priority" tackles mental health in a unique way". The Shield. Archived from the original on 2022-08-26. Retrieved ... Wonder Egg Priority (Japanese: ワンダーエッグ・プライオリティ, Hepburn: Wandā Eggu Puraioriti), often stylized as WONDER EGG ✦ PRiORiTY, is a ... Clewis, Mercedez (2021-07-02). "Wonder Egg Priority Episode 13 Review - "My Priority"". But Why Tho? A Geek Community. Archived ... Wonder Egg Priority Special Episode' Will be Broadcast on June 29th (Tuesday)! - News , TV Anime 'Wonder Egg Priority' Official ...
Besides governmental organizations, they also work with health care, educational, financial services, utilities, security and ... Priority Telecom owns a fiber network of over 9000 km length. It was bought by UPC Broadband and is now a part of Ziggo after ... Priority Telecom was a publicly listed Dutch telecommunications company that sells its services to businesses and governments ... Priority Telecom homepage v t e (Articles lacking sources from December 2009, All articles lacking sources, Telecommunications ...
"Allied Health Professionals". www.acog.org. Retrieved 2021-02-06. SCImago Journal and Country rank > Obstetrics and Gynecology ... "Policy Priorities". www.acog.org. Retrieved 2021-02-06. "American Board of Obstetrics & Gynecology". ABOG website. ABOG. ... It is a 501(c)(3) organization with a membership of more than 60,000 obstetrician-gynecologists and women's health care ... Non ObGyn professionals may join as an Allied Health Professional, but must meet their standards of education. Obstetrics & ...
"Steve's Priorities , Steve Sisolak for Governor of Nevada". Steve Sisolak for Governor. Archived from the original on November ... "When it comes to health care, Steve Sisolak and Adam Laxalt differ on Medicaid, Obamacare". Reno Gazette Journal. Retrieved ... Sisolak's campaign priorities were education, healthcare, and the economy. He released a healthcare policy platform that ... "Providing affordable, high-quality health care for every Nevadan - Steve Sisolak for Governor". Steve Sisolak for Governor. ...
health.gov.au Force, Healthcare Industry Task (17 November 2004). "Better health through partnership: A programme for action". ... "Strategic Priorities". www.abhi.org.uk. Archived from the original on 19 February 2018. Retrieved 19 February 2018. (Use dmy ... Dysfunctional' NHS England project damages UK reputation, say health tech firms". Health Service Journal. 18 August 2017. ... A year later the association submitted its first major contribution to House of Commons Health Select Committee report: "Use of ...
Priority-setting in global health Health system Health economics Public health Social determinants of health Universal health ... Global health, Global issues, Health education, Health law, Health standards, Health sciences). ... Global health is not to be confused with international health, which is defined as the branch of public health focusing on ... Public health emphasizes the health of populations. Epidemiology helps identify risk factors and causes of health problems. ...
"Global Health Priorities". Archived from the original on 2011-10-07. Retrieved 2011-07-05. "Ed Scott at the Washington National ... He also sits on the board of advisors of the Center for Strategic and International Studies Global Health Policy Center and ... Scott is a frequent lecturer around the world on issues of global development, global public health, technology, and ... 2008 Ed Scott as a panelist for the launch event of the Global Health Policy Center at the Center for Strategic and ...
The five areas being: capacity building, health and environment, food systems, infrastructure and energy. The federal ... "Inuit-Crown Partnership Committee continues progress on shared priorities". Prime Minister of Canada. 7 March 2020. Retrieved 4 ... and legislative priorities. To combat climate change the ITK focused on five areas in their national climate change strategy. ... "Health and Wellbeing for Inuit Communities in Canada". Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami. Retrieved 5 November 2020. Brooks, Stephen, ...
"Updates on Mental Health Legislation, Victims of Child Abuse Act, DPPA, and Officer Sean Collier Campus Police Recognition Act ... NAPO publishes comprehensive booklets on their legislative priorities and official positions that they have taken with respect ... "National Association of Police Organizations :: Legislative Positions & Priorities". "National Association of Police ... Justice and Mental Health Collaboration Program". Cox, Ramsey (30 June 2014). "Senate passes bill to protect children from ...
"Aged care reform , Ageing and Aged Care". agedcare.health.gov.au. Retrieved 19 October 2018. "About Us - Our Priorities". ... Health focused services include Home Nursing, Podiatry and Medical Transport. The Community Connections programs offered by SCS ... Further health focused services include, the Nursing and Podiatry programs. Gardening and Home Modification and Maintenance ... Commonwealth funding comes through the Department of Health (DoH). The DoH funds services for people over the age of 65 through ...
"Health scares: Professional priorities". Health (London). 14 (1): 3-21. doi:10.1177/1363459309341875. PMID 20051427. Brownstein ... A health scare can be broadly defined as a social phenomenon whereby the public at large comes to fear some threat to health, ... List of health scares Health crisis Aspartame controversy Dental amalgam controversy Thiomersal and vaccines Water fluoridation ... In 2009 an ABC News article listed "The Top 10 Health Scares of the Decade": "Some of these threats turned out to be almost ...
At first I thought it was due to health issues or a lack of fitness. But then I found those things and it was only the fire ... I'm merely rearranging priorities. So what's next? I'm in the process of trying to figure that out myself. Thank you @njnytc @ ...
AIDS Timeline of influenza Timeline of deworming Timeline of the 2019-20 coronavirus pandemic Priority-setting in global health ... Primary Health Care: Report of the International Conference on Primary Health Care (PDF) (Report). Geneva: World Health ... "An Introduction to Global Health and Global Health Ethics: A Brief History of Global Health" (PDF). Retrieved April 13, 2016. ... UNICEF, the World Health Organization, as well as the UNRRA are all part of United Nations efforts to benefit global health ...
"Qatar". Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. 2015-09-09. "Health and Biomedical Sciences". Qatar University. 2020-10-19 ... "Research Pillars and Priorities , Qatar University". www.qu.edu.qa. 2020-10-19. "QU BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH CENTER AND LABORATORY ... BRC was founded in 2014, and partners with the Ministry of Public Health (Qatar), and Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC). The ... Therefore, Ministry of Public Health (Qatar) clearly articulated an institutional research policy (IRP) on human use of ...
Disease Control Priorities Project. "Public Health Significance of Diarrheal Illnesses". The World Bank Group. Archived from ... World Health Organization. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 November 2010. "Diarrhoeal disease Factsheet". World Health ... Diarrhea is defined by the World Health Organization as having three or more loose or liquid stools per day, or as having more ... Wikipedia's health care articles can be viewed offline with the Medical Wikipedia app. Diarrhea at Wikipedia's sister projects ...
... investment in health and human services research supports the Secretary's Strategic Initiatives and Departmental priorities in ... Health policy matters include public health, health services and systems, health insurance, health care financing, health care ... The Division of Health Care Delivery Systems is responsible for functions related to health services, health organizations and ... incentives for private health insurance and health care, matters concerning the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability ...
"How and why snakebite became a global health priority: a policy analysis". BMJ Global Health. 8 (8): e011923. doi:10.1136/bmjgh ... World Health Organization, Drug control treaties, Global health, Health policy, Medical and health organisations based in ... "World Health Organization (WHO)". World Health Organization. Retrieved 30 March 2023. "World Health Day - 7 April". WHO. ... U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Library of ...
Health Technology Assessment. 9 (9): 1-156, iii-iv. doi:10.3310/hta9090. PMID 15774232. National Institute for Health and ... "Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults: treatment and management , Key-priorities-for-implementation , Guidance and guidelines ... Lim SY, Kim EJ, Kim A, Lee HJ, Choi HJ, Yang SJ (July 2016). "Nutritional Factors Affecting Mental Health". Clinical Nutrition ... Kozier B, Erb G, Olivieri R, Snyder S, Lake R, Harvey S (2008). "Chapter 10: Mental health". Fundamentals of Nursing: Concepts ...
In February 1995, he became Director of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), Regional Office of the World Health ... "George Alleyne". Disease Control Priorities Project. Archived from the original on 13 October 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2008 ... World Health Organization officials, Barbadian officials of the United Nations, Caribbean public health doctors, HIV/AIDS in ... WHO Independent High-level Commission on NCDs World Health Organization (WHO). "Sir George for Science of Peace lecture and ...
Update on 2004, Background Paper, BP 6.24 Low Back Pain (PDF). Priority. Medicines for Europe and the World. p. 5. English, ... Buckley, Joan (host); Cooks, Roberta (Gokhale Method trainer) (2017-08-29). Your Family's Health: Gokhale Method (Podcast). ... Duthey, B. (March 2013). A Public Health Approach to Innovation. ...
Funding Priorities-Civic Engagement. Tbf.org. Retrieved on October 20, 2011. Funding Priorities-Health and Human Services. Tbf. ... Funding Priorities-Education and Out of School Time. Tbf.org. Retrieved on October 20, 2011. Funding Priorities-Workforce ... Funding Priorities-Nonprofit Sector. Tbf.org. Retrieved on October 20, 2011. Funding Priorities-Urban Environment. Tbf.org. ... issues related to health and health care and the revenue-raising capacity of Massachusetts cities. The foundation's civic ...
Another potential prospect would be health apps which can be used for digital diagnostic devices in the form of a wearable ... "Emerging Priorities for Microbiome Research". Frontiers in Microbiology. 11: 136. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2020.00136. ISSN 1664-302X ... Hence, the changes in the microbial community can provide insights into the health condition of the specific host and patient. ... The data obtained from these health apps can be used by medical professionals to evaluate the information and determine the ...
The four campaign priorities were; Right to Food, Climate Crisis, Educational Attainment and Drug Misuse as a Public Health ... "Campaign Priorities". Scottish Youth Parliament. Retrieved 29 July 2023. "Who is in charge?". Scottish Youth Parliament. ... This campaign was titled 'Bounce Back'. In March 2022 MSYPs voted on 4 campaign priorities for the 2021-2023 membership. ...
... "labs and institutions whose priorities are academic rather than driven by the immediate priorities of public health protection ... Another paper for Ilaria Capua's team or addressing a major health threat? Let's get our priorities straight." Peter Bogner, a ... and public health or animal-health.. Shu, Y.; McCauley, J. (March 30, 2017). "GISAID: Global initiative on sharing all ... Global Health. 10 (12): e1855-e1859. doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(22)00417-X. PMC 9826954. PMID 36309034. S2CID 253165702. Maxmen, ...
... www.kff.org/other/source-health-care-priorities-february-2004-2/ class=see-more light-beige no-float inline-readmore,More,/a ... Is there another health problem you think is almost as important? Asked of half sample 2-04 COSTS (NET) 44 Cost of prescription ... drugs/medicines 22 Cost of health care 18 Cost of insurance/affordable insurance,span class=readmore-ellipsis,…,/span,,a href ... What do you think is the most important problem in health or health care for the government to address? ...
The WTC Health Program solicitated public comment on the scope of an upcoming notice of funding opportunity (NOFO) for FY2023 ... The scope of the NOFO is the WTC Health Programs research interests in lifestyle medicine (such as sustainable health ... The WTC Health Program solicitated public comment on the scope of an upcoming notice of funding opportunity (NOFO) for FY2023. ... WTC Health Program FY2023 Lifestyle Research Priorities. ... The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ( ...
CDC is addressing health equity issues across antibiotic-resistant threats. ... Disparities in antimicrobial-resistant threats exist across all social determinants of health, including health care, the food ... Antimicrobial-resistant threats cause health disparities across age, race, and gender in settings spanning the One Health ... type of health insurance, access to health care, and education level. ...
VCH works collaboratively with the Ministry of Health and other health authority partners to advance our shared goal of a more ... Strategic priorities VCH works collaboratively with the Ministry of Health and other health authority partners to advance our ... climate change and ensuring all parts of society and all populations can access health services and enjoy good health. ... We are guided by the Ministry of Health 2021-22 Mandate Letter and our annual Service Plan, which highlights significant ...
... "prioritization in health care and health research", "priority determination", "health priorities", and "agenda-setting". ... health spending by governments vastly outpaces international health aid, so governments set most health priorities." Non- ... Priority-setting can occur at the following levels:: 5 health budget level (i.e. deciding how much to spend on health overall) ... In global health, priority-setting is a term used for the process and strategy of deciding which health interventions to carry ...
Disease Control Priorities Third Edition out: new editorial in IJHPM by Ole F. Norheim (01.08.2018) ... The editorial emphasizes that publishing evidence on economic evaluations on how to best invest in health in an equitable way ...
Strategic priorities The Sport, Exercise and Health Division contribute to the University strategy. Our programmes and services ... Priority 1 - Increase student participation levels, driven by a focus on student health and wellbeing and student satisfaction ... Priority 4 - Contribute to the health and wellbeing of staff by providing access to healthy activities. ... Priority 3 - Develop an inspirational and inclusive student-led sporting community, which allows sports clubs and talented ...
When autocomplete results are available use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. ...
... we strive to keep Americas PAs at the forefront of key health issues. View our current national health priorities here. ... Behavioral & Mental Health Toolkit. Behavioral and mental health is one of four National Health Priorities targeted as part of ... Our Priorities: Making a Difference for Preventable and Treatable Medical Conditions. Today, we face numerous health epidemics ... Diabetes is one of four National Health Priorities targeted as part of a national movement for healthier bodies and minds. ...
... ensuring access to the highest quality health care right here in Everett must be one of our highest priorities. Thomas J. Smith ... As a community, we need to focus on the big picture - ensuring that we continue to have access to health care where and when we ... This will add 300,000 new residents to our community - residents who will need access to high-quality health care. Yet ...
Womens mental health can be more affected by transitioning than mens, speakers series attendees hear. ... MHS Mental Health Hub MHS Mental Health Hub MHS Mental Health Hub MHS Mental Health Hub Mental Health Toolkit MHS Mental Health ... MHS Mental Health Hub MHS Mental Health Hub MHS Mental Health Hub MHS Mental Health Hub MHS Mental Health Hub Mental Health ... Womens health emerging priorities series highlights mental health Mental health issues among military women can affect how ...
Follow the session Water for Health and Cooperation: Youth Priorities, Challenges, and Success Stories live on UN Web TV here ... The session Water for Health and Cooperation: Youth Priorities, Challenges, and Success Stories will be a hybrid interactive ... Identify priority policies and actions for girls and young women to access safe drinking water, basic sanitation and menstrual ... health and hygiene in line with the SDG 6 Global Acceleration Framework, ...
CybersecurityHealth information technologyHigh-risk issuesImproper paymentsMedicaidMedicarepandemicsPublic healthHealth care ... Priority Open Recommendations: Department of Health and Human Services GAO-23-106467 Published: May 10, 2023. Publicly Released ... Implementing these priority recommendations could help improve the efficiency and effectiveness of key federal health care ... In May 2022, GAO identified 56 priority recommendations for the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Since then, HHS ...
Mental Health Services Act Project Priorities. Mental Health Services Act Project Priorities. *Cycle V - Fiscal Years 2020/21 ...
Home , Library , FY14 Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Appropriations Priorities ...
... testing documentation throughout a service members career and beyond is one of six major operational concerns and priorities ... DOD warfighter brain health draft plan has six priorities Lorie Falaminiano, an MRI technologist at Naval Medical Center San ... Advance warfighter brain health science. The research and science objectives of the DOD plan are to "align brain health ... Lee, senior health policy analyst for DODs Health Affairs, discussed the comprehensive strategy and plan for warfighter brain ...
priority health. ignore. synonym:. Obamacare Enrollment Misinformation (tags). Obamacare. ignored tags synonyms top tags bottom ...
RAND researchers highlight why each area is critical for veteran mental health and how RAND is contributing to address them. ... The White House identified eight research priorities to better manage Americas current mental health crisis. ... RAND Experts on Veteran Mental Health Respond to the White House Mental Health Research Priorities. commentary ... RAND Experts on Veteran Mental Health Respond to the White House Mental Health Research Priorities ...
Common Sense Health Priorities for the 110th Congress By Christine Cupaiuolo - January 5, 2007 ... in partnership with one or more qualified health care professionals. We do not endorse any specific health care provider or ... It is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional and is not intended as ... "Congress should put prevention first and put Keroack on notice: birth control is basic health care, women should have access to ...
... by logging into their Priority Health member account or by mailing in a request to Priority Health, 1231 East Beltline Ave. NE ... Michigan Medicaid health plans through Priority Health. See our high-quality Medicaid plans and understand your coverage. ... 2023 Priority Health, a Michigan company. Privacy policy , Notice of Privacy Practices (NPP) , Terms of use , Developers , ... Priority Health Medicare & Medigap plans. See why were #1 for individual Medicare Advantage plans in Michigan. ...
... and predictable investments in public health that we can achieve our goal to advance health equity and provide optimal health ... Annually, public health officials urge Congress and the Administration to prioritize funding for public health and this is a ... "The mission of our nations governmental health agencies is to protect and improve the health of the population, everywhere, ... and many others highlight the important work of disease prevention and health protection that is at the core of public healths ...
... the Global Institute fielded its fourth annual member priority survey ... Mental and Behavioral Health Mental Health has been a consistent top priority for Global Institute members. For 2022, members ... Quick Survey Findings: 2022 Global Priorities. In late 2021, the Global Institute fielded its fourth annual member priority ... Regional Priorities In the four years of conducting this survey, Global Institute members have consistently identified several ...
These priority actions are also listed within the recommendations. Action 1. Create a Childrens Environmental Health ... PRIORITY ACTIONS FOR MOVING FORWARD Several priority actions cut across the recommendations and emerged as the first steps to ... Action 6. Determine and Enhance Childrens Environmental Health Indicators. *Childrens environmental health indicators are ... Several priority actions cut across the recommendations and emerged as the first steps to creating transformative change in ...
... and current strategies to address these health priorities.. Why is it a priority?. Violence and injuries are a major leading ... In the previous step, we identified a number of major health priorities that can either manifest for the first time during ... Improving the Health of Women, Children and Adolescents: from Evidence to Action. View Course ... Improving the Health of Women, Children and Adolescents: from Evidence to Action. ...
Total Human Health Resources. ABC Safety Technology Resource Guide. Emergency Preparedness & Safety Resources ... to President Joe Biden and Congress outlining policy principles and priorities important to ensuring employment-based health ... The letters address the myriad of health challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. In order to confront these challenges, ... Preserve and strengthen employer-sponsored health coverage. • Promote innovations and diversity of plan designs and offerings ...
There is an urgent need to tackle the harmful impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and potentially the brain, and ... Mental health research must be higher priority in COVID-19 response. There is an urgent need to tackle the harmful impacts of ... 2020) Multidisciplinary research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic: a call for action for mental health science. The Lancet ... Frontline medical staff and vulnerable groups should be a priority for mental health support, according to the paper. The ...
Priorities for Americas health: capitalizing on life-saving, cost-effective preventive services [presentation] Presentation ...
Priority Health has HMO-POS and PPO plans with a Medicare contract. Enrollment in Priority Health Medicare depends on contract ... by logging into their Priority Health member account or by mailing in a request to Priority Health, 1231 East Beltline Ave. NE ... Michigan Medicaid health plans through Priority Health. See our high-quality Medicaid plans and understand your coverage. ... Already a Priority Health member?. Which type of medicare plan are you enrolled in?. Medicare Advantage Plan ...
... public health is the governments main priority, Prime Minister Krisjanis Karins (New Unity) told repre... ... Public health is governments top priority during pandemic - PM Karins. * 2021-02-04 ... RIGA - During the Covid-19 pandemic, public health is the governments main priority, Prime Minister Krisjanis Karins (New ... Karins, the ministers of health, economics and finance, as well as the head of the State Chancellery met with representatives ...
... January 29, 2023. Jared Kaltwasser ... Center on Health Equity and AccessClinicalHealth Care CostHealth Care DeliveryInsurancePolicyTechnologyValue-Based Care ... Center on Health Equity and AccessClinicalHealth Care CostHealth Care DeliveryInsurancePolicyTechnologyValue-Based Care ... The Center on Health Equity and Access highlights the most recent updates in the realm of health equity, including news, ...
  • The National Health Council (NHC) appreciates the opportunity to provide comments as the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) establishes its Office of Women's Health (OWH) Strategic Priorities public docket. (nationalhealthcouncil.org)
  • Identifying strategic priorities for advancing global drowning prevention: a Delphi method. (bvsalud.org)
  • We aimed to identify strategic priorities for advancing global drowning prevention using a modified Delphi method . (bvsalud.org)
  • ARLINGTON, VA -Michael Fraser, chief executive officer of the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), issued the following statement today in response to the Trust for America's Health report, The Impact of Chronic Underfunding on America's Public Health System: Trends, Risks and Recommendations, 2020 . (astho.org)
  • The plan identifies three priority areas where health professionals will seek to make measurable progress in the community by 2020 - suicide, obesity and adolescent substance abuse. (standard.net)
  • While the data from 2020 can seem discouraging, it was also a year of turning inward, with more people becoming proactive about their mental health. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • In fact, venture capital funding of U.S. mental health startups totaled $1.37 billion through the third quarter of 2020, which outpaced the $1.06 billion in 2019, according to PitchBook data . (mindbodygreen.com)
  • DALLAS, December 2, 2020 - On the heels of the Surgeon General's Call to Action to prioritize hypertension control in the U.S. and create tailored strategies aimed at improving reach and equity, the American Heart Association (AHA) and American Medical Association (AMA) today nationally recognized more than 1,000 health care organizations (HCOs) for their continued efforts to prioritize blood pressure (BP) control among their patient population. (heart.org)
  • The South African National Mental Health Policy Framework and Strategic Plan (2013-2020) aims to integrate mental health into the health system to provide quality mental health services that are accessible, equitable and comprehensive, particularly for community -based mental health . (bvsalud.org)
  • In addition to the 12 priority recommendations HHS implemented, GAO removed two priority recommendations related to Medicaid and one priority recommendation related to supply chain constraints during the pandemic because they no longer warranted priority attention. (gao.gov)
  • The COVID-19 pandemic has only exacerbated the current mental health crisis, and the RAND Epstein Family Veterans Policy Research Institute continues RAND's commitment to conduct research to improve the lives of those who served in the U.S. military, including research on their mental health needs. (rand.org)
  • While ASTHO appreciates emergency supplemental bills to address the current COVID-19 pandemic, Congress must redouble their efforts to value all components of public health which can be achieved through the appropriations bills. (astho.org)
  • There is an urgent need to tackle the harmful impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and potentially the brain, and for research on these areas to be central to the global response to the pandemic, according to a new position paper. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Researchers warn that the COVID-19 pandemic could have a 'profound' and 'pervasive impact' on global mental health now and in the future, yet a separate recent analysis shows that so far, only a tiny proportion of new scientific publications on COVID-19 have been on mental health impacts. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • The general public already have substantial concerns about mental health in relation to the pandemic - according to an Ipsos MORI poll of 1099 members of the UK public, and a survey of 2198 people by the UK mental health research charity, MQ, that included many people with experience of mental health conditions . (kcl.ac.uk)
  • She continued, 'Governments must find evidence-based ways to boost the resilience of our societies and find ways to treat those with mental ill health remotely to come out of this pandemic in good mental health. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • RIGA - During the Covid-19 pandemic, public health is the government's main priority, Prime Minister Krisjanis Karins (New Unity) told representatives of the retail sector on Wednesday, urging the retailers to cooperate in curbing the virus. (baltictimes.com)
  • The COVID-19 pandemic sparked a rapid uptake of telehealth technologies , as health care providers sought ways to assist patients without the need for in-person visits. (ajmc.com)
  • The study authors noted that the pandemic exposed significant disparities within the United States' health care system, as certain communities have been disproportionately affected. (ajmc.com)
  • Even as COVID-19 pandemic continues to be the most pressing acute health concern for South Carolinians, there's no denying that our state continues to face many other serious health challenges. (scha.org)
  • Mental health is the silent pandemic that is also happening right now," says Uma Naidoo, M.D. , nutritional psychiatrist, chef, nutrition expert, and author of This Is Your Brain on Food . (mindbodygreen.com)
  • Renowned clinical neuroscientist psychiatrist Daniel Amen, M.D. , calls this intersection of mental health and COVID-19 " pandemic squared ," which refers to the way COVID has been multiplied by a subsequent pandemic of psychological problems, such as anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and addiction. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • The scope of the NOFO is the WTC Health Program's research interests in lifestyle medicine (such as sustainable health behaviors and lifestyle interventions) used to optimize management and improve outcomes of WTC-related health conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • Many risks for antimicrobial-resistant infections are tied to the social determinants of health (SDoH)-conditions in the places where people live, learn, work, and play that affect a wide range of health outcomes and quality of life. (cdc.gov)
  • Identifying and addressing these impacts is vital for improving health outcomes and reducing the burden of antimicrobial resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • The primary focus aimed to enhance the quality of patient outcomes and population health by providing advanced continuing education (CE) opportunities for health care providers across the Military Health System. (health.mil)
  • Virtual care will likely remain a significant part of ambulatory care in the postpandemic era, so it is critical to ensure designs and implementations of virtual care will not worsen current inequities in access and health outcomes," the investigators said. (ajmc.com)
  • The purpose of the public workshop is to understand the priorities for the development of Digital Health Technologies (DHTs) to support clinical drug trials, including accessibility, diversity, and clinical outcomes measures using DHTs. (fda.gov)
  • For many individuals, the ability to take part in the drug-development process is an empowering step that aligns with their health care goals and could allow earlier access to treatments to significantly improve health outcomes. (nationalhealthcouncil.org)
  • Since the AHA and AMA launched Target: BP™ , an initiative which aims to reduce the number of adult patients with uncontrolled BP, more than 1,900 organizations have joined the movement to make heart health a priority -sharing a common goal to improve health outcomes associated with heart disease. (heart.org)
  • This has resulted in poor health outcomes, isolation and high suicide rates, including amongst adolescents . (bvsalud.org)
  • In April 2023, GAO identified four additional priority recommendations, bringing the total number of open priority recommendations to 45. (gao.gov)
  • FDA and the Duke-Robert J. Margolis, MD Center for Health Policy will host the virtual public workshop "Understanding Priorities for the Development of Digital Health Technologies to Support Clinical Trials for Drug Development and Review" on March 28, 2023, 1:00 PM - 4:15 PM ET and March 29, 2023, 1:00 PM - 4:45 PM ET. (fda.gov)
  • BMJ Glob Health;8(9)2023 09. (bvsalud.org)
  • Learn how AAPA and the PA Foundation are bringing together PAs and partners to move the needle on our National Health Priorities. (aapa.org)
  • As licensed clinicians who practice in every specialty and setting, PAs are in a unique position to put these National Health Priorities into action. (aapa.org)
  • We provide targeted CME curricula and other educational resources on National Health Priorities to equip PAs to improve patient health. (aapa.org)
  • We create opportunities at our events for PAs, employers, community members, and other partners to engage in thought leadership and advance our collective response to National Health Priorities. (aapa.org)
  • We produce news stories highlighting our efforts and the contributions of PAs to National Health Priorities. (aapa.org)
  • We develop education and other resources to engage PAs and PA students on National Health Priorities. (aapa.org)
  • We partner with Constituent Organizations, employers, and other allies to remove barriers to PA practice and advance national policy in support of National Health Priorities. (aapa.org)
  • Last week, the White House published its eight mental health research priorities ( PDF ) to better address America's current mental health crisis. (rand.org)
  • In a recent interview with Dr James Jackson, a well known Muskegon physician and community activist, Dr Jackson stated that the problem in America's health care is that "it is based on capitalism, it puts people second and money fist. (mltoday.com)
  • The independent source for health policy research, polling, and news. (kff.org)
  • The independent source for health policy research, polling, and news, KFF is a nonprofit organization based in San Francisco, California. (kff.org)
  • We know that more research and action is needed to fully understand potential disparities related to antimicrobial resistance and this is a priority for CDC. (cdc.gov)
  • Priority-setting can be conducted at the disease level (i.e. deciding which disease to alleviate), the overall strategy level (i.e. selective primary healthcare versus primary healthcare versus more general health systems strengthening), research level (i.e. which health research to carry out), or other levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • We can see 14,000 to 17,000 patient visits per month for TBI in the military health system, which is why we need standardized tools and research" to identify, control, and mitigate these brain exposures and TBIs. (health.mil)
  • Since its landmark 2006 report on the Invisible Wounds of War , RAND has been at the forefront of research on the mental health needs of service members and veterans exposed to combat and other forms of trauma, as well as their families. (rand.org)
  • However, this was only a brief, cursory look and more research is needed, building upon research from RAND on mental health disparities in access to behavioral health care and in the quality of care . (rand.org)
  • Women also represent an increasing proportion of the veteran population, and RAND researchers recently highlighted research priorities for improving the mental health of women veterans. (rand.org)
  • While new approaches and applications are being developed at a rapid pace, research could help ensure these products are offered equitably, ethically, and in ways that improve mental health. (rand.org)
  • There was a huge expansion of telehealth during COVID-19, and the lessons RAND learned can help point to research priorities for veterans. (rand.org)
  • 24 leading experts on mental health, including neuroscientists, psychiatrists, psychologists, public health experts and those with lived experience of a mental health condition were brought together and supported by the Academy of Medical Sciences and the mental health research charity, MQ . (kcl.ac.uk)
  • This paper gives us a research roadmap to help protect our mental health at this incredibly difficult time and in the future. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • They decided to convene a think tank of clinicians, researchers, and operational partners from the VHA to identify future research needs and priorities in the hopes of eliminating telehealth-related inequities and fostering "TechQuity. (ajmc.com)
  • Incorporating techquity in virtual care within the Veterans Health Administration: identifying future research and operations priorities. (ajmc.com)
  • That's consistent with research showing that the ACA health coverage expansions have had little impact on employers' decisions to offer coverage. (cbpp.org)
  • A study sponsored by CDC was published this week in Environmental Health Perspectives that identifies environmental health challenges and research needs for departments of health across the U.S.. 1700 public health professionals participated in the study's survey which informed the 29 priority problem statements that identify key challenges and research needs in the field of environmental health. (asdwa.org)
  • During the 2001 anthrax bioterrorism investigation, several areas were identified in which additional research may improve public health response. (cdc.gov)
  • To identify, prioritize, and coordinate short-term Bacillus anthracis bioterrorism research for public health response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) convened a meeting in Atlanta on December 10-11, 2001, to obtain input on research priorities and improve coordination with federal partners and other stakeholders. (cdc.gov)
  • In two working group sessions, the topic-specific groups identified their three top research priorities and prepared a brief written report describing proposed activities. (cdc.gov)
  • A place where science, technology, and research merge to embrace good health across a 130-acre sprawling health city campus. (amrita.edu)
  • Despite India's efforts to improve oral health-related research, its poor utilization in terms of public health and population-based approaches is apparent. (amrita.edu)
  • On 4 November 2021, the Ministry of Health, Eritrea, organized a Consensus building workshop for the National Health Research Agenda document which the country has developed. (who.int)
  • The priority health research agenda is one of the key tools which can help the health sector to identify and implement research based on the need of the country. (who.int)
  • The country has drafted a National Health Research Agenda 2022-2026 whose objective is to give guidance for policymakers, researchers, funding agencies and other relevant parties on the top areas of research priority for health. (who.int)
  • The National Health Research Agenda was developed in collaboration with WHO and other stakeholders including health training institutions. (who.int)
  • During the opening remarks of the workshop, Dr Berhane Debru, Director General of Policy, Planning and Human Resources Development welcomed participants and elaborated the timely importance of health research priority agenda. (who.int)
  • Dr. Berhane further explained that due to the transformation of health care delivery system and the dynamics of diseases and health conditions it is important that that research priorities for the country should be determined for short and longer terms. (who.int)
  • Through collaboration with numerous organizations, and powered by millions of volunteers, we fund innovative research, advocate for the public's health and share lifesaving resources. (heart.org)
  • Sufficient data do exist, however, from surveys or other focused research efforts to suggest that household exposure to certain common pesticides can be extensive and might be of significant public health concern. (cdc.gov)
  • Strengthening women : health research priorities for women in developing countries. (who.int)
  • The study analyzed the current production of oral health scientific knowledge in Southern Brazil dentistry stricto-sensu post-graduation programs and the relation with the National Agenda for Priorities in Health Research guidelines. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although there are movements of incorporation of the Agenda in oral health research, traditional clinical disciplines still are not used to refer it or to focus on the population needs and the Health System interest. (bvsalud.org)
  • Following two Delphi rounds, 50 priorities were selected across the seven domains of research and further contextualisation, best practice guidance, capacity building , engagement with other health and sustainable development agendas, high-level political advocacy, multisectoral action and strengthening inclusive global governance . (bvsalud.org)
  • The World Health Organization ranks the U.S. health system well below most of Europe, Canada and Japan. (mltoday.com)
  • Below are charts from the World Health Organization ranking health care systems and life expectacies from around the World. (mltoday.com)
  • World Health Organization. (who.int)
  • Results of the Inter-Parliamentary Conference on Health and Development in the South-East Asian and Western Pacific Regions, Bangkok, 18 - 21 February 1985 / organized jointly by the Inter-Parliamentary Union and the World Health Organization. (who.int)
  • The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. (who.int)
  • If you prefer, you may enroll in Priority Health Medicare Advantage plans through the CMS Online Enrollment Center at medicare.gov . (priorityhealth.com)
  • Priority Health has HMO-POS and PPO plans with a Medicare contract. (priorityhealth.com)
  • Enrollment in Priority Health Medicare depends on contract renewal. (priorityhealth.com)
  • It relies on information collected during the 2016 Community Health Assessment , which evaluated 45 health indicators in Weber and Morgan counties. (standard.net)
  • Assessed more than 900,000 people in FY 2016 who were potentially at risk of harmful exposures to chemicals through over 130 health consultations and assessments. (cdc.gov)
  • Released 12 new ToxProfiles in FY 2016 that were used to guide public health decision-making by helping assess health effects, identify exposure routes and environmental sources of concern, and determine which chemicals and exposures posed public health risks. (cdc.gov)
  • Once a consensus has been reached between the priority setting makers and the communities, there might be challenges and problems that could arise based on the health intervention being pushed by the priority. (wikipedia.org)
  • PAs are on the front lines of patient care every day, using their medical training, education, and experience to address our nation's toughest health challenges. (aapa.org)
  • The session ' Water for Health and Cooperation: Youth Priorities, Challenges, and Success Stories ' will be a hybrid interactive discussion. (unwater.org)
  • Follow the session ' Water for Health and Cooperation: Youth Priorities, Challenges, and Success Stories ' live on UN Web TV here , or join the session through Webex . (unwater.org)
  • The article suggests that environmental health professionals continue to work on initiatives to address these challenges, including developing strategic partnerships with nontraditional partners. (asdwa.org)
  • Increased numbers of injured patients can face challenges finding trauma care and surgical services as a result of shortages in qualified health staff, medicines, and medical supplies. (who.int)
  • While the first mental health gym, Coa , is supported by several notable angel investors , including professional basketball player and mental health advocate Kevin Love, who recently spoke about mental health challenges on mindbodygreen's podcast . (mindbodygreen.com)
  • The Rural Electrification Administration (REA), a federal regulatory agency and the debtor's significant creditor, raised two challenges to the plan on the basis of the absolute priority rule. (abi.org)
  • Climate change is now recognized as one of the defining challenges of the 21st century, and protecting health from its impacts is an emerging priority for the public health community. (org.in)
  • The AMA leverages its strength by removing the obstacles that interfere with patient care, leading the charge to prevent chronic disease and confront public health crises, and, driving the future of medicine to tackle the biggest challenges in health care. (heart.org)
  • To begin… What do you think is the most important problem in health or health care for the government to address? (kff.org)
  • Access to health care - other (incl. (kff.org)
  • Disparities in antimicrobial-resistant threats exist across all social determinants of health, including health care, the food supply, and the community. (cdc.gov)
  • Antimicrobial-resistant threats cause health disparities across age, race, and gender in settings spanning the One Health spectrum-in health care, the food supply, the environment, and the community. (cdc.gov)
  • Disparities related to antimicrobial resistance are impacted by structural inequities and socioeconomic factors such as household income, type of housing (crowding, persons experiencing homelessness), immigration, type of health insurance, access to health care, and education level. (cdc.gov)
  • VCH works collaboratively with the Ministry of Health and other health authority partners to advance our shared goal of a more integrated system of care that focuses on better serving patients, clients and residents. (vch.ca)
  • High-quality, culturally safe, care for the best health outcome, in the best setting: hospital, home or community. (vch.ca)
  • Evolving how we deliver services to stay at the forefront of health care. (vch.ca)
  • From equipping PAs for effective patient care, to building their civic awareness and understanding, to joining with health organizations to develop community-based programs - we support PAs so they can focus on their patients. (aapa.org)
  • This will add 300,000 new residents to our community - residents who will need access to high-quality health care. (heraldnet.com)
  • As a community, we need to focus on the big picture - ensuring that we continue to have access to health care where and when we need it. (heraldnet.com)
  • From my perspective, ensuring access to the highest quality health care right here in Everett must be one of our highest priorities. (heraldnet.com)
  • She noted that women often have "more complexity of care" than men, such as higher rates of depression and anxiety, and higher rates of mental health and medical comorbidities. (health.mil)
  • One of the concerns of health care providers and patients is a "lapse in health care during and after transitioning," said Holly O'Reilly, a clinical psychologist at DHA's Psychological Health Center of Excellence (PHCoE). (health.mil)
  • and Promising Practices in Military Health Care on Oct. 28. (health.mil)
  • The Embedded Mental Health building is the new mental health facility for Commander, Naval Surface Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet (CNSP) operational Sailors, with an overarching goal to give active-duty personnel fast and quality access to mental health care, provide consultation to triads, and training for medical personnel and crews. (health.mil)
  • Implementing these priority recommendations could help improve the efficiency and effectiveness of key federal health care programs and funding. (gao.gov)
  • Smarter health care drives better results. (priorityhealth.com)
  • Wherever your client may be in their health care journey, there's a product to meet their unique needs. (priorityhealth.com)
  • Thanks for working with Priority Health to give our members the right care at the right time. (priorityhealth.com)
  • Yet, wider adoption of the technology also has raised the potential for new and different types of health care inequities. (ajmc.com)
  • One of the ways health care providers sought to reach out to patients during this time was through telehealth, but the investigators said that shift opened up new potential for disparities. (ajmc.com)
  • In that regard, they said next steps should include regularly collecting data related to social determinants of health and creating virtual care health equity metrics, among other steps. (ajmc.com)
  • Finally, the authors said a fourth priority is to examine potential adverse consequences of expanded virtual care. (ajmc.com)
  • Although much work remains to be done, the priorities identified in our think tank represent important steps toward achieving TechQuity in virtual care at the VHA," they emphasized. (ajmc.com)
  • For example, low-paid workers with employer coverage often get less help with their premiums, are offered plans with less comprehensive benefits, and must pay a greater share of their income toward health care costs than higher-paid workers. (cbpp.org)
  • Priority Health is encouraging parents to not only train themselves, but train family members, care givers, baby sitters and more. (woodtv.com)
  • [1] The House Republican health care plan announced this week violates that promise. (cbpp.org)
  • The cap would limit per-beneficiary funding growth to more than the rate of general inflation but below the projected growth rate of per-beneficiary costs in Medicaid (and the health care system as a whole). (cbpp.org)
  • Displaced populations fleeing conflict usually require emergency and trauma health care, while others with chronic illnesses, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancer require longer term and more expensive treatment. (who.int)
  • In crisis settings women and girls often lack access to basic health services, such as family planning, prenatal and obstetric care. (who.int)
  • As a result of disrupted health services and vaccine shortages, babies and children often miss out on immunizations against vaccine-preventable diseases, and adolescents need access to education and health care services, including contraception. (who.int)
  • Roxanna Namavar, D.O. , psychiatrist and integrative medicine practitioner, says she's similarly noticed her patients paying more attention to what's happening in their bodies, along with seeking ways to take better care of their physical and mental health. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • Companies and startups are also working to keep up with the demand for more accessible mental health care. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • Virtual surveys were sent to 141 participants with experience in analysis and monitoring of health indicators, management of health systems, and health care of older adults. (paho.org)
  • For the past 18-months, while rural health systems have been battling Covid-19, the health care industry has continued to evolve at an accelerating pace. (ndha.org)
  • Traditional health care providers must adapt to the new market realities or face increasing threats from new forms of competition. (ndha.org)
  • Identify new competitive forces and their impact on traditional health care providers. (ndha.org)
  • Eric Shell is a chairperson with Stroudwater Associates who is an industry leader in supporting rural health care in its transition to population health. (ndha.org)
  • He frequently speaks at rural conferences nationwide, presenting on the future of rural health care, critical access hospital financial and reimbursement topics and rural hospital performance improvement. (ndha.org)
  • The current battles over American health care system are indicative of a wider philosophical and social divide. (mltoday.com)
  • First we must look at the current health care system as it exists in the United States. (mltoday.com)
  • Most of the countries that rank above the U.S. have some form of socialized health care system. (mltoday.com)
  • An oft repeated declaration is that the U.S. has the best health care in the World, also that people from all over the World come to the U.S. for health care, such as the King of Jordan who went to Mayo Clinic recently for surgery. (mltoday.com)
  • Misinformation and lies about Obama's health care plans swayed a lot of opinion polls as well as a lack of knowlege about the benefits of Universal health care. (mltoday.com)
  • When asked if HMOs had a legitimate place in American health care he said "absolutely not. (mltoday.com)
  • About Obama's health care ideas Dr Jackson said it was not without problems. (mltoday.com)
  • We promote increased access to affordable, high-value, sustainable health care. (nationalhealthcouncil.org)
  • I have always been taking care of my body and health, prioritizing that in front of everything. (tennisworldusa.org)
  • Application of the absolute priority rule to non-profit debtors presents unique issues that are particularly relevant to health care entities, which so often are organized as non-profit organizations. (abi.org)
  • Cases have arisen in the context of non-profit health care facilities and utility cooperatives. (abi.org)
  • Naomi Lopez Bauman is the director of health care policy at the Goldwater Institute. (dailysignal.com)
  • As you meet this weekend at Camp David to plan your 2018 legislative agenda, we strongly recommend that you keep health care as a top priority. (dailysignal.com)
  • Together, we remain focused on ensuring all Americans, especially those in underrepresented and under-resourced communities, have access to quality health care and that all physicians have the support they need to control high blood pressure and reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. (heart.org)
  • That's why both the AMA and AHA strongly support evidence-based resources and training for health care professionals as a critical component to providing the highest quality of care and patient safety. (heart.org)
  • Target: BP helps health care organizations improve BP control rates through the evidence-based AMA MAP BP quality improvement program, and recognizes organizations committed to improving BP control. (heart.org)
  • As the only medical association that convenes 190+ state and specialty medical societies and other critical stakeholders, the AMA represents physicians with a unified voice to all key players in health care. (heart.org)
  • Expand the APPLETREE cooperative agreement to all 50 states and increase awards to enable each state to promote and implement child care safe-siting initiatives to protect children from health risks caused by placing child care and early learning facilities in hazardous locations. (cdc.gov)
  • Health Care Education Association website. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tools and resources : patient education practice guidelines for health care professionals. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The effects of these transitions are an emerging priority at the Defense Health Agency, attendees heard at a Feb. 25 virtual clinical communities' speakers' series event sponsored by the DHA Training and Education Directorate's Continuing Education Program Office (CEPO) in partnership with the Department of Veterans Affairs. (health.mil)
  • More than 2.8 million antimicrobial-resistant infections occur in the United States each year, with a disproportionate number of these infections negatively impacting people who are at higher risk for health disparities and inequities. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC is prioritizing health disparities/inequality related to antimicrobial resistance through programs like Project Firstline, Antimicrobial Resistant Laboratory Network, and National Healthcare Safety Network. (cdc.gov)
  • Geography and the built environment (buildings, neighborhoods, parks, roads) also play a role in health disparities related to antimicrobial resistance, leading to higher rates of infection among people experiencing homelessness or people facing housing insecurity, travelers to countries with unsafe water and inadequate sanitation, and people living in certain metropolitan cities. (cdc.gov)
  • Our goal is twofold: Improve overall population health outcome measures and reduce racial disparities that exist in each of the eight areas. (scha.org)
  • The OWH mission is critical to reducing health disparities that disproportionately affect women. (nationalhealthcouncil.org)
  • The editorial emphasizes that publishing evidence on economic evaluations on how to best invest in health in an equitable way - presented in DCP3 - is crucial, but not sufficient. (uib.no)
  • We are dedicated to ensuring equitable health in all communities. (heart.org)
  • Annually, public health officials urge Congress and the Administration to prioritize funding for public health and this is a central pillar of ASTHO and 100 organizations 22 by 22 advocacy campaign to enhance funding for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention top line allocation 22 percent by FY22. (astho.org)
  • In global health, priority-setting is a term used for the process and strategy of deciding which health interventions to carry out. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5 Priority-setting is the act of deciding which health interventions to carry out, and can occur at several levels of granularity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although aging drinking water infrastructure is recognized as an environmental public health threat for larger utilities, risk-based interventions in smaller communities and rural settings, including on private property, are limited. (asdwa.org)
  • collected and analyzed water samples from 170 homes, conducted interviews, and made recommendations for public health interventions. (cdc.gov)
  • Our study identifies global priorities for drowning prevention and provides evidence for advocacy of drowning prevention in all pertinent policies , and in all relevant agendas. (bvsalud.org)
  • AAPA, the PA Foundation, and the PA community are committed to working with our partners to improve patient health in four priority areas responsible for many of the life-threatening conditions affecting Americans today: Behavioral and Mental Health, Obesity, Diabetes, and Nutrition. (aapa.org)
  • Gary M. Steck has been the Chief Executive Officer of Waterbury-based Wellmore Behavioral Health since 1999 and serves as Board Chair of the Connecticut Community Providers Association. (ctmirror.org)
  • As legislators in Connecticut prepare to vote on the budget for the next two years, there should be little disagreement about the need to shore up our behavioral health services. (ctmirror.org)
  • Gaps in behavioral health services have widened in recent years because states like Connecticut have slashed more than $4.3 billion from mental health budgets nationwide since 2009. (ctmirror.org)
  • Behavioral health disorders affect far more Connecticut residents than physical illness. (ctmirror.org)
  • In fact, behavioral health conditions in the U.S. are more prevalent than heart disease and cancer combined. (ctmirror.org)
  • Cuts to behavioral health services can only magnify the stigma that mental illness still carries in our society. (ctmirror.org)
  • After years of shortsighted under-funding behavioral health services in Connecticut, restoring funds for these high-impact programs is a smart investment. (ctmirror.org)
  • Let's not wait for the next crisis to resume talking about doing something to ensure behavioral health issues are a priority for our state and budget. (ctmirror.org)
  • GRAND RAPIDS, Mich (WOOD) - Priority health is now offering a program to help families live safer and healthier. (woodtv.com)
  • ASTHO members, the chief health officials of these jurisdictions, are dedicated to formulating and influencing sound public health policy and to ensuring excellence in public health practice. (astho.org)
  • Health officials will work to curb the suicide rate by 5 percent by collaborating on education programs in local schools and conducting suicide intervention skills trainings with community partners. (standard.net)
  • Learn more about our focus on planetary health, climate change and ensuring all parts of society and all populations can access health services and enjoy good health. (vch.ca)
  • Disrupted water and sanitation systems limit the supply of safe water for populations and health facilities, and increase the risk of waterborne and vector-borne diseases. (who.int)
  • Protect vulnerable populations (such as children, pregnant women, and the elderly) from the health risks of harmful exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • Increase knowledge about how the combination of chemicals at hazardous waste sites affect human health and the ways in which toxic exposures affect vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and young children. (cdc.gov)
  • Improve opportunities to support investigations of adverse health effects in rural populations. (cdc.gov)
  • In May 2022, GAO identified 56 priority recommendations for the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). (gao.gov)
  • In a new report in Journal of General Internal Medicine , personnel from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) published a list of priorities for researchers as they begin to examine real and potential inequities in telehealth. (ajmc.com)
  • The priorities can be applied by funders to guide investment , by researchers to frame study questions, by policymakers to contrast views of expert groups and by national coalitions to anchor national drowning prevention plans. (bvsalud.org)
  • It calls for real-time monitoring of mental health to be rolled out urgently in UK and globally, and for the use of digital apps and remotely delivered programmes to protect our mental health. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • It also calls for the rapid roll out of evidence-based programmes and treatments, which can be accessed by computer, mobile phone or other remote ways, to treat mental health conditions and increase resilience to keep people mentally healthy. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • Programmes for the proper rehabilitation of patients suffering from mental health disorders should be initiated as early as possible, but might not be implemented until the post-emergency phase. (who.int)
  • Documenting how warfighters score on cognitive testing - from the beginning of their careers until after they leave military service - is one of six major concerns and priorities of service members being addressed in a plan for brain health that is in final draft form. (health.mil)
  • We used document review , and data extracted from global health partnerships to identify strategic domains and draft priorities for global drowning prevention. (bvsalud.org)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Health Priorities. (who.int)
  • Here we will discuss the impact of violence and injuries on adolescent health, and current strategies to address these health priorities. (futurelearn.com)
  • Suicide and self-harm can result from not addressing adolescent mental health 4 . (futurelearn.com)
  • We identify agendas including disaster risk reduction , sustainable development , child and adolescent health , and climate resilience, where drowning prevention might offer co-benefits. (bvsalud.org)
  • Non-profits and companies that assist governments If a country is using a Health in All Policy (HiAP) approach, then priority-setting is done by stakeholders who do not directly deal with health. (wikipedia.org)
  • The consultative process was conducted with different stakeholders such as the MOH at HQ as well as at the Zoba (Zonal) level, Academia, relevant line ministries and the UN Agencies working in the health sector. (who.int)
  • That compares to "26% of male VHA users who had a confirmed mental health diagnosis," she added, underscoring the need for DOD and VA prioritization of women's mental health needs. (health.mil)
  • International organizations Foundations Private donors (including high-net-worth individuals and ultra-high-net-worth individuals): "A common outcome is a negotiated set of priorities that reflect some domestic needs and some technical, political, and economic considerations defined largely by the interests of donors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although decision makers have the power to constraint and provide aid, there also tends to be an asymmetric information as health organizations might overestimate which priorities are desired. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following table is a timeline of organizations and programs working on priority-setting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Climate change is also supposed to be the greatest global health threat , according to a consortium of medical organizations and Pope Francis, who oppose President Trump's decision to withdraw from the Paris climate agreement. (heartland.org)
  • Created by and for patient organizations 100 years ago, the NHC brings diverse organizations together to forge consensus and drive patient-centered health policy. (nationalhealthcouncil.org)
  • Made up of more than 140 national health- related organizations and businesses, the NHC's core membership includes the nation's leading patient organizations. (nationalhealthcouncil.org)
  • President Trump's initiatives on energy and climate challenge medical and public health authorities to prove their anti-carbon case, instead of just imposing it on the world. (heartland.org)
  • In the end, saving the Earth should be our ultimate priority for our communities and governments - and somehow, even though we know the dangers of climate change and progressing air pollution, there is not much being done. (harcourthealth.com)
  • Further, the potential range and magnitude of associated health risks should be central to the rationale for actions to mitigate the occurrence of climate change. (org.in)
  • AAPA and the PA Foundation support PAs as they address our nation's biggest health epidemics head-on. (aapa.org)
  • The mission of our nation's governmental health agencies is to protect and improve the health of the population, everywhere, every day. (astho.org)
  • The objective of this article was to provide a consensus-based short list of effective indicators to measure health system responsiveness to the needs of older adults which would be relevant to informing public policy. (paho.org)
  • The objective of the priority health agenda consensus workshop was to give all the technical expertise an opportunity to review and further enrich the document before final printing and dissemination. (who.int)
  • Participants rated the priorities in two Delphi rounds, guided by relevance, feasibility and impact on equity , and where consensus was ≥70% of participants rating the priority as critical. (bvsalud.org)
  • A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC , for Health Content Provider (www.urac.org). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Find National Health Priority edu-ca-tion and practice resources. (aapa.org)
  • The veteran population is becoming increasingly diverse and so identifying individual and systemic factors that increase risk for adverse mental health conditions could help ensure that prevention programs and treatments reach all veterans. (rand.org)
  • Tools such as continuing medical education (CME), fellowships, and webinars provide them the resources they need to improve patient health in these critical areas. (aapa.org)
  • Dissemination of information on which "brain exposures are most damaging" and "outright disclosure if they are at increased risk of exposure or injury while performing a specific training activity" such as breaching walls or experiencing blast overpressure is another priority and concern for transparency. (health.mil)
  • This letter to the Department of Health and Human Services outlines 45 open recommendations that it should prioritize. (gao.gov)
  • They showed the public had specific concerns related to COVID-19 including increased anxiety, fear of becoming mentally unwell, access to mental health services and the impact on mental wellbeing. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • They concluded that health equity must be at the heart of the future deployment of telehealth services. (ajmc.com)
  • Private drinking water supplies do not receive adequate environmental health services (i.e., inform but not enforce, cannot retest unless asked) due to inconsistent policies (i.e., no jurisdiction) and public perceptions (i.e., lack of trust). (asdwa.org)
  • Due to the high rates of maternal and neonatal deaths in some countries, special focus should be made on ensuring the availability of reproductive health services, especially in camp settings and areas where health facilities and referral services are unavailable. (who.int)
  • Priorities for health services information. (cdc.gov)
  • White, K L "Priorities for health services information. (cdc.gov)
  • Priority setting decision-makers often make it a point to not only provide assistance and resources but to also give voices to those who are often unheard and invisible in the privileged system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Industry, health system, and community health partners are essential to making this possible. (aapa.org)
  • The criteria for selection as high priority indicators were: usefulness as a tracer of health system responsiveness and usefulness to inform policy. (paho.org)
  • Health systems professionals should consider these comprehensive priority indicators in their efforts to provide a better health system for older people. (paho.org)
  • Numbing tragedies last year in a movie theater in Colorado and Sandy Hook Elementary School had politicians on both sides of the aisle agreeing it was time to fix our depleted mental health system. (ctmirror.org)
  • Two United Nations system resolutions in 3 years reflect rising political support, but priorities remain undefined, and the issue lacks a global strategy. (bvsalud.org)
  • People with mental health conditions often face neglect in the health system as well as stigma and discrimination. (bvsalud.org)
  • They eventually chose 4 priorities they said were paramount in addressing telehealth inequities. (ajmc.com)
  • We agree that the FDA has unique role in protecting and promoting women's health. (nationalhealthcouncil.org)
  • The NHC particularly asks the FDA to include women with complex chronic diseases and disabilities in its emphasis on improving women's health. (nationalhealthcouncil.org)
  • Continue the Navajo Birth Cohort Study to investigate possible neonatal health effects caused by uranium exposure from past mining and milling operations in the Navajo Nation. (cdc.gov)
  • Oftentimes, these priorities address more than just socioeconomic status but also inequalities such as gender, race, and religion inequalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below, we highlight the eight areas the White House has prioritized, why each area is critical for veteran mental health, and how RAND is contributing to address them. (rand.org)
  • Our new partnership with Adagio Health will further assess the mental health needs of women veterans in Western Pennsylvania, the resources available to address these needs, and where there are gaps. (rand.org)
  • We will continue to address the many other areas of health and safety that we always have," Brian Bennion, health department director, said in a statement. (standard.net)
  • RESULTS: There is a good understanding on what defines an oral health problem, however, there is no consolidated and comprehensive approach to address oral diseases. (amrita.edu)
  • The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980-a.k.a., the "Superfund" Act-created the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) to serve as a science-based public health agency working to address community concerns about hazardous waste. (cdc.gov)
  • Priority 4 - Contribute to the health and wellbeing of staff by providing access to healthy activities. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • Doug Badger is a senior fellow in the Center for Health and Welfare Policy at The Heritage Foundation. (dailysignal.com)
  • Urine specimens are processed, stored, and shipped to the Division of Environmental Health Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for testing. (cdc.gov)
  • Vials are stored under appropriate frozen (-20°C) conditions until they are shipped to the National Center for Environmental Health for testing. (cdc.gov)
  • To investigate environmental exposures to hazardous substances in communities and take action to reduce harmful exposures and their health consequences. (cdc.gov)
  • Reduce the health impact from exposures to harmful chemicals in communities. (cdc.gov)
  • The mindbodygreen editorial team worked together on the creation of this article, combining their deep expertise honed by years of reporting on health and well-being. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • n recent years, courts have struggled to apply the absolute priority rule to non-profit entities, whose organization reflects some, but not all, of the attributes of a for-profit corporation. (abi.org)
  • Provide expertise to communities so they can take action to protect health. (cdc.gov)
  • Increase dissemination of the ToxProfiles and other toxicological analyses to provide data for public health action. (cdc.gov)
  • Child growth and nutrition in developing countries : priorities for action / edited by Per Pinstrup-Andersen, David Pelletier, Harold Alderman. (who.int)
  • Children's environmental health indicators are critical to hold society and others accountable, to help make the case for the urgency of the problem, and to demonstrate where progress has been made or not. (cehn.org)
  • These indicators need to be understandable, measurable, and evidence-based and must include the health costs and benefits of prevention. (cehn.org)
  • Along with Atlanta-based headquarters staff, ATSDR experts are ready 24/7 to respond to environmental health threats from natural disasters, chemical spills, and other emergencies. (cdc.gov)
  • The Community Health Improvement Plan selected substance abuse among adolescents as its third target because use rates of marijuana, alcohol and nicotine are higher in the Weber-Morgan area than in nearby counties. (standard.net)
  • Indeed, and while it appears counter-intuitive, Gov. Dannel Malloy's proposed budget cut grant funds for critically needed community based mental health and substance abuse recovery treatment to zero. (ctmirror.org)
  • Those crises, unfortunately, happen all too often: the current 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak, measles and hepatitis A outbreaks, natural disasters, rising obesity rates, the opioid epidemic, and many others highlight the important work of disease prevention and health protection that is at the core of public health's mission. (astho.org)
  • In the absence of curative treatment, the primary prevention of dementia through risk factor reduction, such as blood pressure lowering, becomes a public health priority. (medscape.com)
  • General physical and brain health assessments, scans, or tests "that occur on a more frequent basis over time across their military careers and beyond if deficits are identified" is one of the six concerns and priorities outlined by operational service members, according to Lee. (health.mil)
  • So, Priority Health is donating these kits to InterCare to help fill that gap and help parents learn infant CPR at home. (woodtv.com)
  • In FY 2019, 43% of women Veterans Health Agency users had diagnosed mental health issues," she said. (health.mil)
  • HHS implemented 12 recommendations we identified as a priority last year. (gao.gov)
  • We regularly update priority recommendations here . (gao.gov)
  • Several priority actions cut across the recommendations and emerged as the first steps to creating transformative change in children's environmental health. (cehn.org)
  • These priority actions are also listed within the recommendations. (cehn.org)
  • Mental health issues among military women can affect how they transition in many ways, be it housing changes, deployment or leaving the military and getting acclimated to civilian life. (health.mil)
  • The paper calls for 'moment to moment' monitoring of anxiety, depression, self-harm, suicide, as well as other mental health issues in the UK and global population. (kcl.ac.uk)
  • He has served on the National Rural Health Association's rural health congress and governmental affairs committee and the Federal Office of Rural Health Policy's rural hospital issues group. (ndha.org)
  • Individuals involved in non-profit entities do not necessarily possess the type of equity interest to which the absolute priority rule historically has been applied, and recent cases considering these issues demonstrate that the rule provides an awkward fit in the non-profit context. (abi.org)