Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Policy: A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.United StatesSocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Health Transition: Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Consumer Advocacy: The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Social Control Policies: Decisions for determining and guiding present and future objectives from among alternatives.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Great BritainDental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Democracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Administrative Personnel: Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.BrazilMental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Power (Psychology): The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings--administrative, social, academic, etc.EuropeBudgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Public Health Dentistry: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)National Health Insurance, United StatesInformation Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Diffusion of Innovation: The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Smoke-Free Policy: Prohibition against tobacco smoking in specific areas to control TOBACCO SMOKE POLLUTION.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Family Planning Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Sociology, Medical: The study of the social determinants and social effects of health and disease, and of the social structure of medical institutions or professions.Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.IndiaLegislation, Dental: Laws and regulations pertaining to the field of dentistry, proposed for enactment or recently enacted by a legislative body.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Lobbying: A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Empirical Research: The study, based on direct observation, use of statistical records, interviews, or experimental methods, of actual practices or the actual impact of practices or policies.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.

The use of targets to improve the performance of health care providers: a discussion of government policy. (1/4865)

The aim of this discussion paper is to examine the advantages and drawbacks of employing targets, or performance indicators, to improve the performance of those delivering health care services. The paper is based on an examination of two target-setting policies initiated by Government: the 1992 Health of the Nation strategy and the 1990 General Practitioners' Contract. It is argued that the introduction of both the General Practitioners' Contract and the Health of the Nation have indeed been accompanied by improvements in performance, however, there are a number of problems with targets. They tend to focus on those things that are most easily measured, and they may foster complacency on the part of providers who have already achieved upper target limits, and defensiveness on the part of those performing badly. National targets may skew local priorities; they may also be unrealistic and unattainable for particular, less privileged population groups. They may serve to widen inequalities in health, and can exacerbate the 'inverse care law' by encouraging providers to direct their efforts at the more advantaged sections of society, where such efforts are more likely to pay off in terms of overall improvements in the target level achieved. Finally, the achievement of some targets will not necessarily result in better health outcomes. The paper concludes that a target-setting approach to improving the quality of care must be based on the use of appropriate indicators, and must take account of differences between more and less advantaged sections of society.  (+info)

Cancer mortality by educational level in the city of Barcelona. (2/4865)

The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between educational level and mortality from cancer in the city of Barcelona. The data were derived from a record linkage between the Barcelona Mortality Registry and the Municipal Census. The relative risks (RR) of death and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) according to level of education were derived from Poisson regression models. For all malignancies, men in the lowest educational level had a RR of death of 1.21 (95% CI 1.13-1.29) compared with men with a university degree, whereas for women a significant decreasing in risk was observed (RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.74-0.90). Among men, significant negative trends of increasing risk according to level of education were present for cancer of the mouth and pharynx (RR 1.70 for lowest vs. highest level of education), oesophagus (RR 2.14), stomach (RR 1.99), larynx (RR 2.56) and lung (RR 1.35). Among women, cervical cancer was negatively related to education (RR 2.62), whereas a positive trend was present for cancers of the colon (RR 0.76), pancreas (RR 0.59), lung (RR 0.55) and breast (RR 0.65). The present study confirms for the first time, at an individual level, the existence of socioeconomic differences in mortality for several cancer sites in Barcelona, Spain. There is a need to implement health programmes and public health policies to reduce these inequities.  (+info)

Making Medicaid managed care research relevant. (3/4865)

OBJECTIVE: To help researchers better understand Medicaid managed care and the kinds of research studies that will be both feasible and of value to policymakers and program staff. The article builds on our experience researching Medicaid managed care to provide insight for researchers who want to be policy relevant. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We draw four lessons from our work on Medicaid managed care in seven states. First, these are complex programs that differ substantially across states. Second, each program faces common challenges and issues. The need to address common design elements involving program eligibility, managed care and provider contracting, beneficiary enrollment, education, marketing, and administration and oversight provides a vehicle that researchers can use to help understand states and to provide them with relevant insight. Third, well-designed case studies can provide invaluable descriptive insights. Such case studies suggest that providing effective descriptions of state programs and experience, monitoring information on program performance and tradeoffs, and insight on implementation and design are all valuable products of such studies that have considerable potential to be converted into policy-actionable advice. And fourth, some questions demand impact studies but the structure of Medicaid managed care poses major barriers to such studies. CONCLUSIONS: Many challenges confront researchers seeking to develop policy-relevant research on managed care. Researchers need to confront these challenges in turn by developing second-best approaches that will provide timely insight into important questions in a relatively defensible and rigorous way in the face of many constraints. If researchers do not, others will, and researchers may find their contributions limited in important areas for policy debate.  (+info)

Excess capacity: markets regulation, and values. (4/4865)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the conceptual bases for the conflicting views of excess capacity in healthcare markets and their application in the context of today's turbulent environment. STUDY SETTING: The policy and research literature of the past three decades. STUDY DESIGN: The theoretical perspectives of alternative economic schools of thought are used to support different policy positions with regard to excess capacity. Changes in these policy positions over time are linked to changes in the economic and political environment of the period. The social values implied by this history are articulated. DATA COLLECTION: Standard library search procedures are used to identify relevant literature. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Alternative policy views of excess capacity in healthcare markets rely on differing theoretical foundations. Changes in the context in which policy decisions are made over time affect the dominant theoretical framework and, therefore, the dominant policy view of excess capacity. CONCLUSIONS: In the 1990s, multiple perspectives of optimal capacity still exist. However, our evolving history suggests a set of persistent values that should guide future policy in this area.  (+info)

Provider attitudes toward dispensing emergency contraception in Michigan's Title X programs.(5/4865)

 (+info)

T(6/4865)

he pill in Japan: will approval ever come?  (+info)

Latino children's health and the family-community health promotion model. (7/4865)

A majority of Latino children in the US live in poverty. However, unlike other poor children, Latino children do not seem to have a consistent association between poverty and poor health. Instead, many poor Latino children have unexpectedly good health outcomes. This has been labeled an epidemiologic paradox. This paper proposes a new model of health, the family-community health promotion model, to account for this paradox. The family-community health promotion model emphasizes the family-community milieu of the child, in contrast to traditional models of health. In addition, the family-community model expands the outcome measures from physical health to functional health status, and underscores the contribution of cultural factors to functional health outcomes. In this paper, we applied the family-community health promotion model to four health outcomes: low birthweight, infant mortality, chronic and acute illness, and perceived health status. The implications of this model for research and policy are discussed.  (+info)

Disease eradication and health systems development. (8/4865)

This article provides a framework for the design of future eradication programmes so that the greatest benefit accrues to health systems development from the implementation of such programmes. The framework focuses on weak and fragile health systems and assumes that eradication leads to the cessation of the intervention required to eradicate the disease. Five major components of health systems are identified and key elements which are of particular relevance to eradication initiatives are defined. The dearth of documentation which can provide "lessons learned" in this area is illustrated with a brief review of the literature. Opportunities and threats, which can be addressed during the design of eradication programmes, are described and a number of recommendations are outlined. It is emphasized that this framework pertains to eradication programmes but may be useful in attempts to coordinate vertical and horizontal disease control activities for maximum mutual benefits.  (+info)

  • The policy assigns specific quantitative targets aimed at reduction of disease prevalence/incidence, to ensure health status and programme impact, health system performance and system strengthening. (yahoo.com)
  • The HPEF administers 13 scholarship and loan repayment programs for students and health professionals and places them throughout the continuum of California's healthcare delivery system. (ca.gov)
  • The National Policy sets in place a system of cooperative relationships between sporting organisations and betting agencies underpinned by betting legislation to be introduced at the jurisdictional level. (nationaldrugstrategy.gov.au)
  • In this week's address, Director of Public Health Policy at the Department of Health and Human Services Mayra Alvarez discusses the Affordable Care Act and how the law will help make health insurance coverage more affordable and accessible for millions of Americans. (archives.gov)
  • Starting on October 1st, private companies will compete for your business and you can make choices about your health insurance by comparing coverage like you would when purchasing airplane tickets or cell phone plans. (archives.gov)
  • The Affordable Care Act will provide 10.2 million uninsured Latinos new opportunities for coverage through the Health Insurance Marketplace. (archives.gov)
  • In order to provide access and financial protection at secondary- and tertiary-care levels, the policy proposes free medicine, free diagnostics and free emergency-care services in all public hospitals. (yahoo.com)
  • It envisages private sector collaborations for strategic purchase, capacity building, skill development programmes, awareness generation, developing sustainable networks for community to strengthen mental health services and disaster management. (yahoo.com)
  • The work group was originally convened with funding assistance from the California Mental Health Services Authority (CalMHSA). (ca.gov)
  • Project Cal-Well is funded by the Department of Health and Human Services' Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (ca.gov)
  • Professors Carter, Soriano, and Gerrard, experts on School-Based Family Counseling, presented this Webinar on October 11, 2012 to members of the SMHPW to demonstrate with case examples how this approach to student mental health services has been implemented in several schools and school districts in northern and southern California. (ca.gov)
  • The NHP recommends mainstreaming different health systems and envisages better access to AYUSH (ayurveda, yoga, unani, sidha and homoeopathy) remedies through colocation in public facilities. (yahoo.com)
  • According to Dr Kenneth E. Thorpe, who heads a health policy advocacy group called Partnership to Fight Chronic Disease, "The announcement is a clear indication of the government's long-term commitment to find sustainable solutions to address the growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and a recognition of the socio-economic impact of NCDs on the country. (yahoo.com)
  • The Ministry of Social Affairs and Health has started to prepare mental health policy strategy. (stm.fi)
  • The objective of the strategy is to ensure that mental health work will continue in a goal-oriented manner. (stm.fi)
  • The University of Toronto's governing council recently approved a controversial mental health policy that students and community members are criticizing. (blogto.com)
  • how is putting a policy of mandatory leave for mental health students in place going to make anything better at uoft? (blogto.com)
  • The Student Mental Health Policy Workgroup will assess the current mental health needs of California students and gather evidence to support its policy recommendations to the State Superintendent of Public Instruction and the California Legislature. (ca.gov)
  • In addition to its work in providing policy recommendations, the SMHPW now serves as the State Management Team for Project Cal-Well, a five-year federal grant program which serves to foster collaboration between the CDE and local educational agencies to address critical mental health needs of California's kindergarten through twelfth-grade students. (ca.gov)
  • Letter to County and District Superintendents and Charter School Administrators regarding an opportunity to provide mental health training to school staff at no cost to any county office of education, district, or charter school. (ca.gov)
  • This thesis found that researchers seeking to increase their influence on policy are required to increase their understanding of the policymaking process. (drugsandalcohol.ie)
  • The Health Professions Education Foundation (HPEF) improves access to healthcare in underserved areas of California by providing scholarships, loan repayments, and programs to health professional students and graduates who are dedicated to providing direct patient care in those areas. (ca.gov)
  • Our degree programs give students the tools they need to achieve their career goals, improve the quality of care, and develop strategies to advance population health. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Our researchers uncover the truth about what's working in health care, what's not and why - using the insights they've gained to develop innovative new models of care. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Programs like My Health LA and Healthy San Francisco are innovative approaches to providing health care to undocumented immigrants in California, said Faculty Associate Paul Dourgnon during today's health policy seminar. (ucla.edu)
  • In this brief interview , she discusses generational differences in mental health needs, need among the aging homeless, and workforce challenges to providing mental health care. (ucla.edu)
  • The Health Economics and Evaluation Research (HEER) Program examines the economic impacts of health care policies and programs. (ucla.edu)
  • From local public health interventions, to statewide efforts to improve Medi-Cal, to national debates on health care financing, HEER staff provide analysis, conduct evaluations and offer expertise to policymakers and others concerned with health care costs. (ucla.edu)
  • The Health Disparities Program examines the unique health concerns of populations challenged by inequities in health and health care quality along racial, ethnic, age or socio-economic lines. (ucla.edu)
  • There are many categories of health policies, including global health policy, public health policy, mental health policy, health care services policy, insurance policy, personal healthcare policy, pharmaceutical policy, and policies related to public health such as vaccination policy, tobacco control policy or breastfeeding promotion policy. (wikipedia.org)
  • They may cover topics of financing and delivery of healthcare, access to care, quality of care, and health equity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most political debates surround personal health care policies, especially those that seek to reform healthcare delivery, and can typically be categorized as either philosophical or economic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Philosophical debates center around questions about individual rights, ethics and government authority, while economic topics include how to maximize the efficiency of health care delivery and minimize costs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many governments around the world have established universal health care, which takes the burden of healthcare expenses off of private businesses or individuals through pooling of financial risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some jurisdictions and among different faith-based organizations, health policies are influenced by the perceived obligation shaped by religious beliefs to care for those in less favorable circumstances, including the sick. (wikipedia.org)
  • In carrying out our responsibility to share fully our data and analyses, we are making available summaries of staff responses to recent requests for data on health, determinants of health, health care access and use, and other topics of current interest. (cdc.gov)
  • This brief and side-by-side tables reviews the key health issues that are likely to have a direct impact on women's health as well as their access to coverage and care, and summarizes the presidential candidates' stated positions and records on these issues. (kff.org)
  • A reconfigured Supreme Court with a 6:3 conservative majority would have implications for a host of cases involving health policy issues, including the Affordable Care Act, abortion rights, Title X family planning funding, Medicaid work requirements, Medicaid enrollees' free choice of provider and more. (kff.org)
  • This interactive tool provides state profiles on women's health and access to care. (kff.org)
  • RAND continues to use COMPARE to assess proposed revisions to the ACA, other health care legislation, and proposals to replace the ACA. (rand.org)
  • We also use a complementary model- Health Care Payment and Delivery Simulation Model (PADSIM) -to better understand provider responses to changes in payment policy. (rand.org)
  • The latest volume of Health Policy Developments analyzes the efforts that countries undertake to ensure and regulate access to health care services. (brookings.edu)
  • Primary care ranks high on the health policy agenda in many countries, as does the search for more appropriate ways of organizing health care delivery in terms of quality, efficiency, and responsiveness to patients' needs. (brookings.edu)
  • Reinhard Busse is professor and department head for health care management at Technische Universitat Berlin. (brookings.edu)
  • They will discuss the importance of postpartum care in decreasing maternal mortality and increasing long-term health for mothers. (utmb.edu)
  • Dr. Abate will examine current trends/developments/policies in respect to diabetes prevention and care. (utmb.edu)
  • The opioid epidemic is a symptom of deeper, systemic problems in health care of individuals suffering from pain and addiction. (utmb.edu)
  • Has Child Care Policy Finally Come of Age? (prospect.org)
  • The department's proposed rule could devastate the health care of millions of immigrants. (prospect.org)
  • Instead, it damages international progress toward expanding health-care services, especially for women and girls in developing countries. (prospect.org)
  • The former Health and Human Services secretary who spent his political career trying to cut back health-care coverage for millions of Americans won't suffer much once he lands on his feet. (prospect.org)
  • What to do about health-care markets? (brookings.edu)
  • The rise in chronic diseases not only has serious consequences for the nation's health and health care systems, but it also significantly contributes to health care costs. (ncsl.org)
  • Eighty-six percent of U.S. health care spending is on people who have chronic diseases, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (ncsl.org)
  • According to a 2013 report by the National Partnership for Women and Families, women make 80 percent of the health care decisions in their families. (ncsl.org)
  • The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: What Is It and How Will It Change Health Care? (springer.com)
  • 2008-08-20T00:39:43-04:00 https://images.c-span.org/Files/507/280519-m.jpg Five organizations announced their joint efforts to make health care reform the top domestic priority for the next president and Congress. (c-span.org)
  • It features "Harry and Louise," the iconic couple from ads used to combat a health care proposal in 1993-1994. (c-span.org)
  • Five organizations announced their joint efforts to make health care reform the top domestic priority for the next president and Congress. (c-span.org)
  • Ron Pollack spoke about health care reform and the Taxpayers' March on Washington taking place later in the day. (c-span.org)
  • The Massachusetts Health Policy Commission (HPC), established in 2012, is an independent state agency charged with monitoring health care spending growth in Massachusetts and providing data-driven policy recommendations regarding health care delivery and payment system reform. (mass.gov)
  • The HPC's mission is to advance a more transparent, accountable, and innovative health care system through independent policy leadership and innovative investment programs. (mass.gov)
  • The HPC's goal is better health and better care - at a lower cost - across the Commonwealth. (mass.gov)
  • This course associates the role of a leader and manager in provider and payer health care settings with real-world business knowledge and skills. (bu.edu)
  • It aims to better equip present and future health care managers in order to lead, plan effectively, anticipate challenges and marshal resources. (bu.edu)
  • Students will gain an appreciation for the complexities of management and leadership in challenging health care situations. (bu.edu)
  • Concepts will be discussed briefly with the greater emphasis on the development of the critical thinking skills necessary to succeed in today's changing health care environment. (bu.edu)
  • In addition, one session is devoted entirely as a workshop on provider-payer health care negotiations. (bu.edu)
  • This course combines didactic and case study approaches to the fundamentals of nonprofit accounting, with emphasis on health care institutions. (bu.edu)
  • This course describes how money works in health care. (bu.edu)
  • It presents a variety of useful analytic techniques and skills, and then explores various ways to use money to shape more accessible, affordable, and effective health care. (bu.edu)
  • We examine current financial crises and managerial problems in health care along with alternative ways to remedy them- and also to advance both financial and clinical accountability for equitable and affordable care. (bu.edu)
  • Using case examples that illustrate basic principles, students develop strategies to improve human resources practices through job analysis, selection, training, compensation, and employee relations, while developing an awareness of the unique aspects of the health care workforce that affect human resource management in such settings. (bu.edu)
  • It's fashionable these days, particularly in Washington, to argue that the best way to improve the quality and restrain the cost of health care is to make the market for health care more like the market for everything else. (cato.org)
  • It's also fashionable for opponents of free-market health care to caricature the case for market-based reform. (cato.org)
  • But he does employ a favorite straw man of those who oppose market-based reforms: that the case for markets "rests on the belief that health care is -- in most respects -- like any other product. (cato.org)
  • As Charles Phelps writes in his leading textbook Health Economics , health care markets face challenges such as extensive government intervention, uncertainty, asymmetries of information, and externalities. (cato.org)
  • Also, health care is scary, involving life-and-death decisions. (cato.org)
  • What makes health care unique is how many of these factors converge in one place. (cato.org)
  • He talked about his department's efforts to create a health care system that would allow patients better access to their records and potentially lower the costs of procedures and prescription drugs. (c-span.org)
  • He added that lowering the cost of medicine and promoting research would help transform the health care industry. (c-span.org)
  • Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Azar addressed the annual World Health Care Congress . (c-span.org)
  • Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Azar delivered remarks on free market principles in health care. (c-span.org)
  • HPC staff and commissioners work together to monitor the performance of the health care system, including system transformation in the Commonwealth and cost drivers therein. (mass.gov)
  • Since 2014, the Massachusetts Health Policy Commission (HPC) has invested over $75 million in various health care organizations across the Commonwealth to enhance the delivery of effective, efficient care and promote innovative care delivery models. (mass.gov)
  • This paper reviews the public sector role in the provision of health care. (nber.org)
  • A second role of the government is to correct distortions in markets for medical care and health insurance. (nber.org)
  • This Policy Brief examines chapter 10 of the National Broadband Plan, which relates to health care. (himss.org)
  • The 34-county Southern Ohio Health Care Network (SOHCN) is governed by a board comprised of six members representing the three largest health care providers (HCPs)in the original service area, led by the Adena Health System. (himss.org)
  • Region Chiefs and Councilors are expected to develop expertise on legislative, political, and regulatory issues in order to serve as a two-way communication pathway between Fellows at-large and the Division of Advocacy and Health Policy, and to mentor future members of other health care committees. (facs.org)
  • Starting in fall 2017, this new concentration, which was approved earlier this month by Tennessee Board of Regents, will prepare graduates for advanced practice and leadership positions in public health and health care settings, as well as for faculty positions in academic institutions. (etsu.edu)
  • DH policies are designed to improve on existing arrangements in health and social care, and turn political vision into actions that should benefit staff, patients and the public. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • The Department of Health works to define policy and guidance for delivering a social care system that provides care equally for all, while enabling people to retain their independence, control and dignity. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • Cross-border patient care and exchanges of services are another example of the importance of interregional cooperation - working across borders, and bringing health across borders. (europa.eu)
  • In the case of the 'Healthacross' project, it is not only about working across borders and bringing health care across borders, but for the cities of Gmünd in Lower Austria and České Velenice in South Bohemia which lie across the Austria/Czech Republic border, it can in some instances mean the difference between life and death. (europa.eu)
  • Similarly, Austrian patients like to use certain health care services on the Czech side of the border, such as the modern dialysis unit in Jindřichův Hradec, and the comprehensive rehabilitation services. (europa.eu)
  • In order to address these differences the project aims to improve cross-border cooperation, improving emergency care response times and providing better access to health care in general across the border region. (europa.eu)
  • Improved cooperation will also help in developing common quality standards for the health care sector, eliminating obstacles and simplifying patient transfers, thus ensuring continuity of care and guaranteeing the EU's fundamental freedoms for all patients. (europa.eu)
  • Promoting the exchange and joint utilisation of know-how and best practices, will in the long term, help in establishing a joint cross-border system for the health care sector. (europa.eu)
  • In order to provide functioning cross-border health care and cooperation in the health sector, the project has had to address the joint development of long-term structural plans for regional health care. (europa.eu)
  • For the EU, a particularly urgent issue is the funding of health care services between Member States with significant wage gaps. (europa.eu)
  • Qualitative information on health financing and coverage, health care provision, governance and resource allocation have been collected for the third time by the OECD in 2016. (oecd.org)
  • How religious communities in the United States are providing free health care and overcoming anti-immigrant sentiment. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • But he knows how impossible it is for many to afford health care in Indiana, where 1 in 10 adults have no health insurance and many more are underinsured (deductibles and copays leave them unable to afford medicines and care). (foreignpolicy.com)
  • Soon, the Hoosier Crescent Foundation was seeing patients who had previously been unable to afford health care. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • The facts are hard to ignore: rising rates of chronic disease, epidemic obesity and diabetes, a widening longevity gap between rich and poor, health care "reforms" at odds with patient interests. (springer.com)
  • It has become increasingly clear that changes in the existing health care system will not be sufficient to maintain and improve our health at this historical juncture. (springer.com)
  • The pressure for policy innovation shifts from a focus on the health care system to a reorganization of how we approach health in 21st century societies. (springer.com)
  • This change calls for new mechanisms through which we conduct health policy and it calls for an inclusion of many actors in the policy process: health care providers, policy makers from many sectors, communities, consumers, patients and the private sector. (springer.com)
  • Policy Innovation for Health adds important new voices to the health care debate, and its vision will inspire professionals in health policy, health administration, health economics, and global health, as well as graduate students planning to enter these rapidly changing fields. (springer.com)
  • Rachel Maddow reports on the extreme positions of President-elect Donald Trump's choice to lead the Health and Human Services Department, Rep. Tom Price, whose ideas on health care are, in some cases, even outside of the Republican mainstream. (msnbc.com)
  • His post is worth reading in full, but the gist is this: There are things to like about Gingrich and Goodman's proposals, but if this is the best Republicans can do on health care, they've got a long way to go. (reason.com)
  • The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) Health Policy Fellows program provides the nation's most comprehensive learning experience at the nexus of health, science, and policy in Washington, D.C. It is an outstanding opportunity for exceptional midcareer health professionals and behavioral/social scientists with an interest in health and health care policy. (rwjf.org)
  • Fellows participate in the policy process at the federal level and use that leadership experience to improve health, health care, and health policy. (rwjf.org)
  • Specific policy issues include government pricing and reimbursement, health technology assessment, health care financing, and trade-related market access barriers. (phrma.org)
  • The course offers a broad introduction to the legal aspects of American health care, through an in-depth analysis of selected contemporary issues at the intersection of health care and legal systems. (ucsd.edu)
  • The course attends to how and why the law came to be (legal policy), how it is used (legal process), and how it affects the shape, cost, and quality of health care in America (legal impact). (ucsd.edu)
  • Part A emphasizes "private" law topics-the legal environment within which the private participants in health care interact with each other. (ucsd.edu)
  • This course presents a comprehensive view of modern issues at the intersection of health care and law, with an emphasis on improving understanding and synergy between the professions. (ucsd.edu)
  • The module will cover seminar topics related to health-care issues. (ucsd.edu)
  • Assesses the major models for provision and financing of health care in the U.S. and the world today. (ucsd.edu)
  • Students gain an understanding of the health policy process and how health care is financed as well as learn to evaluate health policies according to range of criteria for cost, quality, and equity. (ucsd.edu)
  • Advantages and disadvantages of the various ways of organizing and financing health care are considered. (ucsd.edu)
  • Medical ethical issues in health-care policy at the national and global level are also discussed including allocation of scarce medical resources, compulsory public health measures, clinical research in the developing world, and cross-cultural medical practice. (ucsd.edu)
  • May conduct site visits to assess operations and costs of health care programs. (payscale.com)
  • It examines these topics by bringing together influential work on social values together with current policy dilemmas in the fields of health and the environment, including such matters as the limits of justifiable state interference in the unhealthy choices of individuals, the justice of priority setting in health care and the obligations of current citizens in respect of climate change. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Davidson Goldin was disappointed when he learned in September that his small business's health-care plan was being discontinued. (wsj.com)
  • President Barack Obama on Thursday said he would allow insurers to extend by one year those policies they had canceled for failing to meet the health-care law's. (wsj.com)
  • WSJ's Janet Hook explains why Congressional Democrats finally ran out of patience with the White House over the Obama health-care rollout: The website's problems hurt lawmakers' standing with voters, but the insurance cancellations were especially damaging. (wsj.com)
  • The California Health Care Foundation, based in Oakland, has taken a less blunt tack since opening its Sacramento office, where it employs a former legislative health expert who helps ensure that the foundation's research topics are relevant to legislative agendas. (latimes.com)
  • The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) gives patients the new right to be informed about the privacy practices of their health care providers, as well as rights with respect to their own protected health information. (clarku.edu)
  • As health care providers, we are required to distribute a notice of our privacy practices to our patients. (clarku.edu)
  • Clark University Health Services is a contracted service through UMass Memorial Health Care. (clarku.edu)
  • UMass Memorial Health Care is an organized health care arrangement (OHCA). (clarku.edu)
  • Protected health information (PHI) is any information about your past, present, or future health care, or payment for that care that could be used to identify you. (clarku.edu)
  • When you visit a UMass Memorial facility, we use and disclose your protected health information to treat you, to obtain payment for services and to conduct normal business known as health care operations. (clarku.edu)
  • Health care operations - Medical information is used to improve the services we provide, to train staff and students, and for business management, performance improvement, and customer service. (clarku.edu)
  • Revised notices will be posted in our facilities and will be available from your health care provider. (clarku.edu)
  • What Is the Status of Women's Health and Health Care in the U.S. Compared to Ten Other Countries? (commonwealthfund.org)
  • Benchmarking U.S. health system performance against other high-income nations, and highlighting best practices from around the world, can help the U.S. face the challenge of mounting pressure of lowering health care costs while maintaining access to the latest in medical technologies, improving quality and safety, and making the health system more responsive to patients' needs and preferences. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • Sign up to receive e-alerts and newsletters on the health policy topic you care about most. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • Read full profiles of international health systems describing the role of government, how systems are organized and financed, who and what is covered, and what is being done to ensure quality of care, reduce disparities, and promote care coordination. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • Compare the key components of international health systems, including health insurance, health system organization and governance, health care quality and coordination, cost containment, and more. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • Explore comparative data on key health system characteristics and performance indicators such as overall health care spending, hospital spending and utilization, health care access, and more. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • Across the globe, health care policymakers face mounting pressure to lower costs while improving the quality and safety of care. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • The U.S. can learn a lot by examining other health systems, their performance in relation to ours, and their health care delivery and payment innovations. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • Explore this site to learn more about the health care systems in 19 countries. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • These chartbooks use data collected by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to compare health care systems and performance on a range of topics, including spending, hospitals, physicians, pharmaceuticals, prevention, mortality, quality and safety, and prices. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • The Commonwealth Fund's Harkness Fellowships in Health Care Policy and Practice provide a unique opportunity for mid-career health services researchers and practitioners from Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom to spend up to 12 months in the United States, conducting original research and working with leading U.S. health policy experts. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • The Commonwealth Fund's International Health Policy and Practice Innovations program believes that despite differences in how they organize and finance health care, other countries have a lot to offer U.S. delivery system leaders and policymakers seeking new solutions. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • This course explores the demographic, cultural, economic, and health factors that drive political decisions about health care for older Americans. (unf.edu)
  • We develop policy to solve problems and manage issues in health, aged care and sport. (health.gov.au)
  • Mobile applications are revolutionizing our lives, and they have the very real potential to revolutionize our health care system for the better. (rollcall.com)
  • This is the reality of our nation today: Americans are using and will continue to use mobile devices and mobile apps for health care purposes. (rollcall.com)
  • Health IT has tremendous potential to improve patient care and lower health care costs, but we can only achieve these goals well with a new regulatory framework, crafted by Congress and signed by the president, that is modern and flexible enough for tomorrow's technologies. (rollcall.com)
  • Alumni of the Master of Health Care Innovation will form a worldwide network of problem-solvers and potential collaborators, who access and develop innovative solutions to ongoing projects to improve the health care industry's response to rapid transformation. (upenn.edu)
  • Shape health policy development and human behavior in health care. (upenn.edu)
  • Draw upon a global network of health policy resources as they assess and address inefficiencies to improve the processes of care and increase value of health care services. (upenn.edu)
  • It will focus on how U.S. health policy is developed and will provide students with a general understanding of the policymaking process and debates related to major U.S. health care legislation. (unf.edu)
  • When Gov. Chris Sununu outlined his budget proposal to lawmakers at the State House on Thursday, much of the speech centered on health care, including some proposed fixes to issues that have simmered for years. (nhpr.org)
  • Every care setting will have different policies depending on their individual needs. (bartleby.com)
  • Dr. Freddy Elbaiady will speak to us about health care in regions of conflict and combat. (utmb.edu)
  • The Health Policy Institute (HPI) aims to be a thought leader and trusted source for critical policy knowledge related to the U.S. dental care system. (ada.org)
  • HPI achieves this by generating, synthesizing, and disseminating innovative research on a variety of topics that are relevant to policy makers, health care advocates, and providers. (ada.org)
  • The authors provide many concrete examples of new policy approaches and implementation from different parts of Europe and at different levels of governance, local, regional, national and European. (springer.com)
  • Students will learn fundamental principles and concepts of global health policy, law, and governance. (ucsd.edu)
  • Experience and knowledge related to the evaluation of technical and design aspects of health financing and governance in community health. (eldis.org)
  • Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a society. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other countries have an explicit policy to ensure and support access for all of its citizens, to fund health research, and to plan for adequate numbers, distribution and quality of health workers to meet healthcare goals. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are a variety of arguments for and against universal healthcare and related health policies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Healthcare is an important part of health systems and therefore it often accounts for one of the largest areas of spending for both governments and individuals all over the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many countries and jurisdictions integrate a human rights philosophy in directing their healthcare policies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alongside mechanisms such as supply and demand, you'll gain insight into healthcare financing systems and universal health coverage, and will explore the complexities of the healthcare labour market. (lse.ac.uk)
  • With healthcare expenditures in the United States currently totaling over $3.1 trillion and the prospect that this spending will continue to increase exponentially over the next several years, an appreciation of the evolution of healthcare policy in the United States and the subsequent changes that are expected to occur in the delivery and financing of these services is critical for those in the healthcare field. (springer.com)
  • An Introduction to Health Policy: A Primer for Physicians and Medical Students is the first book of its kind written by physician leaders in health policy across the United States to aid doctors and students in developing an understanding of the key issues that have shaped health policy and the transformative nature of these changes on healthcare delivery in America. (springer.com)
  • A number of recent policy developments have changed the way patients, physicians, and other healthcare professional's access information and healthcare. (himss.org)
  • This policy brief examines the potential impact of the Application Privacy, Protection, and Security Act (APPS Act) on the mHealth and healthcare industry. (himss.org)
  • The National Health Service in England provides free healthcare for all, based on need, not on ability to pay. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • ‌Antimicrobial resistance is rapidly becoming a top health problem that could pose a significant challenge to the functioning of healthcare systems and their budget in OECD and G20 countries. (oecd.org)
  • Sally Pipes, president of the Pacific Research Institute, a conservative think tank based in San Francisco that favors market approaches to healthcare, said foundations risk undermining the credibility of their research by wading into policy deliberations. (latimes.com)
  • Governments - Commonwealth, States and Territories - health educators, health practitioners, and other healthcare providers and suppliers, the medicines industry, healthcare consumers, and the media work together to promote the objectives of the policy. (health.gov.au)
  • Through in-person and on-line workshops, the Health DATA Program helps policymakers, community groups and health and advocacy organizations to understand and use credible data in their programmatic and policy development work. (ucla.edu)
  • Health Policy Advisory Council (HPAC) The HPAC is responsible for fostering an extensive grassroots advocacy network throughout the Fellowship of the College. (facs.org)
  • As a book that helps its reader to develop the blend of strategic people skills, methodological inventiveness, research entrepreneurship, creative design, and policy writing know-how that is critical to delivering useful research evidence for policy, Research for Health Policy is essential reading for anyone doing, studying or teaching health policy advocacy and research. (google.com)
  • The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) is seeking a Director for its International Advocacy team to develop policy positions, strategies, and analysis to improve patient access to innovative medicines. (phrma.org)
  • As needed, the SPO will also support related work streams, such as evidence packaging, dissemination, and advocacy projects related to community health. (eldis.org)
  • Sightsavers is looking for a Policy Adviser to join our Policy and Global Advocacy team to lead policy analysis and engagement on health systems. (eldis.org)
  • It also has much to offer postgraduate and professional development students and their educators who want to move beyond the common undergraduate focus on policy content areas and policy theory/process, to learn more advanced practical research skills for policy-making. (google.com)
  • The preferred candidate will bring substantive policy development and analytical expertise, excellent writing skills, and the ability to convey technical content in an audience-appropriate and compelling manner. (phrma.org)
  • This page describes the editorial policy that the KidsHealth team follows when creating content. (kidshealth.org)
  • Physicians and other health experts review all KidsHealth content before it's published on this site. (kidshealth.org)
  • You'll gain a strong foundation in epidemiology and social and behavioral theory to help you identify and analyze risk factors influencing individual and community health statuses, use health-related data to describe the distribution of disease in populations, and apply systems thinking to work toward resolving chronic disease issues and implementing health promotion interventions. (umass.edu)
  • For applicants who do not have an MPH, prerequisite course requirements include the completion of graduate courses covering theories of biostatistics, epidemiology, environmental health, health behaviors and health policy, and political and economic aspects of health (the five core courses of the MPH curriculum). (temple.edu)
  • Members of our workforce and our business associates may only access the minimum amount of protected health information that they need to complete their assigned tasks. (clarku.edu)
  • a comparison of implementation science and policy implementation research. (ijhpm.com)
  • Bringing together interdisciplinary research and teaching, the Department aims to influence and improve how health policy is designed, implemented, and evaluated. (lse.ac.uk)
  • As a PhD in health policy candidate, you will be part of a diverse and accomplished group of students with a broad range of research and other interests. (harvard.edu)
  • Network partners are research institutions and health policy experts from 17 industrialized countries. (brookings.edu)
  • Please make plans to join us for the next Health Policy Dialogue on Wednesday, Dec. 6 at noon in Research Building 6 (room 1.206). (utmb.edu)
  • He also announced the launch of the "All of Us" research program that aims to collect data from over one million people in the U.S. to help researchers study health trends in various demographics. (c-span.org)
  • We are committed to not just being a leader in community health and environmental policy research, but in ensuring that our work has a positive impact on the world. (rand.org)
  • Individuals working in health research want to be able to use their findings to influence health policy. (google.com)
  • Research for Health Policy is an introduction to the emerging genre of applied research for policy decision-making, offering new research methods that go far beyond the traditional classical experimental techniques and standard qualitative methods. (google.com)
  • RWJF's Health Policy Fellows program is seeking mid-career professionals from diverse backgrounds such as medicine, research, and academia who want to understand and help influence the policymaking process in Washington, D.C. Selected applicants will spend 12 months in Washington, D.C. working in the legislative and executive branches actively helping shape policy, attending professional development sessions, and networking. (rwjf.org)
  • From accessing medicines to intellectual property to drug safety, PhRMA is devoted to advancing public policies that support innovative medical research, improve treatments and yield real results. (phrma.org)
  • Support design and dissemination of research products to enable broad uptake of output, feeding into Last Mile Health's Community Health Academy and related efforts. (eldis.org)
  • The healthy policy analyst uses research and data to show the effects of existing policies across various demographic groups and assesses the likely effects of prospective legislative policy. (payscale.com)
  • Provide solutions to community health and social problems by conducting and analyzing research. (payscale.com)
  • The IHSP conducts world-class research on how social conditions impact the health, well-being and resilience of people and communities locally, provincially, nationally and globally. (mcgill.ca)
  • Our first post is CHSLDs in Court: Thoughts on Government's and Managers' Liability by Lara Khoury , Associate Professor and Co-Convenor of the McGill Research Group on Health and Law, Faculty of Law, and Associate Member of the IHSP and BMEU (McGill). (mcgill.ca)
  • Led by Dr. Suparna Choudhury , the Cannabis & Adolescent Brain Development (CABD) website will post summaries of the latest published research on cannabis and the adolescent brain to help policy-makers, journalists, educators and parents engage directly with neuroscience. (mcgill.ca)
  • The website aims to increase neuroscience literacy and translation of neuroscience to policy by presenting critical, accessible research digests which pay attention to methodologies, context, analyses and interpretations. (mcgill.ca)
  • The summary also noted that the budget caps agreement includes a commitment to provide "$2 billion for important research at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) (above the CURES Act increases) over two years. (constantcontact.com)
  • We invite you to explore our research areas , meet our team and discover the many academic and collaborative opportunities sponsored by the Institute and our European affiliate, the Johns Hopkins University-University Pompeu Fabra Public Policy Center . (jhsph.edu)
  • Please make plans to attend the opening lecture of the 2016-17 Health Policy Dialogues Lunch and Lecture Series on Tuesday, September 13 in Research Building 6, room 1.206. (utmb.edu)
  • Reviews federal & state policies on coverage for abortion and estimates the availability of abortion coverage for women enrolled in private plans, ACA Marketplace plans, and Medicaid. (kff.org)
  • Brief examining types of health insurance unemployed workers have and shifts in coverage under the ACA. (urban.org)
  • What are the health coverage provisions in the House coronavirus bill? (brookings.edu)
  • The OECD monitors and evaluates key aspects of universal health coverage, and assesses the future sustainability of universal health systems. (oecd.org)
  • OECD country experiences can also offer valuable lessons for other countries seeking to attain universal health coverage. (oecd.org)
  • A variety of timely topics on the health law system and procedures/processes, such as Medicare and Medi-Cal coverage, are introduced to reinforce understanding. (ucsd.edu)
  • When he starts later this month, Zingale will encourage policies the endowment favors, including ensuring that all children have health coverage and making doctors and hospitals focus more on disease prevention and the management of chronic ailments. (latimes.com)
  • Starting next month some Medicaid Expansion recipients will need to complete 100 hours of work or volunteer work each month or risk losing their health coverage. (nhpr.org)
  • This UTMB Health Policy Dialogue is co-sponsored by the UTMB School of Nursing. (utmb.edu)
  • Please join the Office of the President and the Office of Health Policy & Legislative Affairs as we welcome Pedro Gozalo, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Community Health, Brown University, for a UTMB Health Policy Dialogue and Lunch, Thursday, March 23, at noon . (utmb.edu)
  • The OECD work on public health explores major risk factors including obesity, diet, physical activity, alcohol consumption, tobacco and environmental risks, as well as antimicrobial resistance. (oecd.org)
  • APAC represented an opportunity for all interested parties to contribute positively on a multi-lateral and consensus basis to the development and conduct of this policy. (health.gov.au)
  • The Health and safety act 1974 this legislation breaks down into many different parts that you should abide by at your workplace such as safe operation and maintenance of the working environment. (bartleby.com)
  • Dr. Elbaiady's presentation is hosted by the UTMB School of Health Professions. (utmb.edu)
  • The Bihar Technical Support Program offers many lessons learned about innovative program design to meet a variety of critical health challenges in a large population, as well as for purposefully building capacity with the intent to transition support at a designated end date. (csis.org)
  • Regional policy projects across the EU are playing an active role in dealing with these and many other challenges, by undertaking projects designed to generate employment, raise educational achievement, develop renewable energy sources, boost productivity and give all citizens access to opportunities. (europa.eu)
  • It demonstrates the many ways in which chemistry is already underpinning breakthroughs in tackling human health challenges. (rsc.org)
  • The policy seeks to address existing as well as emerging challenges related to the changes in the work environment. (ilo.org)
  • Health Policy Dialogues are co-sponsored by the Office of the President, the Office of Health Policy & Legislative Affairs, and the student chapters of the American Medical Association and the Texas Medical Association. (utmb.edu)
  • The Institute collaborates across sectors and disciplines, bringing values and evidence together in support of healthy social policy. (mcgill.ca)
  • The National Medicines Policy has four central objectives based on active and respectful partnerships, taking into account elements of social and economic policy. (health.gov.au)
  • Santorum seems determined to lay the groundwork for a global health agenda that is not only far more extensive than his competitors', but would surpass both Bush and Barack Obama in advancing U.S. interests abroad through fighting disease. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • Specifically, I mentioned an op-ed by Newt Gingrinch and John Goodman offering "Ten GOP Health Ideas For Obama," which included "Don't cut Medicare" as one of its proposals. (reason.com)
  • to achieve widespread ratification and effective implementation of the occupational safety and health instruments (Convention No. 155, its 2002 Protocol and Convention No. 187). (ilo.org)
  • The determined efforts made over recent years by the ILO and its constituents to develop a more holistic and integrated approach to the fundamental issue of occupational safety and health (OSH) culminated in the adoption of a Plan of Action for achieving the widespread ratification and effective implementation of the three OSH instruments. (ilo.org)
  • This Plan of Action builds on the 2003 Global Strategy on OSH, the Promotional Framework for Occupational Safety and Health Convention, 2006 (No. 187), and the 2009 General Survey on Occupational Safety and Health. (ilo.org)
  • The Conference Conclusions outline a global strategy on occupational safety and health. (ilo.org)
  • They confirm the role of ILO instruments as a central pillar for the promotion of occupational safety and health. (ilo.org)
  • Based on a survey carried out among ILO constituents, this report is aimed at examining the impact, coherence and relevance of ILO standards and related activities in the area of occupational safety and health and to develop a consensus on a plan of action to increase their impact. (ilo.org)
  • HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAM DECEMBER 2011 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY 1.0 Purpose 2.1 Setwright of Maine, Inc. is committed to providing a safe, accident-free, and healthy work environment for everyone. (bartleby.com)
  • In addition to working papers , the NBER disseminates affiliates' latest findings through a range of free periodicals - the NBER Reporter , the NBER Digest , the Bulletin on Retirement and Disability , and the Bulletin on Health - as well as online conference reports , video lectures , and interviews . (nber.org)
  • For more information about the Harvard PhD in health policy, please visit the faculty of arts and sciences website at healthpolicy.fas.harvard.edu . (harvard.edu)
  • Given at the discretion of the faculty, topics of interest in health law will be presented for in-depth review and discussion by visiting or resident faculty members. (ucsd.edu)
  • Under the guidance of faculty, this survey course features a speaker series of experts covering a range of the most current topics in health policy and law. (ucsd.edu)
  • Complying with the applicable health, safety, and environment local laws and regulations in each country we operate in, whereas if no standard was set by the country, we seek to apply our own internal standard as far as is reasonably practicable. (pwc.com)
  • Fortunately, Senators and Representatives from both sides of the aisle are demonstrating their support for modernizing health IT regulations. (rollcall.com)
  • Riverglade House my supervisor asked me to check the procedures and policies relating to health safety and security to see how they link to guidelines and regulations. (bartleby.com)
  • Although student backgrounds vary and a previous graduate degree is not required, most successful applicants have a prior master's degree and/or relevant work experience in the field of health policy. (harvard.edu)
  • He conjoined the rescue mission of health with that of promoting U.S. interests, stating 'the work that we've done in stabilizing [Africa], while humanitarian in nature, was absolutely essential for our national security. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • But those information asymmetries between me and a seamstress or Subaru or IBM do not prevent me from driving to work fully clothed and blogging about health policy. (cato.org)
  • Public health is about helping people to stay healthy and avoid getting ill, so this includes work on a whole range of policy areas such as immunisation, nutrition, tobacco and alcohol, drugs recovery, sexual health, pregnancy and children's health. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
  • The Conclusions pinpoint the need for tripartite national commitment and national action in fostering a preventive approach and a safety culture which are key to achieving lasting improvements in safety and health at work. (ilo.org)
  • This policy applies to all James Cook University staff in Australia, and relates to both work related, and non-work related injury and illness. (edu.au)
  • HSE-PRO-012 HSE Health Management Procedure provides further information and guidance on the procedures for managing both work related and non-work related injuries at James Cook University. (edu.au)