Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.
A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
Management of public health organizations or agencies.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)
Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)
The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.
A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.
The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
The status of health in urban populations.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.
Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)
Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
The status of health in rural populations.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.
Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.
Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.
Decisions for determining and guiding present and future objectives from among alternatives.
Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.
Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.
The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.
The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.
That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.
Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.
Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.
Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.
Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.
A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.
The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.
The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.
All organized methods of funding.
Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.
Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)
Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.
The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).
The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.
The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.
Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.
A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.
Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.
Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.
Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.
Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.
The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings--administrative, social, academic, etc.
Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.
The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.
A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.
Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
The circulation or wide dispersal of information.
A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.
Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.
Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.
Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.
The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.
Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.
Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Prohibition against tobacco smoking in specific areas to control TOBACCO SMOKE POLLUTION.
Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.
An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
The study of the social determinants and social effects of health and disease, and of the social structure of medical institutions or professions.
Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.
Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
Laws and regulations pertaining to the field of dentistry, proposed for enactment or recently enacted by a legislative body.
Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
Place or physical location of work or employment.
Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.
The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.
A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.
Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.
The study, based on direct observation, use of statistical records, interviews, or experimental methods, of actual practices or the actual impact of practices or policies.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.
Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.

The use of targets to improve the performance of health care providers: a discussion of government policy. (1/4865)

The aim of this discussion paper is to examine the advantages and drawbacks of employing targets, or performance indicators, to improve the performance of those delivering health care services. The paper is based on an examination of two target-setting policies initiated by Government: the 1992 Health of the Nation strategy and the 1990 General Practitioners' Contract. It is argued that the introduction of both the General Practitioners' Contract and the Health of the Nation have indeed been accompanied by improvements in performance, however, there are a number of problems with targets. They tend to focus on those things that are most easily measured, and they may foster complacency on the part of providers who have already achieved upper target limits, and defensiveness on the part of those performing badly. National targets may skew local priorities; they may also be unrealistic and unattainable for particular, less privileged population groups. They may serve to widen inequalities in health, and can exacerbate the 'inverse care law' by encouraging providers to direct their efforts at the more advantaged sections of society, where such efforts are more likely to pay off in terms of overall improvements in the target level achieved. Finally, the achievement of some targets will not necessarily result in better health outcomes. The paper concludes that a target-setting approach to improving the quality of care must be based on the use of appropriate indicators, and must take account of differences between more and less advantaged sections of society.  (+info)

Cancer mortality by educational level in the city of Barcelona. (2/4865)

The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between educational level and mortality from cancer in the city of Barcelona. The data were derived from a record linkage between the Barcelona Mortality Registry and the Municipal Census. The relative risks (RR) of death and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) according to level of education were derived from Poisson regression models. For all malignancies, men in the lowest educational level had a RR of death of 1.21 (95% CI 1.13-1.29) compared with men with a university degree, whereas for women a significant decreasing in risk was observed (RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.74-0.90). Among men, significant negative trends of increasing risk according to level of education were present for cancer of the mouth and pharynx (RR 1.70 for lowest vs. highest level of education), oesophagus (RR 2.14), stomach (RR 1.99), larynx (RR 2.56) and lung (RR 1.35). Among women, cervical cancer was negatively related to education (RR 2.62), whereas a positive trend was present for cancers of the colon (RR 0.76), pancreas (RR 0.59), lung (RR 0.55) and breast (RR 0.65). The present study confirms for the first time, at an individual level, the existence of socioeconomic differences in mortality for several cancer sites in Barcelona, Spain. There is a need to implement health programmes and public health policies to reduce these inequities.  (+info)

Making Medicaid managed care research relevant. (3/4865)

OBJECTIVE: To help researchers better understand Medicaid managed care and the kinds of research studies that will be both feasible and of value to policymakers and program staff. The article builds on our experience researching Medicaid managed care to provide insight for researchers who want to be policy relevant. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We draw four lessons from our work on Medicaid managed care in seven states. First, these are complex programs that differ substantially across states. Second, each program faces common challenges and issues. The need to address common design elements involving program eligibility, managed care and provider contracting, beneficiary enrollment, education, marketing, and administration and oversight provides a vehicle that researchers can use to help understand states and to provide them with relevant insight. Third, well-designed case studies can provide invaluable descriptive insights. Such case studies suggest that providing effective descriptions of state programs and experience, monitoring information on program performance and tradeoffs, and insight on implementation and design are all valuable products of such studies that have considerable potential to be converted into policy-actionable advice. And fourth, some questions demand impact studies but the structure of Medicaid managed care poses major barriers to such studies. CONCLUSIONS: Many challenges confront researchers seeking to develop policy-relevant research on managed care. Researchers need to confront these challenges in turn by developing second-best approaches that will provide timely insight into important questions in a relatively defensible and rigorous way in the face of many constraints. If researchers do not, others will, and researchers may find their contributions limited in important areas for policy debate.  (+info)

Excess capacity: markets regulation, and values. (4/4865)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the conceptual bases for the conflicting views of excess capacity in healthcare markets and their application in the context of today's turbulent environment. STUDY SETTING: The policy and research literature of the past three decades. STUDY DESIGN: The theoretical perspectives of alternative economic schools of thought are used to support different policy positions with regard to excess capacity. Changes in these policy positions over time are linked to changes in the economic and political environment of the period. The social values implied by this history are articulated. DATA COLLECTION: Standard library search procedures are used to identify relevant literature. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Alternative policy views of excess capacity in healthcare markets rely on differing theoretical foundations. Changes in the context in which policy decisions are made over time affect the dominant theoretical framework and, therefore, the dominant policy view of excess capacity. CONCLUSIONS: In the 1990s, multiple perspectives of optimal capacity still exist. However, our evolving history suggests a set of persistent values that should guide future policy in this area.  (+info)

Provider attitudes toward dispensing emergency contraception in Michigan's Title X programs.(5/4865)



he pill in Japan: will approval ever come?  (+info)

Latino children's health and the family-community health promotion model. (7/4865)

A majority of Latino children in the US live in poverty. However, unlike other poor children, Latino children do not seem to have a consistent association between poverty and poor health. Instead, many poor Latino children have unexpectedly good health outcomes. This has been labeled an epidemiologic paradox. This paper proposes a new model of health, the family-community health promotion model, to account for this paradox. The family-community health promotion model emphasizes the family-community milieu of the child, in contrast to traditional models of health. In addition, the family-community model expands the outcome measures from physical health to functional health status, and underscores the contribution of cultural factors to functional health outcomes. In this paper, we applied the family-community health promotion model to four health outcomes: low birthweight, infant mortality, chronic and acute illness, and perceived health status. The implications of this model for research and policy are discussed.  (+info)

Disease eradication and health systems development. (8/4865)

This article provides a framework for the design of future eradication programmes so that the greatest benefit accrues to health systems development from the implementation of such programmes. The framework focuses on weak and fragile health systems and assumes that eradication leads to the cessation of the intervention required to eradicate the disease. Five major components of health systems are identified and key elements which are of particular relevance to eradication initiatives are defined. The dearth of documentation which can provide "lessons learned" in this area is illustrated with a brief review of the literature. Opportunities and threats, which can be addressed during the design of eradication programmes, are described and a number of recommendations are outlined. It is emphasized that this framework pertains to eradication programmes but may be useful in attempts to coordinate vertical and horizontal disease control activities for maximum mutual benefits.  (+info)

Some common types of mental disorders include:

1. Anxiety disorders: These conditions cause excessive worry, fear, or anxiety that interferes with daily life. Examples include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder.
2. Mood disorders: These conditions affect a person's mood, causing feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or anger that persist for weeks or months. Examples include depression, bipolar disorder, and seasonal affective disorder.
3. Personality disorders: These conditions involve patterns of thought and behavior that deviate from the norm of the average person. Examples include borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder.
4. Psychotic disorders: These conditions cause a person to lose touch with reality, resulting in delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized thinking. Examples include schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and brief psychotic disorder.
5. Trauma and stressor-related disorders: These conditions develop after a person experiences a traumatic event, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
6. Dissociative disorders: These conditions involve a disconnection or separation from one's body, thoughts, or emotions. Examples include dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as multiple personality disorder) and depersonalization disorder.
7. Neurodevelopmental disorders: These conditions affect the development of the brain and nervous system, leading to symptoms such as difficulty with social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors. Examples include autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Rett syndrome.

Mental disorders can be diagnosed by a mental health professional using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which provides criteria for each condition. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy, depending on the specific disorder and individual needs.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.


Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

Examples of communicable diseases include:

1. Influenza (the flu)
2. Measles
3. Tuberculosis (TB)
5. Malaria
6. Hepatitis B and C
7. Chickenpox
8. Whooping cough (pertussis)
9. Meningitis
10. Pneumonia

Communicable diseases can be spread through various means, including:

1. Direct contact with an infected person: This includes touching, hugging, shaking hands, or sharing food and drinks with someone who is infected.
2. Indirect contact with contaminated surfaces or objects: Pathogens can survive on surfaces for a period of time and can be transmitted to people who come into contact with those surfaces.
3. Airborne transmission: Some diseases, such as the flu and TB, can be spread through the air when an infected person talks, coughs, or sneezes.
4. Infected insect or animal bites: Diseases such as malaria and Lyme disease can be spread through the bites of infected mosquitoes or ticks.

Prevention and control of communicable diseases are essential to protect public health. This includes:

1. Vaccination: Vaccines can prevent many communicable diseases, such as measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), and influenza.
2. Personal hygiene: Frequent handwashing, covering the mouth when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick can help prevent the spread of diseases.
3. Improved sanitation and clean water: Proper disposal of human waste and adequate water treatment can reduce the risk of disease transmission.
4. Screening and testing: Identifying and isolating infected individuals can help prevent the spread of disease.
5. Antibiotics and antiviral medications: These drugs can treat and prevent some communicable diseases, such as bacterial infections and viral infections like HIV.
6. Public education: Educating the public about the risks and prevention of communicable diseases can help reduce the spread of disease.
7. Contact tracing: Identifying and monitoring individuals who have been in close contact with someone who has a communicable disease can help prevent further transmission.
8. Quarantine and isolation: Quarantine and isolation measures can be used to control outbreaks by separating infected individuals from those who are not infected.
9. Improved healthcare infrastructure: Adequate healthcare facilities, such as hospitals and clinics, can help diagnose and treat communicable diseases early on, reducing the risk of transmission.
10. International collaboration: Collaboration between countries and global organizations is crucial for preventing and controlling the spread of communicable diseases that are a threat to public health worldwide, such as pandemic flu and SARS.

There are several different types of obesity, including:

1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.

Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:

1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.

There are several different types of malaria, including:

1. Plasmodium falciparum: This is the most severe form of malaria, and it can be fatal if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
2. Plasmodium vivax: This type of malaria is less severe than P. falciparum, but it can still cause serious complications if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
3. Plasmodium ovale: This type of malaria is similar to P. vivax, but it can cause more severe symptoms in some people. It is found primarily in West Africa.
4. Plasmodium malariae: This type of malaria is less common than the other three types, and it tends to cause milder symptoms. It is found primarily in parts of Africa and Asia.

The symptoms of malaria can vary depending on the type of parasite that is causing the infection, but they typically include:

1. Fever
2. Chills
3. Headache
4. Muscle and joint pain
5. Fatigue
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Diarrhea
8. Anemia (low red blood cell count)

If malaria is not treated promptly, it can lead to more severe complications, such as:

1. Seizures
2. Coma
3. Respiratory failure
4. Kidney failure
5. Liver failure
6. Anemia (low red blood cell count)

Malaria is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood smears or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Treatment for malaria typically involves the use of antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine or artemisinin-based combination therapies. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications and provide supportive care.

Prevention is an important aspect of managing malaria, and this can include:

1. Using insecticide-treated bed nets
2. Wearing protective clothing and applying insect repellent when outdoors
3. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities to reduce the number of mosquito breeding sites
4. Using indoor residual spraying (IRS) or insecticide-treated wall lining to kill mosquitoes
5. Implementing malaria control measures in areas where malaria is common, such as distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS)
6. Improving access to healthcare services, particularly in rural and remote areas
7. Providing education and awareness about malaria prevention and control
8. Encouraging the use of preventive medications, such as intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for pregnant women and children under the age of five.

Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are critical in preventing the progression of malaria and reducing the risk of complications and death. In areas where malaria is common, it is essential to have access to reliable diagnostic tools and effective antimalarial drugs.

1. Asbestosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos fibers.
2. Carpal tunnel syndrome: a nerve disorder caused by repetitive motion and pressure on the wrist.
3. Mesothelioma: a type of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos.
4. Pneumoconiosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling dust from mining or other heavy industries.
5. Repetitive strain injuries: injuries caused by repetitive motions, such as typing or using vibrating tools.
6. Skin conditions: such as skin irritation and dermatitis caused by exposure to chemicals or other substances in the workplace.
7. Hearing loss: caused by loud noises in the workplace.
8. Back injuries: caused by lifting, bending, or twisting.
9. Respiratory problems: such as asthma and other breathing difficulties caused by exposure to chemicals or dust in the workplace.
10. Cancer: caused by exposure to carcinogens such as radiation, certain chemicals, or heavy metals in the workplace.

Occupational diseases can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as they often develop gradually over time and may not be immediately attributed to the work environment. In some cases, these diseases may not appear until years after exposure has ended. It is important for workers to be aware of the potential health risks associated with their job and take steps to protect themselves, such as wearing protective gear, following safety protocols, and seeking regular medical check-ups. Employers also have a responsibility to provide a safe work environment and follow strict regulations to prevent the spread of occupational diseases.

Acute wounds and injuries are those that occur suddenly and heal within a relatively short period of time, usually within a few days or weeks. Examples of acute wounds include cuts, scrapes, and burns. Chronic wounds and injuries, on the other hand, are those that persist over a longer period of time and may not heal properly, leading to long-term complications. Examples of chronic wounds include diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and chronic back pain.

Wounds and injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, sports injuries, violence, and medical conditions such as diabetes or circulatory problems. Treatment for wounds and injuries depends on the severity of the injury and may include cleaning and dressing the wound, applying antibiotics, immobilizing broken bones, and providing pain management. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissues or restore function.

Preventive measures for wounds and injuries include wearing appropriate protective gear during activities such as sports or work, following safety protocols to avoid accidents, maintaining proper hygiene and nutrition to prevent infection, and seeking medical attention promptly if an injury occurs.

Overall, wounds and injuries can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper treatment and management of wounds and injuries can help to promote healing, reduce the risk of complications, and improve long-term outcomes.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

Types of Substance-Related Disorders:

1. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive consumption of alcohol, leading to impaired control over drinking, social or personal problems, and increased risk of health issues.
2. Opioid Use Disorder (OUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of opioids, such as prescription painkillers or heroin, leading to withdrawal symptoms when the substance is not available.
3. Stimulant Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of stimulants, such as cocaine or amphetamines, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
4. Cannabis Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of cannabis, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
5. Hallucinogen Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of hallucinogens, such as LSD or psilocybin mushrooms, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.

Causes and Risk Factors:

1. Genetics: Individuals with a family history of substance-related disorders are more likely to develop these conditions.
2. Mental health: Individuals with mental health conditions, such as depression or anxiety, may be more likely to use substances as a form of self-medication.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to substances at an early age, peer pressure, and social environment can increase the risk of developing a substance-related disorder.
4. Brain chemistry: Substance use can alter brain chemistry, leading to dependence and addiction.


1. Increased tolerance: The need to use more of the substance to achieve the desired effect.
2. Withdrawal: Experiencing symptoms such as anxiety, irritability, or nausea when the substance is not present.
3. Loss of control: Using more substance than intended or for longer than intended.
4. Neglecting responsibilities: Neglecting responsibilities at home, work, or school due to substance use.
5. Continued use despite negative consequences: Continuing to use the substance despite physical, emotional, or financial consequences.


1. Physical examination: A doctor may perform a physical examination to look for signs of substance use, such as track marks or changes in heart rate and blood pressure.
2. Laboratory tests: Blood or urine tests can confirm the presence of substances in the body.
3. Psychological evaluation: A mental health professional may conduct a psychological evaluation to assess symptoms of substance-related disorders and determine the presence of co-occurring conditions.


1. Detoxification: A medically-supervised detox program can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce the risk of complications.
2. Medications: Medications such as methadone or buprenorphine may be prescribed to manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.
3. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and contingency management are effective behavioral therapies for treating substance use disorders.
4. Support groups: Joining a support group such as Narcotics Anonymous can provide a sense of community and support for individuals in recovery.
5. Lifestyle changes: Making healthy lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.

It's important to note that diagnosis and treatment of substance-related disorders is a complex process and should be individualized based on the specific needs and circumstances of each patient.

1. Coronary artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart.
2. Heart failure: A condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms that can be too fast, too slow, or irregular.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves that control blood flow through the heart.
5. Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy): Disease of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure.
6. Congenital heart disease: Defects in the heart's structure and function that are present at birth.
7. Peripheral artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the arms, legs, and other organs.
8. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg.
9. Pulmonary embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, which can be caused by a blood clot or other debris.
10. Stroke: A condition in which there is a lack of oxygen to the brain due to a blockage or rupture of blood vessels.

There are several types of diabetes mellitus, including:

1. Type 1 DM: This is an autoimmune condition in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, resulting in a complete deficiency of insulin production. It typically develops in childhood or adolescence, and patients with this condition require lifelong insulin therapy.
2. Type 2 DM: This is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for around 90% of all cases. It is caused by a combination of insulin resistance (where the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin) and impaired insulin secretion. It is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and a diet high in sugar and unhealthy fats.
3. Gestational DM: This type of diabetes develops during pregnancy, usually in the second or third trimester. Hormonal changes and insulin resistance can cause blood sugar levels to rise, putting both the mother and baby at risk.
4. LADA (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults): This is a form of type 1 DM that develops in adults, typically after the age of 30. It shares features with both type 1 and type 2 DM.
5. MODY (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young): This is a rare form of diabetes caused by genetic mutations that affect insulin production. It typically develops in young adulthood and can be managed with lifestyle changes and/or medication.

The symptoms of diabetes mellitus can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

1. Increased thirst and urination
2. Fatigue
3. Blurred vision
4. Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
5. Tingling or numbness in hands and feet
6. Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections
7. Flu-like symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and stomach pain
8. Dark, velvety skin patches (acanthosis nigricans)
9. Yellowish color of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
10. Delayed healing of cuts and wounds

If left untreated, diabetes mellitus can lead to a range of complications, including:

1. Heart disease and stroke
2. Kidney damage and failure
3. Nerve damage (neuropathy)
4. Eye damage (retinopathy)
5. Foot damage (neuropathic ulcers)
6. Cognitive impairment and dementia
7. Increased risk of infections and other diseases, such as pneumonia, gum disease, and urinary tract infections.

It is important to note that not all individuals with diabetes will experience these complications, and that proper management of the condition can greatly reduce the risk of developing these complications.

Symptoms may include sensitivity, discomfort, visible holes or stains on teeth, bad breath, and difficulty chewing or biting. If left untreated, dental caries can progress and lead to more serious complications such as abscesses, infections, and even tooth loss.

To prevent dental caries, it is essential to maintain good oral hygiene habits, including brushing your teeth at least twice a day with fluoride toothpaste, flossing daily, and using mouthwash regularly. Limiting sugary foods and drinks and visiting a dentist for regular check-ups can also help prevent the disease.

Dental caries is treatable through various methods such as fillings, crowns, root canals, extractions, and preventive measures like fissure sealants and fluoride applications. Early detection and prompt treatment are crucial to prevent further damage and restore oral health.

Symptoms of influenza include:

* Fever (usually high)
* Cough
* Sore throat
* Runny or stuffy nose
* Headache
* Muscle or body aches
* Fatigue (tiredness)
* Diarrhea and nausea (more common in children than adults)

Influenza can lead to serious complications, such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections. These complications are more likely to occur in people who have a weakened immune system, such as the elderly, young children, and people with certain chronic health conditions (like heart disease, diabetes, and lung disease).

Influenza is diagnosed based on a physical examination and medical history. A healthcare provider may also use a rapid influenza test (RIT) or a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment for influenza typically involves rest, hydration, and over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) to relieve fever and body aches. Antiviral medications, such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or zanamivir (Relenza), may also be prescribed to help shorten the duration and severity of the illness. However, these medications are most effective when started within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms.

Prevention is key in avoiding influenza. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza, as well as practicing good hygiene such as washing your hands frequently, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and staying home when you are sick.

The symptoms of AIDS can vary depending on the individual and the stage of the disease. Common symptoms include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss
9. Memory loss and other neurological problems
10. Cancer and other opportunistic infections.

AIDS is diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of HIV antibodies or the virus itself. There is no cure for AIDS, but antiretroviral therapy (ART) can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Prevention methods include using condoms, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and avoiding sharing needles or other injection equipment.

In summary, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a severe and life-threatening condition caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). It is characterized by a severely weakened immune system, which makes it difficult to fight off infections and diseases. While there is no cure for AIDS, antiretroviral therapy can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Prevention methods include using condoms, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and avoiding sharing needles or other injection equipment.

Some common examples of respiratory tract diseases include:

1. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
2. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the airways (bronchi) that can cause coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing.
3. Asthma: A chronic condition that causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A progressive condition that makes it difficult to breathe due to damage to the lungs over time.
5. Tuberculosis: An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily affects the lungs.
6. Laryngitis: Inflammation of the voice box (larynx) that can cause hoarseness and difficulty speaking.
7. Tracheitis: Inflammation of the trachea, or windpipe, that can cause coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing.
8. Croup: An infection of the throat and lungs that can cause a barky cough and difficulty breathing.
9. Pleurisy: Inflammation of the lining around the lungs (pleura) that can cause chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing.
10. Pertussis (whooping cough): An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis that can cause coughing fits and difficulty breathing.

These are just a few examples of the many different types of respiratory tract diseases that exist. Each one has its own unique symptoms, causes, and treatment options.

There are two main forms of TB:

1. Active TB: This is the form of the disease where the bacteria are actively growing and causing symptoms such as coughing, fever, chest pain, and fatigue. Active TB can be contagious and can spread to others if not treated properly.
2. Latent TB: This is the form of the disease where the bacteria are present in the body but are not actively growing or causing symptoms. People with latent TB do not feel sick and are not contagious, but they can still become sick with active TB if their immune system is weakened.

TB is a major public health concern, especially in developing countries where access to healthcare may be limited. The disease is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical imaging, and laboratory tests such as skin tests or blood tests. Treatment for TB typically involves a course of antibiotics, which can be effective in curing the disease if taken properly. However, drug-resistant forms of TB have emerged in some parts of the world, making treatment more challenging.

Preventive measures against TB include:

1. Vaccination with BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccine, which can provide some protection against severe forms of the disease but not against latent TB.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who have active TB, especially if they are coughing or sneezing.
3. Practicing good hygiene, such as covering one's mouth when coughing or sneezing and regularly washing hands.
4. Getting regular screenings for TB if you are in a high-risk group, such as healthcare workers or people with weakened immune systems.
5. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels, utensils, or drinking glasses with people who have active TB.

Overall, while TB is a serious disease that can be challenging to treat and prevent, with the right measures in place, it is possible to reduce its impact on public health and improve outcomes for those affected by the disease.

STDs can cause a range of symptoms, including genital itching, burning during urination, unusual discharge, and painful sex. Some STDs can also lead to long-term health problems, such as infertility, chronic pain, and an increased risk of certain types of cancer.

STDs are usually diagnosed through a physical exam, blood tests, or other diagnostic tests. Treatment for STDs varies depending on the specific infection and can include antibiotics, antiviral medication, or other therapies. It's important to practice safe sex, such as using condoms, to reduce the risk of getting an STD.

Some of the most common STDs include:

* Chlamydia: A bacterial infection that can cause genital itching, burning during urination, and unusual discharge.
* Gonorrhea: A bacterial infection that can cause similar symptoms to chlamydia.
* Syphilis: A bacterial infection that can cause a painless sore on the genitals, followed by a rash and other symptoms.
* Herpes: A viral infection that can cause genital itching, burning during urination, and painful sex.
* HPV: A viral infection that can cause genital warts and increase the risk of cervical cancer.
* HIV/AIDS: A viral infection that can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, fatigue, and weight loss, and can lead to AIDS if left untreated.

It's important to note that some STDs can be spread through non-sexual contact, such as sharing needles or mother-to-child transmission during childbirth. It's also important to know that many STDs can be asymptomatic, meaning you may not have any symptoms even if you are infected.

If you think you may have been exposed to an STD, it's important to get tested as soon as possible. Many STDs can be easily treated with antibiotics or other medications, but if left untreated, they can lead to serious complications and long-term health problems.

It's also important to practice safe sex to reduce the risk of getting an STD. This includes using condoms, as well as getting vaccinated against HPV and Hepatitis B, which are both common causes of STDs.

In addition to getting tested and practicing safe sex, it's important to be aware of your sexual health and the risks associated with sex. This includes being aware of any symptoms you may experience, as well as being aware of your partner's sexual history and any STDs they may have. By being informed and proactive about your sexual health, you can help reduce the risk of getting an STD and maintain good sexual health.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) defines alcohol use disorder as a maladaptive pattern of alcohol use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress in at least three of the following areas:

1. Drinking more or for longer than intended.
2. Desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control drinking.
3. Spending a lot of time drinking or recovering from its effects.
4. Craving or strong desire to drink.
5. Drinking interferes with work, school, or home responsibilities.
6. Continuing to drink despite social or personal problems caused by alcohol use.
7. Giving up important activities in order to drink.
8. Drinking in hazardous situations (e.g., while driving).
9. Continued drinking despite physical or psychological problems caused or worsened by alcohol use.
10. Developing tolerance (i.e., needing to drink more to achieve the desired effect).
11. Experiencing withdrawal symptoms when alcohol use is stopped or reduced.

The severity of alcoholism is categorized into three subtypes based on the number of criteria met: mild, moderate, and severe. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral interventions (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing) and medications (e.g., disulfiram, naltrexone, acamprosate) to manage withdrawal symptoms and cravings.

In conclusion, alcoholism is a chronic and often progressive disease characterized by excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to physical and mental health, relationships, and social functioning. The diagnostic criteria for alcoholism include a combination of physiological, behavioral, and subjective symptoms, and treatment typically involves a combination of behavioral interventions and medications to manage withdrawal symptoms and cravings.

There are two types of hypertension:

1. Primary Hypertension: This type of hypertension has no identifiable cause and is also known as essential hypertension. It accounts for about 90% of all cases of hypertension.
2. Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication. It accounts for about 10% of all cases of hypertension.

Some common causes of secondary hypertension include:

* Kidney disease
* Adrenal gland disorders
* Hormonal imbalances
* Certain medications
* Sleep apnea
* Cocaine use

There are also several risk factors for hypertension, including:

* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Family history of hypertension
* Obesity
* Lack of exercise
* High sodium intake
* Low potassium intake
* Stress

Hypertension is often asymptomatic, and it can cause damage to the blood vessels and organs over time. Some potential complications of hypertension include:

* Heart disease (e.g., heart attacks, heart failure)
* Stroke
* Kidney disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease)
* Vision loss (e.g., retinopathy)
* Peripheral artery disease

Hypertension is typically diagnosed through blood pressure readings taken over a period of time. Treatment for hypertension may include lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, stress management), medications, or a combination of both. The goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life.

Some common types of tooth diseases include:

1. Caries (cavities): A bacterial infection that causes the decay of tooth enamel, leading to holes or cavities in the teeth.
2. Periodontal disease (gum disease): An infection of the tissues surrounding the teeth, including the gums, periodontal ligament, and jawbone.
3. Tooth sensitivity: Pain or discomfort when eating or drinking hot or cold foods and beverages due to exposed dentin or gum recession.
4. Dental abscesses: Infections that can cause pain, swelling, and pus in the teeth and gums.
5. Tooth erosion: Wear away of the tooth enamel caused by acidic foods and drinks or certain medical conditions.
6. Tooth grinding (bruxism): The habit of grinding or clenching the teeth, which can cause wear on the teeth, jaw pain, and headaches.
7. Dental malocclusion: Misalignment of the teeth, which can cause difficulty chewing, speaking, and other oral health problems.
8. Tooth loss: Loss of one or more teeth due to decay, gum disease, injury, or other causes.

Prevention and treatment of tooth diseases usually involve good oral hygiene practices such as brushing, flossing, and regular dental check-ups. In some cases, more advanced treatments such as fillings, crowns, root canals, or extractions may be necessary.

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The Rudd Center for Food Policy and Health, formerly named the Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity, is a non-profit ... Hardee, Carson (2020-04-20). "About Us , UConn Rudd Center for Food Policy & Health". Retrieved 2022-10-12. am, Hannah Schwarz ... Emily, Ha (2020-04-20). "Food Marketing , UConn Rudd Center for Food Policy & Health". Retrieved 2022-09-22. "What We Do , ... Emily, Ha (2020-04-20). "School Meals , UConn Rudd Center for Food Policy & Health". Retrieved 2022-10-07. (CS1 maint: numeric ...
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... or Master of Laws in Health Law for attorneys D.Law or Doctor of Laws in Health Law and Policy for health care professionals S. ... J.D. or Doctor of Juridical Sciences in Health Law and Policy for attorneys Certificate in Health Law for Juris Doctor ... Beazley Institute for Health Law and Policy Loyola University Chicago School of Law Loyola University Chicago Water Tower ... The Beazley Institute for Health Law and Policy opened at Loyola University Chicago School of Law in 1984, responding to the ...
"Health in all policies." European Commission. Web. Jan. 2013.*" ... A Tool to Benefit Health in All Policies. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association. "Health in All Policies Projects ... Health Impact Assessment: A Step toward Health in All Policies. J Am Med Assoc. 2009;302(3):315-317. "Health Impact Assessment ... World Health Organization, Web. Jan. 2013. . "Health in All Policies." The National Association of County and City Health ...
The Gertner Institute for Epidemiology and Health Policy Research is an Israeli think tank for the Ministry of Health (Israel) ... "The Gertner Institute for Health Policy and Epidemiology". Sheba. Retrieved 19 September 2022. Gelnach, Haron (January 5, 2021 ... v t e (Think tanks based in Israel, Health think tanks, All stub articles, Asian organization stubs, Israel stubs). ... "Gertner Institute aims to impact society, influence Gov't policy". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 19 September 2022. ...
"OSP Directory". Office of Science Policy. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 28 September 2018. Official website ( ... NIH Office of Science Policy is the primary advisor to the Director of the NIH on matters of biomedical research policy issues ... The current Acting NIH Associate Director for Science Policy and Acting Director of the NIH Office of Science Policy is Lyric ... Technology Transfer and Innovation Policy Division "NIH Leadership". National Institutes of Health (NIH). 2014-10-31. Retrieved ...
At the same time it also ensures consumer protection and human health within the EU. "Employment, Social Policy, Health and ... Health and Consumer Affairs Council Press releases of the Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs v t e (Council ... The Employment, Social Policy, Health and Consumer Affairs Council (EPSCO) is a configuration of the Council of the European ... It is composed of the employment, social affairs, health and consumer policy ministers from all EU member states. This council ...
The CUNY Graduate School of Public Health & Health Policy (commonly known as the CUNY School of Public Health, or CUNY SPH) is ... and Occupational Health Sciences MS in Global and Migrant Health Policy MS in Population Health Informatics MS in Health ... for Social Change Doctoral Degree Programs PhD in Community Health and Health Policy PhD in Environmental and Planetary Health ... and Occupational Health Sciences MPH in Epidemiology and Biostatistics MPH in Health Policy and Management MPH in Public Health ...
... is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the International ... Center of Mental Health Policy and Economics. It is the official journal of the Section on Mental Health Economics of the World ... "The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics". 2013 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Social Sciences ed.). ... Health economics journals, Public health journals, Publications established in 1998, English-language journals, Quarterly ...
College of Health Sciences •Bachelor of Science in Nursing •Bachelor of Science in Midwifery •Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy • ... Public Policy Bachelor of Arts in Political Economics Bachelor of Arts in Rural Sociology Bachelor of Arts in Sustainable ... Public Policy Master of Arts in Rural Sociology Master of Arts in Social Innovation & Sustainability Master of Education major ... health, computer, criminology, nautical and short-term vocational-technical and other continuing courses that may be found to ...
Courts these days are making policy-based decisions, untethered from any rule of law, aimed at killing patents they don't like ... a very practical problem accessing fetal DNA without creating a major health risk for the unborn child." In December 2015, the ... "adequately promote the fundamental policies underlying the patent system," and she asks: Would innovators find that scope of ...
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There are many aspects to work intensity including multitasking, time poverty, health implications, and policy considerations. ... Health and bodily integrity are essential human capabilities vital to living a full life. A lack of health, especially ... there is a negative correlation between work intensity and health. While these health patterns occur in the developing and ... Another potential policy solution is to include rest into the workday as a form of productive consumption. Many economists want ...
... health, socio-economics, disaster response, urban management, etc. Authors indicate a plethora of fields that could benefit ... accurate and timely estimates of population characteristics are a critical input to social and economic research and policy. An ... Geospatial Health. 11 (1s): 408. doi:10.4081/gh.2016.408. ISSN 1970-7096. PMID 27063741. Fast, L., Waugaman, A. (2016). " ...
He was of weak stature and of weak health and would hardly make a good impression on the public, especially the socialists or ... As prime minister, he tried to aid every man possible, even the men and women that opposed his policies and the government, but ... On 16 May 1926, Prime Minister Bartel made a statement in which he highlighted the principles of his policies. Bartel stated ... The beginnings of urology in Kraków: on the 70th anniversary of the founding of the Clinic of Urology "Editorial Policy". ...
In February 1990 RARE stated "without putting into question its OSI policy, recognizes the TCP/IP family of protocols as an ... ISBN 978-1-4613-0809-6. Hasman, A. (1995). Education and Training in Health Informatics in Europe: State of the Art, Guidelines ... NSFNET had altered its policies to allow commercial traffic in 1991, and was shut down in 1995, removing the last restrictions ... the NSFNET acceptable use policy was altered to allow commercial traffic." Schuster, Jenna (June 10, 2016). "A brief history of ...
... a policy analysis". BMC Public Health. 13 (1): 64. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-64. PMC 3732080. PMID 23339756. Close, Kerry (2017- ... both Congress and courts favored the tobacco industry in policy and litigation. It was not until the 1990s when public health ... Japan Tobacco's corruption of science and health policy via the Smoking Research Foundation". Tobacco Control. 27 (e1): e3-e11 ... The American Public Health Association helped support the development of the FCTC, while the wave of successful tobacco ...
As the House could consider only the top three candidates, Clay was eliminated, while Crawford's poor health following a stroke ... it was immediately apparent that President Adams was going to pursue a pro-British foreign policy, much to the disgust of the ...
"Global Health & Education Foundation: About". Global Health & Education Foundation. Retrieved 3 July 2014. Constanty, Joseph. " ... The National Museum of Natural History subsequently reevaluated their acquisitions policies in light of the charges. In 1998, ... 300 million and described his interest in issues of global health. In 2009, Behring made a $1.9 million donation to National ... Behring was also active with the Global Health and Education Foundation, a "united network of charitable organizations" which ...
Life sciences included experiments on human health, cell separation and biology, developmental biology, animal and human ... contrary to NASA policy. As female and male astronauts became more prominently integrated with the shuttle program, NASA ...
Programs have also become inclusive of other activities such as maternal and child health. According to a 2007 report from the ... CARE's 2006 White Paper on food Policy'' finds three problems with monetization of food aid: 1. Experience has shown that ... Simmons, E. (2009), Monetization of Food Aid: Reconsidering U.S. Policy and Practice (PDF), Washington, D.C.: The Partnership ... White Paper on Food Aid Policy (PDF), Atlanta: CARE USA "An open letter to Congress: Please support the Royce-Engel Food Aid ...
Among the stated objectives of the department are to eradicate poverty among the Orang Asli, improving their health, promoting ... "Orang Asli and the Bumiputra policy". Center for Orang Asli Concerns. Retrieved 12 February 2008. "The Law on Natural Resource ... Commonwealth Policy Studies Unit. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 4 February 2008. CHAPTER 6 ... where the government adopted a policy in 1961 to integrate the Orang Asli into the wider Malaysian society. ...
Students will gain insight into policy making as well as developing a sustainable and innovative (office) work environment. ... cleaning or catering for a Health Care institution. Second year: Specialization in Corporate or Commercial Facility Management ... Facility management students will gain knowledge and skills with regards to purchasing services or products as well as policy ...
NYC Health. 2018. Retrieved March 2, 2019. "2016-2018 Community Health Assessment and Community Health Improvement Plan: Take ... Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy. 2011. p. 122. Retrieved October 5, 2016. "Student/Family Handbook", Myra S. ... had 159,132 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 81.3 years at ... "7-day Percent Positivity by Modified ZIP Code Tabulation Area", NYC Department of Health. January 3, 2021. "10308: 11/08/2020 ...
Torres has developed policy initiatives that seek to bring doctors from Mexico to serve rural, Spanish-speaking communities, ... and the executive director for the California Hispanic Health Care Association. Torres played a significant role the debate ... Arnoldo Torres is a journalist, consultant, partner in the Sacramento, California based public policy consulting firm Torres & ... and to expand the cultural competency of health-care professionals in California. "Arnoldo S. Torres: Latino politicos ignore ...
History articulates that state policy in fields as diverse as health, education, housing, public works, employment, and justice ... The EU's legal policy, while not explicitly referencing a right to digital self-determination, pursues closely related ... We are handicapped in the absence of high speed internet." Health experts and the locals warned that the internet blackout was ... The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) includes federal standards for protecting the privacy and ...
Catalani, C., & Minkler, M. (2010). Photovoice: A review of the literature in health and public health. Health Education & ... Laura S. Lorenz of the Heller School for Social Policy and Management at Brandeis University in her work with brain injury ... Wang, C. C., Yi, W. K., Tao, Z. W., & Carovano, K. (1998). Photovoice as a participatory health promotion strategy. Health ... Wallerstein, N., & Bernstein, E. (1988). Empowerment Education: Freire's Ideas Adapted to Health Education. Health Education & ...
"Health Protection Report". Health Protection Agency. 3 July 2009. Indian Network for Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance ( ... The Times of India states that there is general agreement among experts that India needs both an improved policy to control the ... BBC News Health - Questions&Answers about NDM-1 superbugs National Resistance Alert 3 addendum in UK (PDF) Chaudhary, U; ... The Indian Ministry of Health released a statement "strongly refut[ing]" naming the enzyme "New Delhi". A co-author of the 2010 ...
Armenian Health Network, Archived from the original on 7 February 2007. "Cervical Cancer: Statistics , Cancer.Net". ... Journal of Cancer Policy. 16: 73-81. doi:10.1016/j.jcpo.2018.05.002. S2CID 81552501. "WHO Disease and injury country estimates ... In November 2020, the World Health Organization, under backing from the World Health Assembly, set out a strategy to eliminate ... women's health by eliminating cervical cancer and enabling treatment for women with cervical cancer and related health issues, ...
ISBN 978-0-06-500731-2. Dummer, Trevor J.B. (22 April 2008). "Health geography: supporting public health policy and planning". ... and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care. Health geography deals with the spatial relations and patterns ... Subfields include: Marketing geography and Transportation geography Medical or health geography is the application of ... Human and Policy Dimensions Human Geography Migration Letters Progress in Human Geography Southeastern Geographer Social & ...
People who live in poor areas are more suspicious of the health care system, and as a result, they may reject medical treatment ... Because of such policies, especially prevalent in Southern states, sterilization of African Americans in North Carolina ... We Charge Genocide estimated 30,000 more black people died each year due to various racist policies and that black people had ... According to Gregory Price, government policies led to higher rates of sterilization amongst black Americans than white on the ...
In poor health during the signing of the US Constitution in 1787, he was rarely seen in public from then until his death.[ ... Smith, Jeffery A. (1993). "Impartiality and Revolutionary Ideology: Editorial Policies of the 'South-Carolina Gazette,' 1732- ... His reasons for vegetarianism were based on health, ethics, and economy: When about 16 years of age, I happen'd to meet with a ... Rarely use venery but for health or offspring, never to dullness, weakness, or the injury of your own or another's peace or ...
... but also organizational policies, practices, and culture. This level of organizational influence is impressive when the ... Sedgeman, J.: Health Realization/Innate Health: Can a quiet mind and a positive feeling state be accessible over the lifespan ... In the Health Realization ("HR") model, all psychological phenomena, from severe disorder to glowing health, are presented as ... Thus, HR also teaches that people have health and well-being already within them (in HR this is known as "innate health"), ...
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As the lead health authority within the United Nations (UN) system, we help ensure the safety of the air we breathe, the food ... Health lays the foundation for vibrant and productive communities, stronger economies, safer nations and a better world. Our ... In addition a health fair was held to raise public awareness on the major risk factors of NCDs. ... The documents were launched by the Minister of Health and Sanitation Madam Miatta Kargbo during a symposium on the prevalence ...
Both inner and outer peripheries exhibit poor health outcomes, challenging the assumption that urban areas fare better. The … ... Spatial inequalities in health persist in the Czech Republic, influenced by economic, social, demographic, and environmental ... A holistic model of health inequalities for health policy and state administration: a case study in the regions of the Czech ... A holistic model of health inequalities for health policy and state administration: a case study in the regions of the Czech ...
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Global health and data-driven policies for emergency responses to infectious disease outbreaks ... Global health and data-driven policies for emergency responses to infectious disease outbreaks Zisis Kozlakidis 1 , Joud ... Global health and data-driven policies for emergency responses to infectious disease outbreaks Zisis Kozlakidis et al. Lancet ... WHO . World Health Organization; 2015. Developing global norms for sharing data and results during public health emergencies. ...
homeResponses to Recent Health Policy Data Requests. *Chronic Conditionsplus icon*Percent of US Adults 55 and Over with chronic ... we are making available summaries of staff responses to recent requests for data on health, determinants of health, health care ... Trends in Health Care Coverage and Insurance from 1959-2007plus icon*Table A. Private Health Insurance 1959-1968 (All ages) ... As the Nations principal health statistics agency, the National Center for Health Statistics compiles statistical information ...
The Health of Migrant Seafarers: A Call for Considering Seafarers in Public and Global Health Policy Guillot-Wright, S., (2016 ... Children and Mental Health Guillot-Wright, S., Temple, J. "Children and Mental Health," Submitted to the TX Public Health ... "The Health of Migrant Seafarers: A Call for Considering Seafarers in Public and Global Health Policy," Issue Brief no. 1604, ... Policies, Practices and Structures Impacting the Health and Care Access of Migrant Children Greeley, C., Guillot-Wright, S., ...
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She then covered health policy, mental health and patient safety until April 2021. An author, TV and radio contributor, Jayne ... She leads The Gates Foundations Global Policy and Advocacy Health work, in partnership with the Global Health and Global ... Katherine E. Bliss, Senior Fellow and Director, Immunizations and Health Systems Resilience, Global Health Policy Center, ... Senior Fellow and Director, Immunizations and Health Systems Resilience, Global Health Policy Center, Center for Strategic & ...
Nutrition and Health Policy. Return to Israel Journal of Health Policy Research ... Citation: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research 2020 9:27 Content type: Original research article Published on: 10 June 2020 ... Citation: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research 2020 9:9 Content type: Original research article Published on: 30 March 2020 ... Citation: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research 2021 10:44 Content type: Original research article Published on: 11 August ...
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The mission of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is to discover how the environment affects people in ... Health & Education. * *Health & Education. * Brochures & Fact Sheets If you are giving a presentation about an environmental ... The total external costs imposed on human health ranged from €0.5 billion to €11 billion among the four policy scenarios tested ... is expanding and accelerating its contributions to scientific knowledge of human health and the environment, and to the health ...
World Health Organization & International Labour Organization. (‎2022)‎. Mental health at work: policy brief. World Health ...
Consider a career in public health care policy. ... Public Health Care Policy. Working in public policy can give ... As a public policy expert, you may work at a university, a government agency such as the U.S. Department of Health and Human ... Refund Policy. Re-Applicants. School-Specific Deadlines. Dental School Interview. New! Student Video Stories. Customer Service ... A flexible lifestyle, being your own boss and making a real contribution to the health of your patients are just some of the ...
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PCD provides an open exchange of information and knowledge among researchers, practitioners, policy makers, and others who ... strive to improve the health of the public through chronic disease prevention. ... is a peer-reviewed electronic journal established by the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. ... Mental Health Awareness Month: Lets Talk About Sleep and Mental Health. Research shows that many US high school students who ...
November 13, 2019 U of Ts Centre for Sustainable Health Systems to focus on reducing health-care sectors environmental impact ... August 12, 2019 Overtesting and overtreating in health care: A five-year checkup of movement led by U of T faculty member ... June 19, 2019 Once caught up in Trumps travel ban, U of T grad builds health information system for Syrian hospitals ... November 27, 2019 Access to nutritious foods crucial to improving Canadians health: U of T experts in the Toronto Star ...
Home,Health Sciences,Research,Health Services and Policy,EQUIPOL,News and events ... Skarda I). Health Policies with Consumption Effects Society for Benefit-Cost Analysis Annual Conference, October 2021. ... The book features the Chapter Prioritarianism and Health Policy written by Richard Cookson, Ole Norheim and Ieva Skarda. ... Skarda I)."Modelling the long-term health and social consequences of childhood policy" Oxford Talks. University of Oxford, ...
What Happens First (Primary Health Care Services). When Canadians need health care, they generally contact a primary health ... In general, primary health care serves a dual function. First, it provides direct provision of first-contact health care ... Services provided at the first point of contact with the health care system are known as primary health care services and they ... A Summary of Canadas Health Care System. Canadas publicly funded health care system is best described as an interlocking set ...
The Health Ministry and the Treasury forced it to enter a recovery plan in exchange for NIS 1.4 billion from its coffers. ... Health Ministry faulted for hands-off policy. The Health Ministry and the Treasury forced it to enter a recovery plan in ... NY Conference Israel News Health & Wellness WORLD NEWS Middle East Business & Innovation Opinion Login ... major health fund debts to HMO, excessive HMO discounts to health funds for its services, and excessive costs of the medical ...
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Health care crunch climbs the occupational ladder Holding on to health care is getting much harder, even if you have a good job ... Policy Agenda. Policy choices have tilted the playing field toward the rich and corporations. Heres how to tilt it back. ... Secret side of outsourcing needs policy action. The U.S. governments failure to develop a coherent policy on specific ... In the absence of a proactive policy setting limits, demand for such deals has grown steadily, according to a new EPI report, ...
Northern Light Health has ended its universal masking policy. ... Northern Light Health has ended its universal masking policy.. ... Northern Light says more frequent updates are coming as they prepare for the end of the public health emergency. ...
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Oversight develops and oversees deployment health care policy, coordinates medical readiness capabilities and cultivates ... Health Readiness Policy & Oversight. The office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Readiness Policy and ... HRP&O develops and oversees the execution of defense-wide deployment health care policy. These policies:. *Enable medical ... deployment related health policy, joint theater-of-operations information systems, humanitarian and health missions, and ...
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... The content of this collection refers to the health policy decisions and regulations that directly impact public ... health. For articles specific to how policy affects health insurance, access to care, and quality of care, please see tabs ... Building Thriving Communities Through Comprehensive Community Health Initiatives: Evaluations from 10 Years of Kaiser ... Permanentes Community Health Initiative to Promote Healthy Eating and Active Living (May 2018 Supplement). Advancing Smoking ...
... the policies and the providers powering innovation in the public health sector. ... Science and health for the public good: STAT covers the people, ... Policy*Health Tech*Business *. Columns. *Adams Take*Matts ... Health*Health Tech*Hospitals*In the Lab*Insurance*Pharma*Politics & Policy *. OPINION. *First Opinion*The Pharmalot View*Adams ... public health. STAT reports on the people, the policies and the providers in the public health sector. Recent articles range ...
  • This updated 2022 vignette provides examples of how a range of the Office of the Secretary Patient-Centered Outcomes Research (OS-PCORTF) cross-agency projects are working to improve maternal health by 1) Enhancing Women's Health Data for Research 2) Adding Electronic Health Records to the Suite of Maternal Health Data for Research 3) Linking Maternal Survey Data with Other Health Data. (
  • World Health Organization. (
  • Although it praised of the work of the World Health Organization, the committee called for a "rigorous external review" of the U.N. agency to improve its structural and functional effectiveness. (
  • Violence Prevention Curriculum in Texas Schools: Summary of SB9, 86th Legislature, 2nd Special Session, known as the Christine Blubaugh Act," Policy Issue Brief (2021). (
  • Skarda I). ''Health Policies with Consumption Effects'' Society for Benefit-Cost Analysis Annual Conference, October 2021. (
  • Skarda I). ''Full Lifecourse Economic Evaluation of Childhood Policies'' Glasgow Health Economics Seminar Series, September 2021. (
  • Skarda I). ''Full Lifecourse Economic Evaluation of Childhood Policies'' ActEarly Methods Club Inaugural Session, May 2021. (
  • Skarda I).''Lifecourse Modelling for Childhood Policy Analysis'' Society for Benefit-Cost Analysis Annual Conference, March 2021. (
  • The NIMH is seeking competitive candidates for the position of Health Science Policy Analyst within the Extramural Policy Branch in the Division of Extramural Activities (DEA) . (
  • The candidate serves as a Health Science Policy Analyst and is expected to possess expertise on NIH extramural policies, procedures, and programs. (
  • The Analysis and Evaluation Branch with NIA's Office of Planning, Analysis, and Evaluation (OPAE) seeks a junior, mid-level, or senior Health Science Policy Analyst (GS 12/13/14) to support, design, and lead scientific portfolio analysis and program evaluation efforts. (
  • As the world continues to contend with the repercussions of the global COVID-19 pandemic, Foreign Policy will convene its inaugural Global Health Forum as a platform for global health experts to discuss the most pressing issues and developing trends in international public health. (
  • The office is responsible for force health protection, global health engagement, U.S. military assistance in global pandemic containment, international health agreements, deployment related health policy, joint theater-of-operations information systems, humanitarian and health missions, and national disaster support. (
  • This study aims to develop a holistic model of health determinants, examining the complex relationship between various determinants of health inequalities and their association with health condition. (
  • A dataset of 57 indicators was created, categorized into seven determinants of health and one health condition category. (
  • In carrying out our responsibility to share fully our data and analyses, we are making available summaries of staff responses to recent requests for data on health, determinants of health, health care access and use, and other topics of current interest. (
  • The documents are expected to facilitate integration of NCDs care services into the public health agenda and enhance inter-sectoral response to reducing NCDs in the general population. (
  • Lancet Public Health. (
  • Guillot -Wright, S ., Temple, J. "Children and Mental Health," Submitted to the TX Public Health Committee . (
  • Reflecting on lessons learned over the past few years, global leaders in public health will explore strategies for investing in more resilient health systems, supporting frontline workers and caregivers, expanding healthcare equity, and strengthening healthcare supply chains. (
  • A pioneer in global public health for more than 35 years, Dr Seth Berkley has been a champion of equitable access to vaccines and of innovation, and a driving force to improve t. (
  • Food allergy can result in life-threatening anaphylaxis and is considered an increasing public health burden. (
  • Disordered eating (DE), defined as unhealthy eating attitudes and behaviors, is considered a major public health problem among adolescents. (
  • Cookies used to track the effectiveness of CDC public health campaigns through clickthrough data. (
  • Northern Light says more frequent updates are coming as they prepare for the end of the public health emergency. (
  • This work is done in close collaboration with the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense and Global Security (OASD/HD&GS) to ensure DOD's public health and medical response activities are consistent with the Department's policy for conducting Defense Support to Civil Authorities (DSCA) missions. (
  • MPP also develops and implements policies within the Military Health System (MHS) that oversees the MHS response to disasters, public health emergencies and mass casualty events that occur on or near military installations. (
  • The content of this collection refers to the health policy decisions and regulations that directly impact public health. (
  • STAT reports on the people, the policies and the providers in the public health sector. (
  • Fixing GRAS is an important step to rebuild consumer confidence and reduce the ongoing risk to public health. (
  • The primary source of that information was the Public Health Service (PHS) Grants Policy Statement. (
  • Alcohol policies can be effective, evidence-based strategies to improve public health by reducing alcohol misuse and related consequences within a population. (
  • Cookson R). International Health Economics Association Special Interest Group on Equity-Informative Economic Evaluation (Remote), July 2020. (
  • Robson M). Measuring Health: Ethical Perspectives Workshop, Aarhus University (Remote) Jun 2020. (
  • Cookson R). International Health Economics Association Webinar, May 2020. (
  • Despite overall improvements in health status in European Union countries, disparities persist among socially, economically, and societally disadvantaged individuals. (
  • Improving health equity in the United States is a priority for the Biden-Harris Administration in order to address longstanding disparities in health outcomes. (
  • Based on the critical need for evidence-informed policy that improves the well-being of our communities, we empirically study the use of research evidence for policymaking and best practices for presenting research to federal, state, and local policymakers. (
  • The Senior Director will supervise members of the Health Policy team and also manage American Progress' relationships with outside stakeholders on health policy, including ally organizations, federal and state policymakers, and the media. (
  • Sierra Leone is one of the countries in the region that is implementing the WHO Package of Essential Non-Communicable Diseases Intervention (WHO-PEN) for primary health care in order to strengthen the control and prevention of NCDs in Sierra Leone. (
  • Varmus is co-chair of an Institute of Medicine committee that the day before had released a set of recommendations to the Obama administration, calling for a doubling of federal aid for global health to $15 billion in four years, for health-related Millennium Development Goals like AIDS and other infectious diseases as well as for noncommunicable diseases and injury prevention. (
  • Health inequities exist within and between societies at different hierarchical levels. (
  • Health inequities can be conceptualized and measured as drivers of differences in health outcomes. (
  • Since alcohol-related behaviors and outcomes may be influenced by multiple policies at the same time, NIAAA supports research to assess the overall alcohol policy environment. (
  • Studies have found associations between the policy environment and multiple important outcomes, including binge drinking rates, traffic crash fatalities, cirrhosis death rates, cancer mortality rates, alcohol-involved suicides, and the harms that people who drink impose on others. (
  • 12,13,14,15,16,17,18 More research is needed on alcohol-related public policies to understand which policies affect which behaviors or outcomes and for whom. (
  • In addition to supporting past and ongoing policy research, NIAAA encourages new studies through a Notice of Special Interest on "Public Policy Effects on Alcohol-, Cannabis-, Tobacco-, and Other Drug-Related Behaviors and Outcomes" ( NOT-AA-21-028 ). (
  • 7 challenges to the UK impact agenda," Policy, Design and Practice , 4 (3): 341-356 DOI:10.1080/25741292.2021.1921373. (
  • Those in other practice settings, such as clinics, community health centres and group practices, are more likely to be paid through an alternative payment scheme, such as salaries or a blended payment (e.g., fee-for-services plus incentives). (
  • WHO and Minister of Health in Zanzibar commit to strengthening primary health care in the Islands. (
  • WHO-PEN for primary health care in low-resource settings was developed by WHO to address the threat of NCDs with a set of cost-effective priority interventions for poor-resource settings. (
  • Doran T, Robson M). Department of Health and Social Care , London, Oct 2019. (
  • Prescription for Excellence: How Innovation is Saving Canada's Health Care System. (
  • Canada's publicly funded health care system is best described as an interlocking set of ten provincial and three territorial health insurance plans. (
  • The provincial and territorial governments fund health care services with assistance from the federal (i.e., national) government. (
  • When Canadians need health care, they generally contact a primary health care professional, who could be a family doctor, nurse, nurse practitioner, physiotherapist, pharmacist, etc., often working in a team of health care professionals. (
  • Services provided at the first point of contact with the health care system are known as primary health care services and they form the foundation of the health care system. (
  • In general, primary health care serves a dual function. (
  • First, it provides direct provision of first-contact health care services. (
  • Second, it coordinates patients' health care services to ensure continuity of care and ease of movement across the health care system when more specialized services are needed (e.g., from specialists or in hospitals). (
  • Alternatively, health care services may be provided in the home or community (generally short-term care) and in institutions (mostly long-term and chronic care). (
  • PLOS Medicine publishes research and commentary of general interest with clear implications for patient care, public policy or clinical research agendas. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Health care policy" applicable to this article? (
  • Holding on to health care is getting much harder, even if you have a good job, and a good education, and especially if you are a full-time worker of prime working age. (
  • In an new Briefing Paper, A Decade of Decline: The Erosion of Employer-Provided Health Care in the United States and California, 1995-2006 , EPI economists Jared Bernstein and Heidi Shierholz demonstrate that the dramatic drop in employer-provided coverage has occurred across the entire age, education, occupation, industry, race, and ethnicity spectrum. (
  • Information technology and its intersection with military health care was at the forefront of a key discussion at the annual Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society conference, held in Chicago, Illinois, from April 17 to 21. (
  • The Director, MPP, in collaboration with the Defense Health Agency, assists with developing policy and implementing programs to provide health care throughout the MHS to non-DOD beneficiaries and coalition members via specialized programs and international agreements. (
  • Health care coaches are the next big thing. (
  • WASHINGTON - Many people who buy their own health insurance could get surprises in the mail this fall: cancellation notices because their current policies aren't up to the basic standards of President Barack Obama's health care law. (
  • Our Web site links to other National Institutes of Health (NIH) sites, federal agency sites and occasionally, to private organizations. (
  • The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (
  • PUBLICATION OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH GRANTS POLICY STATEMENT Release Date: October 21, 1998 P.T. National Institutes of Health The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is pleased to announce the publication of the NIH Grants Policy Statement (NIHGPS) . (
  • uses the AddThis service to allow visitors to bookmark and share the NIH News in Health website content on a variety of social media sites. (
  • While the NIHGPS has been reformatted as described above, most of the actual changes to the content of the prior PHS Grants Policy Statement are technical amendments to reflect current requirements rather than substantive changes in policy. (
  • What works to promote research-policy engagement? (
  • Are research-policy engagement activities informed by policy theory and evidence? (
  • A new measure to understand the role of science in US Congress: Lessons learned from the Legislative Use of Research Survey (LURS), Evidence & Policy , 17 (4), 689-707, DOI: (
  • The position requires overseeing and executing projects involving policy analysis, research, and writing, as well as driving collaboration with experts across American Progress. (
  • Provide day-to-day management for the Health Policy team and develop its policy, research, and communications agenda. (
  • If you are giving a presentation about an environmental health topic or just looking for general information about environmental health research or the institute, this page will help. (
  • NIEHS is committed to conducting the most rigorous research in environmental health sciences, and to communicating the results of this research to the public. (
  • NIEHS research uses state-of-the-art science and technology to investigate the interplay between environmental exposures, human biology, genetics, and common diseases to help prevent disease and improve human health. (
  • NIEHS offers a broad range of job opportunities, career enhancement programs, and research training grants and programs in environmental health sciences and administration. (
  • In addition, the Extramural Policy Branch works closely with our research divisions on developing and publishing funding opportunity announcements . (
  • In addition, the candidate provides guidance and assistance to program staff concerning major science policy issues affecting both NIH and the national biomedical, behavioral, and social science research communities. (
  • Research shows that many US high school students who don't get the recommended 8 plus hours of sleep per night also report poor mental health. (
  • Cookson R) 11th Health Services and Policy Research Conference, Auckland, Dec 2019. (
  • The Office of Health Policy (HP) provides a cross-cutting policy perspective that bridges Departmental programs, public and private sector activities, and the research community, in order to develop, analyze, coordinate and provide leadership on health policy issues for the Secretary. (
  • HP carries out this mission by conducting policy, economic and budget analyses, assisting in the development and review of regulations, assisting in the development and formulation of budgets and legislation, assisting in survey design efforts, as well as conducting and coordinating research, evaluation, and information dissemination on issues relating to health policy. (
  • Delivering the annual David E. Barmes lecture that Fogarty cosponsors with the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, Varmus also said the research portfolio should be rebalanced with some of the increase directed toward chronic and neglected diseases, maternal and child health, and other issues. (
  • Supporting research to inform the development and implementation of alcohol policies and to evaluate their effectiveness has been an important priority of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) for many years. (
  • A substantial body of research has demonstrated that several types of alcohol policies are effective in reducing unsafe alcohol-associated behaviors and related harms. (
  • Research on policy interventions to reduce driving under the influence has also demonstrated effectiveness in reducing alcohol-related consequences. (
  • Research on alcohol policies will continue to play a key role in informing the development, implementation, and assessment of policy efforts to prevent and reduce alcohol-related harms. (
  • Work with the department's Senior Vice President and the Executive Vice President for Policy to set the strategic direction for health policy. (
  • PCD welcomes submissions for its upcoming collection, "Implementing and Sustaining Policy, Systems, and Environmental (PSE) Approaches to Support Healthy Behaviors in Diverse Settings. (
  • Health inequalities and conditions were assessed at the territorial level of Local Administrative Units (LAU1) in the Czech Republic. (
  • Hospitals are paid through annual, global budgets negotiated with the provincial and territorial ministries of health, or with a regional health authority or board. (
  • The U.S. government's failure to develop a coherent policy on specific outsourcing arrangements called trade offsets has resulted in lost jobs and the transfer of technological innovation to other nations. (
  • It also urged President-elect Obama to appoint a coordinator to his personal staff to oversee government's global health initiatives, possibly under aegis of the National Security Council. (
  • The policy and strategic plan identified priority areas for intervention and outlined the roles of the government, WHO and other partners in curbing the growing trend of NCDs. (
  • PATCH is designed to strengthen state and local health departments' capacities to plan, implement, and evaluate community- based health promotion activities targeted toward priority health problems. (
  • The provinces have to administer their health insurance programs either themselves or through a body that is accountable to the provincial government. (
  • The office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Readiness Policy and Oversight is the principal staff assistant and advisor to the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs) for all medically-related readiness Department of Defense policies, programs, and activities. (
  • One of those categorical grant programs was the Health Education-Risk Reduction (HERR) Grants Program. (
  • and (7) awards grants and ensures that applications chosen for funding comply with federal laws, regulations, and policies prior to award, which involves critical communication with the grantee throughout the pre-award, award, and post-award processes. (
  • The PATCH concept emerged in 1983 primarily as a CDC response to the shift in federal policy regarding categorical grants to states. (
  • The federal policy decision to create block grants immediately eliminated the CDC support function, and shifted the management function of the program from the federal level to the state. (
  • The NIHGPS is effective for all NIH grants and cooperative agreements with budget periods beginning on or after October 1, 1998, and will supersede, in its entirety, the PHS Grants Policy Statement (rev. 4/01/94, and 1/24/95) as a standard term and condition of award. (
  • The PHS Grants Policy Statement was issued by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, an organizational level that was eliminated as part of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) streamlining efforts. (
  • Thus, the PHS Grants Policy Statement remains in effect for other components of the PHS. (
  • Interim changes to NIH grants policies will be published in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts (NIH Guide). (
  • You will be subject to the destination website's privacy policy when you follow the link. (
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  • The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations explain the steps you must take to manage health and safety. (
  • Alcohol policy strategies commonly consist of federal, state, and local laws and regulations that govern a wide range of alcohol issues from the manufacture and sale of alcohol to directives about underage drinking. (
  • Please see our HIPAA Notice of Privacy Practices for more information about how UCLA Health collects, uses, and discloses your protected health information under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA). (
  • The Ministry of Health and Sanitation (MoHS) launched Sierra Leone's national Policy and a five year Strategic Plan (2013-2017) on Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) on 6 September 2013. (
  • 2 Ministry of National Guard-Health Affairs, King Abdulaziz Medical City-CR, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (
  • The Health Ministry and the Treasury forced it to enter a recovery plan in exchange for NIS 1.4 billion from its coffers. (
  • The state comptroller gave the Health Ministry failing marks for several important functions for which it is responsible, from not preventing the near-collapse of the Hadassah Medical Organization (HMO) or properly supervising its financial recovery to highly inadequate handling of rehabilitation of the mentally ill, of abortions and of medical labs. (
  • For more information on CDC's web notification policies, see Website Disclaimers . (
  • Update American Progress staff regularly on news and events related to relevant policy debates in Congress and/or the administration. (
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  • Please acknowledge NIH News in Health as the source and send us a copy. (
  • For more consumer health news and information, visit . (
  • Download or play NIEHS Health Chat's with a wide range of experts and topics. (
  • Find out about the exciting discoveries being made by NIEHS and NIEHS-supported researchers that are helping to improve health and save lives. (
  • The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is expanding and accelerating its contributions to scientific knowledge of human health and the environment, and to the health and well-being of people everywhere. (
  • It is not the intention of NIEHS to provide specific medical advice, but rather to provide users with information to better understand their health and their diagnosed disorders. (
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  • Polls have shown that health now ranks among Americans' top priorities for development assistance, said the committee, whose work was sponsored by four government agencies, including NIH, and five private foundations. (
  • In the new report's central recommendation, "The committee is calling on the next president to highlight health as a pillar of U.S. foreign policy," perhaps by making a major speech early in his tenure declaring an American responsibility and opportunity to contribute to improved health around the world. (
  • While the committee did not shy from calling for more funding, it stressed responsible spending, declaring, "Congress and the administration should require that aid be accompanied by rigorous country- and program-level evaluations to measure the impact of global health investments in order to maximize their effectiveness. (
  • This hybrid Forum will explore key pathways to revitalize our health systems and better prepare for the global risks that lie ahead. (
  • The leading voices in global health will explore how public, private, and civic leaders can prepare for under-discussed risks, including those resulting from antibiotic resistance, climate change, and biowarfare. (
  • Until the broken GRAS system is fixed, FDA will continue to be hamstrung in preventing health risks posed by chemicals of unknown safety. (
  • Alcohol policies are also set by non-governmental organizations such as colleges and universities to address alcohol consumption and access on their campuses and in their communities. (
  • Dr Berkley has taken the case for vaccine equity and placed it at the centre of the global health agenda, warning of the growing threat of pandemics in the face of global trends like climate change, urbanisation, population growth, conflict, human migration and antimicrobial resistance. (
  • coming up with 10 or 20 billion more to do something that affects the state of health throughout the world, to me that just seems like a matter of resolve, and we ought to resolve to do these things. (
  • The Director, HRP&O Medical Countermeasures (MCM) develops policies and guidance for MCM to protect U.S. forces against current and future chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) threats and emerging infectious diseases. (
  • The NIHGPS is intended to make available to NIH grantees, in a single document, up-to-date policy guidance that will serve as the terms and conditions of NIH awards. (
  • Effects of alcohol tax and price policies on morbidity and mortality: a systematic review. (
  • The effectiveness of tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. (
  • In most instances, this shift occurred before the state focal point was fully in place, thus weakening the attempt to strengthen the federal, state, and local level health education infrastructure. (
  • As a public policy expert, you may work at a university, a government agency such as the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services or a state's department of health. (
  • The Economic Policy Institute staff is unionized with the Nonprofit Professional Employees Union . (
  • The Director of HRP&O Medical Preparedness Policy (MPP) represents the ASD(HA) in working with the OSD, the interagency partners, and the National Security Council to plan and prepare for DOD's medical response to naturally occurring or man-made disasters and contingencies at the national level when requested by civilian authorities or directed by the Secretary of Defense. (
  • Skarda I)."Modelling the long-term health and social consequences of childhood policy" Oxford Talks. (
  • Through this program, a modest amount of resources helped local, state, and federal health agencies take an organized, planned approach to community-based interventions. (
  • At the midpoint in the five-year HERR program, federal policy shifted. (
  • The Alcohol Policy Information System (APIS) provides detailed information on alcohol-related policies in the U.S. at both the state and federal levels, as well as policy information regarding the recreational use of cannabis. (
  • This is the Web site of the County Health Rankings & Roadmaps (CHR&R), a collaboration between the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute. (
  • Alcohol policy represents a broad approach for intervening with alcohol misuse and related problems that can affect all individuals within a jurisdiction. (
  • EPI is an independent, nonprofit think tank that researches the impact of economic trends and policies on working people in the United States. (
  • Former NIH Director Dr. Harold Varmus says Congress ought to double the amount of money spent on global health and highlight it "as pillar of U.S. foreign policy. (
  • If we can continue printing money for automakers, we ought to do it for global health as well. (
  • Varmus and Fogarty Director Dr. Roger I. Glass noted that since the 1997 report the outlook for global health has changed dramatically. (
  • We've seen enormous changes--huge investments in global health from both the private and public sectors," Glass said. (
  • We've witnessed a shift in approach as well--with a growing recognition of the role global health can play in diplomacy and economic development. (
  • In addition a health fair was held to raise public awareness on the major risk factors of NCDs. (
  • As the Nation's principal health statistics agency, the National Center for Health Statistics compiles statistical information that is often used to help guide actions and policies to improve the Nation's health. (
  • UCLA Health is the controller of the personal information we hold about you in connection with your use of the Services. (