World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Pan American Health Organization: WHO regional office for the Americas acting as a coordinating agency for the improvement of health conditions in the hemisphere. The four main functions are: control or eradication of communicable diseases, strengthening of national and local health services, education and training, and research.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Voluntary Health Agencies: Non-profit organizations concerned with various aspects of health, e.g., education, promotion, treatment, services, etc.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.EuropeInternational Agencies: International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.IndiaInternationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.BrazilSex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Organizations, Nonprofit: Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).AfricaConsumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Great BritainAmericas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Health Fairs: Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Drugs, Essential: Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Accountable Care Organizations: Organizations of health care providers that agree to be accountable for the quality, cost, and overall care of Medicare beneficiaries who are enrolled in the traditional fee-for-service program who are assigned to it. Assigned means those beneficiaries for whom the professionals in the organization provide the bulk of primary care services. (www.cms.gov/OfficeofLegislation/Downloads/Accountable CareOrganization.pdf accessed 03/16/2011)School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Capacity Building: Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).United StatesCaribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.Community Networks: Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Health Planning Support: Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Growth Charts: Graphic displays of height and weight showing development over time.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Disaster Planning: Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.
  • Representation from various organizations will be readily available both days addressing a full range of health-related topics from nutrition advice to mental health issues as well as chiropractic services to preventative programs to name a few. (sidneyhealth.org)
  • Since 2017 it's been against our community guidelines to promote anti-vaccination advice and other health misinformation, and we've never allowed it to be advertised. (technologynetworks.com)
  • State oral health programs have a shared responsibility for the safe delivery of oral health care. (osap.org)
  • A new FDA website streamlines how the FDA updates information used to help health care providers choose an appropriate treatment for a patient's infection. (osap.org)
  • Without talking to patients, you will never know the barriers to health care," Zapata said. (statesman.com)
  • Dr. Kenneth Shine, University of Texas System executive vice chancellor for health affairs, has said he expects about half of the school's physicians to enter primary care. (statesman.com)
  • The Department of Health Care Organization and Policy provides training and education at the masters and doctoral level. (uab.edu)
  • Sustaining Universal Health Coverage requires the efficient use of resources as well as an effective resource mobilization strategy to support the provision of preventive and curative health care across different levels of the health system. (who.int)
  • and California Health Care Foundation Health Care Leadership Program, San Francisco (Dr Aragón). (lww.com)
  • The United States currently relies on error-prone, sluggish and burdensome manual and paper-based data exchange methods such as faxing and phone calls to share critical public health data, especially with the health care sector. (astho.org)
  • This new edition of The Strategic Application of Information Technology in Health Care Organizations offers a peerless guide for health care leaders to understand information technology (IT) strategic planning and implementation. (wiley.com)
  • the ramification of changes in care delivery models, and the IT strategies necessary to support public health. (wiley.com)
  • The reality is that IT is a means to an end, an enabler of the strategic goals of health care organizations. (wiley.com)
  • You don't need an engineer to understand how to use IT to advance a health care organization's strategic agenda. (wiley.com)
  • In this time of health care reform, nothing is more front and center than health IT. (wiley.com)
  • In this book, the authors answer the question that every health care leader should be asking: How do we unlock the promise of health information technology and fundamentally reshape our industry? (wiley.com)
  • The community came together to build something that would provide high-quality, accessible, low-cost health care. (encorepub.com)
  • WASHINGTON - The National Health Law Program (NHeLP) on Tuesday filed an amicus brief supporting the Affordable Care Act's (ACA) birth control benefit, urging the Supreme Court to uphold the law. (healthlaw.org)
  • Decades of federal policies supporting contraception and established medical standards of care are well-founded: birth control is essential to women's health," said Fogel. (healthlaw.org)
  • Major medical academies in the U.S. and Western Europe maintain that birth control is an essential part of women's health care. (healthlaw.org)
  • NHeLP is a leader on the issue of groups attempting to limit access to health care based on ideological or political claims, commonly known as health-care refusals. (healthlaw.org)
  • NHeLP's groundbreaking report, Health Care Refusals: Undermining Quality Care for Women has been cited by leading health authorities and policy makers. (healthlaw.org)
  • The progressive and dynamic dozen Congressional members sponsoring all five of these critical bills understand the deep integration between access to health care, economic justice, clean water, and the health of our planet," said Donna Smith, Executive Director, Progressive Democrats of America. (robinhoodtax.org)
  • BACKGROUND The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends using the partograph to follow labour and delivery, with the objective to improve health care and reduce maternal and foetal morbidity and death. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The Sound Health Association appears to be providing comprehensive prepaid health care in accordance with the act. (gao.gov)
  • The project was part of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) Changes in Health Care Financing and Organization (HCFO) national program. (rwjf.org)
  • HCFO supports policy analysis, research, evaluation and demonstration projects that provide public and private decision leaders with usable and timely information on health care policy and financing issues. (rwjf.org)
  • to improve the health and health care of all Americans. (rwjf.org)
  • Serve your citizens while improving efficiency and helping ensure privacy and compliance using community care systems and health information technology. (microsoft.com)
  • Improve agency collaboration and coordination for better community care, whether mobile or in-office, with public health technology. (microsoft.com)
  • Microsoft is helping with this challenge by offering its Healthcare Bot service powered by Microsoft Azure to organizations on the front lines of the COVID-19 response to help screen patients for potential infection and care. (microsoft.com)
  • 1499 health care providers in ten low- and middle-income countries (China, Ghana, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Laos, Mexico, Pakistan, Senegal and Tanzania) were surveyed about their use of research-based evidence and factors that may facilitate or impede such use. (ssrn.com)
  • Not only are they targeted to everyday laboratory use, but also for incorporation in teaching and training of laboratory and other health care staff. (cdc.gov)
  • An important aspect in the implementation of any model of oral health care is the organization of demand. (bvsalud.org)
  • Tools of economics applied to issues of organization, delivery, financing, and outcome of health care. (uab.edu)
  • Develops economic principles and describes system of health care financing and delivery in the United States, providing basis for analyzing health management and policy options. (uab.edu)
  • Required for the MPH degree in the Department of Health Care Organization and Policy's MCH Policy and Leadership concentration. (uab.edu)
  • Provides a framework for strategic management in health care and public health organizations and provides opportunities to develop strategic plans for health care organization. (uab.edu)
  • Financial management of public health care organizations. (uab.edu)
  • Health insurance and its consequences as significant reasons health care markets differ from others. (uab.edu)
  • It provides no-fault collective liability insurance and access to industry-specific health and safety information to employers, loss-of-earnings benefits and health-care coverage to injured workers, and help and support to both employers and workers when it's time for an injured worker to go back to work. (iwh.on.ca)
  • Access to health care and public health initiatives are difficult challenges in developing nations . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Public health system in India is managed by the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare of the government of India with state-owned health care facilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • As preventive and primary health care becomes a well structured component of the governments of developing nations, health professionals at all levels are faced with the need to understand economists and their concepts. (ajtmh.org)
  • Who determines where physicians and other health care workers can eat or drink while at work? (ama-assn.org)
  • Physicians and other health care workers frequently go long hours between meals or breaks and often need to eat and drink at their desk or work area. (ama-assn.org)
  • There is a perception that the rules regarding where physicians and other health care workers can have food or beverages tend to be overly strict. (ama-assn.org)
  • As the COVID-19 global pandemic upends American life and strains U.S. health care, doctors are showing their heroism as never before. (ama-assn.org)
  • All participants in the study who had low health literacy scores were more likely to have cardiovascular disease or risk factors and also less likely to seek medical care, take prescribed medication, or receive routine preventative healthcare. (eurekalert.org)
  • Electronic case reporting (eCR) is the automatic, seamless submission of disease reports directly from electronic health records at clinical care organizations to state, local, tribal, and territorial public health departments. (openhealthnews.com)
  • Collaborations between public and private providers of health care hold considerable potential to improve tuberculosis control in India. (bmj.com)
  • A non-profit organization, OSAP is a unique group of dental practitioners, allied healthcare workers, industry representatives, and other interested persons with a collective mission to promote infection control and related science-based health and safety policies and practices. (osap.org)
  • Under PHAB's guidance, about 400 public health practitioners helped develop the accreditation program, with assistance from the major public health associations and other experts. (rwjf.org)
  • To continuously improve the accreditation program, PHAB is conducting internal and external evaluation activities, guided by public health practitioners experienced in research and evaluation. (rwjf.org)
  • In this 2006-2007 project, Peter Jacobson, JD, MPH, and Peter Neumann, ScD, from the University of Michigan School of Public Health and Tufts Medical Center, respectively, explored ways to define and measure the value of governmental public health systems through a literature review and interviews with 46 public health practitioners, policy-makers and academics. (rwjf.org)
  • HCO 607: Public Health Law- The purpose of the course is to introduce non-lawyers to the United States legal system and to the basic principles of law relevant to public health practitioners. (uab.edu)
  • Data synthesis Of 24 identified public-private mix projects, data were available from 14 (58%), involving private practitioners, corporations, and non-governmental organisations. (bmj.com)
  • Guides lay persons and non-medical users and medical practitioners to useful and reliable online medical and health information. (curlie.org)
  • While applying to graduate schools, Mulatya almost missed USC's Arnold School of Public Health but was grateful to discover it during a return trip to the SOPHAS website . (sc.edu)
  • California, USA.Fielding School of Public Health, The University of California. (scielosp.org)
  • Dr. Carpenter is the former Director of the New York State Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research, and the former Dean of the School of Public Health at the University at Albany. (prlog.org)
  • Airlines have started suspending flights to China in the wake of the outbreak , but the organisation does not recommend limiting trade and travel due to the virus outbreak. (abc.net.au)
  • This document provides an assessment of the public health risk associated with a multi-country outbreak of Salmonella Agona associated with consumption of potentially contaminated infant formula from France. (europa.eu)
  • Public health officials have just one tactic to battle the unrelenting Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa - quarantine - but as the disease continues to spread, scientists in Maryland are among those close to discovering other weapons. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Officials at the World Health Organization warned this week that a recent outbreak of polio among children in Syria potentially could threaten the entire region unless urgent steps are taken to halt its spread. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Assessment of partogram use during labour in Rujumbura Health Sub District, Rukungiri District, Uganda. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This risk assessment discusses the suspected vehicle of infection and assesses the threat to public health in the EU/EEA. (europa.eu)
  • The training grant program is named in honor of Susan Harwood, a former director of the Office of Risk Assessment in OSHA's former Directorate of Health Standards, who passed away in 1996. (dol.gov)
  • At a press conference on April 22 , Michael Ryan, director of WHO's Health Emergencies program, summed up the organization's overarching mission: "The mandate we have [is] to establish global standards and to give strong advice to countries regarding rational public health measures. (publicradiotulsa.org)
  • 1 The Indian Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme began large scale nationwide implementation of the World Health Organization's global tuberculosis control strategy (DOTS) in 1998 and has since expanded rapidly. (bmj.com)
  • Why then do many health organizations allow their messages and reputations to be tarnished by partnerships with food companies (see Appendix 1, available at www.cmaj.ca/cgi/content/full/cmaj.110085/DCI )? (cmaj.ca)
  • The new strategy will mean that Pinterest users will only be able to view content from leading public health organizations, and there will be no recommendations or comments on Pins in the results. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Governmental public health systems must use appropriate techniques to demonstrate a measurable contribution to society. (rwjf.org)
  • She has collaborated and analyzed a range of public health data sets, including maternal and child outcomes, infectious diseases, diabetes, cancer, macro-array, and traumatic brain injury data. (sc.edu)
  • OBJECTIVE: The lifetime risk of maternal mortality, which describes the cumulative loss of life due to maternal deaths over the female life course, is an important summary measure of population health. (scielosp.org)
  • As an independent, accredited organization, our standards group facilitates the development of standards, and our service groups test and certify products and systems. (nsf.org)
  • There will be guidelines on what kind of essential medicines there should be, what kind of essential diagnostics there should be, what might be the regimens to use in relation to HIV in different countries, taking into account the resources available," says Rifat Atun , professor of global health systems at Harvard University, "Countries are not under any obligation legally to follow these guidelines, but many do in relation to epidemics. (publicradiotulsa.org)
  • Given the significant role of these healthcare data systems for healthcare reform, state budgeting, and the need for patient consumer information, health data organizations must be as transparent as possible in how they collect and release data, without doing harm or diminishing patient privacy. (nahdo.org)
  • HLN has been at the forefront of systems development in public health and has long advocated for the modernization of public health registries and other systems. (openhealthnews.com)
  • Many residents were dismayed by the news, and in spite of a public outcry, on September 16, 2019, three of our five commissioners voted to proceed with the sale's exploration. (encorepub.com)
  • While in her third year at the University, Caroline got an internship at the Division of Malaria Control (DMC) within Kenya's Ministry of Health. (sc.edu)
  • The project is intended to become a semiautonomous entity under the umbrella of the Palestinian Authority and in cooperation with the Ministry of Health and all concerned parties. (who.int)
  • The NAOS Strategy was drawn up by the Spanish Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs in 2005. (springer.com)
  • It also develops, coordinates and implements strategies to prevent workplace injuries and illnesses and can set standards for health and safety training. (iwh.on.ca)
  • At this sentinel moment, during the worst public health emergency in over a century, all of the nation's leaders must resist any efforts that would undermine the critical role of the CDC to respond to the pandemic and must be an advocate for increased investment in public health, said the letter signatories. (yahoo.com)
  • CDC is the world's premier public health institution and should be treated as such during this pandemic. (yahoo.com)
  • When you look at the global response to the COVID-19 pandemic, countries that listen to and prioritize public health fare best," said Dr. Tom Frieden , former director of the CDC, President and CEO of Resolve to Save Lives , an initiative of Vital Strategies. (yahoo.com)
  • Trying to fight this pandemic without daily, public guidance from the CDC is like fighting with one hand tied behind your back. (yahoo.com)
  • The "public" in question can be as small as a handful of people, an entire village or it can be as large as several continents, in the case of a pandemic . (wikipedia.org)
  • Almost every state has some form of a hospital discharge data reporting system, maintained by a state or private Health Data Organization (HDO). (nahdo.org)
  • The NASPHV was founded to help direct and develop uniform public health procedures involving zoonotic disease in the United State and its territories. (cpha.info)
  • In early 2003, the State Health Director commissioned the State Center for Health Statistics to implement the N. C. Public Health Partnership ( PHP) Survey and re-port on its findings. (ncdcr.gov)
  • The packet contained an introductory letter signed by the State Health Director, the questionnaire, and a postage- paid envelope for returning the survey. (ncdcr.gov)
  • Full participation among LHDs was of particular in-terest to the State Health Director. (ncdcr.gov)
  • State Center for Health Statistics. (ncdcr.gov)
  • In a court filing last month, lawyers for the federal government argued that doing so would jeopardize the companies' trade secrets, criminal investigations and violate state public records laws. (usf.edu)
  • Premed student Richard McGuire is making important discoveries about the state of dental health in poor and underserved communities. (oberlin.edu)
  • The expanded concept of health and the explanation in article 196 of the Federal Constitution of 1988 6 , 'health as a right of all and duty of the State', is a watershed within the historical construction of health policies in Brazil and Public Policies, with implications also for oral health, which has come to be understood as an inseparable dimension of health. (bvsalud.org)
  • Missouri voters take a step to improve the health of people in their state by approving a state constitution amendment to expand Medicaid eligibility. (ama-assn.org)
  • The preamble to the constitution defines health as 'a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. (faqs.org)
  • By expanding the monopoly power of pharmaceutical companies, TPP provisions would restrict generic competition and thereby enable medicine prices to keep spiraling out of reach -- locking in a broken system here at home and exporting that system to the eleven other TPP countries and those that may join later, including lower-income developing countries where public resources are limited and most people pay for medicines out-of-pocket. (patentdocs.org)
  • What we and others have observed is an enthusiasm gap between those creating and disseminating harmful health misinformation and those creating resources rooted in settled science. (technologynetworks.com)
  • There are a variety of resources to pursue when searching for public health internships. (petersons.com)
  • PHAAE aims at eradicating health inequalities and water poverty in Nigeria by working more on water, sanitation and hygiene issues in the nation and by providing rural dwellers with access to clean water and affordable sanitation facilities. (onlinevolunteering.org)
  • eCR dramatically improves disease/condition reporting and reduces physician burden in fulfilling their legal responsibility to report, which leads to early implementation of public health interventions and limits further spread of infectious agents. (openhealthnews.com)
  • Secretary Azar, we urge you to speak up and amplify the critical role of CDC and that of all public health agencies during this monumental crisis," the letter said. (yahoo.com)
  • Though the path ahead may be uncertain, we urge you to seize this opportunity to make a real difference in the way that this country delivers health. (healthyamericans.org)
  • We demonstrate our commitment to sustainability by upholding numerous sustainable practices throughout the organization. (nsf.org)
  • Laura Anderko, professor at Georgetown University and director of the Mid-Atlantic Center for Children's Health and the Environment commenting on public health practices in response to proposal to ban chlorpyrifos pesticide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tribal list frame consisted of 292 tribal health organizations, and was developed by IHS through a compilation of multiple listings and a careful review of each tribe's service type and contact information. (hhs.gov)
  • Manufacturers, regulators and consumers look to NSF International for the development of public health standards and certification programs that help protect the world's food, water, consumer products and environment. (nsf.org)
  • Recently, the organization withdrew its support, saying that support of the soda taxes did not fit the way Save the Children works. (cmaj.ca)
  • This context has generated growing research interest into the living conditions of persons with disabilities and their opinions on a variety of aspects, and has prompted the development of public policies to support health, well-being, and inclusion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Targeted Topic Training grants, valued at $4,546,147, have been awarded to 39 organizations to support the development of quality training and materials for addressing workplace hazards. (dol.gov)
  • We share a joint cause with the united Nations in the implementation of Sustainable Goal 6, Clean Water and Sanitation.Ultimately our purpose is to contribute to the eradication of poverty by tackling existing health issues which could easily have been avoided by making clean water and decent sanitation facilities available for all. (onlinevolunteering.org)
  • Among the five projects with available data on historical controls, case notification rates were higher after implementation of a public-private mix project. (bmj.com)