Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.
Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.
The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Preventive dental services provided for students in primary and secondary schools.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.
Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.
The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.
Educational institutions.
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Patient-based medical care provided across age and gender or specialty boundaries.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.
Management of public health organizations or agencies.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
Individuals licensed to practice medicine.
The status of health in rural populations.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
The organization and operation of the business aspects of a physician's practice.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
Practice of a health profession by an individual, offering services on a person-to-person basis, as opposed to group or partnership practice.
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
The status of health in urban populations.
The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.
Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.
Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
Organized services to provide health care for children.
The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.
The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
The interactions between physician and patient.
Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.
Conceptual response of the person to the various aspects of death, which are based on individual psychosocial and cultural experience.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)
A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
A way of providing health care that is guided by a thoughtful integration of the best available scientific knowledge with clinical expertise. This approach allows the practitioner to critically assess research data, clinical guidelines, and other information resources in order to correctly identify the clinical problem, apply the most high-quality intervention, and re-evaluate the outcome for future improvement.
The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.
Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.
Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.
Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.
The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.
A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.
Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).
Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.
Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.
Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.
A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.
Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
Use for general articles concerning medical education.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.
The circulation or wide dispersal of information.
Interactions between health personnel and patients.
A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
Geographic area in which a professional person practices; includes primarily physicians and dentists.
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.
An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.
The educational process of instructing.
Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).
A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.
Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.
Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.
Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.
The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.
The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.
Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.
Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.
Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.
Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.
Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.
The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures.
The expected function of a member of a particular profession.
The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
Patterns of practice in dentistry related to diagnosis and treatment.
Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.
The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.

Screening for cervical cancer: a review of women's attitudes, knowledge, and behaviour. (1/12010)

The United Kingdom (UK) cervical screening programme has been successful in securing participation of a high proportion of targeted women, and has seen a fall in mortality rates of those suffering from cervical cancer. There remains, however, a significant proportion of unscreened women and, of women in whom an abnormality is detected, many will not attend for colposcopy. The present work reviews the psychological consequences of receiving an abnormal cervical smear result and of secondary screening and treatment, and examines reasons for women's non-participation in the screening programme. Psychological theories of screening behavior are used to elucidate women's reactions and to suggest methods of increasing participation, of improving the quality of the service, and of reducing women's anxiety. A literature search identified studies that examine factors influencing women's participation in the screening programme, their psychological reaction to the receipt of an abnormal cervical smear result, and experiences of colposcopy. Reasons for non-participation include administrative failures, unavailability of a female screener, inconvenient clinic times, lack of awareness of the test's indications and benefits, considering oneself not to be at risk of developing cervical cancer, and fear of embarrassment, pain, or the detection of cancer. The receipt of an abnormal result and referral for colposcopy cause high levels of distress owing to limited understanding of the meaning of the smear test; many women believe the test aims to detect existing cervical cancer. The quality of the cervical screening service can be enhanced by the provision of additional information, by improved quality of communication, and by consideration of women's health beliefs. This may result in increased participation in, and satisfaction with, the service.  (+info)

Illness behaviour in elite middle and long distance runners. (2/12010)

OBJECTIVES: To examine the illness attitudes and beliefs known to be associated with abnormal illness behaviour (where symptoms are present in excess of objective signs and pathology) in elite middle and long distance runners, in comparison with non-athlete controls. METHODS: A total of 150 athletes were surveyed using the illness behaviour questionnaire as an instrument to explore the psychological attributes associated with abnormal illness behaviour. Subjects also completed the general health questionnaire as a measure of psychiatric morbidity. A control group of 150 subjects, matched for age, sex, and social class, were surveyed using the same instruments. RESULTS: A multivariate analysis of illness behaviour questionnaire responses showed that the athletes' group differed significantly from the control group (Hotelling's T: Exact F = 2.68; p = 0.01). In particular, athletes were more somatically focused (difference between means -0.27; 95% confidence interval -0.50 to -0.03) and more likely to deny the impact of stresses in their life (difference between means 0.78; 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 1.25). Athletes were also higher scorers on the Whiteley Index of Hypochondriasis (difference between means 0.76; 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 1.48). There were no differences in the levels of psychiatric morbidity between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The illness attitudes and beliefs of athletes differ from those of a well matched control population. The origin of these psychological attributes is not clear but those who treat athletes need to be aware of them.  (+info)

Provider attitudes toward dispensing emergency contraception in Michigan's Title X programs.(3/12010)



he pill in Japan: will approval ever come?  (+info)

Placebo medication use in patient care: a survey of medical interns. (5/12010)

The use of placebo medication, long recognized by clinicians, often has serious practical implications, such as patient deception. Past evidence has suggested that resident physicians tend to misuse placebo medication. Interns from two consecutive years of a residency program were surveyed anonymously to assess their knowledge and use of placebos. Of the 74 interns surveyed, 44 (59%) were familiar with placebo use in patient care. Fifty percent of these interns familiar with placebo use had learned about placebos from another physician. All interns who had learned about placebos during their internships had learned from another physician, whereas interns who had gained their knowledge of placebos as medical students were as likely to have learned from the medical literature as they were to have learned from a physician (P = 0.027). Interns aware of placebo use were more likely to consider placebo administration for suspected, factitious pain (P = 0.022). The present study uncovered no relationship between interns' estimations of placebo efficacy and the utility they attributed to placebos in assessing a complaint of pain. This suggests that conceptual inconsistencies underlie their use of placebos. Interns often learn of placebos as medical students and are influenced by physician-mentors. Placebo use in patient care is an area of attention for medical educators.  (+info)

Relationships between various attitudes towards self-determination in health care with special reference to an advance directive. (6/12010)

OBJECTIVES: The subject of patient self-determination in health care has gained broad interest because of the increasing number of incompetent patients. In an attempt to solve the problems related to doctors' decision making in such circumstances, advance directives have been developed. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between public attitudes towards patient autonomy and advance directives. SUBJECTS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A stratified random sample of 600 adults in northern Sweden was surveyed by a questionnaire with a response rate of 78.2%. The subjects were asked about their wish for control of their health care, their concerns about health care, their treatment preferences in a life-threatening situation (both reversible and irreversible), and their attitudes towards the application of advance directives. RESULTS: Numerous relationships between various aspects of self-determination in health care (desire for control, fears of over-treatment, and choice of treatment level) in general and advance directives, in particular, were found. Those who wanted to have a say in their health care (about 94%) also mainly supported the use of an advance directive. CONCLUSIONS: The fact that almost 30% of the respondents were undecided concerning their personal use of advance directives points to a lack of knowledge and to the necessity of education of the public on these issues.  (+info)

How physician executives and clinicians perceive ethical issues in Saudi Arabian hospitals. (7/12010)

OBJECTIVES: To compare the perceptions of physician executives and clinicians regarding ethical issues in Saudi Arabian hospitals and the attributes that might lead to the existence of these ethical issues. DESIGN: Self-completion questionnaire administered from February to July 1997. SETTING: Different health regions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of 457 physicians (317 clinicians and 140 physician executives) from several hospitals in various regions across the kingdom. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in the perceptions of physician executives and clinicians regarding the existence of various ethical issues in their hospitals. The vast majority of physician executives did not perceive that seven of the eight issues addressed by the study were ethical concerns in their hospitals. However, the majority of the clinicians perceived that six of the same eight issues were ethical considerations in their hospitals. Statistically significant differences in the perceptions of physician executives and clinicians were observed in only three out of eight attributes that might possibly lead to the existence of ethical issues. The most significant attribute that was perceived to result in ethical issues was that of hospitals having a multinational staff. CONCLUSION: The study calls for the formulation of a code of ethics that will address specifically the physicians who work in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. As a more immediate initiative, it is recommended that seminars and workshops be conducted to provide physicians with an opportunity to discuss the ethical dilemmas they face in their medical practice.  (+info)

Attitudes, knowledge, and risk perceptions of women with breast and/or ovarian cancer considering testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2. (8/12010)

PURPOSE: This study examined baseline knowledge, beliefs, and risk perceptions among a group of 200 women with breast and/or ovarian cancer who participated in a trial designed to improve decision making about genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women were identified by self-referral, physician referral, and tumor registry extraction and invited to participate in a randomized trial in which testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 was offered free of charge. Subjects completed baseline questionnaires and interviews that assessed knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of risk of having an alteration in BRCA1 or BRCA2. RESULTS: Sixty percent of women overestimated their chances of having a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation compared with estimates from a BRCA1/BRCA2 risk model. Women who have at least three relatives with breast or ovarian cancer were one third (95% confidence interval, 0.2 to 0.6) as likely to overestimate their risk of having a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation compared with women who have two or fewer affected relatives. Knowledge was limited about BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and cancer risk associated with gene mutations. Eighty-four percent of the women indicated a probable or definite interest in testing. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of the high-risk women in this study had knowledge deficits about BRCA1 and BRCA2 and overestimated their risk of having a mutation. Although some degree of caution should be used in generalizing the results of this study to practice settings, the data provide insight into the challenges clinicians will face in communicating with patients about cancer genetics.  (+info)

1. Gingivitis: An inflammation of the gums that can be caused by poor oral hygiene, smoking, or other factors. Gingivitis is often reversible with proper treatment.
2. Periodontitis: A more severe form of gingival disease that affects the bone and tissues supporting the teeth. Periodontitis can lead to tooth loss if left untreated.
3. Pyorrhea: An inflammatory condition characterized by the presence of pus in the gums and pockets between the teeth and gums. Pyorrhea is often a symptom of periodontitis.
4. Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG): A severe and painful form of gingival disease that can lead to tissue death and tooth loss if left untreated.
5. Desquamative gingivitis: A condition characterized by the thinning and shedding of the gums, often due to smoking or other systemic factors.
6. Necrotizing periodontal disease: A rare but severe form of periodontitis that can lead to tissue death and tooth loss.
7. Peri-implant diseases: Conditions that affect the tissues surrounding dental implants, including peri-implantitis and peri-implant mucositis.

Treatment for gingival diseases may include antibiotics, scaling and root planing, surgical intervention, and lifestyle changes such as improved oral hygiene and smoking cessation. It is important to seek professional dental care if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Note: The word "toothache" refers to pain in one or more teeth, and not to general gum pain or discomfort.

Symptoms may include sensitivity, discomfort, visible holes or stains on teeth, bad breath, and difficulty chewing or biting. If left untreated, dental caries can progress and lead to more serious complications such as abscesses, infections, and even tooth loss.

To prevent dental caries, it is essential to maintain good oral hygiene habits, including brushing your teeth at least twice a day with fluoride toothpaste, flossing daily, and using mouthwash regularly. Limiting sugary foods and drinks and visiting a dentist for regular check-ups can also help prevent the disease.

Dental caries is treatable through various methods such as fillings, crowns, root canals, extractions, and preventive measures like fissure sealants and fluoride applications. Early detection and prompt treatment are crucial to prevent further damage and restore oral health.

Some common types of mental disorders include:

1. Anxiety disorders: These conditions cause excessive worry, fear, or anxiety that interferes with daily life. Examples include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder.
2. Mood disorders: These conditions affect a person's mood, causing feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or anger that persist for weeks or months. Examples include depression, bipolar disorder, and seasonal affective disorder.
3. Personality disorders: These conditions involve patterns of thought and behavior that deviate from the norm of the average person. Examples include borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder.
4. Psychotic disorders: These conditions cause a person to lose touch with reality, resulting in delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized thinking. Examples include schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and brief psychotic disorder.
5. Trauma and stressor-related disorders: These conditions develop after a person experiences a traumatic event, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
6. Dissociative disorders: These conditions involve a disconnection or separation from one's body, thoughts, or emotions. Examples include dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as multiple personality disorder) and depersonalization disorder.
7. Neurodevelopmental disorders: These conditions affect the development of the brain and nervous system, leading to symptoms such as difficulty with social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors. Examples include autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Rett syndrome.

Mental disorders can be diagnosed by a mental health professional using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which provides criteria for each condition. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy, depending on the specific disorder and individual needs.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.


Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

Types of Substance-Related Disorders:

1. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive consumption of alcohol, leading to impaired control over drinking, social or personal problems, and increased risk of health issues.
2. Opioid Use Disorder (OUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of opioids, such as prescription painkillers or heroin, leading to withdrawal symptoms when the substance is not available.
3. Stimulant Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of stimulants, such as cocaine or amphetamines, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
4. Cannabis Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of cannabis, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
5. Hallucinogen Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of hallucinogens, such as LSD or psilocybin mushrooms, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.

Causes and Risk Factors:

1. Genetics: Individuals with a family history of substance-related disorders are more likely to develop these conditions.
2. Mental health: Individuals with mental health conditions, such as depression or anxiety, may be more likely to use substances as a form of self-medication.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to substances at an early age, peer pressure, and social environment can increase the risk of developing a substance-related disorder.
4. Brain chemistry: Substance use can alter brain chemistry, leading to dependence and addiction.


1. Increased tolerance: The need to use more of the substance to achieve the desired effect.
2. Withdrawal: Experiencing symptoms such as anxiety, irritability, or nausea when the substance is not present.
3. Loss of control: Using more substance than intended or for longer than intended.
4. Neglecting responsibilities: Neglecting responsibilities at home, work, or school due to substance use.
5. Continued use despite negative consequences: Continuing to use the substance despite physical, emotional, or financial consequences.


1. Physical examination: A doctor may perform a physical examination to look for signs of substance use, such as track marks or changes in heart rate and blood pressure.
2. Laboratory tests: Blood or urine tests can confirm the presence of substances in the body.
3. Psychological evaluation: A mental health professional may conduct a psychological evaluation to assess symptoms of substance-related disorders and determine the presence of co-occurring conditions.


1. Detoxification: A medically-supervised detox program can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce the risk of complications.
2. Medications: Medications such as methadone or buprenorphine may be prescribed to manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.
3. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and contingency management are effective behavioral therapies for treating substance use disorders.
4. Support groups: Joining a support group such as Narcotics Anonymous can provide a sense of community and support for individuals in recovery.
5. Lifestyle changes: Making healthy lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.

It's important to note that diagnosis and treatment of substance-related disorders is a complex process and should be individualized based on the specific needs and circumstances of each patient.

STDs can cause a range of symptoms, including genital itching, burning during urination, unusual discharge, and painful sex. Some STDs can also lead to long-term health problems, such as infertility, chronic pain, and an increased risk of certain types of cancer.

STDs are usually diagnosed through a physical exam, blood tests, or other diagnostic tests. Treatment for STDs varies depending on the specific infection and can include antibiotics, antiviral medication, or other therapies. It's important to practice safe sex, such as using condoms, to reduce the risk of getting an STD.

Some of the most common STDs include:

* Chlamydia: A bacterial infection that can cause genital itching, burning during urination, and unusual discharge.
* Gonorrhea: A bacterial infection that can cause similar symptoms to chlamydia.
* Syphilis: A bacterial infection that can cause a painless sore on the genitals, followed by a rash and other symptoms.
* Herpes: A viral infection that can cause genital itching, burning during urination, and painful sex.
* HPV: A viral infection that can cause genital warts and increase the risk of cervical cancer.
* HIV/AIDS: A viral infection that can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, fatigue, and weight loss, and can lead to AIDS if left untreated.

It's important to note that some STDs can be spread through non-sexual contact, such as sharing needles or mother-to-child transmission during childbirth. It's also important to know that many STDs can be asymptomatic, meaning you may not have any symptoms even if you are infected.

If you think you may have been exposed to an STD, it's important to get tested as soon as possible. Many STDs can be easily treated with antibiotics or other medications, but if left untreated, they can lead to serious complications and long-term health problems.

It's also important to practice safe sex to reduce the risk of getting an STD. This includes using condoms, as well as getting vaccinated against HPV and Hepatitis B, which are both common causes of STDs.

In addition to getting tested and practicing safe sex, it's important to be aware of your sexual health and the risks associated with sex. This includes being aware of any symptoms you may experience, as well as being aware of your partner's sexual history and any STDs they may have. By being informed and proactive about your sexual health, you can help reduce the risk of getting an STD and maintain good sexual health.

There are several types of diabetes mellitus, including:

1. Type 1 DM: This is an autoimmune condition in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, resulting in a complete deficiency of insulin production. It typically develops in childhood or adolescence, and patients with this condition require lifelong insulin therapy.
2. Type 2 DM: This is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for around 90% of all cases. It is caused by a combination of insulin resistance (where the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin) and impaired insulin secretion. It is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and a diet high in sugar and unhealthy fats.
3. Gestational DM: This type of diabetes develops during pregnancy, usually in the second or third trimester. Hormonal changes and insulin resistance can cause blood sugar levels to rise, putting both the mother and baby at risk.
4. LADA (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults): This is a form of type 1 DM that develops in adults, typically after the age of 30. It shares features with both type 1 and type 2 DM.
5. MODY (Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young): This is a rare form of diabetes caused by genetic mutations that affect insulin production. It typically develops in young adulthood and can be managed with lifestyle changes and/or medication.

The symptoms of diabetes mellitus can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

1. Increased thirst and urination
2. Fatigue
3. Blurred vision
4. Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
5. Tingling or numbness in hands and feet
6. Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections
7. Flu-like symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and stomach pain
8. Dark, velvety skin patches (acanthosis nigricans)
9. Yellowish color of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
10. Delayed healing of cuts and wounds

If left untreated, diabetes mellitus can lead to a range of complications, including:

1. Heart disease and stroke
2. Kidney damage and failure
3. Nerve damage (neuropathy)
4. Eye damage (retinopathy)
5. Foot damage (neuropathic ulcers)
6. Cognitive impairment and dementia
7. Increased risk of infections and other diseases, such as pneumonia, gum disease, and urinary tract infections.

It is important to note that not all individuals with diabetes will experience these complications, and that proper management of the condition can greatly reduce the risk of developing these complications.

There are several different types of obesity, including:

1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.

Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:

1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.

The symptoms of AIDS can vary depending on the individual and the stage of the disease. Common symptoms include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss
9. Memory loss and other neurological problems
10. Cancer and other opportunistic infections.

AIDS is diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of HIV antibodies or the virus itself. There is no cure for AIDS, but antiretroviral therapy (ART) can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Prevention methods include using condoms, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and avoiding sharing needles or other injection equipment.

In summary, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a severe and life-threatening condition caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). It is characterized by a severely weakened immune system, which makes it difficult to fight off infections and diseases. While there is no cure for AIDS, antiretroviral therapy can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Prevention methods include using condoms, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and avoiding sharing needles or other injection equipment.

1. Asbestosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos fibers.
2. Carpal tunnel syndrome: a nerve disorder caused by repetitive motion and pressure on the wrist.
3. Mesothelioma: a type of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos.
4. Pneumoconiosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling dust from mining or other heavy industries.
5. Repetitive strain injuries: injuries caused by repetitive motions, such as typing or using vibrating tools.
6. Skin conditions: such as skin irritation and dermatitis caused by exposure to chemicals or other substances in the workplace.
7. Hearing loss: caused by loud noises in the workplace.
8. Back injuries: caused by lifting, bending, or twisting.
9. Respiratory problems: such as asthma and other breathing difficulties caused by exposure to chemicals or dust in the workplace.
10. Cancer: caused by exposure to carcinogens such as radiation, certain chemicals, or heavy metals in the workplace.

Occupational diseases can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as they often develop gradually over time and may not be immediately attributed to the work environment. In some cases, these diseases may not appear until years after exposure has ended. It is important for workers to be aware of the potential health risks associated with their job and take steps to protect themselves, such as wearing protective gear, following safety protocols, and seeking regular medical check-ups. Employers also have a responsibility to provide a safe work environment and follow strict regulations to prevent the spread of occupational diseases.

1. Coronary artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart.
2. Heart failure: A condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms that can be too fast, too slow, or irregular.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves that control blood flow through the heart.
5. Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy): Disease of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure.
6. Congenital heart disease: Defects in the heart's structure and function that are present at birth.
7. Peripheral artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the arms, legs, and other organs.
8. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg.
9. Pulmonary embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, which can be caused by a blood clot or other debris.
10. Stroke: A condition in which there is a lack of oxygen to the brain due to a blockage or rupture of blood vessels.

Acute wounds and injuries are those that occur suddenly and heal within a relatively short period of time, usually within a few days or weeks. Examples of acute wounds include cuts, scrapes, and burns. Chronic wounds and injuries, on the other hand, are those that persist over a longer period of time and may not heal properly, leading to long-term complications. Examples of chronic wounds include diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and chronic back pain.

Wounds and injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, sports injuries, violence, and medical conditions such as diabetes or circulatory problems. Treatment for wounds and injuries depends on the severity of the injury and may include cleaning and dressing the wound, applying antibiotics, immobilizing broken bones, and providing pain management. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissues or restore function.

Preventive measures for wounds and injuries include wearing appropriate protective gear during activities such as sports or work, following safety protocols to avoid accidents, maintaining proper hygiene and nutrition to prevent infection, and seeking medical attention promptly if an injury occurs.

Overall, wounds and injuries can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper treatment and management of wounds and injuries can help to promote healing, reduce the risk of complications, and improve long-term outcomes.

Asthma can cause recurring episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These symptoms occur when the muscles surrounding the airways contract, causing the airways to narrow and swell. This can be triggered by exposure to environmental allergens or irritants such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, or respiratory infections.

There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment typically includes inhaled corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, bronchodilators to open up the airways, and rescue medications to relieve symptoms during an asthma attack.

Asthma is a common condition that affects people of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in children. According to the American Lung Association, more than 25 million Americans have asthma, and it is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children under the age of 18.

While there is no cure for asthma, early diagnosis and proper treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the condition.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

The exact cause of depressive disorder is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Some common risk factors for developing depressive disorder include:

* Family history of depression
* Traumatic events, such as abuse or loss
* Chronic stress
* Substance abuse
* Chronic illness or chronic pain

There are several different types of depressive disorders, including:

* Major depressive disorder (MDD): This is the most common type of depression, characterized by one or more major depressive episodes in a person's lifetime.
* Persistent depressive disorder (PDD): This type of depression is characterized by persistent, low-grade symptoms that last for two years or more.
* Bipolar disorder: This is a mood disorder that involves periods of both depression and mania or hypomania.
* Postpartum depression (PPD): This is a type of depression that occurs in women after childbirth.
* Severe depression: This is a severe and debilitating form of depression that can interfere with daily life and relationships.

Treatment for depressive disorder typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, such as antidepressant medications and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Other forms of therapy, such as psychodynamic therapy or interpersonal therapy, may also be effective. Lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep, can also help manage symptoms.

It's important to seek professional help if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of depressive disorder. With proper treatment, many people are able to recover from depression and lead fulfilling lives.

Examples of communicable diseases include:

1. Influenza (the flu)
2. Measles
3. Tuberculosis (TB)
5. Malaria
6. Hepatitis B and C
7. Chickenpox
8. Whooping cough (pertussis)
9. Meningitis
10. Pneumonia

Communicable diseases can be spread through various means, including:

1. Direct contact with an infected person: This includes touching, hugging, shaking hands, or sharing food and drinks with someone who is infected.
2. Indirect contact with contaminated surfaces or objects: Pathogens can survive on surfaces for a period of time and can be transmitted to people who come into contact with those surfaces.
3. Airborne transmission: Some diseases, such as the flu and TB, can be spread through the air when an infected person talks, coughs, or sneezes.
4. Infected insect or animal bites: Diseases such as malaria and Lyme disease can be spread through the bites of infected mosquitoes or ticks.

Prevention and control of communicable diseases are essential to protect public health. This includes:

1. Vaccination: Vaccines can prevent many communicable diseases, such as measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), and influenza.
2. Personal hygiene: Frequent handwashing, covering the mouth when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick can help prevent the spread of diseases.
3. Improved sanitation and clean water: Proper disposal of human waste and adequate water treatment can reduce the risk of disease transmission.
4. Screening and testing: Identifying and isolating infected individuals can help prevent the spread of disease.
5. Antibiotics and antiviral medications: These drugs can treat and prevent some communicable diseases, such as bacterial infections and viral infections like HIV.
6. Public education: Educating the public about the risks and prevention of communicable diseases can help reduce the spread of disease.
7. Contact tracing: Identifying and monitoring individuals who have been in close contact with someone who has a communicable disease can help prevent further transmission.
8. Quarantine and isolation: Quarantine and isolation measures can be used to control outbreaks by separating infected individuals from those who are not infected.
9. Improved healthcare infrastructure: Adequate healthcare facilities, such as hospitals and clinics, can help diagnose and treat communicable diseases early on, reducing the risk of transmission.
10. International collaboration: Collaboration between countries and global organizations is crucial for preventing and controlling the spread of communicable diseases that are a threat to public health worldwide, such as pandemic flu and SARS.

There are several different types of malaria, including:

1. Plasmodium falciparum: This is the most severe form of malaria, and it can be fatal if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
2. Plasmodium vivax: This type of malaria is less severe than P. falciparum, but it can still cause serious complications if left untreated. It is found in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
3. Plasmodium ovale: This type of malaria is similar to P. vivax, but it can cause more severe symptoms in some people. It is found primarily in West Africa.
4. Plasmodium malariae: This type of malaria is less common than the other three types, and it tends to cause milder symptoms. It is found primarily in parts of Africa and Asia.

The symptoms of malaria can vary depending on the type of parasite that is causing the infection, but they typically include:

1. Fever
2. Chills
3. Headache
4. Muscle and joint pain
5. Fatigue
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Diarrhea
8. Anemia (low red blood cell count)

If malaria is not treated promptly, it can lead to more severe complications, such as:

1. Seizures
2. Coma
3. Respiratory failure
4. Kidney failure
5. Liver failure
6. Anemia (low red blood cell count)

Malaria is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as blood smears or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. Treatment for malaria typically involves the use of antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine or artemisinin-based combination therapies. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications and provide supportive care.

Prevention is an important aspect of managing malaria, and this can include:

1. Using insecticide-treated bed nets
2. Wearing protective clothing and applying insect repellent when outdoors
3. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities to reduce the number of mosquito breeding sites
4. Using indoor residual spraying (IRS) or insecticide-treated wall lining to kill mosquitoes
5. Implementing malaria control measures in areas where malaria is common, such as distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS)
6. Improving access to healthcare services, particularly in rural and remote areas
7. Providing education and awareness about malaria prevention and control
8. Encouraging the use of preventive medications, such as intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for pregnant women and children under the age of five.

Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are critical in preventing the progression of malaria and reducing the risk of complications and death. In areas where malaria is common, it is essential to have access to reliable diagnostic tools and effective antimalarial drugs.

The most common types of eating disorders include:

1. Anorexia Nervosa: This is characterized by a severe restriction of food intake, leading to a significantly low body weight. Individuals with anorexia nervosa may have a distorted body image and may view themselves as being overweight, even if they are underweight.
2. Bulimia Nervosa: This is characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by purging, such as vomiting or using laxatives, to rid the body of the consumed food. This can lead to a cycle of guilt and shame, and can have serious physical consequences such as electrolyte imbalances and gastrointestinal problems.
3. Binge Eating Disorder: This is characterized by episodes of uncontrolled eating, often accompanied by feelings of guilt and shame. Unlike bulimia nervosa, there is no purging or compensatory behaviors to rid the body of the consumed food.
4. Other specified feeding or eating disorders (OSFED): This category includes a range of eating disorders that do not meet the criteria for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or binge eating disorder. Examples include orthorexia nervosa (an obsession with healthy eating), avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (a lack of interest in eating or a fear of eating), and pica (eating non-food items).

Eating disorders can have serious physical and emotional consequences, including:

1. Malnutrition: Eating disorders can lead to malnutrition, which can cause a range of health problems, including fatigue, hair loss, and poor wound healing.
2. Electrolyte imbalances: Eating disorders can also lead to electrolyte imbalances, which can cause heart problems, muscle weakness, and other complications.
3. Tooth decay and gum disease: Frequent vomiting can erode tooth enamel and lead to tooth decay and gum disease.
4. Digestive problems: Eating disorders can cause digestive problems such as constipation, diarrhea, and acid reflux.
5. Hormonal imbalances: Eating disorders can disrupt hormone levels, leading to menstrual irregularities, infertility, and other hormone-related problems.
6. Anxiety and depression: Eating disorders can also contribute to anxiety and depression, which can make it more difficult to recover from the eating disorder.
7. Social isolation: Eating disorders can lead to social isolation, as individuals may avoid social situations where food is involved or feel ashamed of their eating habits.
8. Body image distortion: Eating disorders can also cause body image distortion, leading to a negative and unrealistic view of one's body.
9. Osteoporosis: Eating disorders can increase the risk of osteoporosis, particularly in individuals who have been suffering from the disorder for a long time or who have experienced significant weight loss.
10. Increased risk of suicide: Eating disorders can also increase the risk of suicide, as individuals may feel overwhelmed by their symptoms and struggling to cope with the emotional and physical consequences of the disorder.

It's important to note that these complications can be life-threatening and require prompt medical attention. If you or someone you know is struggling with an eating disorder, it's essential to seek professional help from a mental health professional, a registered dietitian, or a primary care physician. With proper treatment and support, individuals can recover from eating disorders and lead a healthy and fulfilling life.

Some common types of tooth diseases include:

1. Caries (cavities): A bacterial infection that causes the decay of tooth enamel, leading to holes or cavities in the teeth.
2. Periodontal disease (gum disease): An infection of the tissues surrounding the teeth, including the gums, periodontal ligament, and jawbone.
3. Tooth sensitivity: Pain or discomfort when eating or drinking hot or cold foods and beverages due to exposed dentin or gum recession.
4. Dental abscesses: Infections that can cause pain, swelling, and pus in the teeth and gums.
5. Tooth erosion: Wear away of the tooth enamel caused by acidic foods and drinks or certain medical conditions.
6. Tooth grinding (bruxism): The habit of grinding or clenching the teeth, which can cause wear on the teeth, jaw pain, and headaches.
7. Dental malocclusion: Misalignment of the teeth, which can cause difficulty chewing, speaking, and other oral health problems.
8. Tooth loss: Loss of one or more teeth due to decay, gum disease, injury, or other causes.

Prevention and treatment of tooth diseases usually involve good oral hygiene practices such as brushing, flossing, and regular dental check-ups. In some cases, more advanced treatments such as fillings, crowns, root canals, or extractions may be necessary.

Precancerous changes in the uterine cervix are called dysplasias, and they can be detected by a Pap smear, which is a routine screening test for women. If dysplasia is found, it can be treated with cryotherapy (freezing), laser therapy, or cone biopsy, which removes the affected cells.

Cervical cancer is rare in developed countries where Pap screening is widely available, but it remains a common cancer in developing countries where access to healthcare and screening is limited. The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been shown to be effective in preventing cervical precancerous changes and cancer.

Cervical cancer can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy, depending on the stage and location of the cancer. The prognosis for early-stage cervical cancer is good, but advanced-stage cancer can be difficult to treat and may have a poor prognosis.

The following are some types of uterine cervical neoplasms:

1. Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS): This is a precancerous condition that occurs when glandular cells on the surface of the cervix become abnormal and grow out of control.
2. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN): This is a precancerous condition that occurs when abnormal cells are found on the surface of the cervix. There are several types of CIN, ranging from mild to severe.
3. Squamous cell carcinoma: This is the most common type of cervical cancer and arises from the squamous cells that line the cervix.
4. Adnexal carcinoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that arises from the glands or ducts near the cervix.
5. Small cell carcinoma: This is a rare and aggressive type of cervical cancer that grows rapidly and can spread quickly to other parts of the body.
6. Micropapillary uterine carcinoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that grows in a finger-like shape and can be difficult to diagnose.
7. Clear cell carcinoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that arises from clear cells and can be more aggressive than other types of cervical cancer.
8. Adenocarcinoma: This is a type of cervical cancer that arises from glandular cells and can be less aggressive than squamous cell carcinoma.
9. Sarcoma: This is a rare type of cervical cancer that arises from the connective tissue of the cervix.

The treatment options for uterine cervical neoplasms depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. The following are some common treatments for uterine cervical neoplasms:

1. Hysterectomy: This is a surgical procedure to remove the uterus and may be recommended for early-stage cancers or precancerous changes.
2. Cryotherapy: This is a minimally invasive procedure that uses liquid nitrogen to freeze and destroy abnormal cells in the cervix.
3. Laser therapy: This is a minimally invasive procedure that uses a laser to remove or destroy abnormal cells in the cervix.
4. Cone biopsy: This is a surgical procedure to remove a small cone-shaped sample of tissue from the cervix to diagnose and treat early-stage cancers or precancerous changes.
5. Radiation therapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
6. Chemotherapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
7. Immunotherapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses drugs to stimulate the immune system to fight cancer cells and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when other treatments have failed.
8. Targeted therapy: This is a non-surgical treatment that uses drugs to target specific genes or proteins that contribute to cancer growth and development and may be recommended for more advanced cancers or when other treatments have failed.

It is important to note that the choice of treatment will depend on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Patients should discuss their treatment options with their doctor and develop a personalized plan that is right for them.

Type 2 diabetes can be managed through a combination of diet, exercise, and medication. In some cases, lifestyle changes may be enough to control blood sugar levels, while in other cases, medication or insulin therapy may be necessary. Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels and follow-up with a healthcare provider are important for managing the condition and preventing complications.

Common symptoms of type 2 diabetes include:

* Increased thirst and urination
* Fatigue
* Blurred vision
* Cuts or bruises that are slow to heal
* Tingling or numbness in the hands and feet
* Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections

If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to a range of complications, including:

* Heart disease and stroke
* Kidney damage and failure
* Nerve damage and pain
* Eye damage and blindness
* Foot damage and amputation

The exact cause of type 2 diabetes is not known, but it is believed to be linked to a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as:

* Obesity and excess body weight
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet and nutrition
* Age and family history
* Certain ethnicities (e.g., African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native American)
* History of gestational diabetes or delivering a baby over 9 lbs.

There is no cure for type 2 diabetes, but it can be managed and controlled through a combination of lifestyle changes and medication. With proper treatment and self-care, people with type 2 diabetes can lead long, healthy lives.

There are two types of hypertension:

1. Primary Hypertension: This type of hypertension has no identifiable cause and is also known as essential hypertension. It accounts for about 90% of all cases of hypertension.
2. Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication. It accounts for about 10% of all cases of hypertension.

Some common causes of secondary hypertension include:

* Kidney disease
* Adrenal gland disorders
* Hormonal imbalances
* Certain medications
* Sleep apnea
* Cocaine use

There are also several risk factors for hypertension, including:

* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Family history of hypertension
* Obesity
* Lack of exercise
* High sodium intake
* Low potassium intake
* Stress

Hypertension is often asymptomatic, and it can cause damage to the blood vessels and organs over time. Some potential complications of hypertension include:

* Heart disease (e.g., heart attacks, heart failure)
* Stroke
* Kidney disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease)
* Vision loss (e.g., retinopathy)
* Peripheral artery disease

Hypertension is typically diagnosed through blood pressure readings taken over a period of time. Treatment for hypertension may include lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, stress management), medications, or a combination of both. The goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life.

Some common examples of respiratory tract diseases include:

1. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
2. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the airways (bronchi) that can cause coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing.
3. Asthma: A chronic condition that causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A progressive condition that makes it difficult to breathe due to damage to the lungs over time.
5. Tuberculosis: An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily affects the lungs.
6. Laryngitis: Inflammation of the voice box (larynx) that can cause hoarseness and difficulty speaking.
7. Tracheitis: Inflammation of the trachea, or windpipe, that can cause coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing.
8. Croup: An infection of the throat and lungs that can cause a barky cough and difficulty breathing.
9. Pleurisy: Inflammation of the lining around the lungs (pleura) that can cause chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing.
10. Pertussis (whooping cough): An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis that can cause coughing fits and difficulty breathing.

These are just a few examples of the many different types of respiratory tract diseases that exist. Each one has its own unique symptoms, causes, and treatment options.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) defines alcohol use disorder as a maladaptive pattern of alcohol use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress in at least three of the following areas:

1. Drinking more or for longer than intended.
2. Desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control drinking.
3. Spending a lot of time drinking or recovering from its effects.
4. Craving or strong desire to drink.
5. Drinking interferes with work, school, or home responsibilities.
6. Continuing to drink despite social or personal problems caused by alcohol use.
7. Giving up important activities in order to drink.
8. Drinking in hazardous situations (e.g., while driving).
9. Continued drinking despite physical or psychological problems caused or worsened by alcohol use.
10. Developing tolerance (i.e., needing to drink more to achieve the desired effect).
11. Experiencing withdrawal symptoms when alcohol use is stopped or reduced.

The severity of alcoholism is categorized into three subtypes based on the number of criteria met: mild, moderate, and severe. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral interventions (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing) and medications (e.g., disulfiram, naltrexone, acamprosate) to manage withdrawal symptoms and cravings.

In conclusion, alcoholism is a chronic and often progressive disease characterized by excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to physical and mental health, relationships, and social functioning. The diagnostic criteria for alcoholism include a combination of physiological, behavioral, and subjective symptoms, and treatment typically involves a combination of behavioral interventions and medications to manage withdrawal symptoms and cravings.

Injuries caused by needles or other sharp objects that puncture the skin and can potentially introduce infectious agents, such as bloodborne pathogens like HIV or hepatitis, into the body. These injuries are a common occupational hazard for healthcare workers and others who handle sharp objects, and can also occur in non-work related settings, such as during medical procedures or at home.

Needlestick injuries can be serious and potentially life-threatening, particularly if the needle or other sharp object is contaminated with an infectious agent. In addition to the risk of infection, needlestick injuries can also cause physical injury, such as lacerations or puncture wounds, and may require medical attention.

There are several measures that can be taken to prevent needlestick injuries, including using safer needle devices, proper disposal of sharp objects, and appropriate training for healthcare workers on safe needle use and handling techniques. In addition, vaccination against certain infectious agents, such as hepatitis B, can help protect against the risk of infection from a needlestick injury.

1. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative joint disease that affects the cartilage and bone in the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation in the joints, leading to pain, swelling, and deformity.
3. Fibromyalgia: A chronic condition characterized by widespread muscle pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbances.
4. Tendinitis: Inflammation of a tendon, which can cause pain and stiffness in the affected area.
5. Bursitis: Inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that cushion joints, leading to pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
6. Carpal tunnel syndrome: Compression of the median nerve in the wrist, leading to numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and fingers.
7. Sprains and strains: Injuries to the ligaments or muscles, often caused by sudden twisting or overstretching.
8. Back pain: Pain in the back that can be caused by a variety of factors, such as muscle strain, herniated discs, or spinal stenosis.
9. Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by weak and brittle bones, leading to an increased risk of fractures.
10. Clubfoot: A congenital deformity in which the foot is turned inward and downward.

These are just a few examples of musculoskeletal diseases, and there are many more conditions that can affect the muscles, bones, and joints. Treatment options for these conditions can range from conservative methods such as physical therapy and medication to surgical interventions. It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe symptoms in your musculoskeletal system.

1. Tooth decay (cavities): A bacterial infection that causes tooth enamel to break down, leading to holes in the teeth.
2. Periodontal disease: An infection of the gums and bone that support the teeth, caused by bacteria.
3. Gingivitis: Inflammation of the gums, usually caused by poor oral hygiene or smoking.
4. Oral thrush: A fungal infection of the mouth, typically affecting people with weakened immune systems.
5. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections: Viral infections that cause sores on the lips, tongue, or gums.
6. Cold sores: Caused by the herpes simplex virus, these are small, painful blisters that appear on the lips, nose, or mouth.
7. Canker sores: Small, shallow ulcers that develop on the inside of the mouth, tongue, lips, or gums.
8. Leukoplakia: A condition where thick, white patches form on the insides of the mouth, usually due to excessive tobacco use or other irritants.
9. Oral cancer: Cancer that develops in any part of the mouth, including the lips, tongue, gums, or throat.
10. Dry mouth (xerostomia): A condition where the mouth does not produce enough saliva, which can increase the risk of tooth decay and other problems.

These are just a few examples of mouth diseases. It's important to maintain good oral hygiene and visit a dentist regularly to help prevent these conditions and ensure early detection and treatment if they do occur.

1. Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of stroke, accounting for about 87% of all strokes. It occurs when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked, reducing blood flow to the brain.
2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing bleeding in the brain. High blood pressure, aneurysms, and blood vessel malformations can all cause hemorrhagic strokes.
3. Transient ischemic attack (TIA): Also known as a "mini-stroke," a TIA is a temporary interruption of blood flow to the brain that lasts for a short period of time, usually less than 24 hours. TIAs are often a warning sign for a future stroke and should be taken seriously.

Stroke can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the location and severity of the damage to the brain. Some common symptoms include:

* Weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg
* Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
* Sudden vision loss or double vision
* Dizziness, loss of balance, or sudden falls
* Severe headache
* Confusion, disorientation, or difficulty with memory

Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability and can have a significant impact on the quality of life for survivors. However, with prompt medical treatment and rehabilitation, many people are able to recover some or all of their lost functions and lead active lives.

The medical community has made significant progress in understanding stroke and developing effective treatments. Some of the most important advances include:

* Development of clot-busting drugs and mechanical thrombectomy devices to treat ischemic strokes
* Improved imaging techniques, such as CT and MRI scans, to diagnose stroke and determine its cause
* Advances in surgical techniques for hemorrhagic stroke
* Development of new medications to prevent blood clots and reduce the risk of stroke

Despite these advances, stroke remains a significant public health problem. According to the American Heart Association, stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the United States and the leading cause of long-term disability. In 2017, there were over 795,000 strokes in the United States alone.

There are several risk factors for stroke that can be controlled or modified. These include:

* High blood pressure
* Diabetes mellitus
* High cholesterol levels
* Smoking
* Obesity
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet

In addition to these modifiable risk factors, there are also several non-modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as age (stroke risk increases with age), family history of stroke, and previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).

The medical community has made significant progress in understanding the causes and risk factors for stroke, as well as developing effective treatments and prevention strategies. However, more research is needed to improve outcomes for stroke survivors and reduce the overall burden of this disease.

In the medical field, emergencies are situations that require immediate medical attention to prevent serious harm or death. These situations may include:

1. Life-threatening injuries, such as gunshot wounds, stab wounds, or severe head trauma.
2. Severe illnesses, such as heart attacks, strokes, or respiratory distress.
3. Acute and severe pain, such as from a broken bone or severe burns.
4. Mental health emergencies, such as suicidal thoughts or behaviors, or psychosis.
5. Obstetric emergencies, such as preterm labor or placental abruption.
6. Pediatric emergencies, such as respiratory distress or dehydration in infants and children.
7. Trauma, such as from a car accident or fall.
8. Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, or floods.
9. Environmental emergencies, such as carbon monoxide poisoning or exposure to toxic substances.
10. Mass casualty incidents, such as a terrorist attack or plane crash.

In all of these situations, prompt and appropriate medical care is essential to prevent further harm and save lives. Emergency responders, including paramedics, emergency medical technicians (EMTs), and other healthcare providers, are trained to quickly assess the situation, provide immediate care, and transport patients to a hospital if necessary.

1. Preeclampsia: A condition characterized by high blood pressure during pregnancy, which can lead to complications such as stroke or premature birth.
2. Gestational diabetes: A type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy, which can cause complications for both the mother and the baby if left untreated.
3. Placenta previa: A condition in which the placenta is located low in the uterus, covering the cervix, which can cause bleeding and other complications.
4. Premature labor: Labor that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
5. Fetal distress: A condition in which the fetus is not getting enough oxygen, which can lead to serious health problems or even death.
6. Postpartum hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding after delivery, which can be life-threatening if left untreated.
7. Cesarean section (C-section) complications: Complications that may arise during a C-section, such as infection or bleeding.
8. Maternal infections: Infections that the mother may contract during pregnancy or childbirth, such as group B strep or urinary tract infections.
9. Preterm birth: Birth that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
10. Chromosomal abnormalities: Genetic disorders that may affect the baby's growth and development, such as Down syndrome or Turner syndrome.

It is important for pregnant women to receive regular prenatal care to monitor for any potential complications and ensure a healthy pregnancy outcome. In some cases, pregnancy complications may require medical interventions, such as hospitalization or surgery, to ensure the safety of both the mother and the baby.

There are many different types of diseases, ranging from acute and short-term conditions such as the common cold or flu, to chronic and long-term conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, or cancer. Some diseases are infectious, meaning they can be transmitted from one person to another through contact with a contaminated surface or exchange of bodily fluids. Other diseases are non-infectious, meaning they are not transmitted from person to person and are typically caused by genetic mutations or environmental factors.

The diagnosis and treatment of disease is the focus of the medical field, and doctors and other healthcare professionals use a variety of tools and techniques to identify and manage diseases. These may include physical exams, laboratory tests, imaging studies, and medications. In some cases, surgery or other procedures may be necessary to treat a disease.

Some common examples of diseases include:

1. Heart disease: A condition that affects the heart and blood vessels, often caused by high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or smoking.
2. Diabetes: A condition in which the body is unable to properly regulate blood sugar levels, often caused by genetics or obesity.
3. Cancer: A condition in which abnormal cells grow and multiply, often causing damage to surrounding tissues.
4. Inflammatory diseases: Conditions such as arthritis, where the body's immune system causes inflammation and pain in the joints.
5. Neurological diseases: Conditions that affect the brain and nervous system, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or multiple sclerosis.
6. Infectious diseases: Conditions caused by the presence of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi, including the common cold, flu, and tuberculosis.
7. Genetic diseases: Conditions that are caused by changes in DNA, such as sickle cell anemia or cystic fibrosis.
8. Autoimmune diseases: Conditions where the body's immune system attacks healthy cells and tissues, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.
9. Pulmonary diseases: Conditions that affect the lungs, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or lung cancer.
10. Gastrointestinal diseases: Conditions that affect the digestive system, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

These are just a few examples of the many different types of diseases that exist. Diseases can be caused by a wide range of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and environmental factors. Understanding the causes and symptoms of different diseases is important for developing effective treatments and improving patient outcomes.

Symptoms of influenza include:

* Fever (usually high)
* Cough
* Sore throat
* Runny or stuffy nose
* Headache
* Muscle or body aches
* Fatigue (tiredness)
* Diarrhea and nausea (more common in children than adults)

Influenza can lead to serious complications, such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections. These complications are more likely to occur in people who have a weakened immune system, such as the elderly, young children, and people with certain chronic health conditions (like heart disease, diabetes, and lung disease).

Influenza is diagnosed based on a physical examination and medical history. A healthcare provider may also use a rapid influenza test (RIT) or a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment for influenza typically involves rest, hydration, and over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) to relieve fever and body aches. Antiviral medications, such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or zanamivir (Relenza), may also be prescribed to help shorten the duration and severity of the illness. However, these medications are most effective when started within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms.

Prevention is key in avoiding influenza. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza, as well as practicing good hygiene such as washing your hands frequently, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and staying home when you are sick.

There are many different types of epilepsy, each with its own unique set of symptoms and characteristics. Some common forms of epilepsy include:

1. Generalized Epilepsy: This type of epilepsy affects both sides of the brain and can cause a range of seizure types, including absence seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, and atypical absence seizures.
2. Focal Epilepsy: This type of epilepsy affects only one part of the brain and can cause seizures that are localized to that area. There are several subtypes of focal epilepsy, including partial seizures with complex symptoms and simple partial seizures.
3. Tonic-Clonic Epilepsy: This type of epilepsy is also known as grand mal seizures and can cause a loss of consciousness, convulsions, and muscle stiffness.
4. Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome: This is a rare and severe form of epilepsy that typically develops in early childhood and can cause multiple types of seizures, including tonic, atonic, and myoclonic seizures.
5. Dravet Syndrome: This is a rare genetic form of epilepsy that typically develops in infancy and can cause severe, frequent seizures.
6. Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome: This is a rare genetic disorder that can cause intellectual disability, developmental delays, and various types of seizures.
7. Other forms of epilepsy include Absence Epilepsy, Myoclonic Epilepsy, and Atonic Epilepsy.

The symptoms of epilepsy can vary widely depending on the type of seizure disorder and the individual affected. Some common symptoms of epilepsy include:

1. Seizures: This is the most obvious symptom of epilepsy and can range from mild to severe.
2. Loss of consciousness: Some people with epilepsy may experience a loss of consciousness during a seizure, while others may remain aware of their surroundings.
3. Confusion and disorientation: After a seizure, some people with epilepsy may feel confused and disoriented.
4. Memory loss: Seizures can cause short-term or long-term memory loss.
5. Fatigue: Epilepsy can cause extreme fatigue, both during and after a seizure.
6. Emotional changes: Some people with epilepsy may experience emotional changes, such as anxiety, depression, or mood swings.
7. Cognitive changes: Epilepsy can affect cognitive function, including attention, memory, and learning.
8. Sleep disturbances: Some people with epilepsy may experience sleep disturbances, such as insomnia or sleepiness.
9. Physical symptoms: Depending on the type of seizure, people with epilepsy may experience physical symptoms such as muscle weakness, numbness or tingling, and sensory changes.
10. Social isolation: Epilepsy can cause social isolation due to fear of having a seizure in public or stigma associated with the condition.

It's important to note that not everyone with epilepsy will experience all of these symptoms, and some people may have different symptoms depending on the type of seizure they experience. Additionally, some people with epilepsy may experience additional symptoms not listed here.

Being overweight can increase the risk of various health problems, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. It can also affect a person's mental health and overall quality of life.

There are several ways to assess whether someone is overweight or not. One common method is using the BMI, which is calculated based on height and weight. Another method is measuring body fat percentage, which can be done with specialized tools such as skinfold calipers or bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA).

Losing weight and maintaining a healthy weight can be achieved through a combination of diet, exercise, and lifestyle changes. Some examples of healthy weight loss strategies include:

* Eating a balanced diet that is high in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein sources
* Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, running, swimming, or weight training
* Avoiding fad diets and quick fixes
* Getting enough sleep and managing stress levels
* Setting realistic weight loss goals and tracking progress over time.

Examples of acute diseases include:

1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.

Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Tobacco use disorder refers to a condition where an individual engages in the excessive and compulsive consumption of tobacco products, despite the negative consequences it may have on their health and well-being. Tobacco use disorder is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide, and it is characterized by a pattern of continued tobacco use despite harmful effects, as well as an increased tolerance to tobacco and withdrawal symptoms when trying to stop.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) defines tobacco use disorder as a chronic condition that can manifest in different forms, including nicotine dependence and tobacco abuse. The criteria for diagnosing tobacco use disorder include:

1. Tolerance: A need to use more tobacco to achieve the desired effect.
2. Withdrawal: Experiencing symptoms such as irritability, anxiety, or depression when trying to stop using tobacco.
3. Loss of control: Consuming more tobacco than intended or for longer periods than intended.
4. Negative consequences: Continuing to use tobacco despite social, physical, or psychological problems caused by its use.
5. Increased time and effort spent on using tobacco.
6. Craving or a strong desire to use tobacco.
7. Failure to control or reduce tobacco use.

Tobacco use disorder can have severe consequences, including lung cancer, heart disease, respiratory problems, and other health issues. It can also lead to social and economic problems, such as lost productivity and strained relationships with family and friends. Treatment for tobacco use disorder includes behavioral therapies, medications, and support groups, and it is important for individuals struggling with this condition to seek professional help to quit using tobacco and improve their overall health and well-being.

Sunburn can cause damage to the skin cells, leading to premature aging and an increased risk of skin cancer. The severity of a sunburn depends on factors such as the intensity of UV radiation, the duration of exposure, and the individual's skin type and sensitivity.

There are three types of sunburn:

1. First-degree sunburn: This is the mildest form of sunburn and affects only the outer layer of the skin. It is characterized by redness, but not blistering.
2. Second-degree sunburn: This type of sunburn affects both the inner and outer layers of the skin and can cause blisters to form.
3. Third-degree sunburn: This is the most severe form of sunburn and can cause deep, painful blisters and scarring.

Symptoms of sunburn can include:

* Redness and inflammation in the affected area
* Pain or discomfort
* Blistering or peeling of the skin
* Swelling or itching
* Fever or chills

Treatment for sunburn typically involves self-care measures such as applying moisturizers, cool compresses, and avoiding further sun exposure. In severe cases, medical attention may be required to manage complications such as infection or dehydration. Prevention is key to avoiding sunburn, and this includes seeking shade, wearing protective clothing and eyewear, and using sunscreen with a Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of at least 30.

There are several types of drug-related side effects and adverse reactions, including:

1. Common side effects: These are side effects that are commonly experienced by patients taking a particular medication. Examples include nausea, dizziness, and fatigue.
2. Serious side effects: These are side effects that can be severe or life-threatening. Examples include allergic reactions, liver damage, and bone marrow suppression.
3. Adverse events: These are any unwanted or harmful effects that occur during the use of a medication, including side effects and other clinical events such as infections or injuries.
4. Drug interactions: These are interactions between two or more drugs that can cause harmful side effects or reduce the effectiveness of one or both drugs.
5. Side effects caused by drug abuse: These are side effects that occur when a medication is taken in larger-than-recommended doses or in a manner other than as directed. Examples include hallucinations, seizures, and overdose.

It's important to note that not all side effects and adverse reactions are caused by the drug itself. Some may be due to other factors, such as underlying medical conditions, other medications being taken, or environmental factors.

To identify and manage drug-related side effects and adverse reactions, healthcare providers will typically ask patients about any symptoms they are experiencing, perform physical exams, and review the patient's medical history and medication list. In some cases, additional tests may be ordered to help diagnose and manage the problem.

Overall, it's important for patients taking medications to be aware of the potential for side effects and adverse reactions, and to report any symptoms or concerns to their healthcare provider promptly. This can help ensure that any issues are identified and addressed early, minimizing the risk of harm and ensuring that the patient receives the best possible care.

There are several types of dementia, each with its own set of symptoms and characteristics. Some common types of dementia include:

* Alzheimer's disease: This is the most common form of dementia, accounting for 50-70% of all cases. It is a progressive disease that causes the death of brain cells, leading to memory loss and cognitive decline.
* Vascular dementia: This type of dementia is caused by problems with blood flow to the brain, often as a result of a stroke or small vessel disease. It can cause difficulty with communication, language, and visual-spatial skills.
* Lewy body dementia: This type of dementia is characterized by the presence of abnormal protein deposits called Lewy bodies in the brain. It can cause a range of symptoms, including memory loss, confusion, hallucinations, and difficulty with movement.
* Frontotemporal dementia: This is a group of diseases that affect the front and temporal lobes of the brain, leading to changes in personality, behavior, and language.

The symptoms of dementia can vary depending on the underlying cause, but common symptoms include:

* Memory loss: Difficulty remembering recent events or learning new information.
* Communication and language difficulties: Struggling to find the right words or understand what others are saying.
* Disorientation: Getting lost in familiar places or having difficulty understanding the time and date.
* Difficulty with problem-solving: Trouble with planning, organizing, and decision-making.
* Mood changes: Depression, anxiety, agitation, or aggression.
* Personality changes: Becoming passive, suspicious, or withdrawn.
* Difficulty with movement: Trouble with coordination, balance, or using utensils.
* Hallucinations: Seeing or hearing things that are not there.
* Sleep disturbances: Having trouble falling asleep or staying asleep.

The symptoms of dementia can be subtle at first and may progress slowly over time. In the early stages, they may be barely noticeable, but as the disease progresses, they can become more pronounced and interfere with daily life. It is important to seek medical advice if you or a loved one is experiencing any of these symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can help improve outcomes.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

There are several types of periodontal diseases, including:

1. Gingivitis: This is the mildest form of periodontal disease, characterized by redness, swelling, and bleeding of the gums. It is reversible with proper treatment and good oral hygiene.
2. Periodontitis: This is a more severe form of periodontal disease, characterized by the destruction of the periodontal ligament and the jawbone. It can cause teeth to become loose or fall out.
3. Advanced periodontitis: This is the most severe form of periodontal disease, characterized by extensive bone loss and severe gum damage.
4. Periodontal abscess: This is a pocket of pus that forms in the gum tissue as a result of the infection.
5. Peri-implantitis: This is a condition that affects the tissues surrounding dental implants, similar to periodontal disease.

The causes and risk factors for periodontal diseases include:

1. Poor oral hygiene
2. Smoking
3. Diabetes
4. Genetic predisposition
5. Hormonal changes during pregnancy or menopause
6. Poor diet
7. Stress
8. Certain medications

The symptoms of periodontal diseases can include:

1. Redness, swelling, and bleeding of the gums
2. Bad breath
3. Loose teeth or teeth that feel like they are shifting in their sockets
4. Pus between the teeth and gums
5. Changes in the way teeth fit together when biting down

Treatment for periodontal diseases typically involves a combination of professional cleaning, antibiotics, and changes to oral hygiene habits at home. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue and restore the health of the teeth and gums.

Preventing periodontal diseases includes:

1. Brushing teeth at least twice a day with a fluoride toothpaste
2. Flossing once a day to remove plaque from between the teeth
3. Using an antibacterial mouthwash
4. Eating a balanced diet and avoiding sugary or acidic foods
5. Quitting smoking
6. Maintaining regular dental check-ups and cleanings.

Infertility can be classified into two main categories:

1. Primary infertility: This type of infertility occurs when a couple has not been able to conceive a child after one year of regular sexual intercourse, and there is no known cause for the infertility.
2. Secondary infertility: This type of infertility occurs when a couple has been able to conceive at least once before but is now experiencing difficulty in conceiving again.

There are several factors that can contribute to infertility, including:

1. Age: Women's fertility declines with age, especially after the age of 35.
2. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances of hormones such as progesterone, estrogen, and thyroid hormones can affect ovulation and fertility.
3. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): A common condition that affects ovulation and can cause infertility.
4. Endometriosis: A condition in which the tissue lining the uterus grows outside the uterus, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to infertility.
5. Male factor infertility: Low sperm count, poor sperm quality, and blockages in the reproductive tract can all contribute to infertility.
6. Lifestyle factors: Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, being overweight or underweight, and stress can all affect fertility.
7. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and thyroid disorders can affect fertility.
8. Uterine or cervical abnormalities: Abnormalities in the shape or structure of the uterus or cervix can make it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant in the uterus.
9. Previous surgeries: Surgeries such as hysterectomy, tubal ligation, and cesarean section can affect fertility.
10. Age: Both male and female age can impact fertility, with a decline in fertility beginning in the mid-30s and a significant decline after age 40.

It's important to note that many of these factors can be treated with medical interventions or lifestyle changes, so it's important to speak with a healthcare provider if you are experiencing difficulty getting pregnant.

There are several different types of pain, including:

1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.
2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.
3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.
5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.

The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:

1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.
2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.
3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.
4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.
5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.
6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.
7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.
8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.

It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.

The causes of colorectal neoplasms are not fully understood, but factors such as age, genetics, diet, and lifestyle have been implicated. Symptoms of colorectal cancer can include changes in bowel habits, blood in the stool, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Screening for colorectal cancer is recommended for adults over the age of 50, as it can help detect early-stage tumors and improve survival rates.

There are several subtypes of colorectal neoplasms, including adenomas (which are precancerous polyps), carcinomas (which are malignant tumors), and lymphomas (which are cancers of the immune system). Treatment options for colorectal cancer depend on the stage and location of the tumor, but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.

Research into the causes and treatment of colorectal neoplasms is ongoing, and there has been significant progress in recent years. Advances in screening and treatment have improved survival rates for patients with colorectal cancer, and there is hope that continued research will lead to even more effective treatments in the future.

1. Chronic bronchitis: This condition causes inflammation of the bronchial tubes (the airways that lead to the lungs), which can cause coughing and excessive mucus production.
2. Emphysema: This condition damages the air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult for the body to take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide.

The main causes of COPD are smoking and long-term exposure to air pollution, although genetics can also play a role. Symptoms of COPD can include shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing, particularly during exercise or exertion. The disease can be diagnosed through pulmonary function tests, chest X-rays, and blood tests.

There is no cure for COPD, but there are several treatment options available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These include medications such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, pulmonary rehabilitation programs, and lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and increasing physical activity. In severe cases, oxygen therapy may be necessary to help the patient breathe.

Prevention is key in avoiding the development of COPD, and this includes not smoking and avoiding exposure to air pollution. Early detection and treatment can also help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. With proper management, many people with COPD are able to lead active and productive lives.

Health. 5.Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice (PDF). World Health Organization, UNICEF, USAID. 2015. ISBN 978-92-4-156510-3. ... Wikipedia's health care articles can be viewed offline with the Medical Wikipedia app. World Toilet Day history on Stamps World ... Lack of access to sanitation (toilets) has an impact on public health, dignity, and safety. The spread of many diseases (e.g. ... Toilets are important because access to a safe functioning toilet has a positive impact on public health, human dignity, and ...
"Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Regarding COVID‑19 in N'Djamena, Chad". Journal of Community Health. 46 (2): 259-266. doi: ... On 9 April, health officials reported a new case of virus infection, a 59-year-old Chadian who arrived on March 25 in N'Djamena ... Of importance to note is the paradox of low corona virus cases in Chad given the strained health systems in place. Researchers ... On 12 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that a novel coronavirus was the cause of a complex ...
... knowledge, skills, attitudes; service environments and structures; ability to navigate the health system; youth participation; ... Many subspecialists practice as part of general specialty clinics or practices, or in high school or college clinics. In ... "The Health and Health Care of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adolescents". Annual Review of Public Health. 31: 457-477. doi:10.1146 ... developmental issues and health care provision. Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development. World Health ...
"Travel Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Among Community Pharmacists in Japan". doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0015.v1. ... travel health clinics, occupational-health departments, and general medical practices. Educational programs for travel health ... Practice nurses are expected to deliver care, but lack travel-health training. Problem patients are another occupational hazard ... Travel health nurses typically work in "private practice, hospital outpatient units, universities, the government, and the ...
To strengthen health information systems along the border. To improve health, knowledge, attitudes, and practices within local ... Surgical Service OPD/IPD Reproductive Health OPD/IPD Child Health Service OPD/IPD Health Education and Counselling Laboratory ... Community Health Outreach - 21 staff Operations - 31 staff Community Operations - 60 staff Burma Based Health Services ( ... To provide health services for displaced Burmese populations along the Thailand-Burma border. To provide initial training of ...
There are requirements for each competency in terms of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. The first core competency is Patient- ... Thirdly, evidenced-based practice (EBP) describes that practicing nurses and nurse trainees to participate in clinical ... After the war, Peplau was at the table with many of these same men as they worked to reshape the mental health system in the ... As a primary contributor to mental health law reform, she led the way towards humane treatment of patients with behavior and ...
Babatsikos, Georgia (2010). "Parents' knowledge, attitudes and practices about preventing child sexual abuse: a literature ... Maniglio, R. (2009). "The impact of child sexual abuse on health: A systematic review of reviews". Clinical Psychology Review. ... Committee on Professional Practice and Standards (COPPS); Board of Professional Affairs (BPA); American Psychological ... Varcarolis, Elizabeth (2013). Essentials of psychiatric mental health nursing. St. Louis: Elsevier. pp. 439-442. Crush, E; ...
Lu L, Liu C, Zhang L, Medina A, Smith S, Rozelle S (March 2015). "Gut instincts: knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding ... In 2001, the World Health Assembly set a target for the World Health Organization (WHO) to treat 75% of school-aged children by ... Parikh DS, Totañes FI, Tuliao AH, Ciro RN, Macatangay BJ, Belizario VY (September 2013). "Knowledge, attitudes and practices ... Global Health. 3 (10): e629-38. doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(15)00047-9. PMID 26385302. "Deworming campaign improves child health, ...
Nurses' Attitudes toward Intervening with Smokers: Their Knowledge, Opinion and E-Learning Impact. - PubMed - NCBI Nursing ... Changes in Smoking Prevalences Among Health Care Professionals From 2003 to 2010-2011 Nurses' Attitudes toward Intervening with ... Nursing Practice, Research and Education in the West: The Best Is Yet to Come. - PubMed - NCBI Lung cancer and tobacco: What is ... Their Knowledge, Opinion and E-Learning Impact". Central European Journal of Public Health. 24 (2016 Dec): 24(4):272-275. doi: ...
Reddy, Priscilla (1996). "Smoking status, knowledge of health effects and attitudes towards tobacco control in South Africa". ... Mujuzi, JD (2010). "Smoking in the workplace in South Africa: Law and practice relating to the rights and obligations of ... According to the latest South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2012 only about 16.4% of South ... South African Family Practice. doi:10.1080/20786190.2017.1340251. "Law catches up with smokers". Health24. Retrieved 2018-11-29 ...
Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Epilepsy in Kerala, South India; Epilepsia (2000). Migration and Mental Health Survey in ... Member of WHO Expert Group, Organizing Libya Mental Health Service (1980) Founder member of Kerala Sastra Samidi (1963), the ... Director, Ansar Institute of Mental Health, Perumpilavu, Kerala, India since 2015. Founder member of Indian Association of ... Mental Health and Well Being, Chapter in the book 'Kerala's Demographic Future, Issues & Policy Options', Editors: S. Irudaya ...
Inquiry on "Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices" in the field of the breast cancer screening, 2003. Impact of the national ... Reproductive health; Mother's health; Sexual and reproductive youth health; The prevention of Women's cancers; The prevention ... women's health and reproductive health in third countries such as Niger, Chad, Mauritania, Djibouti, Mali, Yemen and Iraq. She ... The project in the field of mother and child health launched by Nébiha Gueddana in Kollo, Niger is cited by the World Bank as " ...
"Health literacy and disparities in COVID-19-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours in Australia". Public Health ... Research & Practice. 30 (4). doi:10.17061/phrp30342012. ISSN 2204-2091. PMID 33294907. Isautier, Jennifer M. J.; McCaffery, ... Her research considers health literacy and patient communications. McCaffery founded the Sydney Health Literarcy Lab, which ... Public health researchers, Fellows of the Australian Academy of Health and Medical Sciences, Year of birth missing (living ...
... and to promote health improvement, wellness, and disease prevention. 5. Curricular core - knowledge, skills, attitudes, and ... This standard further requires the curricula to develop knowledge, attitudes, and values needed to practice in and advance the ... pharmacy practice experiences a. Defines the requirements of the introductory and advanced practice experiences b. States that ... as introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPE), and not less than 25% as advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE). 3 ...
"Knowledge and attitudes of final year pharmacy students toward opioid substitution therapy". Journal of Pharmacy Practice and ... In Sweden, the national board of health and welfare regulates the practice of all legislated health care professionals, and is ... Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, 2010 "Pharmacist". Health Careers. National Health Service. 26 March 2015. ... In Switzerland, the federal office of public health regulates pharmacy practice. Four Swiss universities offer a major in ...
... attitudes, and practices regarding anthrax, brucellosis, and rabies in three districts of northern Tanzania". BMC Public Health ... "Comparative knowledge, ... "Estimating the Public Health Impact of Rabies". Emerging ... Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 83 (5): 360-368. PMC 2626230. PMID 15976877. Coleman, Paul G.; Fèvre, Eric M.; ... Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 80 (4): 304-310. PMC 2567765. PMID 12075367.[clarification needed] Fitzpatrick, ...
ISBN 978-1-4422-0396-9. Barker, G. (1993). "Research on AIDS: knowledge, attitudes and practices among street youth". Children ... BMC Public Health. 11: 638. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-638. PMC 3171371. PMID 21831318. Rew, L (1996). "Health Risks of Homeless ... It describes the practice of people who are homeless or otherwise disadvantaged in society, trading sex for food, a place to ... Mallon, Gerald P., Peg McCartt Hess (2005). Child Welfare for the Twenty-first Century: A Handbook of Practices, Policies, and ...
... knowledge, attitudes and practice". Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 42 (11): 698-703. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1754.2006. ... Alcohol and health, Health effects of alcohol, Congenital malformation due to exogenous toxicity, Teratogens, Syndromes, ... then interventions would be recommended to target specific delays through additional education and practice (e.g., practiced ... A working knowledge of the key features is helpful in understanding FASD diagnoses and conditions, and each is reviewed with ...
... knowledge, attitudes, practices and predictors of malaria incidence in a cohort of Ugandan children, Health system performance ... knowledge, attitudes, practices and predictors of malaria incidence in a cohort of Ugandan children". Tropical Medicine and ... David Guwatudde". School of Public Health. 2019-09-23. Retrieved 2022-05-30. "David Guwatudde - AD Scientific Index 2022". www. ... David Guwatudde". School of Public Health. 2019-09-23. Retrieved 2022-05-30. "Profiles". Retrieved 2022-05- ...
"Knowledge, attitudes and practices of female genital mutilation/Cutting among health care professionals in the Gambia: A ... health workers from the Somaliland Family Health Association (SOFHA) were campaigning to end the practice by educating citizens ... The United Nations has called for elimination of the practice by 2030. A 2017 UCLA Fielding School of Public Health study, ... The practice is the removal of the inner and outer labia, and the suturing of the vulva. It is mostly practiced in northeastern ...
8. Knowledge Attitude and Practice (KAP) of Ophthalmology: Finding of Survey of Primary Health Care workers. Shrestha JK, ... 1992; 30:120-124). 7. Knowledge Attitude and Practice (KAP) Towards Eye disease: Finding of a Survey in Rural Bhaktapur. ... Efficacy of Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Ocular Surface Trauma Instituted Through Existing Primary Units of Health Care System of ...
... ability and attitudes form the basis of quality health care. This new FAHS would bridge the knowledge and skill gap between the ... workers whilst assisting the current workforce to adapt to new knowledge to face the new challenges in modern medical practice ... and the allied health personnel, enabling their specialized knowledge applicable in full force in this country whilst preparing ... child health nursing and community health nursing. The department provides a sound scientific and humanistic foundation for ...
"Knowledge, attitudes, and practices about homelessness and willingness-to-pay for housing-first across 8 European countries: a ... Mental Health Commission of Canada (MHCC). 2014. Housing and Homelessness: What is the issue? Archived 2014-02-03 at the ... and Sweden in order to understand people's knowledge, attitudes, and practices about homelessness and how much support the ... Assessed on the basis of social, health and financial circumstances, this is the hard core of homelessness. The programme to ...
... knowledge and attitudes, the results do not always translate to better AMS practice. Unintended consequences of antimicrobial ... of Health & Senior Services". Retrieved September 19, 2019. Dellit TH; et al. (1 January 2007). "Guidelines for Developing an ... "An Interprofessional Curriculum on Antimicrobial Stewardship Improves Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Appropriate Antimicrobial ... Cosgrove, SE (1975). "Guidance for the knowledge and skills required for antimicrobial stewardship leaders". Infect Control ...
Acceptable practices include strong leadership; a safe and inclusive school environment; developing knowledge, attitudes, and ... Studies show that school violence and bullying harm the academic performance, physical and mental health, and emotional well- ... and developing appropriate knowledge, attitudes, and skills to prevent violence among children and adolescents. Partnerships: ... Capacity: training and support for teachers and other staff to ensure they have the knowledge and skills to use curriculum ...
Rondini, Simona; Krugu, John Kingsley (2009). "Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Study on Reproductive Health Among Secondary ... Cultural norms and practices play a large role in attitudes and perceptions of domestic violence. Traditional gender roles in ... Women and girls generally have less knowledge about the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The Ministry of Health and the Ghana AIDS Commission ... implications for health promotion". BMC Women's Health. 18 (1): 129. doi:10.1186/s12905-018-0621-1. ISSN 1472-6874. PMC 6108099 ...
Its goal is to equip young people with the knowledge, understanding, attitudes and practical skills to live healthily, safely, ... The Department for Education state that "all schools should make a plan for PSHE, drawing on good practice" and that PSHE ... A DfE review of PSHE education provision found a range of positive outcomes, including improved attitudes to health, being able ... In Ireland (ROI), it is social, personal, and health education. It is also known as personal, social, health and economic ...
In combination these assessments cover the spectrum of knowledge, skills, behaviours and attitudes that are outlined in the GP ... It covers clinical medicine, critical appraisal/evidence-based clinical practice and health informatics/administrative issues. ... The Applied Knowledge Test (AKT) is a multiple-choice computer based assessment that tests the knowledge base underpinning ... It uses pre-recorded video or audio consultations to provides evidence from a range of encounters in general practice relevant ...
... intentions to vaccinate related to their knowledge, beliefs and attitudes? A systematic review". BMC Public Health. 13: 154. ... By 1958, practice of naturopathy was licensed in only five states. In 1968, the United States Department of Health, Education, ... The United States IHS (Indian Health Service) began accepting naturopathic doctors in their clinics and practice in 2013, also ... Hough HJ, Dower C, O'Neil EH (September 2001). Profile of a Profession: Naturopathic Practice (PDF). Center for the Health ...
... improves evidence-based health care knowledge and skills but not attitudes and behaviour. No difference in outcomes is present ... Eddy DM (1992). A Manual for Assessing Health Practices and Designing Practice Policies. American College of Physicians. ISBN ... that included 24 trials examined the effectiveness of e-learning in improving evidence-based health care knowledge and practice ... Eddy DM (1984). "Variations in Physician Practice The Role of Uncertainty". Health Affairs. 3 (2): 74-89. doi:10.1377/hlthaff. ...
There are no steps, no uniformly appropriate internal attitudes, and no techniques within it. The "health of the helper" is ... ISBN 1-55105-510-4, ISBN 978-1-55105-510-7 S.G. Wartel, A Strengths-Based Practice Model: Psychology of Mind and Health ... asserts that reality is reproduced by people acting on their interpretations and their knowledge of it. (HR asserts that ... Sedgeman, J.: Health Realization/Innate Health: Can a quiet mind and a positive feeling state be accessible over the lifespan ...
... and to implement and strengthen programs designed to change attitudes toward the practice. The committee also urged Liberia "to ... Various laws limit working hours, establish benefit requirements, and set health and safety standards. There is a minimum wage ... This involved training 1300 teachers with an eye to "providing students with knowledge and conflict resolution skills in order ... Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 2011 by the United States Department of State 2012 Annual Report, by Amnesty ...
There must be the knowledge that it is a sentient living being. There must be an intention to cause death. An act must be done ... The fuller extent of the first precept is to maintain a harmless attitude towards all. The main problem is the mind, which is ... Violent video games tend to create ill-will and tension, thus it is not conducive for meditation practice. Other than that, the ... Journal of Adolescent Health. 41 (1): 77-83. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.01.001. PMID 17577537. Kutner, Lawrence, PhD and ...
... many of these practices were gradually relaxed in mainline Methodism, although practices such as teetotalism and fasting are ... ISBN 978-1-4267-2945-4. Wesley understood both the health and social issues related to the intemperate use of alcoholic ... mostly over attitudes towards slavery (though doctrinally, opposition to slavery is one of the works of mercy). Some of these ... Everyone that has a saving knowledge of Jesus Christ our Lord on departing from this life, goes to be in felicity with Him, and ...
The Department of Health and Human Services also conducted a survey addressing the same topic which generated similar findings ... Antiscience - Attitudes that reject science and the scientific method Critical mathematics pedagogy - Liberation-focused math ... The petition stated: When scientific knowledge has been found to be in conflict with its political goals, the administration ... Other administrations have, on occasion, engaged in such practices, but not so systematically nor on so wide a front. ...
"Details from attitude surveys are in Demographics and politics of Northern Ireland. "L219252024 - Public Attitudes to ... In the 2021 census, 12.4% (compared with 10.7% in 2011) of the population of Northern Ireland claimed "some knowledge of Irish ... 131 KB) Janzen, Terry (2005). Topics in Signed Language Interpreting: Theory And Practice. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing ... and health) between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Additionally, "in recognition of the Irish Government's ...
Job-relevant knowledge derived from prior training Core job elements: Declarative knowledge: Applicants' learned knowledge ... "An international look at selection practices: Nation and culture as explanations for variability in practice". Personnel ... People also have been found to show different attitudes towards answers on the extreme high and low end of a set of options ( ... is the idea of how discrimination within a workplace/job interview can affect a person's health and wellbeing. A person that is ...
... in practice, influence psychotherapy. He received the Distinguished Professional Contributions to Knowledge award from the ... Some studies have shown that greater religious attitudes may be significant predictors of negative attitudes towards racial or ... Wikisource text Levin, J. (2001), God, Faith and Health: Exploring the Spirituality-Health Connection, New York: Wiley, ISBN ... the practice of prayer is more prevalent and practiced more consistently among Americans who perform other religious practices ...
Disability and Health (ICF). In addition to clinical practice, rehabilitation psychologists engage in consultation, program ... in the context of interdisciplinary health care teams; and as social change agents to improve societal attitudes toward ... and a passing score on the Examination for Professional Practice in Psychology (EPPP), a standardized knowledge-based ... and rehabilitation psychology emerged to meet these needs using psychological knowledge to help maximize independence, health, ...
1984). Medicine and health in developing Southern Africa = Gesondheid en geneeskunde in ontwikkelende Suider-Afrika. Salt River ... 1985). Attitudes to clinical experimentation in South Africa: a symposium. Johannesburg: Hodder and Stoughton, Southern Africa ... Shapiro, H. A; University of South Africa (1976). The scope and practice of forensic medicine. Pretoria: University of South ... of Zoology was Lancelot Hogben who suggested to Shapiro that his journey into biology would be more successful with a knowledge ...
The Egyptian state practiced a Cult of Personality around Gamal Abdel Nasser during his rule. It has been alleged that the ... These attitudes were seen by public opinion as clear examples of the new political style that Berlusconi brought into Italy, ... Director of the Institute for Health Protection of Mother and Child of Serbia stated that the children patients and parents ... knowledge of them.[clarification needed] Many written songs, novels, scientific and propaganda articles were devoted to him. ...
BackInfoUnsafe/en/ World Health Organization (WHO). 2003. ''Unsafe Injection Practices: A Plague of Many Health Care Systems ... These attitudes stigmatize individuals with obesity, which further hampers public health interventions to reduce obesity rates ... During this time, people had no knowledge on the cause of these unfavourable series of events. After speculations that their ... World Health Organization, 2008. The 8th Global Conference on Health Promotion (2014). Health in all policies: Helsinki ...
An example of this in practice is "One Simple Thing", a goal-setting well-being practice employed by Google. Based initially on ... Goals activate cognitive knowledge and strategies that help employees cope with the situation at hand. Goal setting is also ... For example, a person with high self-efficacy may engage in more health-related activity when an illness occurs, whereas a ... "Cultural differences in attitudes toward action and inaction: the role of dialecticism". Social Psychological and Personality ...
This practice can stimulate developing economies and creates more robust food security", adding that, "if Africans truly have ... There has never been a single confirmed case of a negative health outcome for humans or animals from their consumption. Their ... It has raised environmental issues to public knowledge, and influenced both the private and the public sector. The organization ... and it also argues that Statoil has to alter its attitude toward environments. Greenpeace has joined with other environmental ...
Rural residents report overall poorer health and more physical limitations, with 12% rating their health as fair or poor, ... Attitude-related food deserts are any state of mind that prevents consumers from accessing that foods they can otherwise ... Sometimes, the issue with urban food deserts is not the lack of food in the area but rather the lack of nutritional knowledge ... That practice increases the concentration of fast-food restaurants in minority neighborhoods. The likelihood of being food ...
The change in attitudes can be illustrated by the reactions to the table manners of the Byzantine princess Theodora Doukaina in ... French cardinal Jacques de Vitry's sermons from the early 13th century describe sellers of cooked meat as an outright health ... The aging of high-quality red wine required specialized knowledge as well as expensive storage and equipment, and resulted in ... a conflict of ideals and practice summarized by writer Bridget Ann Henisch: It is the nature of man to build the most ...
The practices of these new rulers and their subsequent heirs (some of whom were born to Hindu wives) varied considerably. While ... The NFHS(National Family Health Survey) on 1992-93 showed that 22 per cent of marriages in India were consanguineous, with the ... It must be emphasized that the development of the Indo-Islamic architecture was greatly facilitated by the knowledge and skill ... ISBN 978-81-261-1800-7. Shakeel Ahmad (2003). Muslim attitude towards family planning. Sarup & Sons. ISBN 978-81-7625-389-5. ...
He was an early proponent of Ayurveda, an ancient Indian system of health and healing, and helped introduce the practice to the ... 2013); the Bhagavad Gita uses a metaphor of a battle to convey the meaning of the inner struggle to attain knowledge of human ... At the end of the 1930s several encounters with Western seekers in India shaped his attitude towards teaching yoga in the ... In Ashtanga, mauna would be part of a larger body of practices called tapas (Sanskrit: तपस्). Overall, mauna as practice of ...
Washington, DC: Children's Dental Health Project. 2000. Krol D and Wolf JC. Physicians and dentists attitudes toward ... After the passing of the Affordable Care Act, many dental practices began using dental service organizations to provide ... transportation and knowledge of the healthcare system (including eligibility). Medicaid eligibility policies are very ... Research shows that Medicaid improves health outcomes, health insurance coverage, access to health care, recipients' financial ...
Training and development on the job can be used to update or enhance skills or knowledge so employees are more in tune with the ... Furthermore, if there are more extensive HR practices in place in the selection phase of hiring, then people are more likely to ... Among which, job satisfaction is the attitude most strongly predicted by person-job fit. Stress has also been demonstrated as a ... Evolutionary mismatch Industrial and organizational psychology Job satisfaction Occupational health psychology Organizational ...
Rather, they were the responsibility of health or social care ministries in a way that implied that these young people did not ... In connecting inclusion with the detail of policy and practice, the Index encourages those who use it to build up their own ... It enables schools to draw on the knowledge and views of staff, students, parents/carers, and community representatives about ... inclusive schools are intended to change attitudes to difference by educating all children together, and form the basis for a ...
Maudling's attitude of reassuring calmness in interviews, normally helpful to him, was damaging when he referred to reducing ... However, he did not practise as a barrister, having volunteered for service in the Royal Air Force (RAF) in the Second World ... He refused to continue at the Ministry of Supply and also rejected an offer of the Ministry of Health because Iain Macleod, ... The bankruptcy hearings disclosed his bribe payments, and Maudling's connection became public knowledge. Maudling came to the ...
2022). "Aspect-based sentiment analysis via affective knowledge enhanced graph convolutional networks". Knowledge-Based Systems ... Two attitudes, two brand names). The movie is surprising with plenty of unsettling plot twists. (Negative term used in a ... One of the classifier's primary benefits is that it popularized the practice of data-driven decision-making processes in ... as well as other problems of public-health relevance such as adverse drug reactions. While sentiment analysis has been popular ...
... "indigenous healing methods are beginning to be seen as having much to offer Western forms of mental health practice.: 225 These ... The article defines globalization as the movement of people and knowledge across borders in the attempt to establish common ... and cognitive human systems that in turn underlie the attitudes, behaviors, beliefs, expectations, and values of the members of ... Not only are a majority of the practicing psychologists white, but most of them practice clinical psychology, rather than ...
Durak, Antoine Berke (6 June 2008). "The nature of reality and knowledge". Gauch, Hugh G. (2002). Scientific Method in Practice ... Public Attitudes and Understanding". Science and engineering indicators 2006. "A pretended or spurious science; a collection of ... American Journal of Public Health. 92 (1): 14-18. doi:10.2105/ajph.92.1.14. ISSN 0090-0036. PMC 1447376. PMID 11772749. Longino ... who were newly tasked to organize knowledge rather than develop new knowledge. Logical positivism is commonly portrayed as ...
By measuring the general attitude towards death and also the inconsistencies with death attitudes, participants are scaled to ... In relation to their personal health/deterioration, self esteem, etc. From this study, it was also seen that women seem to be ... Existential death anxiety stems from the basic knowledge that human life must end. Existential death anxiety is known to be the ... doi:10.1111/j.1467-9221.2011.00822.x. Langs, R. (1997). Death Anxiety and Clinical Practice. London: Karnac Books. Purton, M. D ...
In 1996, Pope John Paul II stated that "new knowledge has led to the recognition of the theory of evolution as more than a ... Christian Science, a system of thought and practice derived from the writings of Mary Baker Eddy, interprets the Book of ... The United States is an exception where belief in religious fundamentalism is much more likely to affect attitudes towards ... Eddy, Mary Baker (1934) [Originally published 1875 as Science and Health; Christian Scientist Publishing Company: Boston, MA]. ...
... some knowledge of Latin, German and Greek; probably a good knowledge of history, some geography, and probably already an ... Conrad's poor health and his unsatisfactory schoolwork caused his uncle constant problems and no end of financial outlay. ... was standard practice for 19th- and early-20th-century novelists. It was done, for example, by Charles Dickens in England, and ... diligent reading of the masters and aimed at shaping his own attitude to art and to reality.... [W]e do not know the sources of ...
The practice of imposing longer prison sentences on repeat offenders is common in many countries but the three-strikes laws in ... Once a reporter has achieved that level of knowledge, it is easier to write subsequent stories. However, major advertisers have ... Mosley, Paul; Verschoor, Arjan (March 1, 2005). "Risk Attitudes and the 'Vicious Circle of Poverty'". The European Journal of ... American Journal of Public Health. 104 (3): 448-454. doi:10.2105/ajph.2013.301786. PMC 3953792. PMID 24432948. Khalek, Rania. ...
... 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. ... Tabagisme : attitude des médecins costaricains et possibilités dintervention  Grossman, D. W.; Knox, J. J.; Nash, C.; Jime ... Les mères et la vaccination : connaissances, attitudes et comportements en Italie / I. F. Angelillo ... [‎et al.]‎  ... Vaccination contre la grippe : connaissances, attitudes et comportements des personnes âgées en Italie / F. Pregliasco ... [‎ ...
There was a strong correlation between knowledge and attitudes, knowledge and practices, and attitudes and practices (P ˂ 0.05 ... There was a strong correlation between knowledge and attitudes, knowledge and practices, and attitudes and practices (r = 0.769 ... We found that there was a positive correlation between knowledge and attitudes, knowledge and practices, and attitudes and ... Malini A, Eshwar B. Knowledge, attitude and practice of biomedical waste management among health care personnel in a tertiary ...
This study was therefore aimed at determining the knowledge, attitude and practice of Nigerian physiotherapists towards ... Respondents with good knowledge and attitude towards physical activity promotion in patient management were 196(63.6%) and 292( ... Nigerian physiotherapists have good knowledge and attitude towards promotion of physically active lifestyle in their patients ... Three hundred and eight practicing physiotherapists from various public and private hospitals in 14 states of Nigeria completed ...
Dentists knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding Hepatitis B and C and HIV/AIDS in Sanandaj, Iran.. Rostamzadeh, Masomeh ... Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices (KAP) of dentists regarding infection control and ... The mean ± SD for knowledge, attitude and practices of participants was 37.3 ± 3.01, 22.9 ± 4.80 and 24.07 ± 5.06, respectively ... suggesting that higher knowledge level of dentists plays a very important role in forming the attitudes and practices regarding ...
Knowledge, attitude and practice towards health and essential drugs in rural Nepal : report prepared for the Ministry of Health ... Results of search for su:{Health knowledge, attitudes, practice} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently ... Qualitative research on knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to womens reproductive health, Cochabamba, Bolivia / ... Knowledge, attitudes, practice and provision of family planning services by Kenyan medical doctors / C. Sekadde-Kigondu ... [et ...
Washington, DC: Peace Corps Office of Health Services; 2013. * Peace Corps Office of Health Services. Health of the volunteer [ ... Notes from the Field: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Antimalarial Chemoprophylaxis in U.S. Peace Corps ... knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding chemoprophylaxis to develop recommendations to improve adherence. ... Monitoring for mefloquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Africa: implications for travelers health. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1998 ...
REIS, Mariana Loch dos; LUVISON, Idiana Rita e FAUSTINO-SILVA, Daniel Demétrio. Oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practices ... Objective: to investigate oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practices of childcare doctors and nurses - employees and ... developed by the researchers to assess oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of childcare doctors and nurses ( ... Results: The results obtained show that there is little significant difference among the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of ...
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Cross-Sectional Studies. en_US. ... The knowledge of general practitioners was deficient and therefore initial and continuing training on cer- vical cancer is ... This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge of general practitioners with regard to cervical cancer in the province of ...
Clinician knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding cannabis: Results from a national veterans health administration survey ... Clinician knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding cannabis: Results from a national veterans health administration survey. ... Clinician knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding cannabis : Results from a national veterans health administration survey ... T1 - Clinician knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding cannabis. T2 - Results from a national veterans health ...
The right knowledge, attitudes, and practices are essential in curbing the spread of the virus. Hence, the study was conducted ... The study suggests that Sub-Sahara Africans have adequate knowledge and Attitude without sufficient practice towards COVID-19. ... to assess the level of knowledge, attitude, practice, and misconception of Sub-Sahara Africa towards COVID-19 and identifying ... and attitude (97.7%) with an insufficient level of practice (61%). Also, the majority of the respondents had an acceptable ...
Mental Health Awareness Phone Polling Survey: Focus on Community Knowledge, Attitude and Practice, Saudi Arabia. International ... Mental Health Awareness Phone Polling Survey: Focus on Community Knowledge, Attitude and Practice, Saudi Arabia. ... Background: Mental health awareness surveys that assess the broad knowledge of various stakeholders including public nationwide ... Although this community participatory mental health polling survey is found to have encouraging mental health literacy of ...
Guinea; Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice; Health Personnel; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola; Maternal-Child Health Services ... Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice / Guinea / Health Personnel / Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola / Maternal-Child Health Services ... Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice / Guinea / Health Personnel / Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola / Maternal-Child Health Services ... The objective of this study was to document maternal and child health care workers knowledge, attitudes and practices on ...
Family Practice* * Female * Focus Groups * Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice * Humans * Interviews as Topic ... EBM as a constituent of expert knowledge should be more customer adjusted to be able to be used in practice. Benefit was the ... Scand J Prim Health Care. 2007 Jun;25(2):98-104. doi: 10.1080/02813430701192371. ... Results: The categories were: benefits, time and space, and expert knowledge. The benefit was a merge of positive elements, all ...
Nutrition knowledge (NKS), health knowledge (HKS), attitude score (AS), and dietary diversity score (DDS) were constructed ... ANC clinics provide resources to improve nutrition and health knowledge and promote preventive health practices. We sought to ... compare the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) among women seeking and not-seeking ANC in rural Kenya. Data from a ... Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and DDS were not significantly different between ANC clinic attending and non-attending women. ...
General knowledge of avian influenza 1.48 0.72-3.02 0.28 Health professionals and employers as sources of information. 1.37. ... Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Avian Influenza, Poultry Workers, Italy Rossella Abbate*, Gabriella Di Giuseppe†, Paolo ... Logistic and linear regression models results of knowledge, attitudes, and practices of avian influenza among 257 poultry ... Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Avian Influenza, Poultry Workers, Italy. ...
Keywords: Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice,.... Posted on: 20 May 2019. Clinical Microbiology Event Conference ... 25th International Conference on Human Metabolic Health- Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism Conference. When: 21 Mar - 22 Mar 2019 ... Cancer Conference 2019 acts as a knowledge transfer platform of highly updated and relevant information to a broad audience in ... Agriculture Conferences 2018 with great pleasure welcomes all the contributors in the food and health industry across the globe ...
There is still a need for a structured health education method and counselling session to improve the knowledge of patients, ... THE KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE, AND PRACTICE TOWARDS PHOSPHATE BINDERS AGENT AMONG DIALYSIS PATIENTS IN IPOH, MALAYSIA Received 2022- ... More 70% of the patients have a positive attitude toward medication. In terms of practice, most of patients take the medication ... In conclusion, most patients in this study have a good knowledge of phosphate binder medications, a high positive attitude and ...
... what are the potential environmental and human health hazards posed by current disposal practices?, and (4) what are the key ... However, a review of the current practices and pollution risks arising from the disposal of pharmaceuticals in low-income ... The pollution risks of current disposal practices are poorly understood, but pharmaceutical pollution of groundwater sources, ... However, compared to other environmental compartments, the occurrence, dissemination, fate, and human health risks of ...
Ethiop J Health Sci. 2010;20(2):91-97. [ Links ]. 20. Tajure N, Pharm B. Knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency ... AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the contributory role played by the knowledge, attitude and practices of female ... Nasir T. Knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraception among graduating female students of Jimma University, ... Ethiopian Journal of Reproductive Health.2009;3(1):37-43. [ Links ]. 11. Tamire W, Enqueselassie F. Knowledge, attitude, and ...
... to pediatricians in order to identify the antibiotic prescription practices in common childhood diseases and attitudes towards ... irrational use or misuse of antibiotics is observed in all health systems and in all patients groups worldwide, especially for ... This attitude is strongly related with the lack of knowledge about their reporting obligation. Health professionals continuing ... To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first attempt to explore antibiotics prescribing practices and attitudes ...
Comprehensive health promotion programs aimed at improving perceived health competences and health literacy through health ... Perceived health competence and health education activities experience are two strong determinants of health promotion ... health education activities experience and sociodemographic variables on health promotion behavior in this population. A ... have higher levels of engagement in health promotion behaviors; while the level of health promotion behaviors of the older ...
The importance of interpersonal discussion and self-efficacy in knowledge, attitude, and practice models. International Journal ... Experiences of Discrimination in Health & Workplace and Attitude towards LGBTI in Thailand. Funded by: UNDP. Co-Principal ... Fadlallah, M.A*., Pal, I. & Chatterjee, J.S. (2020). Health Disparities: A perspective on internal migration and health ... In L. B. Frank & P. Falzone (2021). Entertainment-Education Behind the Scenes: Case Studies for Theory and Practice. Palgrave ...
Knowledge, attitudes, and practices for respiratory and hearing health among Midwestern farmers. ... Occupational Health Watch: July 2017. Richmond, CA: California Department of Public Health, 2017 Jul; :1-2 ... Tyler, TX: The Southwest Center for Agricultural Health, Injury Prevention, and Education, 2017 Jul; :website ... Applying learning theory to safety and health training for Hispanic immigrant dairy workers. ...
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice, Behavioral Medicine, Child Care, Child Development, Child Rearing, Child Language, ... Pediatrics, Child Health, Child Health Services, Child Nutrition, Prenatal Nutrition, Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena ... Department of Evidence and Intelligence for Action in Health - EIH. Rua Vergueiro, 1759 , cep: 04101-000 , São Paulo - SP , Tel ... Virtual Health Library (VHL = BVS) - integrated search with LILACS and VHL databases. ...
CDC WONDER is a system for disseminating Public Health data and information ... surveys of immunization knowledge, attitudes, and practices among Hawaii physicians and older residents; and a statewide ... Immunization recommendations for health-care workers. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health ... Am J Public Health 1987;77:712-6.. *ACIP. Mumps prevention. MMWR 1989;38:388-92,397-400.. POINT OF CONTACT FOR THIS DOCUMENT:. ...
Pediatrician Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice Related to Electronic Cigarettes. J Adolesc Health. 2016;59(1):81-86. ... Presented at the Annual Conference of Public Health Physicians and Schools of Public Health. Ramat Gan, Israel, Jun 6, 2016. ... Environ Health. 2016;15(1):121.. Wu Q, Jiang D, Matsuda JL, Ternyak K, Zhang B, Chu HW. Cigarette Smoke Induces Human Airway ... Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016;13(2):161.. Huang K, Yang L, Winickoff JP, Liao J, Nong G, Zhang Z, Liang X, Liang G, ...
  • Trained in social psychology, Murphy specializes in identifying the individual, interpersonal, community, ethnic and cultural factors that shape people's knowledge, attitudes and practices. (
  • We can help shape people's knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors related to safe hearing practices. (
  • This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about biomedical waste among health professionals in primary health care centres in Hail City, Saudi Arabia. (
  • The study included 135 of 155 professionals who dealt with biomedical waste from 16 out of 26 primary health care centres. (
  • Training is recommended to enhance the knowledge of the professionals dealing with biomedical waste in the primary health care centres. (
  • Primary Health Care. (
  • 1 Department of Primary Health Care, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Sweden. (
  • 2020). Knowledge, attitude and practice toward COVID-19 among the public in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study. (
  • 2020). Predictors of misconceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and practices of COVID-19 pandemic among a sample of Saudi population. (
  • La présente étude avait pour objectif de déterminer les connaissances, attitudes et pratiques concernant les déchets biomédicaux parmi les professionnels de la santé dans les centres de soins de santé primaires à Hail (Arabie saoudite). (
  • L'occupation, l'éducation et l'âge étaient significativement associés au niveau des connaissances, attitudes et pratiques (p (
  • Il y avait une forte corrélation entre les connaissances et les attitudes, entre les connaissances et les pratiques ainsi qu'entre les attitudes et les pratiques (p ˂ 0,05). (
  • Une formation est recommandée afin de promouvoir les connaissances des professionnels qui prennent en charge des déchets biomédicaux dans les centres de soins de santé primaires. (
  • L'objectif de l'étude était d'étudier le rôle joué par les connaissances, les attitudes et les pratiques des étudiantes inscrites dans l'enseignement supérieur quant à l'utilisation des contraceptifs d'urgence. (
  • Ces conclusions, auxquelles viennent s'ajouter celles d'autres études, confirment la nécessité d'améliorer les connaissances des étudiantes inscrites dans l'enseignement supérieur sur la contraception d'urgence et son utilisation en temps opportun. (
  • Health promotion behaviors are key determinant of health and well-being, and also play an important role in promoting successful aging. (
  • This study investigated levels of engagement in health promotion behaviors among Chinese rural older adults, and explored effects of perceived health competence, health education activities experience and sociodemographic variables on health promotion behavior in this population. (
  • Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed to analyze the effects of different factors on health promotion behaviors. (
  • Combination of the above variables accounted for a total of 69.1% of the variance in health promotion behaviors. (
  • The level of health promotion behaviors among Chinese rural older adults is low. (
  • Perceived health competence and health education activities experience are two strong determinants of health promotion behaviors. (
  • Comprehensive health promotion programs aimed at improving perceived health competences and health literacy through health education activities may be an important part of optimizing the level of health promotion behaviors among rural older adults. (
  • Identifying the level of health promotion behaviors among older adults and exploring its key predictors are prerequisites for developing effective health promotion behaviors interventions among older adults. (
  • Therefore, separate studies should be conducted to investigate the level and key predictors of health promotion behaviors in rural or urban older adults, thus providing references for the development of targeted interventions. (
  • Audiologists are uniquely qualified to raise awareness about hearing risks, organize public health campaigns, promote healthy hearing behaviors, implement intervention programs and monitor progress in prevention. (
  • qualitative quantitative study with application of the Scale of attitudes toward alcohol and alcoholism , a socio-demographic questionnaire, and a realistic simulation. (
  • it is important to know the attitudes of students before alcoholic people by means of qualitative approaches so that educational practices may ensure a more appropriate preparation of students to provide care to this specific clientele. (
  • The importance of interpersonal discussion and self-efficacy in knowledge, attitude, and practice models. (
  • psychiatry conferences, mental health. (
  • Background: Mental health awareness surveys that assess the broad knowledge of various stakeholders including public nationwide help in the development of relevant strategies to enhance their poor mental health literacy. (
  • Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Health Personnel of Maternities in the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV. (
  • In 2018, researchers Elie Nkwabong, Romuald Meboulou Nguel, Nelly Kamgaing, and Anne Sylvie Keddi Jippe published, "Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Health Personnel of Maternities in the Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV in a sub-Saharan African Region with High Transmission Rate: Some Solutions Proposed," in BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. (
  • The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (
  • 1. Develop and implement a national strategy to protect children from harmful exposures related to the siting of daycare and early learning from the health centers. (
  • The objective of this study was to document maternal and child health care workers ' knowledge , attitudes and practices on service delivery before, during and after the 2014 EVD outbreak in rural Guinea . (
  • Infection prevention and control measures established during the EVD outbreak have substantially improved self -reported provider practices for maternal and child health services in rural Guinea . (
  • Its primary use is in reducing the need for abortions and the negative maternal health consequences associated therewith. (
  • Previous studies had shown that maternal stress during pregnancy affects children's health during childhood. (
  • Britta is a mixed-methods researcher leading national evaluations of maternal mortality and rural health. (
  • Currently, Britta is Deputy Director for the Maternal Health Portfolio Evaluation for HRSA's MCHB and she is Project Director for CDC's ERASE Maternal Mortality Evaluation Plan Development. (
  • She is mixed-methods and survey researcher whose work focuses on women's health and underserved populations, including rural populations. (
  • Her recent projects have been mixed-methods cross-site evaluations for the Health Resources and Services Administration. (
  • They also practised inadequate or no methods of HWT. (
  • Front Public Health , 8. (
  • Higher education students' unwanted pregnancies pose a major public health problem globally. (
  • Barry RA, Glantz S. A Public Health Analysis of Two Proposed Marijuana Legalization Initiatives for the 2016 California Ballot: Creating the New Tobacco Industry. (
  • 1. Link public health and clinical care at the local, state, and national level to improve access to asthma services, asthma quality of care, morbidity and and quality and availability of asthma-related data. (
  • 6. Provide technical assistance to state, local, and international partners to respond to water related public health emergencies. (
  • Britta is a senior research scientist in the Public Health department. (
  • Britta has 15 years of experience in public health research and evaluation. (
  • The main health facility-related data sources are public health surveillance, health services data and health system monitoring data including human resources, health infrastructure, and financing. (
  • Hearing loss from noise is a serious public health problem: More than 26 million U.S. adults have noise -induced hearing loss from work or recreational activities, and research shows evidence of early noise -induced hearing losses among teens. (
  • Although 23.1% of physicians observed often/very often Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) after antibiotic administration during their clinical practice, however, 47.6% of the pediatricians declared that they did not report them. (
  • Hence, the study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge, attitude, practice, and misconception of Sub-Sahara Africa towards COVID-19 and identifying the factors associated with COVID-19. (
  • However, a review of the current practices and pollution risks arising from the disposal of pharmaceuticals in low-income settings in Africa is still lacking. (
  • All main donors support these efforts, and there is high awareness and increasing knowledge on HIV among our target populations, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. (
  • ABSTRACT Awareness and knowledge of biomedical waste practices is very important for any health care setting. (
  • We administered a 47-item electronic survey to assess nationwide Veterans Health Administration (VHA) clinician knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and practice regarding patients' use of cannabis. (
  • The U.S. Peace Corps provides comprehensive health care to PCVs, including chemoprophylaxis to PCVs serving where malaria is endemic, and works to continually improve PCVs' understanding of health risks and the risks and benefits of antimalaria chemoprophylaxis. (
  • Peace Corps medical officers (PCMOs) are nonvolunteer health-care workers who provide primary care to PCVs. (
  • health care fam. (
  • The State was created in common health problems, care seeking behaviour, 1976 out of the old Western region and has a pro- reproductive health status and clinical assessment jected population of about 4 million[7]. (
  • Conclusion: Health professionals' continuing education on the use of therapeutic guidelines and protocols and the development of Pharmacovigilance programs could significantly contribute to the avoidance of the misuse of antibiotics in hospital care as well as to health professionals' awareness on rational prescribing. (
  • All participants completed four paper questionnaires: sociodemographic characteristics and health care status survey, the Chinese version of the health promoting lifestyle profile-II (HPLP-II), perceived health competence scale and Lubben social network scale. (
  • In October 1988, the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) collaborated with CDC in providing resources for nine demonstration projects. (
  • Conducted by state, county, and city health departments and one university medical center, these projects will determine whether Medicare payment for influenza immunization increases vaccine coverage and reduces morbidity, mortality, and demand for health-care services. (
  • In 1987, CDC entered into a 3-year cooperative agreement with the American Managed Care and Review Association to assist health maintenance organizations (HMOs) in developing adult immunization policies and practices. (
  • Improving vaccine use among adults requires a multifaceted strategy involving collaboration of health-care providers, consumer groups, and public and private organizations. (
  • 5. Build the knowledge and skills of health care providers and emergency responders regarding the unique vulnerability of children to harmful exposures, for example by incorporating children's environmental health into medical curricula and promoting the adoption of risk reduction counseling techniques into clinical practice. (
  • 5. Help hospitals plan for water disruptions through CDC's Emergency Water Supply Planning Guide for Hospitals and Health Care Facilities. (
  • There is a shortage of health care professionals competent in diabetes management worldwide. (
  • However, the effectiveness of digital education on diabetes management for health care professionals is still unknown. (
  • The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness and economic impact of digital education in improving health care professionals' knowledge, skills, attitudes, satisfaction, and competencies. (
  • We also assessed its impact on patient outcomes and health care professionals' behavior. (
  • We included randomized controlled trials evaluating the impact of digitalized diabetes management education for health care professionals pre- and postregistration. (
  • The paucity and low quality of the available evidence call for urgent and well-designed studies focusing on important outcomes such as health care professionals' behavior, patient outcomes, and cost-effectiveness as well as its impact in diverse settings, including developing countries. (
  • Utilizing her background in survey design and administration, Anderson co-led the development and administration of 25 surveys of providers and patients for the Health Care Innovation Awards (HCIA) project. (
  • WHO/Mozambique has also the responsibility to collaborate with the Ministry of Health in the generation and use of appropriate health information to support decision making, health care delivery and management of health services, at all levels. (
  • There were knowledge gaps among a substantial minority of respondents in specific areas: Terminology, psychoactive effects of cannabis components, VHA policy, and evidence regarding benefits and harms of cannabis. (
  • Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 13 respondents comprising rural community dwellers, health implementers and policy makers, and analysed using thematic analysis. (
  • Improved policies, awareness and sensitization campaigns should be carried out by government and social media companies to ensure adequate practice towards COVID-19. (
  • African Journal of Reproductive Health;21(1): 104-113, 2017. (
  • Occupational Health Watch: July 2017. (
  • Anderson developed her expertise in women's health, survey methodology, and study design while completing her PhD in psychology and while working as a researcher at the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (
  • At NORC, she designs and directs evaluations and serves as a subject matter expert on women's health. (
  • She also developed a broad knowledge base about women's health and women's healthcare. (
  • Conclusion: Many doctors and nurses are still unfamiliar with some aspects of oral health in childcare, thus requiring permanent education on the topic. (
  • In conclusion, most patients in this study have a good knowledge of phosphate binder medications, a high positive attitude and good adherence to a medication. (
  • On World AIDS Day Breda Gahan - Concern's Global Health and HIV Team Lead - reflects on the risks of complacency and the importance of ensuring that no-one is left behind in terms of HIV and AIDS prevention and treatment. (
  • Overall 54.8%, 48.9% and 49.6% of the participants had good knowledge, attitudes and practices scores respectively. (
  • The mean ± SD for knowledge , attitude and practices of participants was 37.3 ± 3.01, 22.9 ± 4.80 and 24.07 ± 5.06, respectively. (
  • Stigmaagainst mental disorders and consulting health professionals, misperceptions towards psychotropics and social exclusion and shame were variably reported by the participants. (
  • 2. Provide decision support tools, data, evidence-based interventions, and guidance to identify and protect vulnerable groups from asthma and health effects of air pollution. (
  • 4. Develop innovative strategies and interventions to reduce and prevent children's exposure to emerging and re-emerging environmental health concerns (particularly lead, vapor intrusion, carbon monoxide). (
  • To help the country to achieve the MDGs, this program encourages and helps the preparation of long term multi-sectoral investment plans, securing financing for its implementation, and the coordination of health interventions' scaling up, on the basis of health priorities, within a sound macroeconomics framework. (
  • Assessment of undergraduate student knowledge, practices, and attitude towards COVID-19 in Debre Berhan University, Ethiopia. (
  • 2. Fund a national assessment of FUDWS owners' knowledge, attitudes, and practices to create and implement evidence-based actions. (
  • to analyze the attitudes of novice nursing students before alcoholic patients. (
  • There is still a need for a structured health education method and counselling session to improve the knowledge of patients, change an attitude of a specific group of patients and increase the treatment compliance focusing on a specific ethnic group, young, unmarried, and employed patients. (
  • many countries, especially developing countries like education were more knowledgeable about breast Nigeria, BSE will most likely be the only feasible self examination (p = 0.045).The level of knowl- approach to wide population coverage as it is a edge and practice of breast self-examination cheap and easy method[1]. (
  • Email: mobalo[email protected] to health education of women concerning BSE. (
  • Entertainment-Education Behind the Scenes: Case Studies for Theory and Practice. (
  • 2. Implement a nationwide health education campaign to protect school aged children from exposures to mercury and recover mercury exposures and from schools, homes, and abandoned facilities. (
  • Concern is supporting HIV risk and vulnerability reduction with implementing partners in all our education, health, livelihood and multi-sector programmes. (
  • Digital education is increasingly used in educating health professionals on diabetes. (
  • Digital diabetes self-management education for patients has been shown to improve patients' knowledge and outcomes. (
  • Most studies comparing digital or blended education to traditional education reported significantly higher knowledge and skills scores in the intervention group. (
  • Digital education seems to be more effective than traditional education in improving diabetes management-related knowledge and skills. (
  • These results highlight the importance of providing health education on diarrhoea and water safety to motivate and empower community members to adopt healthy HWT behaviours. (
  • It is National Food Safety Education month, and we have a variety of new resources for environmental health practitioners. (
  • exposures, hazards, and health outcomes. (
  • There was a strong correlation between knowledge and attitudes, knowledge and practices, and attitudes and practices (P ˂ 0.05). (
  • Understanding and addressing the unique health and development needs of adolescent boys and young men (ABYM) is critical to achieving positive development outcomes for all genders. (
  • During August 19-September 30, 2013, anonymized Internet surveys assessing knowledge about, experience with, and perceptions of malaria and chemoprophylaxis were administered to PCVs and PCMOs serving in 18 African countries where antimalarial chemoprophylaxis is uniformly recommended. (
  • In addition to the PESS, Mozambique also has several disease specific & health programme and systems related strategic plans such as the Integrated MDG 4 & 5 plan, Strategic Plan for Malaria 2012-2016 , and Human Resources Development Plan 2008-2015 . (
  • This was Indian Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) resident, Dr. Santanu Sen, as he was conducting an interview with a local woman, dressed in her blue-colored sari, regarding her knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP), when dealing with malaria. (
  • The PESS III aims at providing strategic guidance on the coordination of policies and programmes in the health sector. (
  • A questionnaire was distributed to pediatricians in order to identify the antibiotic prescription practices in common childhood diseases and attitudes towards Pharmacovigilance. (
  • The human papilloma virus as the principle risk factor was identified by 21% of general practitioners.Conclusions: The knowledge of general practitioners was deficient and therefore initial and continuing training on cer- vical cancer is required. (
  • Demographic and Health Surveys. (
  • The main population-based sources of health information are census, household surveys and registration systems. (
  • The results of this study demonstrated a satisfactory level of knowledge and attitude of dentists about HBV, HCV and HIV / AIDS infections , but some gaps were observed, suggesting that higher knowledge level of dentists plays a very important role in forming the attitudes and practices regarding patients with HBV, HCV and HIV / AIDS . (
  • We recommend restaurants implement three key restaurant practices linked with better food allergy knowledge and more positive attitudes about accommodating customers with food allergies. (
  • Support is provided for the strengthening of the Ministry of Health capacities to optimize development and utilization of its human resources for health. (
  • their attitude to and perceptions of the use of Moringa oleifera seeds for home-based water treatment (HWT) and diarrhoea prevention in a low resource setting. (
  • Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the Knowledge , Attitude , and Practices (KAP) of dentists regarding infection control and basic principles. (
  • More 70% of the patients have a positive attitude toward medication. (
  • Background: The inappropriate, irrational use or misuse of antibiotics is observed in all health systems and in all patients' groups worldwide, especially for children, where antibiotics continue to be the drugs most commonly prescribed. (
  • Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, DOI: 10.1007/s10903-016-0428-9. (
  • Journal of Health Communication, 17(9), 1050-1067. (
  • This month's Journal of Environmental Health features a column[PDF - 388 KB] on CDC's Prevention Status Reports (PSRs) released in February 2016. (
  • In June 1988, greater than 40 health organizations formed the National Coalition for Adult Immunization (NCAI). (
  • Objective: to investigate oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practices of childcare doctors and nurses - employees and residents from the Serviço de Saúde Comunitária do Grupo Hospitalar Conceição (SSC-GHC). (
  • Subjects and method: Application of a closed questionnaire, with 32 multiple-choice questions, developed by the researchers to assess oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of childcare doctors and nurses (employees and residents) from eleven of the twelve healthcare units of the CHS-HGC. (
  • IMSEAR is the collaborative product of Health Literature, Library and Information Services (HELLIS) Network Member Libraries in the WHO South-East Asia Region. (
  • The Mozambique country health profiles provide an overview of the situation and trends of priority health problems and the health systems profile, including a description of institutional frameworks, trends in the national response, key issues and challenges. (
  • We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study in ten health districts between October and December 2015, using a standardized self -administered questionnaire . (
  • The aim of this study was to explore the contributory role played by the knowledge, attitude and practices of female college students with respect to the utilisation of emergency contraceptives. (
  • The aim of the present study was to explore hospital pediatricians' practices and attitudes on antibiotics prescribing and Pharmacovigilance issues in Cyprus. (
  • Anderson has co-authored over 60 peer-review publications, which focus primarily on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of obstetricians and gynecologists. (
  • Applying learning theory to safety and health training for Hispanic immigrant dairy workers. (
  • Therefore, finding effective ways to guarantee and improve the health level of rural older adults has become an important challenge to be addressed urgently. (
  • In general, restaurant staff were familiar with food allergies and had positive attitudes about accommodating customers with food allergies. (
  • the attitudes were positive and there was a significant association between attitude and age of the students (p = 0.014). (
  • Annals of Global Health 86(1): 48, 1-14. (
  • In 1988, the State of Hawaii Department of Health, assisted by HCFA and CDC, implemented a Pneumococcal Disease Initiative. (
  • We are now into the fourth decade of AIDS, and marking the 28th anniversary of World AIDS Day which was launched by the World Health Organisation on 1 December 1988. (