Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Dental Devices, Home Care: Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.School Dentistry: Preventive dental services provided for students in primary and secondary schools.Gingival DiseasesQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Schools: Educational institutions.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Professional Practice: The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.United StatesWorld Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.General Practice: Patient-based medical care provided across age and gender or specialty boundaries.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Practice Management, Medical: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a physician's practice.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Private Practice: Practice of a health profession by an individual, offering services on a person-to-person basis, as opposed to group or partnership practice.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Great BritainRural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Physicians, Family: Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Attitude to Computers: The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.EnglandPublic Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Attitude to Death: Conceptual response of the person to the various aspects of death, which are based on individual psychosocial and cultural experience.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Evidence-Based Practice: A way of providing health care that is guided by a thoughtful integration of the best available scientific knowledge with clinical expertise. This approach allows the practitioner to critically assess research data, clinical guidelines, and other information resources in order to correctly identify the clinical problem, apply the most high-quality intervention, and re-evaluate the outcome for future improvement.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Nurses: Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Practice (Psychology): Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Diffusion of Innovation: The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Professional-Patient Relations: Interactions between health personnel and patients.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Professional Practice Location: Geographic area in which a professional person practices; includes primarily physicians and dentists.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Knowledge Bases: Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.IndiaHealth Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Cultural Characteristics: Those aspects or characteristics which identify a culture.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Medical Staff, Hospital: Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Patients: Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures.Professional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Dentist's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice in dentistry related to diagnosis and treatment.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.

Screening for cervical cancer: a review of women's attitudes, knowledge, and behaviour. (1/12010)

The United Kingdom (UK) cervical screening programme has been successful in securing participation of a high proportion of targeted women, and has seen a fall in mortality rates of those suffering from cervical cancer. There remains, however, a significant proportion of unscreened women and, of women in whom an abnormality is detected, many will not attend for colposcopy. The present work reviews the psychological consequences of receiving an abnormal cervical smear result and of secondary screening and treatment, and examines reasons for women's non-participation in the screening programme. Psychological theories of screening behavior are used to elucidate women's reactions and to suggest methods of increasing participation, of improving the quality of the service, and of reducing women's anxiety. A literature search identified studies that examine factors influencing women's participation in the screening programme, their psychological reaction to the receipt of an abnormal cervical smear result, and experiences of colposcopy. Reasons for non-participation include administrative failures, unavailability of a female screener, inconvenient clinic times, lack of awareness of the test's indications and benefits, considering oneself not to be at risk of developing cervical cancer, and fear of embarrassment, pain, or the detection of cancer. The receipt of an abnormal result and referral for colposcopy cause high levels of distress owing to limited understanding of the meaning of the smear test; many women believe the test aims to detect existing cervical cancer. The quality of the cervical screening service can be enhanced by the provision of additional information, by improved quality of communication, and by consideration of women's health beliefs. This may result in increased participation in, and satisfaction with, the service.  (+info)

Illness behaviour in elite middle and long distance runners. (2/12010)

OBJECTIVES: To examine the illness attitudes and beliefs known to be associated with abnormal illness behaviour (where symptoms are present in excess of objective signs and pathology) in elite middle and long distance runners, in comparison with non-athlete controls. METHODS: A total of 150 athletes were surveyed using the illness behaviour questionnaire as an instrument to explore the psychological attributes associated with abnormal illness behaviour. Subjects also completed the general health questionnaire as a measure of psychiatric morbidity. A control group of 150 subjects, matched for age, sex, and social class, were surveyed using the same instruments. RESULTS: A multivariate analysis of illness behaviour questionnaire responses showed that the athletes' group differed significantly from the control group (Hotelling's T: Exact F = 2.68; p = 0.01). In particular, athletes were more somatically focused (difference between means -0.27; 95% confidence interval -0.50 to -0.03) and more likely to deny the impact of stresses in their life (difference between means 0.78; 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 1.25). Athletes were also higher scorers on the Whiteley Index of Hypochondriasis (difference between means 0.76; 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 1.48). There were no differences in the levels of psychiatric morbidity between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The illness attitudes and beliefs of athletes differ from those of a well matched control population. The origin of these psychological attributes is not clear but those who treat athletes need to be aware of them.  (+info)

Provider attitudes toward dispensing emergency contraception in Michigan's Title X programs.(3/12010)



he pill in Japan: will approval ever come?  (+info)

Placebo medication use in patient care: a survey of medical interns. (5/12010)

The use of placebo medication, long recognized by clinicians, often has serious practical implications, such as patient deception. Past evidence has suggested that resident physicians tend to misuse placebo medication. Interns from two consecutive years of a residency program were surveyed anonymously to assess their knowledge and use of placebos. Of the 74 interns surveyed, 44 (59%) were familiar with placebo use in patient care. Fifty percent of these interns familiar with placebo use had learned about placebos from another physician. All interns who had learned about placebos during their internships had learned from another physician, whereas interns who had gained their knowledge of placebos as medical students were as likely to have learned from the medical literature as they were to have learned from a physician (P = 0.027). Interns aware of placebo use were more likely to consider placebo administration for suspected, factitious pain (P = 0.022). The present study uncovered no relationship between interns' estimations of placebo efficacy and the utility they attributed to placebos in assessing a complaint of pain. This suggests that conceptual inconsistencies underlie their use of placebos. Interns often learn of placebos as medical students and are influenced by physician-mentors. Placebo use in patient care is an area of attention for medical educators.  (+info)

Relationships between various attitudes towards self-determination in health care with special reference to an advance directive. (6/12010)

OBJECTIVES: The subject of patient self-determination in health care has gained broad interest because of the increasing number of incompetent patients. In an attempt to solve the problems related to doctors' decision making in such circumstances, advance directives have been developed. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between public attitudes towards patient autonomy and advance directives. SUBJECTS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A stratified random sample of 600 adults in northern Sweden was surveyed by a questionnaire with a response rate of 78.2%. The subjects were asked about their wish for control of their health care, their concerns about health care, their treatment preferences in a life-threatening situation (both reversible and irreversible), and their attitudes towards the application of advance directives. RESULTS: Numerous relationships between various aspects of self-determination in health care (desire for control, fears of over-treatment, and choice of treatment level) in general and advance directives, in particular, were found. Those who wanted to have a say in their health care (about 94%) also mainly supported the use of an advance directive. CONCLUSIONS: The fact that almost 30% of the respondents were undecided concerning their personal use of advance directives points to a lack of knowledge and to the necessity of education of the public on these issues.  (+info)

How physician executives and clinicians perceive ethical issues in Saudi Arabian hospitals. (7/12010)

OBJECTIVES: To compare the perceptions of physician executives and clinicians regarding ethical issues in Saudi Arabian hospitals and the attributes that might lead to the existence of these ethical issues. DESIGN: Self-completion questionnaire administered from February to July 1997. SETTING: Different health regions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of 457 physicians (317 clinicians and 140 physician executives) from several hospitals in various regions across the kingdom. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in the perceptions of physician executives and clinicians regarding the existence of various ethical issues in their hospitals. The vast majority of physician executives did not perceive that seven of the eight issues addressed by the study were ethical concerns in their hospitals. However, the majority of the clinicians perceived that six of the same eight issues were ethical considerations in their hospitals. Statistically significant differences in the perceptions of physician executives and clinicians were observed in only three out of eight attributes that might possibly lead to the existence of ethical issues. The most significant attribute that was perceived to result in ethical issues was that of hospitals having a multinational staff. CONCLUSION: The study calls for the formulation of a code of ethics that will address specifically the physicians who work in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. As a more immediate initiative, it is recommended that seminars and workshops be conducted to provide physicians with an opportunity to discuss the ethical dilemmas they face in their medical practice.  (+info)

Attitudes, knowledge, and risk perceptions of women with breast and/or ovarian cancer considering testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2. (8/12010)

PURPOSE: This study examined baseline knowledge, beliefs, and risk perceptions among a group of 200 women with breast and/or ovarian cancer who participated in a trial designed to improve decision making about genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women were identified by self-referral, physician referral, and tumor registry extraction and invited to participate in a randomized trial in which testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 was offered free of charge. Subjects completed baseline questionnaires and interviews that assessed knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of risk of having an alteration in BRCA1 or BRCA2. RESULTS: Sixty percent of women overestimated their chances of having a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation compared with estimates from a BRCA1/BRCA2 risk model. Women who have at least three relatives with breast or ovarian cancer were one third (95% confidence interval, 0.2 to 0.6) as likely to overestimate their risk of having a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation compared with women who have two or fewer affected relatives. Knowledge was limited about BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and cancer risk associated with gene mutations. Eighty-four percent of the women indicated a probable or definite interest in testing. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of the high-risk women in this study had knowledge deficits about BRCA1 and BRCA2 and overestimated their risk of having a mutation. Although some degree of caution should be used in generalizing the results of this study to practice settings, the data provide insight into the challenges clinicians will face in communicating with patients about cancer genetics.  (+info)

  • On February 1, 2016, the WHO declared the Zika virus outbreak a public health emergency of international concern given the rapid rise in microcephaly and other neurological syndromes seen in South America and the Pacific islands. (
  • Cocroft, Shelytia, "Cognitive Health And African American Elders Study: Knowledge, Attitudes And Practices" (2016). (
  • In January 2016, the Angola Ministry of Health reported an outbreak of yellow fever, a vaccine-preventable disease caused by a flavivirus transmitted through the bite of Aedes or Haemagogus species mosquitoes ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • During April 23-25, 2016, a knowledge, attitudes, and practices rapid assessment was administered to men at 10 sites in the four municipalities of Luanda with the greatest number of confirmed cases: Viana, Kilamba Kiaxi, Cacuaco, and Cazenga. (
  • In the nationally representative cross-sectional 2016 Timor-Leste Demographic and Health Survey , 4622 men ( aged 15-59 years) and 12 607 women ( aged 15-49 years) were randomly selected using stratified multistage sampling and interviewed. (
  • Findings: Overall awareness about the importance of eye health is high in NZ, although knowledge about associated diseases (e.g. macular degeneration) is low--this is particularly important, given the risk and cost of preventable vision impairment. (
  • Originality/value: This consumer survey of eye health in NZ, which assessed awareness and access to eye care, provides a foundation for those involved in the provision of eye care health. (
  • All 2nd-year students ( n =30) and 90% of 3rd-year students ( n =18) agreed that exposure to clinical training increased their awareness of self-care practices. (
  • We concluded that vaccination coverage, PEP awareness and anthelmintic treatment should be emphasized in educational programmes focussed on animal welfare, veterinary and public health. (
  • Although pet ownership is common in most countries and non-pet owners may have frequent contact with pets, there is limited knowledge of the public's pet contact practices and awareness of zoonotic disease risks from pets. (
  • This survey on reproductive and family health in Albania grew out of a growing concern by Albanian national health authorities as well as a number of international organizations, about the growing problem of HIV/AIDS and other STDs, and their possible implications for public health in Albania. (
  • Following discussions led by UNICEF, UNFPA and the Ministry of Health in conjunction with UNAIDS, UNDP, PSI, AED and ICMH, a decision was taken to initiate a broader survey. (
  • Women's health: Only 42% of the women in the survey said they had ever had a gynecological examination of any type, and access to such essential services as Pap smear tests was very restricted. (
  • In 2011, we conducted a cross-sectional nationally representative phone survey of 1,600 primary health care units to interview one unit coordinator and one health care professional per unit (either nurse, physician, or community health worker). (
  • Number of health care units sampled per region ( n = 1,600)-Primary Care Survey, 2011. (
  • Methodology This study utilized a survey of medical knowledge, attitudes and practices applied to fifth year Colombian medical students attending the Universidad de los Andes in the first semester of 2013. (
  • Out of a total number of twelve, six health centres were randomly selected for the survey by drawing lots. (
  • Findings from a new Kaiser Family Foundation/LouisHarris and Associates, Inc. national public knowledge and opinion survey, however, indicate thatmost American women are uninformed or misinformed about the contraceptive alternative andfew have ever used it. (
  • Furthermore, a companion Kaiser Family Foundation/Fact Finders, Inc. survey finds that whilemost obstetricians/gynecologists practicing in the United States consider ECPs safe and effectiveand the vast majority have no objections or concerns about prescribing them, most haveprescribed them for only a handful of their patients. (
  • YT attitudes, skills, training, utilisation, barriers to use, and facilitators of EBP use were measured using the 84-item Evidence-Based practice Attitude and utilization SurvEy (EBASE). (
  • Therefore this paper will contribute to building a knowledge base of NCD KAP survey methodology for future use in epidemiology and research worldwide. (
  • This was a prospective, interventional cohort study implemented through a pre- and post-cross-sectional knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) survey. (
  • The same keywords were used to search relevant journals such as BMC Women's Health, Medical Journal of Australia, International Breastfeeding Journal and Journal of Human Lactation . (
  • Background: To effectively care for people who are terminally ill, including those without decision-making capacity, palliative care physicians must know and understand the legal standing of Advance Care Planning (ACP) in their jurisdiction of practice. (
  • to encourage physicians through the internet, especially from the developing countries who witness a spectrum of disease and acquire a wealth of knowledge to publish their experiences to benefit the medical community in patients care. (
  • Some believe the fact that no manufacturer of oral contraceptives has sought approval from theFood and Drug Administration (FDA) to re-label their product for emergency use is a majorfactor contributing to Americans' lack of knowledge about ECPs and physicians' reasons for notprescribing them more widely. (
  • The second tier is the dispensary level, each covering about 10,000 population and staffed by rural medical aides and clinical officers, who are primary school leavers with a period of 3 years training in assessment, diagnosis and management of some general physical health conditions (e.g. malaria, maternal health, tuberculosis, leprosy, parasitic infections and other infectious diseases). (
  • The present study also stresses on assessing Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) of target people against intestinal parasitic infection, because no health related programme can be implemented or it will be effective as it should be until the assessment of knowledge of target population is not done. (
  • Assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices towards newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism before and after a health education interv. (
  • Studies have shown that health care professionals have little knowledge of and inadequate attitudes toward the assessment of pain and its treatment with analgesics. (
  • These deficiencies include misconceptions about pain assessment and the erroneous belief that patients exaggerate their pain, inappropriate beliefs about drug tolerance and addiction, inadequate knowledge of analgesic drugs pharmacology, and a difficulty in assessing pain in children ( 7 - 10 ). (
  • 1 Section of Clinical and Outcomes Research in Women's Health, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. (
  • 30 years according to National Research Centre and Ministry of Health and Medical Education statistics) and this makes it necessary to maintain the functionality of the present programmes and to assess emerging needs and current trends regarding this issue. (
  • Results highlight that standardized health education for Honduran women of reproductive age is needed if folic acid consumption through fortification and supplementation is to be successful and sustainable. (
  • Based on the Theory of Fundamental Causes, the study postulated a positive relationship between SES, as measured by education level and income, and KAP on subjective cognitive health. (
  • Models for SES and KAP indicated that: (1) age is negatively associated with knowledge about protective and risk factors for AD, (2) age is negatively associated with attitudes about cognitive decline, (3) income is negatively associated with barriers to healthy eating, (4) age and income were predictive of engagement in physical activity and (5) marital status and education were predictive of engagement in brain training exercise. (
  • Nine possible influential key factors have been studied: incorrect assumptions toward sexual issues, comfort, sexual knowledge, professional nursing role, patient- and nurse-related issues, work environment-related issues, continuing education activities, and society-related factors. (
  • There is a need for developing a continuous education program that is accessible to practicing DHCWs. (
  • There was no statistically significant difference in knowledge and attitude of health providers' score with respect to age, gender, education, marital status and work experience. (
  • Oral health education should be imparted to the prisoner time to time and De-addiction clinics or programs should be establish in the prisons. (
  • Residents randomized to Group 1 will receive education about Bright Futures partnership and communication skills with oral health as the main health promotion topic. (
  • These studies highlight that pediatricians play important roles in oral health and are capable of being trained to complete oral screening exams, but more education and guidance is needed. (
  • Although health professionals must be equipped to promote healthy lifestyles and serve as resources for the public's health information, many gaps in the education and training of residents exist. (
  • Journal of Education & Health Promotion;9:359, 2020. (
  • The aim of this study was to uncover existing knowledge of CH and screening for the condition and to assess the impact of health education on mothers' knowledge and attitudes towards having their newborns screened. (
  • Strengthening of health education through the packaging of messages targeting the wider society using different delivery channels is thus recommended. (
  • A strong advocate for graduate education and research in nursing, she served as a consultant to the U.S. Surgeon General, the U.S. Air Force, and the National Institute of Mental Health. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study propose that there is an evident need of dispelling the myths about sexual health in cancer care. (
  • Conclusions: Overall, the study suggests DHCWs are aware they have insufficient knowledge of universal precautions. (
  • Conclusions: A high level of knowledge of the law is essential to ensure that patients' wishes and decisions, expressed through ACP, are respected to the maximum extent possible within the law, thereby according with the principles and philosophy of palliative care. (
  • The administrative regulations for the clinical use of antimicrobials was issued and implemented by the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC, the former Ministry of Health). (
  • Maternal health: The health care available to women during pregnancy also emerged as an issue of concern. (
  • Although Zika virus infection is not a public health emergency of international concern at this moment, if there is no active measures taken, transmission of this virus will continue to expand in the world, including Southeast Asia ( 8 ). (
  • Knowledge pertains to knowledge about AD risk and protective factors, and concern and susceptibility to AD. (
  • the reliability of IPT information/data management, drug supply and the leadership and governance of the health system that IPT program is a direct concern. (
  • In order to bring health care to the population, strategic primary care structures have evolved, although there is widespread concern about their performance and capacity to deliver in resource poor settings. (
  • Lack of knowledge regarding mode of transmission and practice of defecation in open air and not washing hands after defecation are issues of great concern, because many parasitic infection have faecal-oral mode of transmission. (
  • It is a matter of grave concern that in developing countries intestinal parasitic infection poses a major health problem which is not addressed properly. (
  • Falls are a major health concern for older adults worldwide, not only because of the potential for fractures and head injuries, but also for the emotional toll-the fear and anxiety-that can develop as a result of an injury or close call. (
  • The rise in antibiotic resistance has become an increasing public health concern worldwide [ 1 ]. (
  • These findings suggest that effective parenting practices have a robust protective effect on youth drug use via multiple pathways that extend beyond parenting effects on the most proximal predictors of adolescent drug use. (
  • Prisoner shows their negative attitude towards dental treatment as 45.6% of the subjects think, it is necessary to visit a dentist and 62.24 % 0f the subjects had never visit to a dental clinic even before imprisonment. (
  • The lack of knowledge about good oral health and negative attitude might be another cause of poor health. (
  • Knowledge, Attitudes and Socio-Demographic Factors Differentiating Blood Donors from Non-donors in an Urban Slum of Delhi. (
  • It is strongly believed that plans of action should be tailored according to specific local factors as the health concerns of men and women are different with regard to gender issues and according to the cultural and demographic circumstances of the specific region [10, (
  • Such socio demographic factors are closely associated with poor health status and when they are admitted to correctional institutions (prisons), they are deprived of their liberty for a period that may be long or of uncertain period. (
  • Knowledge: clinical breast exam (CBE), breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography were recommended by 95.3 % (61/64) of students, 96.9 % (62/64) of medical students and 90.7 % (58/64) of students, respectively. (
  • Governments in several countries attempt to strengthen user participation through instructing health care organisations to plan and implement activities such as user representation in administrational boards, improved information to users, and more individual user participation in clinical work. (
  • Planning and implementing activities to meet these requirements, such as having user representation in administrational boards, improving information to users, and enhancing user participation in clinical work thus become a part of the responsibilities and daily tasks in health organisations. (
  • Christel Maritz Psychologist - is a qualified Clinical Psychologist in practice for the p. (
  • Objectives: To evaluate the oral health knowledge, attitude and practices of undergraduate dental students and also to correlate the difference between the students of clinical and preclinical courses. (
  • Minimal information is available about their demographics and about public attitudes concerning dogs and diseases. (
  • This study is intended to overcome limitations described in other tools to evaluate EBP barriers, knowledge and skills. (
  • However, differences in reimbursement, work environment, perceived barriers, patient characteristics and availability of resources seem to contribute to differences in persistence according to the setting in which dietitians are working, evidenced by an increase of efforts and engagement in private practice and a decrease in public primary-care practice. (
  • A standardised national instrument whose wide use will identify gaps and flaws in establishing an EBP could contribute to an effective resources allocation from health professionals willing to use an EBP. (
  • Since there are inconsistent data about dietitians' beliefs, attitudes and practices concerning obesity and little is known concerning differences in public and private practice, we conducted the present study to address those gaps. (
  • This data will be used to optimize information distribution to our community, address large knowledge gaps in both patients and providers, and prepare medical providers to offer needed counseling. (
  • They also had a positive attitude towards the labour partogramme. (
  • Despite the very good knowledge of the labour partogramme and the positive attitude towards its use, the rate of use still remains very low.We do recommend that the training of the personnel should be more practical and the labour partogramme made available to both private and public hospitals. (
  • Positive attitude towards malaria was enhanced by knowledge of malaria, and in turn good practice on malaria was enhanced by positive attitude. (
  • RÉSUMÉ La présente étude a été réalisée dans la partie sud-ouest de la province de Téhéran pour évaluer les connaissances, attitudes et pratiques des hommes iraniens et afghans réfugiés en ce qui concerne la santé génésique. (
  • La présente étude avait pour objectif de déterminer les connaissances, attitudes et pratiques concernant les déchets biomédicaux parmi les professionnels de la santé dans les centres de soins de santé primaires à Hail (Arabie saoudite). (
  • L'occupation, l'éducation et l'âge étaient significativement associés au niveau des connaissances, attitudes et pratiques (p (
  • Il y avait une forte corrélation entre les connaissances et les attitudes, entre les connaissances et les pratiques ainsi qu'entre les attitudes et les pratiques (p ˂ 0,05). (
  • Une formation est recommandée afin de promouvoir les connaissances des professionnels qui prennent en charge des déchets biomédicaux dans les centres de soins de santé primaires. (
  • This report reviews the literature on narrative research, offers some quality criteria for appraising such research and gives three detailed worked case examples: diet and nutrition, well-being, and mental health in refugees and asylum seekers. (
  • This was a non-randomized controlled study including professionals from three mental health hospitals in Central Norway. (
  • This is the first controlled study on the effect on professionals from implementing a development plan to enhance user participation in a mental health hospital. (
  • In addition, 1000 mental health nurses have been trained, but only 460 are currently deployed in the mental health services. (
  • Mental health and mental illness are often overlooked in the management of patients in our health services. (
  • There is an urgent need to train PHCPs in mental health in general and depression diagnosis and management in particular. (
  • Mental health is an inherent component of health. (
  • After the war, Peplau was at the table with many of these same men as they worked to reshape the mental health system in the United States through the passage of the National Mental Health Act o 1946. (
  • The availability of habitat for Aedes mosquitoes and the ideal environmental conditions for the delivery of mosquito-borne pathogens have led the Southeast Asian region to face a huge health threat through mosquito-borne infectious diseases in the twenty-first century ( 10 ). (
  • General community was well aware regarding relationship of typhoid fever, diarrheal diseases and hepatitis with unhygienic food and unboiled water but the practices did not match the level of knowledge. (
  • To assess DHCW knowledge, attitudes and practices related to infection control practice guidelines designed to limit transmission of blood-borne diseases, a cross-sectional study was conducted. (
  • The lifestyle and health of Mongolians are changing as a result, shown by the 2005 and 2009 STEPS surveys (World Health Organization's STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance) that described a growing burden of Non-Communicable Diseases and injuries (NCDs). (
  • Medicines play an important role in treating different diseases and conditions, but when left unused or to expire at home and improperly disposed, they may cause environmental pollution and can be hazardous to health. (
  • A widespread acceptability and coverage of the vaccine in the target populations undoubtedly will also depend on paediatricians' vaccination-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. (
  • As part of the public health response that included strengthened surveillance, vector control, case management, and social mobilization ( 1 ), mass vaccination campaigns were implemented in Luanda during February 2-April 16. (
  • Paediatricians who were male, who were 55 years or older, who had participated in training courses in the last 5 years, who reported that taking courses and reading the scientific literature had contributed to their knowledge, or who had implemented vaccination promotion activities, felt more knowledgeable than other paediatricians. (