Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Health Planning Support: Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Great BritainPolicy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Health Fairs: Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Health Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Prepaid Health Plans: Contracts between an insurer and a subscriber or a group of subscribers whereby a specified set of health benefits is provided in return for a periodic premium.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Health Transition: Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)Occupational Health Nursing: The practice of nursing in the work environment.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Education, Public Health Professional: Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Social Determinants of Health: The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics (http://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/).Maternal-Child Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Holistic Health: Health as viewed from the perspective that humans and other organisms function as complete, integrated units rather than as aggregates of separate parts.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.National Health Insurance, United StatesEmployment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Medically Uninsured: Individuals or groups with no or inadequate health insurance coverage. Those falling into this category usually comprise three primary groups: the medically indigent (MEDICAL INDIGENCY); those whose clinical condition makes them medically uninsurable; and the working uninsured.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act: Public Law 104-91 enacted in 1996, was designed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the healthcare system, protect health insurance coverage for workers and their families, and to protect individual personal health information.EnglandHealth Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Personal Health Services: Health care provided to individuals.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Health Facility Administration: Management of the organization of HEALTH FACILITIES.Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.BrazilMedical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Public Health Dentistry: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Minority Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of members of minority groups.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Financing, Personal: Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Employer Health Costs: That portion of total HEALTH CARE COSTS borne by an individual's or group's employing organization.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.IndiaMaternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.
  • Offerings include lead screenings for children ages 2 and under by St. Mary's Hospital, blood pressure screenings for seniors by Home Health Care Partners, Body Fat and BMI screenings for all by HealthLink, Montgomery County Sheriff's Office providing identification cards under the SAFE Child program, and special appearances by Fidelasaurus and Amsterdam Mohawk baseball team mascot MoJo at lunch time. (nysenate.gov)
  • Preexposure prophylaxis (or PrEP) with tenofovir-emtricitabine is highly effective in preventing HIV infection and is recommended as a prevention option for adults at substantial risk of HIV acquisition (see www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/prep ). (cdc.gov)
  • This document provides recommendations for infection prevention and control procedures to minimise the risk of transmission of Creutzfeldt - Jakob disease (CJD) in health care settings. (health.gov.au)
  • Infection prevention and control issues regarding patients with suspected or confirmed vCJD will be made available on the Department of Health and Ageing website once vCJD is reported in Australia. (health.gov.au)
  • The Communicable Diseases Network Australia (CDNA) published guidelines for infection control for classical CJD in 2007, as a revised supplementary chapter (31) of the Infection Control Guidelines for the Prevention of Transmission of Infectious Diseases in the Health Care Setting, 2004 edition. (health.gov.au)
  • These guidelines have now been replaced by the NHMRC Australian Guidelines for the Prevention and Control of Infection in Healthcare (2010), which do not include extensive advice on CJD, but instead refer to the CDNA guidelines as the definitive Australian advice on this topic. (health.gov.au)
  • Our mission is to provide specialized expertise in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infections in cancer patients through high quality clinical consultation, infection control and research programs. (mdanderson.org)
  • Haffner is the infection control nurse manager at University Health Service, and the person responsible for infection control and prevention. (umn.edu)
  • The new infection prevention and control requirement focuses on the use of infection control practices and patient/caregiver education and teaching. (prnewswire.com)
  • Home health agencies must maintain and document an infection prevention and control program with the goal of prevention and control of infections and communicable diseases. (prnewswire.com)
  • It is important to note that all aspects of the Infection Prevention and Control CoP are current standards of practice - from teaching patients and caregivers about proper prevention practices and monitoring infection disease occurrences within a HHA's population to cooperating with other providers and federal/state/local regulatory agencies during disease outbreaks. (prnewswire.com)
  • The infection control program must include a method for identifying infectious and communicable disease problems, and plan for appropriate actions that are expected to result in improvement and disease prevention. (prnewswire.com)
  • Federal and state agencies such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and state departments of health, as well as accreditation organizations and national professional organizations such as the American Association for Professionals in Infection Control (APIC) have all developed infection prevention and control standards of practice, which can be used by home health agencies in creation of their programs. (prnewswire.com)
  • Note that CMS expects a home health agency to be able to identify the source of the standards it selects, and to explain why those standards were chosen for incorporation in the infection prevention and control program. (prnewswire.com)
  • Review client and caregiver education materials to ensure that they reflect current standards and that they are consistent with the scope of the agency's infection prevention and control program. (prnewswire.com)
  • Implement infection prevention and control documentation processes in a manner that suits the workflow of the agency, and successfully demonstrate upon survey that this requirement was met. (prnewswire.com)
  • Incorporate infection prevention and control monitoring into the agency's QAPI Program, including the development of PIPs as needed to address areas in need of improvement. (prnewswire.com)
  • This is the fifth in a six-part MyHealthNewsDaily series examining the problems and solutions related to six "winnable battles" in public health, as recently announced by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (livescience.com)
  • Patients are probably our best surveillance tool," said the APIC's Olmsted, who is also an epidemiologist in infection prevention and control services at the St. Joseph Mercy Health System in Ann Arbor, Mich. (livescience.com)
  • The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) launched the Emerging Infections Program (EIP) in 1995 to develop centers of excellence in infectious disease surveillance and applied public health research in selected state health departments across the United States. (oregon.gov)
  • These surveillance data are used to generate reliable estimates of the incidence of these infections and provide the starting point for further exploration of risk factors, spectrum of disease, and better strategies for prevention and control. (oregon.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the government organization that keeps tabs on listeria-related infections, and its most recent nationwide data come from 2016. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Understanding that even treated HSV-2 infections provide a cellular environment conducive to HIV infection suggests new directions for HIV prevention research, including more powerful anti-HSV therapies and ideally an HSV-2 vaccine," says NIAID Director Dr. Anthony S. Fauci. (nih.gov)
  • For more information about testing and treatment after a job-related exposure to HIV, contact the CDC National Prevention Information Network at 1-800-458-5231 or National Institutes of Health (NIH) AIDSinfo at 1-800-HIV-0440 (1-800-448-0440). (healthwise.net)
  • The CDC authors state: "pneumonia is the most common infection causing sepsis, and vaccination is an important and highly effective prevention strategy. (harvard.edu)
  • The purpose of the gateway is to provide information on controlling and responding to infectious disease outbreaks in healthcare settings to assist state and territorial health departments in prevention of high consequence infectious disease outbreaks in healthcare settings. (astho.org)
  • The Infection Prevention department at UCD is a dynamic and fast paced department. (campuscareercenter.com)
  • Acts as an educator and mentor to support best practices related to infection prevention. (campuscareercenter.com)
  • Experienced in performing surveillance and applying NHSN criteria - Minimum 3 years experience in Infection Prevention and Hospital Epidemiolgy. (campuscareercenter.com)
  • Because HAIs are identified as infections that arise specifically within health care settings, the continued prevalence of HAIs indicates a need for a better understanding of how aspects of the built environment relate to the transmission of infection, and what design, construction and operational modifications can be made in the health care built environment to support HAI prevention. (hfmmagazine.com)
  • Interviews and case studies are shared to illustrate actual infection prevention-related successes and challenges presented by the built environment. (hfmmagazine.com)
  • Guide explores five areas design, construction and engineering professionals can focus on to improve infection prevention. (hfmmagazine.com)
  • The tools, developed with the help of APIC, help to assess infection-prevention strategies. (hfmmagazine.com)
  • The Environmental Services & Infection Prevention software used in over 950 hospitals. (hfmmagazine.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) now advises that all pregnant women in the continental United States and U.S. territories be evaluated for Zika infection at each prenatal care visit. (childrensnational.org)
  • As one in every 25 hospitalized patients in the United States is diagnosed with an HAI, it is critical to understand the long-lasting impact of such infections, not just from a physical perspective, but also from a social and emotional perspective,' said 2018 APIC President Janet Haas, PhD, RN, CIC, FSHEA, FAPIC. (news-medical.net)
  • Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are diseases that are commonly spread by sexual activity. (virginia.gov)
  • If left untreated, some STIs can cause serious health problems such as infertility or even death (HIV/AIDs). (virginia.gov)
  • Using a condom to protect yourself from sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is important for everyone's health, but it's especially important if you're living with HIV. (avert.org)
  • Testing and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV are both available at Health Services. (umn.edu)
  • STIs are a group of infections spread usually through sexual activity. (umn.edu)
  • In order to provide you with a comprehensive screening for STIs, a Health Services medical provider will meet with you to discuss your concerns and risks. (umn.edu)
  • Some STIs can cause long-term health issues if left untreated, especially for women. (umn.edu)
  • Nobody wants to get sicker in a hospital than they were at home, but that's the reality for 1.7 million Americans every year, who develop health-care-associated infections (HAIs). (livescience.com)
  • ASTHO is working with HHS, CDC, and the Keystone Center to determine the role of state health officials in decreasing and preventing HAIs, specifically addressing priorities, challenges, and solutions at the state and regional level. (astho.org)
  • Although numerous improvement efforts are ongoing, the prevalence of health care-associated infections (HAIs) remains a significant risk and cost within health care environments around the world. (hfmmagazine.com)
  • This document outlines ways that health care organizations can use the physical environment to reduce HAIs. (hfmmagazine.com)
  • The consequences of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) reach well beyond patients' physical health, souring social relationships, and leading some healthcare providers (HCP) to distance themselves from affected patients, according to a qualitative, systematic review published in the American Journal of Infection Control ( AJIC ), the journal of the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC). (news-medical.net)
  • Sub-Saharan Africa is the most affected part of the world (25.5 million cases or 69% of all people living with HIV infection), and the Eastern Europe and central Asia region has experienced the largest increases in new HIV infections (60% increase from 2010 to 2016). (cdc.gov)
  • All of the above can give you an upset stomach and can cause any of these infections: Gastroenteritis consisting of vomiting, severe pain in abdomen, diarrhoea, and further aggravated conditions like typhoid and jaundice. (indiatimes.com)
  • Signs of advanced severe infection are those of anemia and protein deficiency, including emaciation, cardiac failure and abdominal distension with ascites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes active, busy kids will complain more about pain when things quiet down at the end of the day or when it's time for sleep,' says Mona Mansour, MD, director of the Primary and School Health Division of General and Community Pediatrics at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center in Ohio. (parents.com)
  • For all mental illnesses - excluding depression and bipolar disorder - the team found that being hospitalized for an infection was associated with a 84 percent higher risk of subsequently being diagnosed with a mental health disorder at a hospital and a 42 percent increased risk of being prescribed a medication for mental illness. (npr.org)
  • Less serious infections, treated in an outpatient setting with an antibiotic, antiviral, antifungal or antiparasitic medications were associated with a 40 percent greater risk of getting a mental illness diagnosis in a hospital and a 22 percent higher risk of getting a prescription. (npr.org)
  • Our department is also instrumental in developing institution pathways for the management of infections in various treatment settings (hospital, emergency center, outpatient, home therapy), and for making institutional and national guidelines for appropriate antibiotic usage. (mdanderson.org)
  • The risk of serious hospital-associated infections was about 17% when liberal transfusion strategies were used but only 12% with restrictive transfusion strategies. (nih.gov)
  • Pronovost is also pushing for more aggressive reporting standards and hospital culture changes to improve how employees handle infections. (livescience.com)
  • Finally, staff at the private King Edward VII Hospital in London must have breathed a sigh of relief after Prince Philip checked out three days after being admitted with a chest infection. (hsj.co.uk)
  • People in the hospital may get this infection. (wellspan.org)
  • This position is responsible for: Coordinates the multiple facets of the Infection Control Program at the Nemours, AI duPont Hospital for Children and all Delaware Valley locations. (healthecareers.com)
  • 1. Responsible for the development and implementation of a Hospital and Practice Infection Control Program. (healthecareers.com)
  • 2. Co-Chair of the Hospital Infection Control Committee. (healthecareers.com)
  • It prevented an estimated 135 infections, saving almost $4 million, the Joint Commission hospital regulating group and the American College of Surgeons announced Wednesday. (thetimes-tribune.com)
  • Hospital stays for patients who got infections dropped from an average of 15 days to 13 days, which helped cut costs. (thetimes-tribune.com)
  • To see all Oregon Emerging Infections Program special studies, go to EIP special studies . (oregon.gov)
  • The CDC partnered with the New York State Department of Health and Emerging Infections Program to examine the records of 246 adults and 79 children diagnosed with sepsis to see what factors contributed, and how it could have been prevented. (harvard.edu)
  • The information border officials collect helps the Public Health Agency of Canada with its compliance and enforcement efforts . (canada.ca)
  • Use this mobile app to speed up your arrival process in Canada and spend less time with border and public health officers. (canada.ca)
  • On the left are factors of emergence that were highlighted in the 1992 report: microbial adaptation and change, human demographics and behavior (e.g. crowding and urbanization) the breakdown of public health (a general phenomenon throughout the late 1970s and early 1980s), technology and industry, international travel and commerce, and economic development and land use. (washington.edu)
  • These include: human susceptibility to infection (which has changed with the HIV pandemic and the aging of the human population), climate and weather, changing ecosystems, poverty and social inequality, war and famine (which is increasing), lack of political will (which ties in with the breakdown of public health), and the intent to harm (bioterrorism). (washington.edu)
  • This document is a compilation of resources from the California Department of Public Health and other public health sources that may be relevant to mitigating COVID-19 infection in behavioral health facilities, such as inpatient and outpatient mental health and substance use disorder treatment facilities (BHF). (ca.gov)
  • DHCS recommends that all facilities follow the directives of their local public health departments and continue to review updates to CDPH's COVID-19 website and Cal/OSHA (PDF) regulations because information about COVID-19 is evolving with time. (ca.gov)
  • This outbreak is not a threat to public health," he said. (msnbc.com)
  • This public health notice will be updated on a regular basis as the investigation evolves. (newswire.ca)
  • It is possible that more recent illnesses may be reported in the outbreak because there is a period of time between when a person becomes ill and when the illness is reported to public health officials. (newswire.ca)
  • The governor's office contacted Nir Menachemi , who chairs the health policy and management department at Indiana University's Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health. (npr.org)
  • Other highly visible public health crises including obesity and swine flu have allowed this problem to fly under the radar for five years, officials say. (livescience.com)
  • The cornerstone of all EIP programs is an emphasis on active population-based surveillance for infections of public health importance. (oregon.gov)
  • FoodNet is an active laboratory and population-based surveillance system to monitor the incidence of foodborne diseases of local and national public health importance. (oregon.gov)
  • Public Health - Seattle & King County is testing samples of the fish and fish tanks at the Asian Food Center. (kingcounty.gov)
  • Public Health - Seattle & King County is working with the Washington State Department of Health and with the regulatory authorities at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to gather information about the distributors of any contaminated product. (kingcounty.gov)
  • Updated U.S. Public Health Services guidelines for the management of occupational exposures to HIV and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. (healthwise.net)
  • The Healthcare and Infection Control Gateway serves as a hub for information, resources, and materials from federal agencies, state and territorial public health agencies, and ASTHO. (astho.org)
  • Mosquito-borne illnesses are a major public health concern. (health.mil)
  • Confirmatory testing may be done for public health purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oregon Grape Tea is used to flush out a urinary tract infections and can be used in dried capsules or a liquid tincture to treat digestive disorders like infectious diarrhea. (spiritualityhealth.com)
  • This page provides guidance to state health agencies on controlling and responding to infectious disease risks in healthcare settings. (astho.org)
  • Their work was funded by NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). (nih.gov)
  • Sets the goals, objectives and strategic direction for the Infection Control Department in collaboration with the Infectious Diseases Medical Practice. (healthecareers.com)
  • In mid-May, Children's National Health System Fetal Medicine Institute and Division of Pediatric Infectious Disease announced the formation of a Congenital Zika Virus Program to serve as a dedicated resource for referring clinicians and for pregnant women to receive counseling and science-driven answers about the impact of the Zika virus on pregnancies and newborns. (childrensnational.org)
  • While we're hopeful there are few local cases, the Congenital Zika Virus Program has been developing emergency response plans in collaboration with local departments of health to prepare for any eventuality," says Roberta DeBiasi, MD, MS , Chief of the Division of Infectious Disease and Congenital Zika Virus Program co-leader. (childrensnational.org)
  • Screening healthy men for signs of prostate cancer using the PSA blood test is controversial - it's still unclear whether the potential benefits of identifying cancer early outweigh the risks of treating many cases of cancer that would never threaten a man's health. (wsj.com)
  • Whether you are heading to a hill station, coastal area, or anywhere else, all recreational spots are accompanied with risks and chances of picking a food-borne infection. (indiatimes.com)
  • Discuss with your doctor the possible risks of infection with the hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus. (healthwise.net)
  • A simple urine test at the doctors will tell you whats up and if an infection should only take an antibiotic to clear up. (medhelp.org)
  • Infections can also be averted by keeping the catheter secure, keeping the urine bag lower than the bladder, emptying the urine bag into a clean container, and keeping the tube unobstructed. (medindia.net)
  • As the nation braces for the possible expansion of Zika virus infection to other states, Children's National is facilitating the multi-step process of testing blood, urine, and tissue with state health departments, helping to ensure timely and precise information. (childrensnational.org)
  • Diabetes is a serious health condition characterised by high blood glucose levels that is affecting more than 1.7 million Australians. (edu.au)
  • Some people have HIV and another long-term health conditions, such as diabetes or epilepsy. (avert.org)
  • At this age, a child's eustachian tubes are short (about 1/2 inch) and horizontal, but by the time kids are 5 or 6, their tubes are three times as long and are positioned more vertically, which helps fluid drain more easily and prevents infection. (parents.com)