Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
Polymeric derivatives of GALLIC ACID that are esters of a sugar.
A systemic non-venereal infection of the tropics caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM subspecies pertenue.
Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
The oldest recognized genus of the family PASTEURELLACEAE. It consists of several species. Its organisms occur most frequently as coccobacillus or rod-shaped and are gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Species of this genus are found in both animals and humans.
The classic form of typhus, caused by RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII, which is transmitted from man to man by the louse Pediculus humanus corporis. This disease is characterized by the sudden onset of intense headache, malaise, and generalized myalgia followed by the formation of a macular skin eruption and vascular and neurologic disturbances.
A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
A genus of microorganisms of the order SPIROCHAETALES, many of which are pathogenic and parasitic for man and animals.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Management of public health organizations or agencies.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.
The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.
Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Organized services to provide mental health care.
A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.
The status of health in rural populations.
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
The status of health in urban populations.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)
Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.
... non-profit dedicated to raising cardiovascular and stroke health awareness Indirect Hemagglutination Test, A form of ... private operating foundation providing health care and improving health literacy Intel Hub Architecture, chipset and bus ... agglutination test that involves red blood cells Ingeniørhøjskolen i Aarhus, the Engineering College of Aarhus, Denmark ...
... for bacteriology and virology with a special interest in antibiotic sensitivity methods and a haemagglutination test for ... Public and National Health, Hospital, Academic & Private, 1891-1994. Christchurch. Traue, JE (Ed.) (1978). Who's Who in New ... Manning arrived in Wellington in 1953 to take up the position of Assistant Director (Microbiology) at the National Health ... Manning undertook a World Health Organisation Fellowship in 1966 and studied advances in laboratory organisation and methods. ...
A health department notice suggested that a 4-year-old boy had no clinical symptoms and was tested during surveillance of high- ... Forty-three close contacts of the infected patients did not become ill and they all tested negative for haemagglutination ... On March 31, 2013, the Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health of Hong Kong and the Chinese National ... Keiji Fukuda, the World Health Organization's (WHO) assistant director-general for health, security and the environment, ...
Diagnosis is by virus isolation, serology, and other tests. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) is one method of serology that ... Influenza virus C does not have this capability and it is not thought to be a significant concern for human health. Therefore, ... ELISA was shown to have higher sensitivity to the HEF than the HI test. Because only Influenza viruses C and D produce esterase ... World Health Organization (2006). "Review of latest available evidence on potential transmission of avian influenza (H5H1) ...
... direct and indirect fluorescent antibody tests, complement fixation tests (CFT), indirect haemagglutination test (IHA), ELISA ... WAHID Interface - OIE World Animal Health Information Database Disease card. ... Other procedures used for diagnosis include growth inhibition disc tests (GI), ...
Immunologic pregnancy tests were introduced in 1960 when Wide and Gemzell presented a test based on in-vitro hemagglutination ... A Thin Blue Line: The History of the Pregnancy Test Kit. "A Timeline of Pregnancy Testing". National Institutes of Health. ... Therefore, a blood test can be positive while the urine test is still negative. Qualitative tests (yes/no or positive/negative ... Qualitative urine tests available for home use are typically designed as lateral flow tests. Quantitative tests measure the ...
Diagnosis is by virus isolation, serology, and other tests. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) is one method of serology that ... World Health Organization (2006). "Review of latest available evidence on potential transmission of avian influenza (H5H1) ... ELISA was shown to have higher sensitivity to the HEF than the HI test. Because only Influenza viruses C and D produce esterase ... No samples of influenza D virus were detected in serum samples from humans; however, hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies ...
MedImmune Press release MedImmune and National Institutes of Health Begin Clinical Testing of a Live, Attenuated Intranasal ... Immunogenicity was assessed by microneutralization and hemagglutination-inhibition assays with the use of the vaccine virus, ... "MedImmune and National Institutes of Health Begin Clinical Testing of a Live, Attenuated Intranasal Vaccine Against an H5N1 ... 2006 MedImmune And National Institutes Of Health Begin Clinical Testing Of A Live, Attenuated Intranasal Vaccine Against An ...
Department of Health & Human Services Archived 2007-02-14 at the Wayback Machine NAID - 2004 News Archived 2010-03-08 at the ... Some vaccines also exist for use in humans, and others are in testing, but none have been made available to civilian ... Immunogenicity was assessed by microneutralization and hemagglutination-inhibition assays with the use of the vaccine virus, ... the World Health Organization (WHO) changed the H5N1 strains recommended for candidate vaccines for the first time since 2004 ...
... test, T. pallidum hemagglutination assays (TPHA), and the microhemagglutination assay (MHA-TP).[citation needed] The MHA-TP is ... The lab was renamed to the Treponemal Pathogenesis and Immunology Branch of the United States Public Health Service.[citation ... The VDRL test is used to screen for syphilis (it has high sensitivity), whereas other, more specific tests are used to diagnose ... This test is not done on spinal fluid. The MHA-TP test is rarely used any more. Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay ...
Confirmatory testing to identify B. anthracis includes gamma bacteriophage testing, indirect hemagglutination, and enzyme- ... "Safety and Health Topics , Anthrax - Control and Prevention , Occupational Safety and Health Administration". ... The best confirmatory precipitation test for anthrax is the Ascoli test. Precautions are taken to avoid contact with the skin ... Anthrax was first tested as a biological warfare agent by Unit 731 of the Japanese Kwantung Army in Manchuria during the 1930s ...
... in the flocks is also useful for early detection and tested for haemagglutination. It is common practice for poultry viruses' ... Poultry Health (December 2017). "Plan B: Using sentinel birds to track poultry viruses when you can't obtain SPF birds". ... However, proper laboratory testing is still needed to eliminate doubts for a definitive diagnosis. Serological testing can ... The common tests of choice include Haemaglutination-Inhibition, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay and Serum Neutralisation. The ...
JCV-antibody testing has only been available at the CDC and the New York State Department of Health. The CDC has used plaque ... infections performed by most state diagnostic laboratories were complement-fixation test and hemagglutination inhibition tests ... The test is automatically done on all samples testing positive or equivocal for La Crosse Virus IgM antibodies by ELISA. In ... the New York State Department of Health has performed JCV plaque reduction neutralization tests since 2000 on samples positive ...
... tests. Egg detection and immunologic tests are not that sensitive. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based testing is accurate ... World Health Organization Media Centre. Retrieved 13 December 2017. Sambon, L.W. (1907). "Remarks on Schistosomum mansoni". ... Adult worm antigens can be detected by indirect haemagglutination assays (IHAs). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is also used ... Using a microscope to detect eggs costs about US$0.40 per test well PCR is about $US7 per test as of 2019. Loop-mediated ...
Other methods of diagnosis included hemagglutination inhibition (HI), complement fixation, neutralization tests. However, new ... World Health Organ. 28 (2): 235-262. PMC 2554471. PMID 13961632. Lewis, Michael (2002). "Scientists or Spies? Ecology in a ... This study also found using immune response tests that birds and humans in the region appeared to have been exposed to the ... Mourya, D. T.; Yadav, P. D. (2016-02-03). "Recent Scenario of Emergence of Kyasanur Forest Disease in India and Public Health ...
"Arbovirus Antibodies Test". Medical Health Tests. March 27, 2012. Retrieved April 17, 2013. Huang, C.; Slater, B.; Campbell, W ... neutralization test, and hemagglutination-inhibition test. In the past, arboviruses were organized into one of four groups: A, ... American Journal of Public Health and the Nation's Health. 24 (1): 1-7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.24.1.1. PMC 1558495. PMID 18013904. ... Public health measures often require spraying of insecticides to kill juvenile (larvae) and adult mosquitoes. Vaccines are ...
The most common test methodologies are ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence, and indirect hemagglutination. Two positive serology ... July 2019). "Chagas disease: from discovery to a worldwide health problem". Frontiers in Public Health. 7: 166. doi:10.3389/ ... If the test results are inconclusive, additional testing methods such as Western blot can be used. T. cruzi antigens may also ... Various rapid diagnostic tests for Chagas disease are available. These tests are easily transported and can be performed by ...
These possess both haemagglutination and neuraminidase activity, which cleaves sialic acid on the cell surface, preventing ... Fields, Bernard N., Knipe, David M. (David Mahan), 1950-, Howley, Peter M. (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/ ... observed as an ability to cause red blood cells to clump in laboratory tests. HN (Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase) attachment ... Attachment proteins with neither haemagglutination nor neuraminidase activity are designated G (glycoprotein). These occur in ...
... test, hemagglutination inhibition test (HI), or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The SPA test is more commonly used ... This led to an increased awareness of the disease and health monitoring protocols in wild turkey restoration programs. These ... Tests can be performed on serum samples as well as tissue samples. However, it has been stated that serological tests cannot be ... Many serology tests can be performed to diagnose M. gallisepticum: serum plate agglutination (SPA) ...
Landsteiner's agglutination tests and his discovery of ABO blood groups was the start of the science of blood transfusion and ... Hemagglutination is the process by which red blood cells agglutinate, meaning clump or clog. The agglutin involved in ... Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 32-3. ISBN 978-0-7020-6925-3.. ... This Widal test was the first example of serum diagnosis. ... This is called autoagglutination and it can interfere with laboratory tests such as blood typing and the complete blood count. ...
Serological or immunological tests including intradermal test, immunodiffusion, indirect haemagglutination test, enzyme-linked ... and various other tests and assays. First and foremost, health education is necessary in order to teach people the ways in ... The ELISA test detects the antibody used to combat the P. skrjabini infection. Although cases of P. skrjabini infection can ... The same method can be applied in areas where P. skrjabini remains a health concern, for all it takes is cooking the crabs to ...
These two glycoproteins are the targets of numerous serologic reactions and tests including neutralization and hemagglutination ... 1952 - Sindbis virus is isolated in the Sindbis health district, 40 mi (64 km) north of Cairo, Egypt. 1959 - Ross River virus ...
Serology includes two types of antibody test: Nontreponemal antibody test and Treponemal antibody test (specific test). The ... PHLS Syphilis Serology Working Group". Commun Dis Public Health. 3 (3): 158-62. PMID 11014025. Hébert-Schuster M, Borderie D, ... Treponema pallidum haemagglutination) are positive There are many different forms on prevention of syphilis and other sexually ... This stage can be diagnosed through specific tests in serology. The nonspecific tests may be negative. At this point, there is ...
Other tests include various fluorescence assays, indirect hemagglutination, (PCR) and latex agglutination. An ELISA technique ... Health Reference Series Detroit: Omnigraphics, Inc., 2009. Online. Taylor GH (February 2003). "Cytomegalovirus". Am Fam ... However, routine testing of all pregnant women is costly and the need for testing should therefore be evaluated on a case-by- ... Phenotypic resistance testing involves cultivation of the virus in cell culture and testing its susceptibility using different ...
However, research supporting claims of long-term health effects in humans is limited and most existing studies have focused on ... Many legume seeds have been proven to contain high lectin activity, termed hemagglutination. Soybean is the most important ... and used in biomedicine for blood cell testing and in biochemistry for fractionation.[citation needed] Although they were first ... "Sialidase-Enhanced Lectin-Like Mechanism for Actinomyces viscosus and Actinomyces naeslundii Hemagglutination". Infection and ...
Avian influenza viruses that the World Organisation for Animal Health and others test for to control poultry disease include ... Antigenic analysis of recombinant viruses possessing the 1918 HA and NA by hemagglutination inhibition tests using ferret and ... H7N9 On 2 April 2013, the Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health of Hong Kong confirmed four more cases ... "Details - Public Health Image Library(PHIL)". Retrieved 24 April 2018. Sugita Y, Noda T, Sagara H, Kawaoka Y ( ...
... the indirect hemagglutination assay, the indirect fluorescent antibody assay (IFA), the direct agglutination test, the latex ... diagnosis and public health significance". Zoonoses and Public Health. 57 (1): 60-73. doi:10.1111/j.1863-2378.2009.01274.x. ... The most commonly used tests for the measurement of IgM antibody are double-sandwich IgM-ELISA, the IFA test, and the ... Diagnosis is typically by testing blood for antibodies or by testing the amniotic fluid in pregnant women for the parasite's ...
... based on hemagglutination inhibition assay (HAI) at all doses tested. The unadjuvanted vaccine at the 45-microgram dose yielded ... Clinical Development of M2e-Based Vaccines MedImmune And National Institutes Of Health Begin Clinical Testing Of A Live, ... Still, such a vaccine is years away from full testing, approval, and use." As of July 2007, phase I clinical trials on humans ... In June 2006, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) began enrolling participants in a Phase 1 H5N1 study of an intranasal ...
... may refer to: Health authority Hells Angels, a motorcycle gang Homelessness Australia, peak body organisation for homeless ... in statistical testing Ha (Chinese surname) (哈), found in the Hundred Family Surnames Ha (Korean surname) (하, 河 or 夏) Hà, ... an antigenic glycoprotein from Influenza viruses Hemagglutination assay, a measurement of viruses or bacteria ha (function ... also called polycystic ovary syndrome Health anxiety (HA) or hypochondriasis (hypochondria) Hemagglutinin (influenza) (HA), ...
These tests include: detecting complement fixation, indirect hemagglutination, indirect fluorescence assays, radioimmunoassays ... "World Health Organization. Retrieved 24 February 2018.. *^ a b c Bern C, Montgomery SP, Herwaldt BL, et al. (November 2007). " ... While these tests are not required in US, an estimated 75-90% of the blood supply is currently tested for Chagas, including all ... "BMC International Health and Human Rights. 7: 7. doi:10.1186/1472-698X-7-7. PMC 2034380. PMID 17725836.. ...
The guidelines for diagnosis and management of food allergy issues by the National Institute of Health state that: In 2010 the ... A radioallergosorbent test (RAST) is a blood test using radioimmunoassay test to detect specific IgE antibodies, to determine ... Allergy Blood Testing - Lab Tests Online. *Radioallergosorbent+Test at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ... However, skin testing techniques have improved. Most skin testing does not involve needles and typically skin testing results ...
Nucleic acid-based tests (NATs) amplify and detect viral nucleic acid. Most of these tests take a few hours, but rapid ... Health education through media and posters is often used to remind people of the aforementioned etiquette and hygiene. There is ... Common serological assays include hemagglutination inhibition assays that detect HA-specific antibodies, virus neutralization ... Rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDTs) are a simple way of obtaining assay results, are low cost, and produce results quickly ...
Between 1978 and 1980, the results of a nationwide survey initiated by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan revealed ... an arterial blood test that measures the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood) readings show that free oxygen in ... Hemagglutination, a clumping of red blood cells in response to the presence of antibodies in the blood, may also occur. ... using a blood test called arterial blood gas. Other findings observed with DPB include the proliferation of lymphocytes (white ...
... the HA test is less reliable than the EID50 or PFU tests because it does not always indicate the presence of a viable virus in ... and hemagglutination assays, with particular emphasis on use of the ELISA for its high sensitivity (unlike the hemagglutination ... Later in 1954, Fukumi and his colleagues at the Japan National Institute of Health put forward an alternative explanation for ... It is also reported that the Moscow strain of SeV was tested by Dr. V. Senin and his team as an anticancer agent in a few dozen ...
The rigid "shell" (test) is a variegated deep red and gray in color, though in rare cases it may be greenish to light purple. ... World Health Organization. p. 184. ISBN 978-9241545808. William J Dahl; Peter Jebson; Dean S Louis (2010). "Sea urchin injuries ... It was found to interfere with the transmission of signals at nerve endings as well as cause hemagglutination (clumping of the ... The test is variegated in coloration, usually deep red and grey, though there are rare instances of green and pale purple. Each ...
... hemagglutination-inhibition tests (HA/HI), and nucleic acid hybridization. Mostly torovirus infecting humans are probably ... Animal Health Research Reviews, 5(2), 157-171. doi:10.1079/AHR200498 Frances B. Jamieson, Elaine E. L. Wang, Cindy Bain, ... Many diagnostic techniques for torovirus infection in clinical specimens are now available such as hemagglutination (HA), ... Diagnosis of the viral infection involves electron microscopy, ELISA or haemagglutination inhibition. Supportive treatment may ...
In these cases, hemagglutination inhibition can be used, wherein a neutralizing substance cancels out a specific antigen. ... Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 978-0-323-29111-8. McPherson, RA; Pincus, MR (2017). Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management ... A direct antiglobulin test (Coombs test) is also performed as part of the antibody investigation. There is also testing for ... If routine serologic testing for RhD results in a score of 2+ or less, the antiglobulin test can be used to demonstrate the ...
Strain differences in amebae used for antigen and for inoculation could not be detected by either test. The IHA test appeared ... from hamsters inoculated in the liver with Entamoeba histolytica and from 25 uninoculated controls by indirect hemagglutination ... 1 Center for Disease Control, Public health Service, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Atlanta, Georgia 30333 ... Techniques for Hemagglutination and Hemagglutination-Inhibition with Arthropod-Borne Viruses D. H. Clarke and J. Casals ...
Reproducibility both between tests on a serum and between similar sera was significantly improved over typical results using ... With the threshold appropriate for a nonendemic area, both ELISA and hemagglutination were sensitive enough to detect infection ... antibodies in human sera by using cysticercus vesicular fluid as the source of antigens for both ELISA and hemagglutination ... Ethics and Best Practice Guidelines for Training Experiences in Global Health John A. Crump, Jeremy Sugarman and the Working ...
Desowitz, R. S, Saave, J. J & World Health Organization. (‎1964)‎. The application of the haemagglutination test to a study of ... The application of the haemagglutination test to a study of immunity to malaria in proctected and unprotected populations of ... World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific (‎(‎WP)‎ HFA/ICP/PHC/011-E, 1985)‎ ... Intercountry Workshop on Control of Malaria as Part of Primary Health Care, Madang, Papua New Guinea, 28 October - 1 November ...
... global public health burden = DengueNet - le système de lOMS basé sur Internet pour la surveillance mondiale de la dengue et ... 1999)‎. Searo-Diagnosis of Dengue Infections by Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (‎HI)‎ in Suspected Cases in Chittagong, ...
... global public health burden = DengueNet - le système de lOMS basé sur Internet pour la surveillance mondiale de la dengue et ... Comparison between Haemagglutination Inhibition (‎HI)‎ Test and IgM and IgG-capture ELISA in Determination of Primary and ... 2006)‎. Comparison between Haemagglutination Inhibition (‎HI)‎ Test and IgM and IgG-capture ELISA in Determination of Primary ...
Definition of Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes ... The health information furnished on this site and the interactive responses are not intended to be professional advice and are ... Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test. Definition: a highly sensitive and specific test for the serologic diagnosis of ... We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information - verify here ...
Hemagglutination inhibition test. Advanced laboratory techniques for influenza diagnosis. Atlanta: US Department of Health. ... Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the ... World Health Organization. Number of confirmed human cases of avian influenza A(H7N9) reported to WHO 2013 [2013 Aug 16]. http ... World Health Organization. Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus-update. Global Alert and Response (GAR) 2013. ...
Hemagglutination inhibition test (E.g., H1N1, H3N2, H3N8 - other subtypes may be available upon request) ... AHL LabNote 29-Summary of Influenza A virus testing. K. Harron Assoc Dip Ag, Jim Fairles DVM, MBA and D. Ojkic DVM, MSc, PhD ... Primary screening test targeting a conserved influenza virus gene.. Detects all common Influenza A virus subtypes in multiple ... Primary screening test, detects antibody from all common Influenza A virus subtypes in multiple animal species. ...
The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended criteria based on the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test to distinguish ... Since the HI test has practical limitations and disadvantages, we evaluated the accuracy of WHO HI criteria and compared it ... with criteria based on an IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) as ... The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended criteria based on the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test to distinguish ...
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 1973 Jun; 4(2): 187-94 ... Antigenicity for hemagglutination and immunoelectrophoresis tests in fractionated antigens Antigenicity for hemagglutination ... Full text: Available Index: IMSEAR (South-East Asia) Main subject: Rabbits / Rats / Female / Male / Hemagglutination Tests / ... Full text: Available Index: IMSEAR (South-East Asia) Main subject: Rabbits / Rats / Female / Male / Hemagglutination Tests / ...
Application of the indirect hemagglutination test using glutaraldehyde-fixed chicken red blood cells to serological diagnosis ... title = "Application of the indirect hemagglutination test using glutaraldehyde-fixed chicken red blood cells to serological ... Application of the indirect hemagglutination test using glutaraldehyde-fixed chicken red blood cells to serological diagnosis ... T1 - Application of the indirect hemagglutination test using glutaraldehyde-fixed chicken red blood cells to serological ...
serologic testing using hemagglutination inhibition or microneutralization.[59,60] The state health department should be ... than RT-PCR testing.[61-64] Currently available rapid influenza diagnostic tests fall into 2 groups: the tests that either ... All public health and clinical laboratories report each week to CDC the total number of respiratory specimens tested and the ... Hemagglutination inhibition or microneutralization tests are most commonly used for serodiagnosis. A positive result is a 4- ...
Categories: Hemagglutination Tests Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
TPHATreponema pallidum hemagglutination (test). *TPITreponema pallidum immobilization test for syphilis ... ICDimplantable cardioverter defibrillator; International Classification of Diseases of the World Health Organization ... DRVVTdilute Russell viper venom test. *DSM-IV-TRDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text ... chem panelchemistry panel, a comprehensive screening blood test that indicates status of liver, kidneys, and electrolytes ...
Passive haemagglutination test in the serology of Newcastle disease virus.. Roy P, Venugopalan AT. ... Trop Anim Health Prod. 2000 Feb;32(1):19-22. No abstract available. ... Trop Anim Health Prod. 1998 Jun;30(3):177-8. No abstract available. ... Trop Anim Health Prod. 1998 Feb;30(1):41-4. No abstract available. ...
Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) test was used to analyze 384.... Author(s): Minda Asfaw Geresu, Kemal Kedir Elemo and ... and small-scale chicken producer farms in Agarfa and Sinana districts was conducted using hemagglutination inhibition test (HAI ...
Hierholzer, JC, Suggs, MT, Hall, EC 1969Standardized viral hemagglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition tests. II. ... Diagnostic procedures for viral, rickettsial, and chlamydial infections7American Public Health AssociationWashington DC169188 ... Hierholzer, JC, Suggs, MT 1969Standardized viral hemagglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition tests. I. Standardization of ... Hierholzer, JC, Bingham, PG 1978Vero microcultures for adenovirus neutralization testsJ Clin Microbiol7499506PubMedGoogle ...
... oil-adjuvanted vaccines using hemagglutination test (HA) and blocking ELISA (B-ELISA) based on polyclonal antibodies ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, editor. (2007) Title 9-Animals and Animal Products. Part 113.205-Newcastle disease ... 4. Assessment of in vitro potency of inactivated Newcastle disease oil adjuvanted vaccines using hemagglutination test and ... Conclusion: HA or B-ELISA tests can be used as rapid and cost-effective alternatives to traditional in vivo potency tests for ...
IMMUNE ADHERENCE HEMAGGLUTINATION TEST AS A NEW SENSITIVE METHOD FOR TITRATION OF ANIMAL VIRUS ANTIGENS AND ANTIBODIES (1966) ... I,Department of Enteroviruses, National Institute of Health,/I, (1964 from CiNii) ... I,Department of Enteroviruses, National Institute of Health,/I, (1970 from CiNii) ... I,Department of Enteroviruses, National Institute of Health,/I, (1964 from CiNii) ...
... latex tests; and passive hemagglutination) were considered. Letters and editorials as well as studies limited to circulating ... Pan American Health Organization, Family and Community Health Area, Immunization Unit. Regional Meeting on the Implementation ... J Health Popul Nutr. 2004;22(1):27 33. 7. Parashar UD, Gibson CJ, Bresee JS, Glass RI. Rotavirus and severe childhood diarrhea ... Bull World Health Organ. 2000;78(10):1175 91. 2. Fuchs SC, Victora CG, Fachel J. Modelo hierarquizado: uma proposta de ...
... mental health disorders, pregnancy-related conditions, and injury/poisoning accounted for the majority (59.8%) of all ... The indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) is the most widely used serological test for the detection of antibodies directed ... How MHS treats health conditions our patients may face * Health Readiness Environmental Exposures, Surveillance Tools, Reserve ... The indirect haemagglutination test in the diagnosis of melioidosis in goats. Br Vet J. 1965;121:164-170. ...
The antibody response to the three influenza vaccine virus strains was evaluated by hemagglutination inhibition test (HI test; ... 2. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, Atlanta, GA. ... Haemagglutination inhibition test, p. 25-62. Advanced laboratory techniques for influenza diagnosis. Procedural guide, pt. ... Targeted tuberculin testing and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection. MMWR Recomm. Rep. 49(RR06):1-54. ...
... test has been the standard test used by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the classification of serologic response in ... Although the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test has been the standard test used by the World Health Organization (WHO) for ... 1 San Juan Laboratories, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Service, Puerto Rico. ... when serum specimens were tested as pairs. When tested as single specimens, the diagnoses by ELISA and HI agreed in 41% and 52 ...
15-17 The most used serological tests are hemagglutination inhibition and immunoenzymatic IgM capture (ELISA-IgM). The second ... In addition to serological and/or virological tests for disease confirmation, there are nonspecific tests with high positive ... The laboratory tests were performed at the Medical Faculty/UFMG: specific tests (serological and PCR) at the Diagnostic ... PR Health Sci J. 1996;15:201-10. [ Links ]. 19. Wahid SF, Sanusi S, Zawawi MM, Ali RA. A comparison of the pattern of liver ...
Comparative studies of the indirect haemagglutination and the indirect fluorescent antibody tests in the diagnosis of bovine ... Bull Anim Health Prod Afr. 1981 Mar;29(1):11-8. No abstract available. ... Evaluation of the indirect haemagglutination test (IHA) in diagnosis of Taenia saginata cysticercosis (Cysticercus bovis) ... Bull Anim Health Prod Afr. 1980 Sep;28(3):173-89. No abstract available. ...
... and the Institute for Animal Health in Pirbright, UK. Haemagglutination inhibition tests for antibody have also been described ... and provides a standardised test. Molecular tests using gene probes have been superseded by PCR-based tests (Forsyth and ... The International Animal Health Code. Paris, France: Office International Des Epizooties. OIE, 2001. World Animal Health in ... World Animal Health Information Database - Version: 1.4. World Animal Health Information Database. Paris, France: World ...
HI test. The hemagglutination (HA) and HI tests were performed using standard microtiter plate methods. The HI tests were ... A Technology review: Newcastle disease with special emphasis on its effect on village chickens [animal production and health ... Antibody titers were assayed by hemagglutination inhibition test and fecal virus shedding was determined for 14 days post ... 10 and 14 dpc to determine antibody titers against NDV by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. ...
Haemagglutination inhibition test was used to measure antibody titer in sera. Chicks at 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of age showed ...
We also evaluated the level of agreement between ELISAs and indirect haemagglutination (IHA) tests. The readings of .... Source ... Source: Rural Remote Health - January 15, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: McGrath P Tags: Aust Health Rev Source Type: ... Primary health care spatial.... Source: Rural Remote Health - December 4, 2015 Category: Rural Health Authors: McGrail MR, ... Source: Rural Remote Health - November 26, 2014 Category: Rural Health Authors: Ferrazzi P, Krupa T Tags: Qual Health Res ...
... the potential of a WIV vaccine to induce protective immunity against infection was tested with a homologous A/H3N2 (A/Hong Kong ... Palmer, D., Dowle, W., Coleman, M. & Schild, G. ( 1975 ). Haemagglutination inhibition test. In Advances in Laboratory ... World Health Organization ( 2010 ). Cumulative Number of Confirmed Human Cases of Avian Influenza A/(H5N1) Reported to WHO. ... Frank, A. L., Puck, J., Hughes, B. J. & Cate, T. R. ( 1980 ). Microneutralization test for influenza A and B and parainfluenza ...
  • New levels of reproducibility and sensitivity have been achieved in the detection of anticysticercus antibodies in human sera by using cysticercus vesicular fluid as the source of antigens for both ELISA and hemagglutination assays. (
  • Dengue virus infection can be confirmed by virus culture, by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), serologically by neutralization test (gold standard), by IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibodies, or by 4-fold increase of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers between acute and convalescent specimens. (
  • A cross-sectional study on seroprevalence of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antibodies in backyard and small-scale chicken producer farms in Agarfa and Sinana districts was conducted using hemagglutination inhibition test (HAI) from February, 2015 to May, 2015. (
  • The present study was aimed to establish a protocol for the evaluation of the in vitro potency of commercial inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) oil-adjuvanted vaccines using hemagglutination test (HA) and blocking ELISA (B-ELISA) based on polyclonal antibodies. (
  • Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies were tested using the HI test according to a standard World Health Organization procedure. (
  • These samples will be tested for influenza antibodies, using haemagglutination inhibition assays. (
  • Antibodies can be detected using the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and ELISA tests. (
  • Serum samples were tested for antibodies to HIV (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting) and antibodies to Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum hemagglutination assay and rapid plasma reagin test). (
  • An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test was carried out by Dr Corina Pascu and colleagues at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Timisoara, Romania, to detect antibodies against swine influenza virus (SIV) in western Romania. (
  • The researchers commented that the standard method for detecting SIV antibodies is the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. (
  • Presence of T. cruzi antibodies was determined by hemagglutination inhibition test (HAI) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) of serum samples spotted on filter paper, and confirmed by HAI, ELISA, and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) on serum samples. (
  • All 43 close contacts tested negative for haemagglutination inhibition antibodies specific for avian H7N9. (
  • A total of 256 influenza A virus strains isolated in 1990-1992 in the Netherlands and other countries were analysed by haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests using ferret antisera and monoclonal antibodies and, partly, by determination of the nucleotide sequences of the haemagglutinin gene (HA1). (
  • The eye drop route was used for inoculation and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies were measured for assessment of antibody response and cloacal and pharyngeal swabs were used for detection of the virus. (
  • A dual nontreponemal/treponemal point-of-care test (Dual-POC) that simultaneously detects both nontreponemal and treponemal antibodies has been developed and evaluated. (
  • AU - Owusu-Edusei,Kwame,Jr AU - Gift,Thomas L, AU - Ballard,Ronald C, PY - 2011/10/14/entrez PY - 2011/10/14/pubmed PY - 2012/2/10/medline SP - 997 EP - 1003 JF - Sexually transmitted diseases JO - Sex Transm Dis VL - 38 IS - 11 N2 - BACKGROUND: A dual nontreponemal/treponemal point-of-care test (Dual-POC) that simultaneously detects both nontreponemal and treponemal antibodies has been developed and evaluated. (
  • Therefore hemagglutination is inhibited when antibodies are present. (
  • If the serum contains no antibodies that react with the new H1N1 strain, then hemagglutination will be observed in all wells. (
  • Likewise, if antibodies to the virus are present, hemagglutination will not be observed until the antibodies are sufficiently diluted. (
  • I am wondering if there is a test available to check for H1N1 antibodies. (
  • This test looks for antibodies to the mumps virus in your blood. (
  • A common characteristic of all zoonotic flu viruses of public health concern is that most people do not have pre-existing antibodies or immune protection against them. (
  • Results of testing 298 sera from hamsters inoculated in the liver with Entamoeba histolytica and from 25 uninoculated controls by indirect hemagglutination (IHA) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that measurable amounts of antibody appeared as early as 5 days after inoculation, generally increased to a high level within 20 days, and persisted for the duration of the experiments (58 days). (
  • With the threshold appropriate for a nonendemic area, both ELISA and hemagglutination were sensitive enough to detect infection in 95% of cases. (
  • Comparison between Haemagglutination Inhibition (‎HI)‎ Test and IgM and IgG-capture ELISA in Determination of Primary and Secondary Dengue Virus Infections. (
  • Since the HI test has practical limitations and disadvantages, we evaluated the accuracy of WHO HI criteria and compared it with criteria based on an IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) as the gold standard. (
  • In this study, we compared the utility of the WHO HI criteria and IgG ELISA in differentiating primary and secondary infections using acute and convalescent specimens that had been tested by a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). (
  • Aly SE, Hussein HA, Aly AM, Abdel-Baky MH, El-Sanousi AA (2018) Assessment of in vitro potency of inactivated Newcastle disease oil-adjuvanted vaccines using hemagglutination test and blocking ELISA, Veterinary World, 11(9): 1222-1228. (
  • The viral antigen in each sample was detected and quantified by a standard HA test and a B-ELISA assay. (
  • To verify the efficiency of the antigen extraction method used in the batches which showed HA and to test the validity of using in vitro antigen quantification by HA and B-ELISA tests, a subset of 13 batches (selected from the total 47 batches) was inoculated in groups of 3-4-week-old specific pathogen-free chickens using the recommended vaccine dose. (
  • A strong correlation was observed between HA titers and B-ELISA mean titers in the tested 47 batches (R 2 =0.817). (
  • HA or B-ELISA tests can be used as rapid and cost-effective alternatives to traditional in vivo potency tests for vaccine potency assessment by quantifying the NDV antigen present in aqueous phase extracts of the tested vaccines. (
  • When tested as single specimens, the diagnoses by ELISA and HI agreed in 41% and 52% of acute specimens of primary and secondary infections, respectively. (
  • At present, the ELISA is considered the most useful test for serology. (
  • The group formed by the testing laboratory Biomanguinhos FIOCRUZ-kit (c-ELISA and rec-ELISA) is the best option in the confirmation process by presenting false-negative rate of 0.0002% from the serial scheme. (
  • Recently, sensitive and specific SIV ELISA kits have been developed and this method was chosen because it is fast and less expensive to perform than the HI test. (
  • Serologic tests used to diagnose WNV include plaque reduction neutralization (PRNT), virus neutralization, hemagglutination inhibition, complement fixation, ELISA and antigen (IgM and IgG) capture ELISA. (
  • The IgM-capture ELISA is currently the most reliable test for confirmation of recent exposure to West Nile Virus in a horse exhibiting clinical signs. (
  • La presencia de anticuerpos contra T. cruzi se determinó mediante una prueba de hemaglutinación indirecta (HAI) y un ensayo inmunoenzimático indirecto tipo ELISA en muestras de suero tomadas en papel de filtro y se confirmaron mediante las pruebas de HAI, ELISA e inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI) en muestras de suero. (
  • Three blood samples were positive by anti-dengue IgM ELISA and showed hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test titers ≥ 1,280. (
  • In a cross sectional study, 1005 dromedary camels from three districts in the Cholistan Desert were sampled to assess the prevalence of trypanosomosis due to T. evansi by means of parasitological (Giemsa stained thin smear), serological (formol gel test, CATT/ T. evansi, ELISA/VSG RoTat 1.2 , immune trypanolysis) and molecular tests (TBR1/2 PCR and RoTat 1.2 PCR). (
  • Overall prevalence was 0.7 % with Giemsa stained thin smears (GST), 40.1 % with formol gel test (FGT), 47.7 % with CATT/ T. evansi , 44.2 % with ELISA/VSG RoTat 1.2, 39.9 % with immune trypanolysis (TL), 31.9 % with TBR1/2 PCR and 30.5 % with RoTat1.2 PCR. (
  • Treponema specific tests tend to remain positive for life following treponemal infection and should not be used to evaluate response to treatment and are of no value in determining relapse or reinfection in a patient who has had a reactive result. (
  • the Dual-POC test, the laboratory-based rapid plasma reagin and Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (RPR+TPHA) algorithm, an onsite RPR testing, and point-of-care treponemal immunochromatographic strip (ICS) testing. (
  • Antibody titers were assayed by hemagglutination inhibition test and fecal virus shedding was determined for 14 days post challenge (dpc) with 3-day intervals by the RT-PCR method. (
  • The comparison between the HA titers of the aqueous extracts of test vaccines and the corresponding results of in vivo potency assays (i.e., immunogenicity and efficacy), including antibody titers in the serum of vaccinated birds, indicated that the efficiency of the antigen extraction used may interfere with obtaining a strong correlation between the in vitro and in vivo results. (
  • Paired serum samples were obtained from contacts for serological testing by haemagglutination inhibition assays. (
  • Socio-demographic details were collected and blood samples were analysed in haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. (
  • The IHA test appeared to be very sensitive, and titers of 1:16 and above were specific. (
  • The immunogenicity of the selected vaccine batches was assessed by the NDV-hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers in individual serum samples collected 4 weeks after vaccination. (
  • The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT), microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT), indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) as per standard protocols. (
  • Geneva : World Health Organization. (
  • World Health Organization. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended criteria based on the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test to distinguish between primary and secondary dengue infections. (
  • Recent analysis, based on the geographical distribution of the disease, estimates 250-500 million infections annually, which is three times higher than the estimation from the World Health Organization (WHO) [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Although the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test has been the standard test used by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the classification of serologic response in dengue infections, it is slow, requiring paired specimens. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates an annual occurrence of twenty million cases of dengue infection. (
  • 2 World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, Cairo, Egypt. (
  • Using an all-hazard approach, the Jeddah tool (derived from the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office's health emergency risk assessment tool) was adapted to conduct the risk assessment. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) defines mass gatherings (MGs) as events attended by sufficient number of people to strain the planning and response resources of the community, state or nation (1). (
  • According to the recent estimates reported by the World Health Organization (WHO), seasonal influenza epidemics lead to about 3-5 million cases of severe illness and approximately 290.000 to 650.000 deaths annually worldwide [ 2 ]. (
  • The Mexican International Health Regulation authority reported the case to the World Health Organization on July 19. (
  • All epidemiological data concerning the incidence of amebic disease must be relatively suspect since the data reported to any central agency, such as the World Health Organization, are no more accurate than the observations of the physician or parasitologist involved with the individual patient. (
  • As a consequence, the World Health Organization (WHO) operates a world-wide laboratory network to monitor these changes. (
  • The World Health Organization(WHO) estimates that 1.4million pregnant women live with HIV in developing countries and that 90% of these women live in Africa [ 6 ]. (
  • CDC Influenza Division is a World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre for Influenza. (
  • HBsAg was detected by the reverse passive hemagglutination technique (RPHA). (
  • Serum antibody to Fraction I capsular antigen, as measured by the passive hemagglutination (PHA) test, is correlated with resistance to Y. pestis infection in experimental animals. (
  • Strain differences in amebae used for antigen and for inoculation could not be detected by either test. (
  • The latter in vitro protocol, however, requires efficient extraction of the antigen to be able to obtain good correlation with the traditional in vivo potency tests. (
  • 22 of 37 (59%) treated patients had lost hepatitis B surface antigen when tested 15-20 days after the end of the treatment compared with only 1 of 23 (4%) placebo-treated controls. (
  • Theory and practice of procedures related to the selection of donors, antigen and antibody identification, compatibility testing, blood processing, and component therapy are covered. (
  • observing the presence or absence of any color change in said second zone to thereby determine the presence or absence of the tested for antigen in said fluid. (
  • A total of 3,651 blood samples collected from non-vaccinated pigs in 45 Romanian herds were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes of SIV. (
  • Theory and practice of precipitation, agglutination, complement fixation, hemagglutination inhibition testing, and fluorescent microscopy for the diagnosis of diseases such as syphilis, infectious mononucleosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • Reproducibility both between tests on a serum and between similar sera was significantly improved over typical results using antigens from whole parasite extracts. (
  • Antigenicity for hemagglutination and immunoelectrophoresis tests in fractionated antigens from Angiostrongylus cantonensis. (
  • The Public Health Laboratory Network have developed a standard case definition for the diagnosis of diseases which are notifiable in Australia. (
  • Given the often non-specific clinical picture of rubella, laboratory diagnosis should be attempted in suspected cases (testing for some of the differential diagnoses as mentioned above eg measles and parvovirus B19 should also be considered). (
  • Having trouble finding a laboratory test? (
  • Animal Testing- Diagnosis of animal diseases is not offered at TDSHS, testing is available at Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, College Station, TX (888)-646-5623. (
  • Other diseases (e.g., mumps) have such a characteristic clinical presentation that, even in the absence of confirmatory laboratory testing, a diagnosis may be based only on clinical findings. (
  • For many diseases, substantial amounts of information, including results of laboratory tests, must be collected before a final case classification is possible. (
  • Manning undertook a World Health Organisation Fellowship in 1966 and studied advances in laboratory organisation and methods. (
  • These geographically restricted organisms are closely related genetically and are antigenically similar to T. pallidum ssp pallidum, and will be detected by the same laboratory tests. (
  • The program prepares students to be professional laboratory practitioners who are not only able to perform medical laboratory testing but analyze and critique the accuracy and validity of testing results for the improvement of patient care or research design. (
  • In addition to the medical laboratory setting, graduates of this program are qualified to work in a variety of other laboratory facilities such as research, environmental, biomedical, public health, or forensic laboratories. (
  • As a part of one of the nation's most extensive interdisciplinary academic health centers, the University of Minnesota's MLS program provides opportunities for interaction with students from other health professions as you prepare for a progressive career in laboratory medicine. (
  • Main outcomes measures Clinical data, history of exposure before the onset of illnesses, and results of laboratory testing of pathogens and further analysis of sequences and phylogenetic tree to isolated strains. (
  • Primary screening test targeting a conserved influenza virus gene. (
  • As whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines are widely used to protect against seasonal influenza and also contain inner viral proteins such as the nucleoprotein (NP), the potential of a WIV vaccine to induce protective immunity against infection was tested with a homologous A/H3N2 (A/Hong Kong/2/68) and a heterosubtypic A/H5N1 influenza virus (A/Indonesia/5/05). (
  • METHODS Eighty four children with cancer were tested for susceptibility to the circulating strains of influenza virus in autumn 1995 and 1996. (
  • In addition to the Influenza Virus Matrix PCR test that will detect any influenza variant currently circulating that may infect dogs or other species, the AHDC offers a more broadly diagnostic Canine Respiratory PCR Panel. (
  • Introduction of a new influenza virus in humans urges quick analysis of its virological and immunological characteristics to determine the impact on public health and to develop protective measures for the human population. (
  • Successful heat inactivation coincided with the loss of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) characteristics, and β-propiolactone inactivation reduced the hemagglutination titer and NA activity of the human influenza virus 10-fold or more. (
  • Application of these inactivation protocols limits work under BSL-3 conditions to virus culture, thus enabling more timely determination of public health impact and development of protective measures when a new influenza virus, e.g., pandemic A(H1N1)v virus, is introduced in humans. (
  • This property is called hemagglutination, and is the basis of a rapid assay to determine levels of influenza virus present in a sample. (
  • North America is held a significant share of the health intelligent virtual assistant market, due to factors such as, growing popularity of internet of things (IoT) and the need to improve the quality of healthcare delivery and cost reduction. (
  • North America, Europe, APAC, MEA and South & Central America after evaluating political, economic, social and technological factors effecting the health intelligent virtual assistant market in these regions. (
  • Searo-Diagnosis of Dengue Infections by Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (‎HI)‎ in Suspected Cases in Chittagong, Bangladesh. (
  • The emergence of novel influenza strains from the avian reservoir remains a constant threat to human and animal health, as was recently illustrated by human infections with novel and wholly avian influenza A(H7N9) viruses in China. (
  • Using the criteria established by the WHO (1986) for comparison, concordant results were obtained in 81% and 95% of primary and secondary infections, respectively, when serum specimens were tested as pairs. (
  • The health and economic impact of influenza largely arise from related complications such as lower respiratory tract infections and exacerbation of cardiopulmonary and other chronic diseases. (
  • Lastly, the cost-effectiveness of POC tests is affected little by the prevalence of syphilis, false RPR-positives, and past infections. (
  • Several consequences of infections during pregnancy have been associated with severe complications affecting the mother and/or the fetus and some health problems even lead to the death of one, the other or both [ 5 ]. (
  • Your provider may do other tests to make sure you don't have other infections. (
  • For example, the HPAI A(H5) viruses identified in the United States in 2015 have not caused human infections but remain flu viruses of public health concern because of their potential to cause human illness. (
  • Until recently, serological tests were the only commonly available diagnostic tools to detect exposure to microorganism in live animals and to obtain a better understanding of the dynamics of the disease (Sitjar M, et al. (
  • However, these serological tests have some limitations and are difficult to interpret. (
  • By serological tests and virus detection it has been shown that ducks can be infected by NDV. (
  • We tested heat, formalin, Triton X-100, and β-propiolactone treatments for their potencies in inactivating human influenza A(H3N2) and avian A(H7N3) viruses, as well as seasonal and pandemic A(H1N1) virus isolates, while allowing the specimens to retain their virological and immunological properties. (
  • Complications of influenza infection include secondary bacterial pneumonia and exacerbation of underlying chronic health conditions. (
  • Historically, melioidosis was a common infection in military forces serving in Southeast Asia, and it has the potential to have a serious impact on force health readiness. (
  • In some herd infection may be completely sub clinical and only be detected by blood tests for antibody. (
  • From 1995 to 2001, five rounds of sentinel surveillance were carried out for young women attending antenatal care clinics at four health centers in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia, to monitor trends in the prevalence of HIV infection and syphilis. (
  • Testing for syphilis in pregnancy aims to detect women who have the infection so that they can be treated and transmission to babies prevented. (
  • You may also have this test to find out whether you have immunity to mumps, either from a previous infection or from a vaccine. (
  • You may also have this test to rule out mumps in cases of suspected meningitis, or inflammation of the lining of the brain, or a salivary gland infection. (
  • Even if you show symptoms of mumps, but test negative for IgM, it's still possible that you have a mumps infection. (
  • This chapter will review serologic tests for syphilis and their interpretation when they are applied to adults with and without HIV infection and to children. (
  • While many of the serologic methods in use now have been in use for decades, their application, specifically the standard testing algorithm, is changing. (
  • No change was observed for older age groups or in outer city health centers. (
  • After signing an informed written consent form, all pregnant women consulting in two hospitals of Franceville (Gabon) and in offices of maternity and childbirth health centers were included. (
  • Attempts to confirm the diagnosis by viral culture or nucleic acid testing (NAT) should be attempted. (
  • Samples from the patients and environments were collected and tested by real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), viral culture, and haemagglutination inhibition assay. (
  • Is it possible to identify dengue in children on the basis of Ministry of Health criteria for suspected dengue cases? (
  • To identify clinical characteristics indicative of dengue and to evaluate the applicability to children of the Health Ministry criteria for suspected cases. (
  • Dengue is currently a serious public health problem in Brazil. (
  • According to the Health Ministry, a suspected case of classic dengue presents with fever lasting a maximum of 7 days, together with at least two of the following symptoms: headache, retroorbital pain, myalgia, arthralgia, prostration, exanthema. (
  • 1 San Juan Laboratories, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Service, Puerto Rico. (
  • Methods We will send the samples to the Public Health England (PHE) Seroepidemiology Unit for processing and storage. (
  • Correspondence to Dr Michele R Decker, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615N. (
  • 3 Deputy Minister for Public Health, Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. (
  • 4 Assistant Deputy Minister for Public Health, Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia, IHR National Focal Point. (
  • Communicable diseases, injuries and environmental hazards, such as storms and fires, could constitute significant public health threats during any festival. (
  • This may have far-reaching consequences, including the threats to public safety and health security, the strain on public health infrastructures and the resultant reputational impact. (
  • Public health officials rely on health providers, laboratories, and other public health personnel to report the occurrence of notifiable diseases to state and local health departments. (
  • However, the usefulness of such data has been limited by the lack of uniform case definitions for public health surveillance (1). (
  • Additionally, state health departments provide CDC information about these and other conditions of public health interest through supplementary surveillance systems that collect more detailed, condition-specific information (3). (
  • they should not be used as sole criteria for establishing clinical diagnoses, determining the standard of care necessary for a particular patient, setting guidelines for quality assurance, providing standards for reimbursement, or initiating public health actions. (
  • James Dermot Manning (born in Georgetown, British Guyana on 10 September 1917 and died in Wellington, New Zealand on 30 June 1989) was a surgeon, pathologist and public health administrator. (
  • All respondents recognized the need for further efforts that will require the support of public health authorities, government ministries, and the swine industry. (
  • At the national level the Canadian Animal Health Surveillance Network can readily link and communicate with public health for purposes of surveillance and alerts through the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC). (
  • Influenza is a major threat to public health worldwide because of its ability to spread rapidly through populations, showing a greater severity in the very young, the frail elderly and people with chronic diseases. (
  • Federal Security Agency, Public Health Service, National Office of Vital Statistics. (
  • At a time when vector-borne diseases have increased their spread, Infectious Diseases and Arthropods provides physicians, infectious disease specialists, medical entomologists, and public health officials with an up-to-date, readily accessible, gold-standard reference source. (
  • Public health authorities feared that returning infected troops would cause an increase in the incidence of disease in the United States (Juniper 1971). (
  • It is recommended that health professionals working in outbreak areas follow the guidance contained in the Communicable Disease Network of Australia (CDNA) Syphilis CDNA National Guidelines for Public Health Units Version 1.1 available on the Departments website . (
  • These guidelines capture the knowledge of experienced professionals and provide guidance for public health units on best practice that is based upon the best available evidence at the time of completion. (
  • What are zoonotic flu viruses of public health concern? (
  • For example, Asian lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI)* A(H5N1) or Asian lineage A(H7N9) viruses are zoonotic flu viruses of public health concern because they have infected people and caused serious illness. (
  • Why does CDC conduct research on zoonotic flu viruses of public health concern? (
  • CDC conducts research on flu viruses of public health concern because most humans do not have any pre-existing immunity against them, and should these viruses gain the ability to spread efficiently among humans, they could cause a global outbreak of disease, i.e., a pandemic . (
  • As part of CDC's role as a WHO Collaborating Centre for Influenza, CDC also receives zoonotic viruses of public health concern that CDC characterizes and uses to create candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs) that can be used to produce vaccines against viruses with pandemic potential. (
  • CDC also conducts research on zoonotic flu viruses of public health concern to learn more about these viruses. (
  • to track globally where novel flu viruses are causing illness in people so that appropriate public health precautions and actions can be taken to minimize risks to the public's health in those areas. (
  • This involved establishing and running both the general and reference laboratories for bacteriology and virology with a special interest in antibiotic sensitivity methods and a haemagglutination test for toxoplasmosis. (
  • Recently, four rapid point-of-care (POC) syphilis tests were evaluated in Mwanza, and found to have reasonable sensitivity/specificity. (
  • Reductions in costs relating to training, supplies, and equipment were estimated, and any changes in impact due to test sensitivity were included. (
  • The cost-effectiveness of using POC tests is mainly dependent on their cost and sensitivity for high titre active syphilis (HTAS). (
  • However, the cost-effectiveness of the RPR test worsens by 15% if its HTAS sensitivity had been 75% instead of 86%, and by 25-65% if 20-40% of women had not returned for treatment. (
  • Experience in safely culturing and identifying microorganisms and conducting antibiotic sensitivity testing is provided. (
  • We screened samples for hemagglutinin subtypes 1-13 of AIV and Avian Paramyxovirus-type-1 (APMV-1) using monospecific antisera in hemagglutination inhibition tests. (
  • Clinical variables were investigated, specific tests were performed and aspartate-aminotransferase assayed, during a period considered both endemic and epidemic for the disease. (
  • Detection of T. pallidum by nucleic acid test (NAT) from suitable clinical specimen including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), tissue and chancre. (
  • Particular test combinations are helpful in distinguishing the various clinical presentations, which are discussed further in the Introduction (Section 2) and listed in Appendix 1. (
  • Clinical signs diminished and the health of pigs improved by the fourth week postweaning. (
  • Thus, the Ministry of Health through the Global Center for Mass Gathering Medicine, Saudi Arabia, conducted a health risk assessment for the 2017 Camel Festival. (
  • The results are reported to the WHO and to the Ministry of Health of the Netherlands. (
  • HI test is more commonly used than PRNT as HI test does not need virus culture facilities and has a simpler technique [ 3 ]. (
  • The antibody measured by the PRNT is stimulated both by vaccination and recent exposure, making this test difficult to interpret in the suspect horse. (
  • DL observation) Non-treponemal (reagin) test titres decline after successful treatment to be weakly reactive or negative after three years in primary and secondary syphilis. (
  • In native, heated or otherwise treated egg white and in sera of men and guinea pigs, haemagglutination inhibition titres were determined against three inhibitor-sensitive (IS) strains and one inhibitor-resistant (IR) variant on influenza A virus. (
  • BACKGROUND: Avian influenza viruses (AIV) cause huge economic losses in poultry industries and pose a substantial threat to human health. (
  • Because of the effects of influenza (H5N1) on human health and agriculture and its potential to mutate and cause a global pandemic, epidemiologic studies of the viruses' host range and their means of dispersal are urgently needed ( 5 ). (
  • The following maps represent testing efforts of the participating veterinary diagnostic labs and do not capture all testing performed nationally. (
  • We propose a new general Bayesian latent class model for evaluation of the performance of multiple diagnostic tests in situations in which no gold standard test exists based on a computationally intensive approach. (
  • The modeling represents an interesting and suitable alternative to models with complex structures that involve the general case of several conditionally independent diagnostic tests, covariates, and strata with different disease prevalences. (
  • To illustrate the general model proposed, we evaluate the performance of six diagnostic screening tests for Chagas disease considering some epidemiological variables. (
  • A major challenge for diagnostic medicine is the determination of the true health status of an individual (sick or healthy) in relation to a certain disease when the gold standard test does not exist or its use is limited. (
  • Conjunctival swab specimens were placed in virus transport medium and shipped to InDRE for diagnostic testing. (
  • Pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), an excretory-secretory protein of E. histolytica , has been reported as a potential diagnostic marker for ALA, hence it may be exploited in the development of a new test for ALA. (
  • This is a first study on the prevalence of surra in Cholistan Desert, Pakistan using a broad variety of diagnostic tests thereby emphasizing it as a risk for the dromedaries of Pakistan. (
  • In this study, we compare the health and economic outcomes of the new test with existing syphilis tests/testing algorithms in a high prevalence setting. (
  • 4 This test was an immunoassay rather than a bioassay, was much faster and cheaper, but still relatively insensitive, especially for early diagnosis of pregnancy. (
  • Further tests can confirm or rule out the diagnosis. (
  • Screening test used for avian samples. (
  • Any contacts who became ill had samples tested for avian H7N9 by rRT-PCR. (
  • Studies of feather growth, cycling, and health are of fundamental importance to avian biology and poultry science. (
  • Plaque reduction neutralization tests with representatives from the 4 major lineages indicated that each represents a distinct antigenic subtype. (
  • Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), the sole species in the EEE antigenic complex, is divided into North and South American antigenic varieties based on hemagglutination inhibition tests. (
  • Primary screening test, detects antibody from all common Influenza A virus subtypes in multiple animal species. (
  • Serological confirmation by rubella-specific IgG or detection of virus (nucleic acid testing or culture) is preferred. (
  • In June 2012, outbreaks of (HPAI) A(H7N3) virus in poultry on farms throughout Jalisco State were reported by the National Service for Health, Safety, and Food Quality in Mexico ( 7 , 8 ). (
  • The aim of this study was to test the response of ducks to V4 virus (a lentogenic strain of NDV) using antibody response, virus isolation and transmission of virus to in-contact ducks and chickens. (
  • Your healthcare provider may also order a saliva or urine test for the mumps virus itself. (
  • If you have symptoms of meningitis, your provider may also test your cerebrospinal fluid for the mumps virus. (
  • Your provider may also order a hemagglutination inhibition test (HAI) to look for the mumps virus. (
  • Following recent notifications of increased amounts of febrile illnesses in one or more communities in New Hampshire, Vermont, New York, New Jersey and North Carolina, the respective State Health Departments are similarly investigating these influenza-like outbreaks. (
  • Patients who attend a scheduled blood test will be consented to donate additional blood samples. (
  • Increasing lifestyle related disorders and rising health consciousness should also drive the health intelligent virtual assistant market. (
  • Asia Pacific is anticipated to grow at a significant rate in the coming years, owing increasing lifestyle related disorders and rising health consciousness and the rise in the use of smartphones for health apps. (
  • Methods Moscow-based FSWs (n=147) completed a clinic-based survey and STI/HIV testing over an 8-month period in 2005. (
  • METHODS: A cross-sectional, epidemiological study of the population under 18 years of age living in 10 of the 11 health districts of the state of Veracruz, Mexico, from 2000 to2001. (
  • Assay performance was compared to gold-standard phenotypic drug susceptibility tests including Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) absolute concentration, Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tubes (MGIT) and TREK Sensititre® MYCOTB MIC plate (MYCOTB) methods. (
  • Mutations in the rrs gene were unequivocally associated with high level cross-resistance to AMK and KAN in all three conventional drug susceptibility testing methods. (
  • Significant increase in non-treponemal test titre in previously infected individual. (
  • however, a very sensitive screening test, such as CLIA, might be positive when the standard treponemal test is nonreactive. (
  • Information on websites maintained by the Department of Health will be published in accordance with the Guidance on Caretaker Conventions until after the conclusion of the caretaker period. (
  • One of the techniques used to reach this conclusion is the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. (