The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
An acute or prolonged illness usually considered to be life-threatening or with the threat of serious residual disability. Treatment may be radical and is frequently costly.
Insurance providing a broad range of medical services and supplies, when prescribed by a physician, whether or not the patient is hospitalized. It frequently is an extension of a basic policy and benefits will not begin until the basic policy is exhausted.
Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.
Value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year.
Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.
Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.
An increase in the volume of money and credit relative to available goods resulting in a substantial and continuing rise in the general price level.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
All organized methods of funding.
The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.
Methods of generating, allocating, and using financial resources in healthcare systems.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Size and composition of the family.
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.
Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.
City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.
Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.
Management of public health organizations or agencies.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Organized services to provide mental health care.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The status of health in rural populations.
The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.
A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
The status of health in urban populations.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.
Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.
Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.
The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.
Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)
Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.
The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).
Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.
Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.
Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.
Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.
The consumption of edible substances.
Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.
Freedom from activity.
Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)
A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.
Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.
Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.
Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.
The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.
Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.
Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.
The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.

Risk-adjusted capitation based on the Diagnostic Cost Group Model: an empirical evaluation with health survey information. (1/1821)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive accuracy of the Diagnostic Cost Group (DCG) model using health survey information. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Longitudinal data collected for a sample of members of a Dutch sickness fund. In the Netherlands the sickness funds provide compulsory health insurance coverage for the 60 percent of the population in the lowest income brackets. STUDY DESIGN: A demographic model and DCG capitation models are estimated by means of ordinary least squares, with an individual's annual healthcare expenditures in 1994 as the dependent variable. For subgroups based on health survey information, costs predicted by the models are compared with actual costs. Using stepwise regression procedures a subset of relevant survey variables that could improve the predictive accuracy of the three-year DCG model was identified. Capitation models were extended with these variables. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: For the empirical analysis, panel data of sickness fund members were used that contained demographic information, annual healthcare expenditures, and diagnostic information from hospitalizations for each member. In 1993, a mailed health survey was conducted among a random sample of 15,000 persons in the panel data set, with a 70 percent response rate. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The predictive accuracy of the demographic model improves when it is extended with diagnostic information from prior hospitalizations (DCGs). A subset of survey variables further improves the predictive accuracy of the DCG capitation models. The predictable profits and losses based on survey information for the DCG models are smaller than for the demographic model. Most persons with predictable losses based on health survey information were not hospitalized in the preceding year. CONCLUSIONS: The use of diagnostic information from prior hospitalizations is a promising option for improving the demographic capitation payment formula. This study suggests that diagnostic information from outpatient utilization is complementary to DCGs in predicting future costs.  (+info)

Screening Mammography Program of British Columbia: pattern of use and health care system costs. (2/1821)

BACKGROUND: The use of mammography for screening asymptomatic women has increased dramatically in the past decade. This report describes the changes that have occurred in the use of bilateral mammography in British Columbia since the provincial breast cancer screening program began in 1988. METHODS: Using province-wide databases from both the breast cancer screening program and the provincial health insurance plan in BC, the authors determined the number and costs of bilateral mammography services for women aged 40 years or older between Apr. 1, 1986, and Mar. 31, 1997. Unilateral mammography was excluded because it is used for investigating symptomatic disease and screening abnormalities, and for follow-up of women who have undergone mastectomy for cancer. RESULTS: As the provincial breast cancer screening program expanded from 1 site in 1988 to 23 in 1997, it provided an increasing proportion of the bilateral mammographic examinations carried out each year in BC. In fiscal year 1996/97, 65% of bilateral mammographic examinations were performed through the screening program. The cost per examination within the screening program dropped as volume increased. Thirty percent more bilateral mammography examinations were done in 1996/97 than in 1991/92, but health care system expenditures for these services increased by only 4% during the same period. In calendar year 1996, 21% of new breast cancers were diagnosed as a result of a screening program visit. INTERPRETATION: Substantial increases in health care expenditures have been avoided by shifting bilateral mammography services to the provincial screening program, which has a lower cost per screening visit.  (+info)

The economic burden of asthma: direct and indirect costs in Switzerland. (3/1821)

Asthma mortality increased in Switzerland between 1980 and 1994. This study aimed to assess the economic burden of asthma in this country. Chart reviews were conducted for the last five patients seen for asthma in physician practices in 1996 and 1997. Direct expenditures and indirect costs for asthma-related morbidity were determined. A total of 589 patient charts were completely analysed, including 117 children's charts, obtained from 120 office-based physicians. The annual direct medical costs were CHF 1,778 and the mean annual indirect costs were CHF 1,019 per patient for all patients. The total estimated cost of asthma in Switzerland in 1997 was nearly CHF 1,252 million. Direct medical expenditures approached CHF 762 million, or 61% of the total. In 1997, the indirect costs for asthma were estimated to have exceeded CHF 490 million. Of these costs CHF 123 million (25%) was associated with morbidity and nearly CHF 368 million (75%) was associated with looking after asthmatic patients who had to be cared for at home. This study provides evidence that asthma is a major healthcare cost factor in Switzerland, amounting to approximately CHF 1,200 million per year. The data suggest that cost savings can be achieved by improving primary care for asthma in an ambulatory setting.  (+info)

Health expenditure and finance: who gets what? (4/1821)

The methods used in South Africa's first comprehensive review of health finance and expenditure are outlined. Special measures were adopted to make the process acceptable to all concerned during a period of profound political transition. The estimation of indicators of access to public sector resources for districts sorted by per capita income allowed the health care problems of disadvantaged communities to be highlighted.  (+info)

Light on population health status. (5/1821)

A new approach to illustrating and analysing health status is presented which allows comparisons of various aspects of health in a population at different times and in different populations during given periods. Both quantitative and qualitative elements can be represented, the impact of interventions can be monitored, and the extent to which objectives are achieved can be assessed. The practical application of the approach is demonstrated with reference to the health profiles to Tunisia in 1966 and 1994.  (+info)

Explaining the decline in health insurance coverage, 1979-1995. (6/1821)

The decline in health insurance coverage among workers from 1979 to 1995 can be accounted for almost entirely by the fact that per capita health care spending rose much more rapidly than personal income during this time period. We simulate health insurance coverage levels for 1996-2005 under alternative assumptions concerning the rate of growth of spending. We conclude that reduction in spending growth creates measurable increases in health insurance coverage for low-income workers and that the rapid increase in health care spending over the past fifteen years has created a large pool of low-income workers for whom health insurance is unaffordable.  (+info)

Cost of tax-exempt health benefits in 1998. (7/1821)

The tax expenditure for health benefits is the amount of revenues that the federal government forgoes by exempting the following from the federal income and Social Security taxes: (1) employer health benefits contribution, (2) health spending under flexible spending plans, and (3) the tax deduction for health expenses. The health tax expenditure was $111.2 billion in 1998. This figure varied from $2,357 per family among those with annual incomes of $100,000 or more to $71 per family among those with annual incomes of less than $15,000. Families with incomes of $100,000 or more (10 percent of the population) accounted for 23.6 percent of all tax expenditures.  (+info)

Who bears the burden of Medicaid drug copayment policies? (8/1821)

This DataWatch examines the impact of Medicaid prescription drug copayment policies in thirty-eight states using survey data from the 1992 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Findings indicate that elderly and disabled Medicaid recipients who reside in states with copay provisions have significantly lower rates of drug use than their counterparts in states without copayments. After controlling for other factors, we find that the primary effect of copayments is to reduce the likelihood that Medicaid recipients fill any prescription during the year. This burden falls disproportionately on recipients in poor health.  (+info)

Health expenditure; public (% of total health expenditure) in Malaysia was last measured at 54.83 in 2013, according to the World Bank. Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government (central and local) budgets, external borrowings and grants (including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations), and social (or compulsory) health insurance funds. Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditure. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Health expenditure - public (% of total health expenditure) in Malaysia.
Out-of-pocket health expenditure (% of private expenditure on health) in Europe and Central Asia was last measured at 85.28 in 2013, according to the World Bank. Out of pocket expenditure is any direct outlay by households, including gratuities and in-kind payments, to health practitioners and suppliers of pharmaceuticals, therapeutic appliances, and other goods and services whose primary intent is to contribute to the restoration or enhancement of the health status of individuals or population groups. It is a part of private health expenditure.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Out-of-pocket health expenditure (% of private expenditure on health) in Europe and Central Asia.
National health accounts (NHA) constitute a systematic monitoring of the resource flows in a countrys health care system, helping to inform the evaluation of health care policy.. This NHA report for Haiti contains tables analysis on subaccounts for HIV/AIDs, tuberculosis, and malaria. Specifically, the tables contain data on health care expenditures with regard to financing sources and health care functions.. The report is available for download from the WHO National Health Accounts website.. ...
Background/ Objective: The main health status indicators in the SAARC-ASEAN region are far behind than those of OECD group and world average. Similarly, total health expenditure (% of GDP) in the region is also lower than that of OECD region and world. Therefore, this study aims to investigate a relationship between the healthcare expenditures and three main health status outcomes (life expectancy at birth, crude death rate and infant mortality rate) in the region.. Methods: Using the World Bank data set for 20 years (1995-2014) in 15 countries of the region, a panel data analysis is conducted where relevant fixed and random effect models are estimated to determine the effects of healthcare expenditures on health outcomes. The separate effects of private and public health expenditures were also explored.. Results: Total health expenditure, public health expenditure and private health expenditure have significant effect in reducing infant mortality rate and the extent of effect of private health ...
In 2014, Out-of-Pocket Health Expenditure in Thailand was 12 Percent of Health Expenditure. Discover more data with NationMaster!
Countries Compared by Health > Health expenditure, total > % of GDP. International Statistics at NationMaster.com, World Health Organization National Health Account database (see http://apps.who.int/nha/database/DataExplorerRegime.aspx for the most recent updates). Aggregates compiled by NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/group-stats/Hot-countries/Health/Health-expenditure,-total/%-of-GDP. Countries Compared by Health > Health expenditure, total > % of GDP. International Statistics at NationMaster.com, World Health Organization National Health Account database (see http://apps.who.int/nha/database/DataExplorerRegime.aspx for the most recent updates). Aggregates compiled by NationMaster. 1995-2011. ,http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/group-stats/Hot-countries/Health/Health-expenditure,-total/%-of-GDP,.. Countries Compared by Health > Health expenditure, total > % of GDP. International Statistics at NationMaster.com, World Health Organization National ...
Though health expenditures in the U.S. are carefully tracked by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the health outcomes associated with these expenditures are not. To address this need, our past research has developed detailed measures of population health and medical spending using existing national data, in order to systematically and jointly measure the benefits and the costs of medical care. These methods have been developed to serve as a Satellite National Health Account, enabling a better understanding of the health sector in the United States. We propose two new avenues of analysis using these tools that will greatly expand our understanding of health change in relation to costs across the U.S. population. The first is to examine health in conjunction with costs among all age groups- -including the elderly, middle-aged, young adults, and children-and among different socioeconomic groups. The second is to examine the health of those with ...
RESULTS. Total domestic health expenditure was $68 620 million in the fiscal year 2001/02. In real terms, expenditure grew at an average rate of 7% while gross domestic product increased by 4% during the same period. This indicates a growing share of health spending relative to gross domestic product, from 3.8% in 1989/90 to 5.5% in 2001/02. This upward trend was largely driven by increased public spending that rose 208% in real terms over the period, compared with 76% for private spending. Out-of-pocket payments by households accounted for about 70% of private spending while employers and insurance accounted for 28%. Private insurance plays an increasingly important role in financing private spending whereas household expenditure has shown a corresponding decrease during the period. Expenditure incurred at providers of ambulatory services and hospitals accounted for more than 70% of total health expenditure during the observed period. Hospitals share of total spending increased by 18%, ...
Downloadable! We make use of panel data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey between 1991 and 2006 to investigate whether health insurance increases out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditure risk. We find that health insurance increases the probability of catastrophic OOP health expenditures using a series of Probit models. We then use two-part as well as sample selection models to account for selection on unobservable variables and find that although the probability of positive OOP health expenditures increases with the availability of health insurance, the actual level of OOP health expenditures decreases. More specifically, we find that for a per- son with positive OOP health expenditures, having health insurance reduces the level of OOP expenses by 12.56 percent while controlling for selection effects.
National health accounts (NHA) constitute a systematic monitoring of the resource flows in a countrys health care system, helping to inform the evaluation of health care policy.. This report includes tables and analysis specifically concerned with health care expenditures for the treatment and prevention of tuberculosis.. ...
These facts are from the CIA-and they are undisputed:. • Infant mortality rate in the United States: 6.06 per 1,000 live births. • Infant mortality rate in France: 3.29 per 1,000 live births. • Average life expectancy in the United States: 78.37 years (75.92 for men, 80.93 for women).. • Average life expectancy in France: 81.19 years (78.20 for men, 84.54 for women).. • Total expenditure on health care in the United States: 16.2% of GDP (2009).. • Total expenditure on health care in France: 3.5% of GDP (2009).. • Expenditure on health care in the United States per capita: $7,517 per year (2009).. • Expenditure on health care in France per capita: $1,148 per year (2009).. So . . . to make it clear: France has a Socialist-Commie health care system, while the United States has the best health care system in the world-. -and yet the French live longer, have an infant mortality rate roughly half the United States, and yet still manage to spend less than Americans on health care. A ...
Health Expenditure: Short and Long-Term Relations in Latin America, 1995-2010: 10.4018/IJPHIM.2015070102: This chapter explores the factors associated with the growth of total health expenditure, in addition to its main components, government health expenditure
The study documents a direct relationship between individuals health and patterns of healthcare expenditure by isolating single-person households and creating a new reference group in which household healthcare expenditure is based on one persons expenditure patterns in accordance with his or her own state of health. The study matched two surveys using Propensity Score Matching based on single-person household, age, and gender. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) explores paths of relation between the populations income and socioeconomic level and its health self-assessment and expenditure. Single-person households health expenditure increases with age and the differences in most expenditure categories are significant. The current study looks into the direct and indirect effects of income, gender, and SES on health insurance and other out-of-pocket health expenses among single-person households. A direct link exists between income, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) and several aspects of health
The 2007 Kenya Household Health Expenditure and Utilisation Survey (2007 KHHEUS) assess the utilisation of health services, as well as out-of-pocket expenditures on health at the national and regional levels, and by socioeconomic and demographic groups. The survey was as undertaken as part the National Health Accounts (NHA) estimation. NHA estimates give information not only on the distribution of health funding by financing sources but also by the entities through which the funds pass (financing agents), the health services providers that consume the funds, and ultimately the health functions on which the funds are spent. The KHHEUS 2007 survey was carried out by the Ministry of Health (MOH) and Partners.. ...
Government has an essential role in making the health of its population and this role has risen substantially in todays scenario. This scenario is unlike that of private sector where the prices are high and question of affordability is the biggest challenge thus it becomes prior to study the causality between public health expenditure and health status. The prime objective of this study is to figure out the impact of per capita public health expenditure on health status of the population across countries using infant mortality rate, maternal mortality rate, and under-5 mortality rate as proxies using cross-sectional data of South-Asian countries. Dataset has been prepared by taking annual data for the years 1994 onwards till 2014 from World Bank and World Development Indicators. We adopt a robust Fixed Effects (FE) model as the baseline specification and compare the results with robust OLS and robust OLS with lagged explanatory variables. This study unveils that public health expenditure ...
The objective of the first Public Expenditure Tracking Survey (PETS) for Niger is to increase understanding of the link between public spending and service delivery at the facility level in order to contribute to improving the effectiveness and accountability in the use of public funds. Specifically, this PETS focuses on identifying the discrepancies, inefficiencies and delays in public spending execution for selected expenditures in the education and health sectors. The medium to long term goal of these PETS is to launch a process aimed at continuous improvements in public expenditure efficiency and equity by focusing on capacity building in this area in the ministries of education and health and in the Institute of National Statistics (INS). The main challenge faced by a tracking survey in a country like Niger is the availability and accuracy of records keeping. The Niger PETS highlights a general lack of systematic information recording. The quality of records in the education sector is low ...
Downloadable! Fiscal imbalances were a main cause for chronic high inflation and macroeconomic instability before the 2000/2001 crisis. Fiscal consolidation is the cornerstone of post-crisis stabilization. It has been quite successful over the past three years as sizeable primary surpluses have been sustained and the fall in interest rates has reduced the interest cost of public debt. Fiscal targets have been achieved chiefly by raising revenues which has increased the tax burden; greater emphasis should now be placed on the control of public expenditure. At the same time, core public services such as education, justice, infrastructure and rural development will need to be upgraded. Social security costs may also rise with the planned shift to universal health insurance, and the ambitious administrative decentralization project could cause upward pressure on local spending. Far-reaching rationalization of public expenditures is therefore required to meet the quantitative fiscal targets while ...
This paper discusses the development of public expenditure in the Netherlands since 1850. Why did public expenditure increase from 14% GDP in 1850, nearly 20% i
Health expenditure Australia 2006-07 examines expenditure on health goods and services in Australia for 1996-97 to 2006-07. It shows that Australia spent over $ 94.0 billion on health in 2006-07, an estimated rise of $7.3 billion since 2005-06. This report presents expenditure estimates: at the aggregate level; as a proportion of gross domestic product (GDP); on a per person basis; by state and territory; by comparison with selected OECD and Asia-Pacific countries; and by source of funding (Australian Government, other governments and the non-government sector). This report will be helpful to anyone interested in studying, analysing and comparing estimates of health expenditure in Australia.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Validating the New Primary Care Measure in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. AU - Olaisen, R. Henry. AU - Flocke, Susan A.. AU - Smyth, Kathleen A.. AU - Schluchter, Mark D.. AU - Koroukian, Siran M.. AU - Stange, Kurt C.. PY - 2020/1/1. Y1 - 2020/1/1. N2 - Background:The advancement of primary care research requires reliable and validated measures that capture primary care processes embedded within nationally representative datasets.Objective:The objective of this study was to assess the validity of a newly developed measure of primary care processes [Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS)-PC] with preliminary evidence of moderate to excellent reliability.Study Design:A retrospective cohort study of community-dwelling adults with history of office-based provider visit/s using the MEPS (2013-2014).Methods:The 3 MEPS-PC subscales (Relationship, Comprehensiveness, and Health Promotion) were tested for construct validity against known measures of primary care: Usual Source of ...
Public health focuses on prevention, promotion and protection rather than on treatment; on populations rather than on individuals; and on the factors and behaviours that cause illness.. The estimates included in the Public health expenditure in Australia series relate only to public health activities where the funding was provided or the expenditure incurred by the key health departments and agencies in the various jurisdictions. They are accompanied by descriptions of public health activities undertaken nationally and by states and territories.. Total expenditure on reported public health activities by health departments in Australia during 2007-08 was $2,158.8 million or $101.61 per person on average. This was an increase of $444.0 million on what was spent in 2006-07 which, after adjusting for inflation, represented real growth of 21.5% in 2007-08. Average expenditure per person increased by 19.4%.. Expenditure on public health increased by 77.7%, in real terms, between 1999-00 and 2007-08, ...
Road traffic injuries (RTI) are an increasing public health problem in India where out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditures on health are among the highest in the world. We estimated the OOP expenses for RTI in a large city in India. Information on medical and non-medical expenditure was documented for RTI cases of all ages that reported alive or dead to the emergency departments of two public hospitals and a large private hospital in Hyderabad. Differential risk of catastrophic OOP total expenditure (COPE-T) and medical expenditure (COPE-M), and distress financing was assessed for 723 RTI cases that arrived alive at the study hospitals with multiple logistic regression. Catastrophic expenditure was defined as expenditure | 25% of the RTI patients annual household income. Variation in intensity of COPE-M in RTI was assessed using multiple classification analysis (MCA). The median OOP medical and non-medical expenditure was USD 169 and USD 163, respectively. The prevalence of COPE-M and COPE-T was 21.9% (95% CI
For 2000-01, the preliminary estimate of total expenditure on health (including both public and private sectors) was $60.8b, compared with expenditure of $55.7b in the previous year (table 9.22). This represented an average rate of health expenditure in 2000-01 of $3,153 per person. In 2000-01, governments provided more than two-thirds (70%) of the funding for health expenditure, while the remaining 30% was provided by the private sector. Health expenditure in volume terms grew at an average annual rate of 4.4% between 1990-91 and 2000-01. In 2000-01, health expenditure as a proportion of gross domestic product was 9.0%. This ratio was 8.8% in 1999-2000, up from 8.7% in 1998-99. ...
This third edition of Health at a Glance Asia/Pacific presents a set of key indicators of health status, the determinants of health, health care resources and utilisation, health care expenditure and financing and health care quality across 27 Asia/Pacific countries and economies. Drawing on a wide range of data sources, it builds on the format used in previous editions of Health at a Glance, and gives readers a better understanding of the factors that affect the health of populations and the performance of health systems in these countries and economies.. Each of the indicators is presented in a user-friendly format, consisting of charts illustrating variations across countries and over time, brief descriptive analyses highlighting the major findings conveyed by the data, and a methodological box on the definition of the indicator and any limitations in data comparability. An annex provides additional information on the demographic context in which health systems operate. It is a joint OECD and ...
This seventh edition of Health at a Glance provides the latest comparable data on different aspects of the performance of health systems in OECD countries. It provides striking evidence of large variations across countries in health costs, health activities and health results of health systems. Key health indicators provide information on health status including suicide and life expectancy, the determinants of health, health care activities and health expenditure and financing in OECD countries. Each health indicator in the book is presented in a user-friendly format, consisting of charts illustrating variations across countries and over time, brief descriptive analyses highlighting the major findings conveyed by the health data, and a methodological box on the definition of the indicator and any limitations in data comparability.. ...
Data & statistics on Annual government health expenditure by age and service group: Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Figures Figure 1 Economic case for investing in reducing the mental health burden Figure 2 Public mental health service utilisation and relative need for children and young people Figure 3 Average per capita expenditure per annum in specialist public mental health services by age group (2007) Figure 4 Commonwealth funded MBS average expenditure per capita Figure ..., Major features of the Korean Family Planning Program Percentage of contraceptive users among currently married women, ages 15-44, by area and by method: South Korea, 1971-94 Percentage of contraceptive users by method and source of services: South Korea, 1973-94 Government budgets for family planning (FP) and maternal and child health (MCH) programs: South Korea, 1975-96 Percentage change in the total ..., Analytical framework Human capital stream and indicative objectives and outcomes Composition of natural gas costs
It is expected, based on the available literature, that technology will be the major determinant of health expenditure. Much of the existing literature on this topic, though, suffers from the use of econometric techniques-such as standard ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression-to analyse time-series data. This is now known to be problematic as, typically, health expenditure (HE) and GDP are cointegrated [27]. Modern time-series econometric techniques are able to overcome the possibly spurious results [76] that can be associated with regressing non-stationary cointegrated time-series. Given the statistical problems that beset the historical literature on this topic, it is interesting that research tends to confirm its long-standing and somewhat counter-intuitive result: technically (according to the standard economic definition), health care is a luxury. Specifically, spending in the health sector tends to rise at a faster rate than national income. Indeed the income elasticity of HE (i.e., ...
In 2010 expenditures on health in the USA amounted to $2 584 billion, which 2.5 times more than expenditures on health in all emerging countries taken together, or was equal to GDP of such developed country as France ...
The OECD has loads of data on health expenditure in the 25 or so countries that make up the wealthy and democratic countries. Inspired by @bengoldacres arguments with someone on whether the Swiss govt provided better value healthcare than the UK govt, I wanted to go look at data on public health spending (i.e. not…
For 1999-00, the preliminary estimate of total expenditure on health services (including both public and private sectors) was $53.7b, compared with expenditure of $51.0b in the previous year (table 9.29). This represented an average rate of health services expenditure in 1999-00 of $2,817 per person. In 1999-00, governments provided more than two-thirds (71%) of the funding for health expenditure, while the remaining 29% was provided by the private sector. Health expenditure in volume terms grew at an average annual rate of 4.0% between 1989-90 and 1999-00. In 1999-00, health services expenditure as a proportion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was 8.5%. The ratio was 8.6% in 1998-99, up from 8.4% in 1996-97 and 1997-98. ...
BACKGROUND: There is little systematic assessment of how total health expenditure is distributed across diseases and comorbidities. The objective of this study was to use statistical methods to disaggregate all publicly funded health expenditure by disease and comorbidities in order to answer three research questions: (1) What is health expenditure by disease phase for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in New Zealand? (2) Is the cost of having two NCDs more or less than that expected given the independent costs of each NCD? (3) How is total health spending disaggregated by NCDs across age and by sex? METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used linked data for all adult New Zealanders for publicly funded events, including hospitalisation, outpatient, pharmaceutical, laboratory testing, and primary care from 1 July 2007 to 30 June 2014. These data include 18.9 million person-years and $26.4 billion in spending (US$ 2016). We used case definition algorithms to identify if a person had any of six NCDs (cancer, ...
The Canadian Institute for Health Information has released the latest version of its annual report on public and private health expenditure at both the provincial and federal levels. As always, the CIHI provides a wealth of health data and information...
Impact of Brexit on Irelands Economy: Economic and Social Research Institute Joint Committee on Finance, Public Expenditure and Reform, and Taoiseach debate - Thursday, 28 Nov 2019
Public Expenditure Management Volumes 1-6 Six Volumes in a Slip Case - Volume 1 Using Resources Well Sold Separately, 9780114300272, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
Death: British Nationals Abroad [18 July 2011]. Defence: Procurement [14 December 2010]. Departmental Catering [10 January 2011]. Departmental Computers [8 November 2011]. Departmental Conditions of Employment [27 January 2011]. Departmental Conditions of Employment [25 January 2011]. Departmental Consultants [29 March 2011]. Departmental Film [31 March 2011]. Departmental Freedom of Information [7 November 2011]. Departmental Information Officers [3 March 2011]. Departmental Manpower [14 November 2011]. Departmental Manpower [4 November 2010]. Departmental Manpower [27 July 2010]. Departmental Official Cars [2 February 2011]. Departmental Official Hospitality [5 April 2011]. Departmental Photographs [28 February 2011]. Departmental Public Expenditure [22 March 2011]. Departmental Public Expenditure [16 March 2011]. Departmental Public Expenditure [9 March 2011]. Departmental Public Expenditure [2 February 2011]. Departmental Telecommunications [10 January 2011]. Departmental Travel [7 March ...
This report presents analyses based on the Household Expenditure and Utilization Survey conducted in February/March 2003 in Kenya. The survey was part of an elaborate National Health Accounts (NHA) framework comprising the Household and Institutional Surveys. The central issues addressed by the Survey were the utilization, expenditure levels and the principal determinants for health care use as well as health insurance coverage. The , KHHEUS 2013 Survey was carried out by the Ministry of Health (MOH) and partners.. ...
Medicines are key inputs for quality medical care and the prevention of disease, and when administered appropriately, as evidence from Sub-Saharan African countries shows, they can contribute significantly to reducing death rates due to conditions such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. But it is also obvious that not everybody in these countries, particularly the poor, enjoys this benefit, since limited access to essential drugs remains a key challenge in most health systems. High out-of-pocket expenditures, typically more than 40% of total health expenditures in some countries (a large portion for outpatient drugs), also place a heavy burden on poor families with chronically ill members who require daily drug intake.
Health expenditure as a % of GDP,Expenditure on healthcare: total and by type of financing agent (Euro),Expenditure on healthcare: total and by type of financing agent (PPS),Expenditure on healthcare: total and by type of function (PPS),Expenditure on healthcare: total and by type function (Euro),Expenditure on healthcare: total and by type of provider (Euro),Expenditure on healthcare: total and by type of provider (PPS),Health expenditure per inhabitant (Euro)
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services conducts the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) to produce national and regional estimates of various aspects of health care. The MEPS has a complex sample design that includes both stratification and clustering. The sampling weights are adjusted for nonresponse and raked with respect to population control totals from the Current Population Survey. See the MEPS Survey Background (2006) and Machlin, Yu, and Zodet (2005) for details. In this example, the 1999 full-year consolidated data file HC-038 (MEPS HC-038, 2002) from the MEPS is used to investigate the relationship between medical insurance coverage and the demographic variables. The data can be downloaded directly from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Web site at http://www.meps.ahrq.gov/mepsweb/data_stats/download_data_files_detail.jsp?cboPufNumber=HC-038 in either ASCII format or SAS transport format. The Web site includes a detailed description of the data as well ...
The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Qualitys Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) each release annual files. Beginning with the 1995 NHIS and the 1996 MEPS, these files can be linked. The NHIS/MEPS linkage files allow users to link persons in the MEPS public use files to the records of the same persons in the previous NHIS public use files. Please note that each years MEPS file contains only a subset of persons from the previous NHIS core person file. Also note that many of the NHIS files, particularly the sample adult file, will only match to a subset of the MEPS file and the resulting matched sample sizes may be quite small. The MEPS sample design variables (for variance estimation) and weights must be used for any analysis using a linked NHIS/MEPS file. In addition, the weights provided in the MEPS files would have to be adjusted to account for those persons who are in the MEPS files, but are not in the NHIS files. AHRQ will provide ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Out-of-pocket expenditure for hypertension care: a population-based study in low-income urban Medellin, Colombia. AU - Londoño Agudelo, Esteban. AU - García Fariñas, Anaí. AU - Pérez Ospina, Viviana. AU - Taborda Pérez, Cecilia. AU - Villacrés Landeta, Tatiana. AU - Battaglioli, Tullia. AU - Gómez Arias, Rubén. AU - Van der Stuyft, Patrick. N1 - FTX. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - Background Hypertension requires life-long medical care, which may cause economic burden and even lead to catastrophic health expenditure. Objective To estimate the extent of out-of-pocket expenditure for hypertension care at a population level and its impact on households budgets in a low-income urban setting in Colombia. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Santa Cruz, a commune in the city of Medellin. In 410 randomly selected households with a hypertensive adult, we estimated annual basic household expenditure and hypertension-attributable out-of-pocket expenditure. For ...
The bill directs the department to consult with the hospital provider fee oversight and advisory board on the development of the hospital expenditure report. The department may combine the hospital expenditure report with the advisory boards annual report on the hospital provider fee. The advisory board, using staff and analysis from the department, shall provide estimates for the payment-to-cost ratio and the cost-shift analysis portions of its report based on information provided to the department by hospitals.. The hospital expenditure report shall include, but not be limited to:. ...
National health expenditures, calendar years 1929-70 by Barbara S. Cooper; 1 edition; First published in 1972; Subjects: Cost of Medical care, Medical economics; Places: United States
Malta increased 15.6% of Healthcare Expenditure on Home Based Long Term Care (Health) by Household Out-Of-Pocket Payment in 2017, compared to the previous year.
Increase in poverty gap at $1.90 ($ 2011 PPP) poverty line due to out-of-pocket health care expenditure (USD) in Pakistan was reported at 0.21944 in 2015, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. Pakistan - Increase in poverty gap at $1.90 ($ 2011 PPP) poverty line due to out-of-pocket health care expenditure (USD) - actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were sourced from the |a href=https://data.worldbank.org/ target=blank>World Bank|/a> on September of 2020.
Existing programs providing subsidised oral health care to older Australians are often inaccessible and unavailable.. Dental care is the second largest area of out-of-pocket health expenditure by Australians (19% of individuals recurrent health expenditure) after non-PBS medications. Australians pay 57% of the cost of dental care out of their own pockets, compared to 17.3% for all health services.. For many people on the Age Pension, especially those experiencing poverty, private health insurance is one of the essentials that must be dropped because they cannot afford the cost of living. This is particularly the case for people living on the Age Pension whilst renting. Only 16% of people over 65 who are renting have private health insurance coverage, compared to 46.8% of the general population.. ...
The ongoing Consumer Expenditure Survey (CES) provides a continuous flow of information on the buying habits of American consumers and also furnishes data to support periodic revisions of the Consumer Price Index. The Consumer Expenditure Survey (CES) consists of two separate components: (1) a quarterly Interview panel survey in which each consumer unit in the sample is interviewed every three months over a 15-month period, and (2) a Diary or record keeping survey completed by the sample consumer units for two consecutive one-week periods. The Interview survey was designed to collect data on major items of expense, household characteristics, and income. The expenditures covered by the survey are those which respondents can recall fairly accurately for three months or longer. In general, these expenditures include relatively large purchases, such as those for property, automobiles, and major appliances, or expenditures which occur on a fairly regular basis, such as rent, utilities, or insurance ...
iv] This figure is based on calculations from the data used by Michael Lysaght, PhD, Professor and Director of the Center for Biomedical Engineering at Brown University, in publication of Lysaght M, Jaklenec A, Deweerd E: Great Expectations: Private Sector Activity in Tissue Engineering, Regenerative Medicine, and Stem Cell Therapeutics. Tissue Eng 14, 305. 2008. That data indicates that the average annual spending of companies categorized as commercial was $30 million. I then assumed that manufacturing represents 10% of annual expenditures based on the calculation that manufacturing represents between 8-15% of annual expenditures cited by Lysaght in the data. Annual expenditure for commercial-stage manufacturing does and will vary wildly depending on the type of product and the volume of production by as much, for example, as $1.5 million and $80 million for production of 20,000 products per year - the difference largely driven by the products being allogeneic versus autologous ...
The ongoing Consumer Expenditure Survey (CES) provides detailed information on income and expenditures and also furnishes the Bureau of Labor Statistics with data needed to maintain and review the Consumer Price Index. The quarterly Interview Survey component of the CES was designed to gather data on major items of expense, household characteristics, and income. Expenditures examined in this survey are those which respondents could be expected to recall fairly accurately for three months or longer. Consumer units, which are roughly equivalent to households, are interviewed once per quarter for five consectutive quarters. The initial interview collects demographic and family characteristics data and an inventory of major durable goods for each consumer unit. Expenditures are collected in this interview using a one-month recall. They are used along with the inventory information to bound the expenditure responsed for subsequent interviews and to classify the unit for analysis. The bounding of ...
There is evidence that the economic crisis in Greece has substantially affected patients and health care services, with chronic patients forming a particularly vulnerable group. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and in what way the current economic environment has affected patients with selected chronic conditions. A cross sectional study was carried out with a sample size of 1200 patients suffering from hypertension, diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Following a large family income decrease (35.4%) in the last 3 years, chronic patients reported decreased spending for various expenditure categories in order to maintain their ability to finance their health care needs. Among the disease groups studied, statistically significant differences were found for self-rated heath (SRH), out-of pocket health expenditures, health services utilization and the perceived need for physician services. Although need for physician visits for issues related to the chronic condition
BMI View: Malaysias new patient-centric service of sending medicine by post is an innovative approach by the government to provide healthcare directly to consumers at their homes. The key concerns include the potential loss of pharmaceuticals during delivery. However, if carefully planned and executed, this programme could boost public expenditure on healthcare. Malaysia has introduced a new service of sending prescribed medicines by post. This service is catered to patients who need to consume pharmaceuticals on a continuous basis. This that registered patients do not have to wait at hospitals, clinics or pharmacies. Healthcare providers will also be able to give more attention to patients who require more immediate medical care. This is important considering that there is a chronic shortage of doctors in Malaysia. According to the deputy health minister in Malaysia, the doctor-patient ratio was 1:940 in 2009, lower than the 1:600 standard set by the World Health Organization (WHO).. The idea ...
Yesterday, researchers from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services reported that U.S. health spending reached $2.5 trillion in 2009, and that health cares share of the economy grew 1.1 percentage points to 17.3 percent-the largest one-year increase since the federal government began keeping track in 1960. In a written statement, Commonwealth Fund president Karen Davis said that these findings underscore the need for comprehensive health care reform that will help rein in the unsustainable spending growth that is placing an increasing burden on American families, businesses, and state and local governments ...
45 The most recent published consolidated expenditure on dental is sourced from the AIHW. The most recent publication in October 2011 relates to 2009-10 expenditure.. Public consolidated expenditure on dental services is sourced from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). The most recent publication in October 2011 relates to 2009-10 expenditure. In 2009-10, total expenditure on dental services in Australia was $7.690 billion. Of this, $4.698 billion was funded by individuals; $1.257 billion by the Commonwealth Government; $1.076 billion by private health insurance funds (which would be funded through the premiums of members); and $628 million by State and Territory Governments. Overall, individuals directly fund a significant proportion (61 per cent) of total expenditure, reflecting the structural nature of the dental system in which the vast majority of practising dentists and services are in the private sector. In terms of public sector financing, the Commonwealth is the ...
The Philippine Health Care Delivery System and Health Expenditure: 10.4018/978-1-4666-7484-4.ch016: Health is recognized by the Philippine constitution as a basic human right. The Philippines, compared to most Asian countries, produces more and better human
As our market access focus continues, Tara Prasad highlights the importance of global initiatives to help patients in the least developing countries gain access to medicine and discusses the role pharma plays in making this happen.. Driven by rapid growth and the demands of an expanding middle class, emerging economies that were previously characterized by low public expenditure on health and weak healthcare systems are now going through immense health reforms.. To give some notable examples, three of the largest emerging economies, Brazil, China and India, have put in place reforms with the objective of providing universal healthcare coverage. Meanwhile, Ghana has instituted a national health insurance system, which covers most of its population.. Spending on medicine in emerging markets is projected to nearly double by 2016, and developing countries are expected to significantly outstrip healthcare spending growth rates of developed countries. But while there are incentives to enter these ...
Alcohol expenditures can provide a different perspective on alcohol use by providing an understanding of the consumer demand for alcohol, the effect of alcohol sales on the economy and the impact on the household budget. Previous studies have focused on alcohol expenditure at the individual-level and have not considered population level factors or the influences of geographical variation. The goal of this study was to examine the socio-economic and built-environment characteristics associated with alcohol expenditures at the small-area level in the City of Toronto. Alcohol expenditure data consisting of purchases in licensed premises and purchases in stores for the year 2010 were retrieved from the Survey of Household Spending (SHS) at the Dissemination Area (DA) level. Socio-economic and built-environment variables were retrieved from the 2006 Census of Canada and DMTI Enhanced Points of Interest (EPOI) data, respectively. Multivariate spatial regression models were used to analyze the ...
Data & statistics on Idaho Projected State Health Expenditures by Program Type: Marine Traffic Forecast - Fully Assembled Automobiles (1,000 short tons), Relative Size of Snake River Barge Volumes Snake River as a Share of Columbia River...
U.S. health care spending increased to $3.3 trillion in 2016, with out-of-pocket health care costs borne directly by consumers rising 3.9 percent - the fastest rate of growth since 2007.
Our results demonstrate that there is a significant potential to improve the financial protection of rural Guangxi population through the expansion of NCMS from 2009 to 2013. In these five years, NCMS has raised its premium from 100 RMB to 340 RMB per person, and broaden its reimbursement scope both in inpatient and outpatient services. The dropping down of catastrophic health payments headcounts and the share of OOP in total payment provides evidence to the effectiveness of financial risk pooling intervention by NCMS, and this approach indeed help reduced the financial barriers to health care services.. The healthcare financing systems in Luchuan and Rongxian counties were found to be regressive. It was likely that the regressive nature of social insurance payments was the chief contributor to this since, even though all of the payments were disproportional, the absolute values of the Kakwani index for social insurance were bigger than for other payments (Table 1). The uneven distribution of ...
We show how Danish administrative register data can be combined with survey data at the individual level and used to validate information collected in the survey. Two examples illustrate the potential of combining survey and register data. First, expenditure survey records with information about total expenditure are merged with income tax records with information about income and wealth, which is used to impute total expenditure, then compared to the survey measure. Results suggest the two measures match each other well on average. Second, we compare responses to a one‐shot recall question about total gross personal income collected in another survey with tax records. Tax records hold detailed information about different types of income, which makes it possible to test whether response errors are related to the reporting of particular types of income. Results show bias in the mean, that the survey error has substantial variance, and that the errors are correlated with conventional covariates, ...
MANAGEMENT CONTROL - The clinical risk management. A case study ( The continuous increase in healthcare costs as regards GDP and the public expenditure reflects, on the one side, the growth of health demand due to the change in the global epidemiological landscape and, on the other side, a progressive rise in health costs, significantly influencing the sustainability of the world health system. The legislative measures adopted by many countries, primarily aiming at containing the public expenditure, have drawn the attention of academics and practitioners. The interest is focused on risk management because nowadays this process is considered necessary in healthcare public companies. The reason is that it allows, on the one hand, to reduce waste and, consequently, costs, and, on the other hand, to improve the results and the assistance quality offered. In this context, the aim of the study is twofold: i) to examine the clinical risk management in healthcare organizations; ii) to verify, through a case
For release: 10:00 a.m. (EDT), Wednesday, March 27, 2013 USDL-13-0541 Technical Information: (202) 691-6900 [email protected] www.bls.gov/cex Media Contact : (202) 691-5902 [email protected] CONSUMER EXPENDITURES MIDYEAR UPDATE -- JULY 2011 THROUGH JUNE 2012 AVERAGE Average expenditures per consumer unit(1) for July 2011 through June 2012 were 1.9 percent higher than the 2011 annual average, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported today. This gradual rise in spending continued the increase reported for all of 2011. All major components of household spending except apparel increased over the 12 months ending in June 2012 compared to the 2011 annual average, as shown in table A. The 6.3-percent rise in cash contributions (including payments for support of college students, alimony and child support, and giving to charities and religious organizations) was the largest percentage increase among all major components. This was followed by a 4.6-percent increase in health care spending. Other ...
Tel: (01) 727 7102. Email me. MARY LOU is Leader of Sinn Féin and Teachta Dála for the Dublin Central constituency. Mary Lou is married to Martin and they have two young children, Iseult and Gerard. She is proud to represent the people of Dublin Central where she has a reputation for hard work and championing the needs of her constituency both locally and nationally.. Prior to becoming Leader of Sinn Féin in February 2018 Mary Lou was Deputy Leader of the party. Following her election to the Dáil in 2011 Mary Lou was Sinn Féins Spokesperson for Public Expenditure and Reform and on her re-election in 2016 Sinn Féins All-Ireland Spokesperson for Mental Health and Suicide Prevention. She was a prominent member of the Public Accounts Committee between 2011 and 2017 holding Ministers and senior civil servants to account. She has also served on the Joint Oireachtas Committees for Public Expenditure and Reform and the Future of Mental Health.. She was an MEP for Dublin from 2004 to 2009 and ...
Tel: (01) 727 7102. Email me. MARY LOU is Leader of Sinn Féin and Teachta Dála for the Dublin Central constituency. Mary Lou is married to Martin and they have two young children, Iseult and Gerard. She is proud to represent the people of Dublin Central where she has a reputation for hard work and championing the needs of her constituency both locally and nationally.. Prior to becoming Leader of Sinn Féin in February 2018 Mary Lou was Deputy Leader of the party. Following her election to the Dáil in 2011 Mary Lou was Sinn Féins Spokesperson for Public Expenditure and Reform and on her re-election in 2016 Sinn Féins All-Ireland Spokesperson for Mental Health and Suicide Prevention. She was a prominent member of the Public Accounts Committee between 2011 and 2017 holding Ministers and senior civil servants to account. She has also served on the Joint Oireachtas Committees for Public Expenditure and Reform and the Future of Mental Health.. She was an MEP for Dublin from 2004 to 2009 and ...
LONDON – The average expenditure of European travelers per visit to duty-free and duty paid airport retail outlets is USD 76 and USD 51 respectively. The average expenditure on food and beverages per visit to airport outlets is USD 14. Overall,...
Chart and table showing annual growth rate of motor gasoline production for Nigeria. Data obtained from the US Energy Information Administration.
Chart and table showing annual growth rate of hydroelectric power consumption for South America. Data obtained from the US Energy Information Administration.
... health expenditures; research objectives, and so on. Generally speaking, included within compulsory planning are state-owned ... Cui points to the Chongqing experience with municipal state-owned enterprises enabling high social expenditure alongside low ...
Health Department. Taxes and Assessments. the City Prison. Markets. City Ordinances. City Record. Rapid Transit. Brooklyn ... Municipal Expenditures. Claims and Litigations. State Taxes. Public Works. Central Park. Docks. Public Buildings. Police ...
"Public health expenditure". New Age. Retrieved 24 December 2020. "Role of consumption in economic development". New Age. ...
NYC Health. 2018. Retrieved March 2, 2019. "2016-2018 Community Health Assessment and Community Health Improvement Plan: Take ... "NYC Prison Expenditure". Table PL-P5 NTA: Total Population and Persons Per Acre - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas ... had 91,601 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 76.2 years. This is ... The nearest hospitals are NYC Health + Hospitals/Lincoln in Melrose and Bronx-Lebanon Hospital Center in Claremont. Morrisania ...
Ogbu, Osita; Gallagher, Mark (1992). "Public expenditures and health care in Africa". Social Science & Medicine. 34 (6): 615- ... Ogbu, Osita; Gallagher, Mark (1991). "On Public Expenditures and Delivery of Education inSub-Saharan Africa". Comparative ...
"National Health Expenditure Trends". Canadian Institute for Health Information. MacVicar, Adam (September 5, 2019). "Sales tax ... Per capita Health Care Expenditure in Alberta compared to the National Average, in 1997 constant dollars, 1975 to 2019 The ... As the report noted "Alberta's annual expenditures would be $10.4 billion less if its per capita spending simply matched the ... Graveland, Bill (September 3, 2019). "Alberta panel says savings to be found in health, education changes". Global News via ...
Prescription Utilization and Expenditures". Health Services Research. 45 (1): 133-51. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6773.2009.01065.x. PMC ... The expenditures for both groups tracked each other. Frank, Richard (January 2013). "Using Shared Savings to Foster Coordinated ... Dual-eligibles are often in poorer health and require more care compared with other Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries. ... Dual-eligibles make up 14% of Medicaid enrollment, yet they are responsible for approximately 36% of Medicaid expenditures. ...
This accounts for ~16% of yearly health expenditures. Canada had a pharmaceutical trade deficit of $8.5 billion in 2018 with ... Canada hosts several large public (Bausch Health) and private (Apotex) pharmaceutical companies as well as many subsidiaries ( ...
Government Expenditures and Health JEL: H52 - Government Expenditures and Education JEL: H53 - Government Expenditures and ... Health; Education; Welfare; Public Pensions JEL: H76 - State and Local Government: Other Expenditure Categories JEL: H77 - ... "The Pure Theory of Public Expenditure" Review of Economics and Statistics, XXXVI (1954), 387-89 [9] Tiebout, Charles M. "A Pure ... Abstract links for: • "market failure" by John O. Ledyard • "bureaucracy" by Mancur Olson • "health insurance, economics of" by ...
Public Service versus Private Expenditure. 12 pp. Sir Oliver Lodge.* 122. Municipal Milk and Public Health. 20 pp. F. Lawson ... What a Health Committee can do. 16 pp. Miss B.L. Hutchins. 149. The Endowment of Motherhood. 24 pp. Henry D. Harben. 150. State ...
Finance and Public Expenditure and Reform; Foreign Affairs; Health; Housing, Local Government and Heritage; Environment, ...
Poverty contributes to increased health expenditure. "It was estimated that in 2007, increasing the income of people in the ... Poverty is an independent risk factor and social determinant of health; the lower the income level the poorer the health ... Child Health. Paediatr Child Health. 12 (8): 701-706. doi:10.1093/pch/12.8.701. PMC 2528798. PMID 19030450. Retrieved 2014-02- ... lowest income quintile in Ontario to a level comparable to those in the second quintile would reduce health-care expenditures ...
Income and expenditure. Budget 2240-5908..........Revenue. Taxation. Internal revenue 2321-2323..........Tax incidence. Tax ... Health insurance 9651-9899..........Fire insurance 9956-9969..........Casualty insurance 9969.5-9999........Other insurance ( ... License fees 6603-7390.......... Customs administration 7461-7980..........Expenditures. Government spending 8001-8899 ...
Increasing health expenditures at the expense of the state budget; Radical pension reform aimed at increasing the "replacement ... Eliminating interregional differences in the accessibility of medical care and health development; Creating the only ...
May 2015). "National trends in prescription drug expenditures and projections for 2015". American Journal of Health-System ... The World Health Organization classifies piperacillin as critically important for human medicine. Piperacillin is used almost ... World Health Organization (2019). Critically important antimicrobials for human medicine (6th revision ed.). Geneva: World ... Piperacillin-tazobactam is recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence as initial empiric treatment ...
US health care expenditures totaled US$2.2 trillion in 2006. According to Health Affairs, US$7,498 be spent on every woman, man ... Acronyms in healthcare Big Pharma Health administration Health care Health policy Health sciences Health system Health ... Organization, World Health (2000). The World Health Report 2000: Health Systems : Improving Performance. World Health ... World Health Organization, 2009. World Health Organization. World Health Statistics 2011 - Table 6: Health workforce, ...
H50 General H51 Government Expenditures and Health H52 Government Expenditures and Education H53 Government Expenditures and ... Public Goods H89 Other I00 General I1 Health I10 General I11 Analysis of Health Care Markets I12 Health Behavior I13 Health ... and Expenditure • Money • Inflation P45 International Trade, Finance, Investment, and Aid P46 Consumer Economics • Health • ... Health • Education • Welfare • Public Pensions H76 State and Local Government: Other Expenditure Categories H77 ...
From 2008 to 2016, he also served on the Doctoral Faculty in Public Health at the Graduate Center of CUNY. Parsons was Founding ... NIH RePORTER - NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools Expenditures and Results". projectreporter.nih.gov. Retrieved 2017 ... "Young Men's Health Project - Best Evidence (Risk Reduction)" (PDF). www.cdc.gov. October 13, 2017. "Complete , Risk Reduction ... "Health Psychology and Clinical Science Doctoral Program". www.cunyhpcs.org. Retrieved 2017-10-13. "Behavioral and Social ...
Fractures increase treatment costs associated with health care expenditures in PD. Also, when gait is affected it often heralds ...
"Post-marketing observational trials and catastrophic health expenditure". British Medical Journal. 344: e3987. doi:10.1136/bmj. ... "Health statistics and health information systems: DALY". World Health Organization. Retrieved 11 March 2013. World Health ... "World Health Organization. Global Health Estimates 2015: Disease burden by Cause, Age, Sex, by Country and by Region, 2000-2015 ... World Health Organization. "Medicines in Health Systems" (PDF). WHO. Retrieved 27 October 2015. Access to Medicine Foundation ...
Chandra, Amitabh; Jonathan Skinner (2012). "Technology Growth and Expenditure Growth in Health Care". Journal of Economic ... He is known for his research on health care spending. He has been a member of the National Academy of Medicine (formerly known ... Abelson, Reed; Harris, Gardiner (2010-06-02). "Data Used to Justify Health Savings Effort Is Sometimes Shaky". The New York ... Jonathan Snowden Skinner is an American health economist and the James O. Freedman Presidential Professor in Economics at ...
"Health Expenditure Trends in New Zealand 2000-2010". Health.govt.nz. Retrieved 24 January 2018. "Household income and housing- ... In 2011 Health spending accounted for 10% of GDP, higher than the OECD average of 9.3%. As in many OECD countries, health ... This exacerbates a multitude of health and social problems such as high infant mortality, obesity, teenage pregnancy, crime and ... "Suicide Facts: Deaths and intentional self-harm hospitalisations 2012". Health.govt.nz. Retrieved 24 January 2018. Ballard, ...
"Boyd Orr Centre for Population and Ecosystem Health". Boyd Orr, J; Cathcart, E.P. (1919). The energy expenditure of infantry ... 1934). The National Food Supply and Its Influence on Public Health. London: King. ------ (1936). Food, Health and Income. ... His 1936 report "Food, Health and Income" showed that at least one third of the UK population were so poor that they could not ... The University of Glasgow has a Boyd Orr Building and the Boyd Orr Centre for Population and Ecosystem Health named after him, ...
Australian Government Department of Health. Retrieved 2019-05-24. Health, Australian Government Department of (2019-02-06). " ... In 2010, over two thirds of illicit drug expenditure was spent on law enforcement. In an assessment of the impact of drug use ... This combination of judiciary and health in drug policy was considered a positive and radical step, especially in contrast to ... The collection is supervised by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) in conjunction with the Department of ...
"Health Expenditure Trends in New Zealand 2000-2010". "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. ... In 2011 Health spending accounted for 10% of GDP, higher than the OECD average of 9.3%. As in many OECD countries, health ... This exacerbates a multitude of health and social problems such as high infant mortality, obesity, teenage pregnancy, crime and ... "Suicide Facts: 2015 data". Ministry of Health NZ. Retrieved 2018-12-24. Ballard, Keith (2003-10-14). "Inclusion, exclusion, ...
1,100 billion for defence expenditures; a ten percent hike in salaries and pensions of civil and military employees; a health ... 25 billion were allocated for the health and medical sector under the Public Sector Development Programme, which would include ...
"Neonatal abstinence syndrome and associated health care expenditures: United States, 2000-2009". JAMA. 307 (18): 1934-40. doi: ... Women can discuss all medicines, and alcohol and tobacco use with their health-care provider and get assistance to help stop ... Drug and alcohol use during pregnancy can lead to many health problems in the fetus and baby, Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome(NAS ... "Default - Stanford Children's Health". Siu A, Robinson CA (July 2014). "Neonatal abstinence syndrome: essentials for the ...
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute. p. 684. Biener, L.; ... Expenditures on nicotine marketing are in the tens of billions a year; in the US alone, spending was over US$1 million per hour ... Counter-marketing is also used, mostly by public health groups and governments. The addictiveness and health effects of ... "Health and the Mass Media - Tobacco" at the School of Public Health, University of Sydney "Tobacco advertising" at Tobacco ...
About 70% of a human's total energy expenditure is due to the basal life processes taking place in the organs of the body (see ... The majority of studies that are published on this topic look at aerobic exercise because of its efficacy for health and weight ... Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest. It is reported in ... According to this formula, if the woman in the example has a body fat percentage of 30%, her Resting Daily Energy Expenditure ( ...
From 1988 Health Authorities met the cost of expenditure. Subsequently costs were transferred to NHS trusts. New regulations ... Manchester Health Authority produced a report on the working of the scheme in Greater Manchester in 1997. They found a wide ... The Hospital Travel Costs Scheme was established in the British National Health Service in 1988. Patients and their children in ... The legal basis was the National Health Service (Travelling Expenses and Remission of Charges) Regulations SI no 551 of 1988. ...
"Journal of Health Services Research & Policy. 18 (3): 182-185. doi:10.1177/1355819613476017. PMC 4107840. PMID 23595575.. ... program expenditures were made in European Currency Units; from FP6 onward budgets were in Euros. The values presented below ...
The expenditure per pupil and the student-teacher ratio were the best of any major school district in the nation. Many high ... DeBakey High School for Health Professions in Houston, Texas is a magnet school specializing in medical sciences ...
National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), National Institutes of Health (NIH), US Dept. of Health and ... The use of alternative medicine in the US has increased,[10][143] with a 50 percent increase in expenditures and a 25 percent ... National Health Service in England (NHS), UK Dept. of Health. Archived from the original on 2013-04-03. Retrieved 2013-03-11.. ... According to mental health journalist Scott Lilienfeld in 2002, "unvalidated or scientifically unsupported mental health ...
Oregon Medicaid health experiment and controversy[edit]. Main article: Oregon Medicaid health experiment ... If the federal match expenditure is also counted, the program, on average, takes up 22% of each state's budget.[83][84] Some 43 ... "Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Offer Free Or Low-Cost Health Coverage To Children And Families" ( ... The lottery enabled studies to accurately measure the impact of health insurance on an individual's health and eliminate ...
Government Expenditures and Health. JEL: H52 - Government Expenditures and Education. JEL: H53 - Government Expenditures and ... JEL: I1 - Health JEL: I10 - Geral. JEL: I11 - Analysis of Health Care Markets. JEL: I12 - Health Production: Nutrition, ... JEL: K32 - Environmental, Health, and Safety Law. JEL: K33 - International Law. JEL: K34 - Tax Law. JEL: K35 - Personal ... JEL: I18 - Government Policy; Regulation; Public health. JEL: I19 - Outros. JEL: I2 - Education ...
Approximately 70% of health expenditures came from out-of-pocket contributions. Government allocation for health care was ... The demand for health services is further lowered by the lack of health education. Reproductive health care is neglected, ... Rural health facilities often lack adequate funding. In 2003, Nepal had ten health centers, 83 hospitals, 700 health posts, and ... Nepal Health Profile World Health Organisation data (2010) "Health for all". My Republica. Archived from the original on 9 ...
Health sector expenditureEdit. In 1998 national health expenditure amounted to US$62,000 million, which corresponded to nearly ... which assigns specific responsibilities to the health and agriculture sectors. In the health sector, health inspection ... Health sector reformEdit. The current legal provisions governing the operation of the health system, instituted in 1996, seek ... National health policies and plans: The national health policy is based on the Federal Constitution of 1988, which sets out the ...
By late 2012 expenditures for Berlin Brandenburg Airport totalled €4.3 billion, more than half as much again as the originally ... citing health concerns.[127] ...
Research expenditures at Ohio State were $720 million in 2007. In 2006, Ohio State announced it would designate at least $110 ... Services supporting student wellness include the Wilce Student Health Center, named for university physician John Wilce, The ... Ohio State's research expenditures for 2006 were $652 million, placing it 7th among public universities and 11th overall, also ...
Health conditions, which are generally seen as being worse in the north,[3][4] though spending on health care is higher [5] ... Government expenditure per person, which is higher (both in gross terms and relative to tax revenues), in the North than the ... For example, a report in 2001 found that North East England, North West England and Scotland had poorer health levels than ... "Is there a north-south divide in social class inequalities in health in Great Britain? Cross sectional study using data from ...
The UK agreed to pay for defence expenditures over and above the amount that India had paid in peacetime (adjusted for ... the crisis overwhelmed the provision of health care and key supplies: food relief and medical rehabilitation were supplied too ... These enormous public expenditures increased demand, leading to price inflation across India, especially in Bengal.[81] ... printing the currency that paid for all these massive defence expenditures. The tremendous rise in nominal money supply coupled ...
"Whale poop pumps up ocean health". 12 October 2010. Retrieved 18 November 2011.. ... "Whale Watching Worldwide: tourism numbers, expenditures and expanding economic benefits" (PDF). International Fund for Animal ... blind sperm whales have been caught in perfect health. The behaviour of Kogiids remains largely unknown, but, due to their ...
Spencer RL, Hutchison KE (1999). "Alcohol, aging, and the stress response". Alcohol Research & Health. 23 (4): 272-83. PMID ... and energy storage and expenditure. It is the common mechanism for interactions among glands, hormones, and parts of the ... promoting positive health effects such as wound healing.[17] ... Mind-Body-Health.net page on HPA axis. *HPA Axis: Explanation ... "A Possible Change Process of Inflammatory Cytokines in the prolonged Chronic Stress and its Ultimate Implications for Health" ...
Rein, DB (13 December 2013). "Vision problems are a leading source of modifiable health expenditures". Investigative ... a b c World Health Organization[full citation needed] *^ a b Kirchner, C., Stephen, G. & Chandu, F. (1987). "Estimated 1987 ... a b c Morello, C. M. "Etiology and Natural History of Diabetic Retinopathy: An Overview." American Journal of Health-System ... Health effectsEdit. Visual impairments may take many forms and be of varying degrees. Visual acuity alone is not always a good ...
Lifetime Medical Costs of Obesity: Prevention No Cure for Increasing Health Expenditure. PLoS Med. (Comparative Study). 2008-02 ... Breslow L. Public Health Aspects of Weight Control. Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1952-09, 42 (9): 1116-20. PMC 1526346. ... 英國皇家內科醫學院、公共衛生學院(英语:Faculty of Public Health)與皇家兒科暨兒童健康學院(英语:Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health)於2004年發表《堆積如山的問題》( ... National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence(NICE).
Economic analysis can be applied throughout society, in real estate,[6] business,[7] finance, health care[8], engineering[9] ... Fiscal policy (e.g., tax cut and/or government expenditure increase) has a significant stimulative impact on a less than fully ... Tarricone, Rosanna (2006). "Cost-of-illness analysis". Health Policy. 77 (1): 51-63. doi:10.1016/j.healthpol.2005.07.016. PMID ... Public finance is the field of economics that deals with budgeting the revenues and expenditures of a public sector entity, ...
World Health Organization. Retrieved 26 January 2020.. . *^ For example: Nicholls, Andrew D. (1999). "Kings, Courtiers, and ... 8 April 2009). "Measuring Rates of Return for Lobbying Expenditures: An Empirical Case Study of Tax Breaks for Multinational ... Public health must also contend with Big Food, Big Soda, and Big Alcohol. All of these industries fear regulation, and protect ... In 2013, the director general of the World Health Organization, Margaret Chan, illustrated the methods used in lobbying against ...
Total health expenditure per capita 2,475 (Intl $) 2014 Total health expenditure as % of GDP 11.1 2014 ... National Health Systems of the World: The issues.. *^ Pan American Health Organization, Health situation in the Americas: Basic ... a b c The impact of the economic crisis and the US embargo on health in Cuba. American journal of public health. 1997 January. ... Health tourism[edit]. Cuba attracts about 20,000[64] paying health tourists, generating revenues of around $40 million a year ...
"Facilities spending" - the average expenditure per student on sports, careers services, health and counselling; ... "Academic services spend" (weight 0.5) - the expenditure per student on all academic services (data source: Higher Education ... "Library and computing spending" - the average expenditure on library and computer services per student (data source: HESA); ... "Facilities spend" (weight 0.5) - the expenditure per student on staff and student facilities (data source: HESA); ...
Audit of expenditures[edit]. The Department of State's independent auditors are Kearney & Company.[45] Since in FY 2009 Kearney ... Office of the United States Global AIDS Coordinator and Health Diplomacy. *Office of Global Partnerships ... Expenditures[edit]. In FY 2010 the Department of State, together with 'Other International Programs' (for example, USAID), had ...
The Expenditure Review Committee (ERC) considers matters of regarding expenditure and revenue of the Australian federal budget ... the Minister for Health, the Minister for Education and Training, the Cabinet Secretary, and the Assistant Minister for Health ... the Minister for Health, the Cabinet Secretary, the Minister for Education and Training, the Minister for the Environment and ... the Minister for Health, the Cabinet Secretary, the Minister for Revenue and Financial Services, the Minister for Human ...
Mental health impact[edit]. Living near urban forests have shown positive impacts on mental health. As an experimental mental ... Quantification of the economic benefits of trees helps justify public and private expenditures to maintain them. One of the ... Community health impact[edit]. Urban forests offer many benefits to their surrounding communities. Removing pollutants and ... Most particulate pollution begins as smoke or diesel soot and can cause serious health risk to people with heart and lung ...
"National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 2015-03-16.. *^ "Project Information". National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 2015- ... "NSF Award Search: Award#0343917 - Homeostatic and Circadian Control of Energy Expenditure". National Science Foundation.. ... and the National Institutes of Health.[18][19][20] According to Google Scholar,[21] his four most cited articles as of January ...
... although this must be applied for separately from the Health Service Executive) which provides free health care, optical care, ... A high unemployment rate shrinks UI tax revenues and increases expenditures on benefits. State UI finances and the need for ... Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) - This institution insures workers in the formal sector, providing pensions and health ... The Cabinet Papers 1915-1982: National Health Insurance Act 1911. The National Archives, 2013. Retrieved 30 June 2013. ...
"Green Party leader Natalie Bennett: Drugs misuse a 'health issue' not a 'criminal one'". ITV.com. ITV News. 1 December 2014. ... 770,495 with expenditure of £889,867.[127] Membership increased rapidly in 2014, more than doubling in that year.[128] On 15 ... The green quality of life guarantee addresses social issues such as housing, the National Health Service, education, ... as well as offering a place for drug users to access health and treatment services.[101] The party supports devolving the ...
OOP can be reduced only by increasing public expenditure on health and by setting up widespread public health service providers ... The expenditure on health should increased to 2.5 per cent of GDP by the end of Twelfth Five Year Plan. Financial and ... Health sector expenditure by central government and state government, both plan and non-plan, will have to be substantially ... ISBN 978-1-137-49661-4. "Health expenditure, total (% of GDP)". World Bank. Retrieved 1 April 2015. Rieff, David (11 October ...
HBN is a network of green building professionals, environmental and health activists, socially responsible investment advocates ... a higher rate than from any other household expenditure. ILSR testified before a utility regulatory commission in favor of ... and others who promote healthier building materials as a means of improving public health and preserving the global environment ...
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975-2007 Archived February 14, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Canadian Institute for Health ... G20 Health Care: "Health Care Systems and Health Market Reform in the G20 Countries." Prepared for the World Economic Forum by ... 4 2008; Finland health system review" (PDF). Retrieved January 9, 2015.. *^ a b c d Järvelin, Jutta (2002). "Health Care ... Main article: Health in Hong Kong. Hong Kong has early health education, professional health services, and well-developed ...
World Health Organization. Retrieved 24 January 2019.. *^ a b c Jawdat O, Statland JM, Barohn RJ, Katz JS, Dimachkie MM ( ... increased resting energy expenditure, and decreased food intake. Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) develops in about 85% of ... Youngson, David B. Jacoby, Robert M. (2004). Encyclopedia of family health (3rd ed.). Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish. p. ... People with ALS who have difficulty speaking may benefit from working with a speech-language pathologist.[100] These health ...
Comprehensive school students enjoy a number of social entitlements, such as school health care and a free lunch every day, ... Current expenditure on the regular education system remained unchanged in 2016. Statistics Finland. ... Tuition is free, and vocational and academic students are entitled to school health care and a free lunch. However, they ... but membership is voluntary and does not include special university student health care (which is organised and partly financed ...
Surveys & Data ChartCart Total National Health Exp... Total National Health Expenditures, $1.88 Trillion. Items in My ChartCart ... Harkness Fellowships in Health Care Policy and Practice * Association of Health Care Journalists Reporting Fellowships on ... The mission of The Commonwealth Fund is to promote a high-performing health care system that achieves better access, improved ... FEATURED:By Reducing the Income of Poorer Americans, the Senate Tax Bill May Worsen Health Outcomes ...
... was 12 Percent of Health Expenditure. Discover more data with NationMaster! ... How does Thailand rank in Out-Of-Pocket Health Expenditure?. #. 192 Countries. Percent of Health Expenditure. Last. YoY. 5‑ ... Percent of Health Expenditure - 1995 to 2014. Since 2009, Thailand Out-Of-Pocket Health Expenditure decreased by 5points year ... the country was number 158 among other countries in Out-Of-Pocket Health Expenditure at 11.92 Percent of Health Expenditure. ...
The level of public health spending is very low in the state, both as a ratio within the state budget and as a proportion to ... expenditure in Maharashtra shows that the State has to become more proactive in raising resources being allocated to the health ... This analysis of the trends in public health ... health finances; public health expenditure; public health ... "Declining Trends in Public Health Expenditure in Maharashtra," Working Papers id:818, eSocialSciences. ...
As always, the CIHI provides a wealth of health data and information... ... The Canadian Institute for Health Information has released the latest version of its annual report on public and private health ... expenditure at both the provincial and federal levels. ... New CIHI National Health Expenditure Numbers Out. The Canadian ... Provincial/territorial per capita health expenditures vary. * In 2016, total health expenditure per capita is expected to range ...
This chapter explores the factors associated with the growth of total health expenditure, in addition to its main components, ... Health Expenditure: Short and Long-Term Relations in Latin America, 1995-2010: 10.4018/IJPHIM.2015070102: ... government health expenditure and out-of-pocket payments. Results suggest that health expenditure in general does not grow ... "Health Expenditure: Short and Long-Term Relations in Latin America, 1995-2010," International Journal of Privacy and Health ...
Department of Public Health *No cost or low cost adult vaccinations may be available., Health outcomes and costs after PHiD-CV ... statistics on Total Vaccine expenditure as of Health Expenditures: DHS = Department of Health Services DPH = ... The percentage expenditure on personnel .... Table 2.1 Planned Mid-Term Expenditure Framework for health Planned expenditure ... Planned Mid-Term Expenditure Framework for health Planned expenditure www.hrh-observatory.afro.who.int/images/Document_Centre/ ...
Total domestic health expenditure was $68 620 million in the fiscal year 2001/02. In real terms, expenditure grew at an average ... Expenditure incurred at providers of ambulatory services and hospitals accounted for more than 70% of total health expenditure ... Domestic health expenditure in Hong Kong: 1989/90 to 2001/02. GM Leung, KYK Tin, RYT Yeung, R Rannan-Eliya, ESK Leung, DWS Lam ... To estimate the total domestic health expenditure in Hong Kong between fiscal years 1989/90 and 2001/02, with breakdown by ...
Niger - Public Expenditure Tracking Survey : Education and Health - Main Report. cb ... in public spending execution for selected expenditures in the education and health sectors. The medium to long term goal of ... in public spending execution for selected expenditures in the education and health sectors. The medium to long term goal of ... Niger - Public Expenditure Tracking Survey : Education and Health - Main Report. World Bank. © World Bank. https:// ...
Total national health expenditures: $3.5 trillion (2017). *Total national health expenditures as a percent of Gross Domestic ... Percent of national health expenditures for hospital care: 32.7% (2017). *Percent of national health expenditures for nursing ... Percent of national health expenditures for prescription drugs: 9.5% (2017). Source: Health, United States, 2018, table 43 pdf ... Health Care and Insuranceplus icon *Access to Health Care. * Ambulatory and Hospital Careplus icon *Ambulatory Care Use and ...