The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
An acute or prolonged illness usually considered to be life-threatening or with the threat of serious residual disability. Treatment may be radical and is frequently costly.
Insurance providing a broad range of medical services and supplies, when prescribed by a physician, whether or not the patient is hospitalized. It frequently is an extension of a basic policy and benefits will not begin until the basic policy is exhausted.
Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.
Value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year.
Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.
Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.
An increase in the volume of money and credit relative to available goods resulting in a substantial and continuing rise in the general price level.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
All organized methods of funding.
The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.
Methods of generating, allocating, and using financial resources in healthcare systems.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Size and composition of the family.
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.
Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.
City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.
Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.
Management of public health organizations or agencies.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Organized services to provide mental health care.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The status of health in rural populations.
The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.
A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
The status of health in urban populations.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.
Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.
Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.
The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.
Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)
Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.
The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).
Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.
Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.
Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.
Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.
The consumption of edible substances.
Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.
Freedom from activity.
Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)
A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.
Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.
Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.
Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.
The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.
Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.
Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.
The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.

Risk-adjusted capitation based on the Diagnostic Cost Group Model: an empirical evaluation with health survey information. (1/1821)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive accuracy of the Diagnostic Cost Group (DCG) model using health survey information. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Longitudinal data collected for a sample of members of a Dutch sickness fund. In the Netherlands the sickness funds provide compulsory health insurance coverage for the 60 percent of the population in the lowest income brackets. STUDY DESIGN: A demographic model and DCG capitation models are estimated by means of ordinary least squares, with an individual's annual healthcare expenditures in 1994 as the dependent variable. For subgroups based on health survey information, costs predicted by the models are compared with actual costs. Using stepwise regression procedures a subset of relevant survey variables that could improve the predictive accuracy of the three-year DCG model was identified. Capitation models were extended with these variables. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: For the empirical analysis, panel data of sickness fund members were used that contained demographic information, annual healthcare expenditures, and diagnostic information from hospitalizations for each member. In 1993, a mailed health survey was conducted among a random sample of 15,000 persons in the panel data set, with a 70 percent response rate. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The predictive accuracy of the demographic model improves when it is extended with diagnostic information from prior hospitalizations (DCGs). A subset of survey variables further improves the predictive accuracy of the DCG capitation models. The predictable profits and losses based on survey information for the DCG models are smaller than for the demographic model. Most persons with predictable losses based on health survey information were not hospitalized in the preceding year. CONCLUSIONS: The use of diagnostic information from prior hospitalizations is a promising option for improving the demographic capitation payment formula. This study suggests that diagnostic information from outpatient utilization is complementary to DCGs in predicting future costs.  (+info)

Screening Mammography Program of British Columbia: pattern of use and health care system costs. (2/1821)

BACKGROUND: The use of mammography for screening asymptomatic women has increased dramatically in the past decade. This report describes the changes that have occurred in the use of bilateral mammography in British Columbia since the provincial breast cancer screening program began in 1988. METHODS: Using province-wide databases from both the breast cancer screening program and the provincial health insurance plan in BC, the authors determined the number and costs of bilateral mammography services for women aged 40 years or older between Apr. 1, 1986, and Mar. 31, 1997. Unilateral mammography was excluded because it is used for investigating symptomatic disease and screening abnormalities, and for follow-up of women who have undergone mastectomy for cancer. RESULTS: As the provincial breast cancer screening program expanded from 1 site in 1988 to 23 in 1997, it provided an increasing proportion of the bilateral mammographic examinations carried out each year in BC. In fiscal year 1996/97, 65% of bilateral mammographic examinations were performed through the screening program. The cost per examination within the screening program dropped as volume increased. Thirty percent more bilateral mammography examinations were done in 1996/97 than in 1991/92, but health care system expenditures for these services increased by only 4% during the same period. In calendar year 1996, 21% of new breast cancers were diagnosed as a result of a screening program visit. INTERPRETATION: Substantial increases in health care expenditures have been avoided by shifting bilateral mammography services to the provincial screening program, which has a lower cost per screening visit.  (+info)

The economic burden of asthma: direct and indirect costs in Switzerland. (3/1821)

Asthma mortality increased in Switzerland between 1980 and 1994. This study aimed to assess the economic burden of asthma in this country. Chart reviews were conducted for the last five patients seen for asthma in physician practices in 1996 and 1997. Direct expenditures and indirect costs for asthma-related morbidity were determined. A total of 589 patient charts were completely analysed, including 117 children's charts, obtained from 120 office-based physicians. The annual direct medical costs were CHF 1,778 and the mean annual indirect costs were CHF 1,019 per patient for all patients. The total estimated cost of asthma in Switzerland in 1997 was nearly CHF 1,252 million. Direct medical expenditures approached CHF 762 million, or 61% of the total. In 1997, the indirect costs for asthma were estimated to have exceeded CHF 490 million. Of these costs CHF 123 million (25%) was associated with morbidity and nearly CHF 368 million (75%) was associated with looking after asthmatic patients who had to be cared for at home. This study provides evidence that asthma is a major healthcare cost factor in Switzerland, amounting to approximately CHF 1,200 million per year. The data suggest that cost savings can be achieved by improving primary care for asthma in an ambulatory setting.  (+info)

Health expenditure and finance: who gets what? (4/1821)

The methods used in South Africa's first comprehensive review of health finance and expenditure are outlined. Special measures were adopted to make the process acceptable to all concerned during a period of profound political transition. The estimation of indicators of access to public sector resources for districts sorted by per capita income allowed the health care problems of disadvantaged communities to be highlighted.  (+info)

Light on population health status. (5/1821)

A new approach to illustrating and analysing health status is presented which allows comparisons of various aspects of health in a population at different times and in different populations during given periods. Both quantitative and qualitative elements can be represented, the impact of interventions can be monitored, and the extent to which objectives are achieved can be assessed. The practical application of the approach is demonstrated with reference to the health profiles to Tunisia in 1966 and 1994.  (+info)

Explaining the decline in health insurance coverage, 1979-1995. (6/1821)

The decline in health insurance coverage among workers from 1979 to 1995 can be accounted for almost entirely by the fact that per capita health care spending rose much more rapidly than personal income during this time period. We simulate health insurance coverage levels for 1996-2005 under alternative assumptions concerning the rate of growth of spending. We conclude that reduction in spending growth creates measurable increases in health insurance coverage for low-income workers and that the rapid increase in health care spending over the past fifteen years has created a large pool of low-income workers for whom health insurance is unaffordable.  (+info)

Cost of tax-exempt health benefits in 1998. (7/1821)

The tax expenditure for health benefits is the amount of revenues that the federal government forgoes by exempting the following from the federal income and Social Security taxes: (1) employer health benefits contribution, (2) health spending under flexible spending plans, and (3) the tax deduction for health expenses. The health tax expenditure was $111.2 billion in 1998. This figure varied from $2,357 per family among those with annual incomes of $100,000 or more to $71 per family among those with annual incomes of less than $15,000. Families with incomes of $100,000 or more (10 percent of the population) accounted for 23.6 percent of all tax expenditures.  (+info)

Who bears the burden of Medicaid drug copayment policies? (8/1821)

This DataWatch examines the impact of Medicaid prescription drug copayment policies in thirty-eight states using survey data from the 1992 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. Findings indicate that elderly and disabled Medicaid recipients who reside in states with copay provisions have significantly lower rates of drug use than their counterparts in states without copayments. After controlling for other factors, we find that the primary effect of copayments is to reduce the likelihood that Medicaid recipients fill any prescription during the year. This burden falls disproportionately on recipients in poor health.  (+info)

In the medical field, a catastrophic illness is a severe and often life-threatening condition that requires extensive medical treatment and can result in significant long-term disability or death. Catastrophic illnesses can be acute or chronic and may affect any part of the body. Examples of catastrophic illnesses include cancer, heart disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Lou Gehrig's disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), and severe traumatic brain injury. These illnesses can be expensive to treat, and the financial burden can be overwhelming for individuals and families. In some countries, catastrophic illnesses are covered by government health insurance programs or private insurance policies that provide comprehensive coverage for medical expenses related to these conditions.

Obesity is a medical condition characterized by an excessive accumulation of body fat, which increases the risk of various health problems. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines obesity as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher, where BMI is calculated as a person's weight in kilograms divided by their height in meters squared. Obesity is a complex condition that results from a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. It can lead to a range of health problems, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, certain types of cancer, and respiratory problems. In the medical field, obesity is often treated through a combination of lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and medical interventions, such as medications or bariatric surgery. The goal of treatment is to help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight, reduce their risk of health problems, and improve their overall quality of life.

In the medical field, body weight refers to the total mass of an individual's body, typically measured in kilograms (kg) or pounds (lbs). It is an important indicator of overall health and can be used to assess a person's risk for certain health conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Body weight is calculated by measuring the amount of mass that a person's body contains, which includes all of the organs, tissues, bones, and fluids. It is typically measured using a scale or other weighing device, and can be influenced by factors such as age, gender, genetics, and lifestyle. Body weight can be further categorized into different types, such as body mass index (BMI), which takes into account both a person's weight and height, and waist circumference, which measures the size of a person's waist. These measures can provide additional information about a person's overall health and risk for certain conditions.

In the medical field, oxygen isotopes refer to the different forms of the element oxygen that have different atomic weights due to the presence of different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei. The most common oxygen isotopes are oxygen-16, oxygen-17, and oxygen-18. Oxygen-16 is the most abundant and is the form of oxygen that is found in the air we breathe. Oxygen-17 and oxygen-18 are less abundant and are often used in medical research and diagnostic imaging. Oxygen isotopes can be used to study the metabolism and function of various organs and tissues in the body, and can also be used to diagnose and treat certain medical conditions.

In the medical field, mental disorders are conditions that affect a person's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, causing significant distress or impairment in daily functioning. Mental disorders are diagnosed based on a set of criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is published by the American Psychiatric Association. The DSM-5 categorizes mental disorders into several broad categories, including: 1. Anxiety disorders: conditions characterized by excessive fear or worry, such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder. 2. Mood disorders: conditions characterized by significant changes in mood, such as major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and dysthymia. 3. Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders: conditions characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking, and abnormal behavior, such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and delusional disorder. 4. Neurodevelopmental disorders: conditions that begin in childhood and affect cognitive and social development, such as autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 5. Personality disorders: conditions characterized by enduring patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that deviate from societal norms and cause significant distress or impairment, such as borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. 6. Substance-related and addictive disorders: conditions characterized by the use of substances or behaviors that cause significant impairment in daily functioning, such as alcohol use disorder, opioid use disorder, and gambling disorder. 7. Eating disorders: conditions characterized by abnormal eating behaviors that cause significant distress or impairment, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Mental disorders can be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors, and they can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. Treatment for mental disorders typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes.

Health expenditure per capita and Health expenditure in relation to GDP. Health system Health systems by country List of ... List of countries by quality of health care List of OECD health expenditure by country by type of financing Health expenditure ... Global Health Expenditure Database. Data Explorer. World Health Organization. Set up a table by selecting options in the left ... Total expenditure includes both public and private expenditures. See also: Health spending as percent of gross domestic product ...
Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditure. It covers the provision of health services ( ... This is a list of OECD nations, and their health expenditure by type of financing. Public health expenditure consists of ... Health expenditure by financing scheme , Health at a Glance 2019 : OECD Indicators.From the OECD iLibrary. Scroll down to the ... Table is initially in descending order by the percentage of health expenditure paid by the government. OECD36 average is for ...
Journal of Sport and Health Science. 5 (2): 151-154. doi:10.1016/j.jshs.2016.04.001. Christoffersen, Berit Østergaard; Sanchez‐ ... Energy expenditure, often estimated as the total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), is the amount of energy burned by the human ... Losing or gaining weight affects the energy expenditure. Reduced energy expenditure after weight loss can be a major challenge ... Other drugs such as atypical antipsychotics are believed to reduce energy expenditure. Energy expenditure is a leading factor ...
Health received, before the approval of the PEC, 18% of the minimum annual tax revenue, being an area with little political ... The Expenditure Cap Amendment has divided opinions and generated controversy among experts and activists linked to social ... According to the note, the population would be affected by a likely reduction in public services in the areas of health and ... In the year 2017, there were no changes for the areas of Health and Education. Both areas had a mandatory minimum spending ...
The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey is commonly the subject of analysis in articles on health policy and health services in ... Children's Health, Chronic Conditions, Health Insurance, Health Disparities, Women's Health, Prescription Drugs, Individuals ... "Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Topics". 2009-10-05. Retrieved 2017-07-07. "Medical Expenditure Panel Survey ... is a family of surveys intended to provide nationally representative estimates of health expenditure, utilization, payment ...
... health expenditures; research objectives, and so on. Generally speaking, included within compulsory planning are state-owned ... Cui points to the Chongqing experience with municipal state-owned enterprises enabling high social expenditure alongside low ...
Health Department. Taxes and Assessments. the City Prison. Markets. City Ordinances. City Record. Rapid Transit. Brooklyn ... Municipal Expenditures. Claims and Litigations. State Taxes. Public Works. Central Park. Docks. Public Buildings. Police ...
"OECD Health Expenditures". OECD. Retrieved 26 October 2019. Allan Mitchell, The Divided Path: The German Influence on Social ... The French health care system is one of universal health care largely financed by government national health insurance. In its ... The 2001 Social Security Funding Act, set the rates for health insurance covering the statutory health care plan at 5.25% on ... List of hospitals in France Minister of Health (France) Social security in France "World Health Organization Assesses the ...
Gray, Greta (1934). "The Skin, Clothing, and Health". The Journal of Health and Physical Education. 5 (10): 30-46. doi:10.1080/ ... Gray, Greta; Wolfe, Violet (1933). "Food Expenditures of Seven Industrial Families in Los Angeles". Social Science. 8 (1): 34- ... In 1926, she attended and received a Doctor of Philosophy in Public Health from Yale University. After receiving her Master of ... Gray also published many journal articles that span the subjects of housing needs, clothing, and overall health. Perhaps the ...
"Health Expenditures Indicator". "Girls' Primary Education Completion Rate Indicator". "Girls' Secondary Education Enrollment ... "Child Health Indicator". "Inflation Indicator". "Trade Policy Indicator". "Land Rights and Access Indicator". "Regulatory ... ". "Primary Education Expenditures Indicator". "Natural Resource Protection". Millennium Challenge Corporation. " ...
... and Executive Expenditures. Her health, however, had begun to fail in the spring of 1925, and she returned to her parents' home ...
... health care and K12 education represent California's largest expenditures of state funds. The largest health care expenditure ... In addition, health care spending is focused on women's health services, treatment for addiction, and dentistry. As Table 1 ... Healthcare: Medicare (health insurance for the elderly) and Medicaid (health insurance for low-income individuals). Income ... "State and Local Expenditures". Urban Institute. 2011. Retrieved 2018-02-26. "U.S. Spends Less as Other Nations Invest More in ...
"Obesity and health expenditures. Evidence from Australia". Economics and Human Biology. 17: 42-58. doi:10.1016/j.ehb.2015.01. ... A recent study reported that based on figures from the National Health Survey and/or Australian Health Survey the prevalence of ... In the National Health Survey, obesity reports were fairly common across the board, with no major outliers. Victoria had the ... Health issues such as heart disease, obesity, and diabetes have lowered the life expectancy for Aboriginal Australians to 17 ...
1,100 billion for defence expenditures; a ten percent hike in salaries and pensions of civil and military employees; a health ... 25 billion were allocated for the health and medical sector under the Public Sector Development Programme, which would include ...
National health expenditures summary (Report). Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. 2010-09-27. Archived from the original ... National Health Insurance has two categories: National Health Insurance for each city, town or village National Health ... Health Insurance is broken down into the following systems: Union Managed Health Insurance Government Managed Health Insurance ... National health expenditures rose from about 1 trillion yen in 1965 to nearly 20 trillion yen in 1989, or from slightly more ...
"Table 1 National Health Expenditures". Retrieved December 5, 2018. McWilliams, J. Michael; Chernew, Michael E.; ... Emanuel and health economist Victor R. Fuchs defined unnecessary health care as "overutilization", health care provided with a ... Unnecessary health care (overutilization, overuse, or overtreatment) is health care provided with a higher volume or cost than ... Walshe K, Shortell SM (2004). "When things go wrong: how health care organizations deal with major failures". Health Aff ( ...
"Table 1 National Health Expenditures". Retrieved 2018-12-05. "All Choosing Wisely Recommendations" (PDF). ... The charter states that physicians have a responsibility to promote health equity when some health resources are scarce. As a ... Wang, Shirley S. (20 February 2013). "Group Urges Health-Test Curbs". The Wall Street Journal. New York: Dow Jones. ISSN 0099- ... Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the ABIM Foundation (American Board of Internal ...
National Government Expenditures and Health ; State and Local Government: Health; Education; Welfare; Public Pensions ; Health ... health care and tax returns. They can also access governmental data that were not previously available.[example needed] ... Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health Wilkesmann, Uwe (December 2013). "Effects of Transactional and Transformational ...
"OECD Factbook 2011-2012 (see Health -> Health Expenditure)". OECD Publishing. 2012. Archived from the original on 23 August ... In 2018, health and medical care represented around 11% of GDP. Children aged 1-5 years old are guaranteed a place in a public ... On health care, the country spent 10.0% of its total GDP, the 12th highest. Historically, Sweden provided solid support for ... The health care system in Sweden is financed primarily through taxes levied by regional councils and municipalities. A total of ...
Total expenditures on health care in 2002 constituted 3.7 percent of gross domestic product. In that same year, the per capita ... Total expenditures on health care in 2014 constituted 5.64% of gross domestic product. In the same year, the per capita ... Health care services are particularly scarce in rural areas. Only 25 percent of rural areas are covered by health services, as ... Health care services are particularly scarce in rural areas. 25% of rural areas are covered by health services, compared with ...
World Health Organization ranking of health systems "WHO European health information at your fingertips , health expenditure". ... "Health 2020: the European policy for health and well-being". The status of health in Portugal results from the existence of a ... Regarding the total health expenditure in the country, a share of 65% is financed by the public sector (2018). By the same year ... WHO estimates indicate that 11.9% of total government expenditure in Portugal is allocated to health (data from 2014), in ...
The overall expenditure during 2010-11 had been estimated at Rs 2,423 billion of which the current expenditure was Rs 1,998 ... 16944.5 million for Health Division. Rs. 10873.7 million for Food and Agriculture Division. Rs. 3220.1 million for Industries ... Current expenditure showed an increase of 14.9% over the revised estimates of 2010-11, while development expenditure had been ... All non-developmental expenditures frozen. 40 billion to be distributed among people from Benazir Income Support Programme. ...
... former dean of Harvard University School of Public Health and former Secretary of Health for the government of Mexico, as the ... As of 2022, it is the 67th-largest research university in the nation with research expenditures of $413 million. As of 2022, ... Situated in Miami's Health District, the hospital is close to Jackson Memorial Hospital, which is used by University of Miami ... Construction of the lab was funded in part by a $14.8 million stimulus grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). In ...
National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975-2007 Archived February 14, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Canadian Institute for Health ... Health Advocate Health care reform Health insurance Health Insurance Innovations Health system Health systems by country List ... Universal health care, Health by country, Health-related lists, Lists of countries, Health care reform, Health insurance, ... Health Affairs. 22 (3): 77-88. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.22.3.77. PMID 12757274. G20 Health Care: "Health Care Systems and Health ...
At the time, the hot springs included a health spa with three outdoor pools and nine indoor pools. The Yori family sold the ... As a result of these expenditures. the River Inn filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in March 1978. The resort owed more than $2 ... The wastewater had been flowing for years into Reno's main water source, the Truckee River, posing a potential health risk. The ...
"Public health expenditure". New Age. Retrieved 24 December 2020. "Role of consumption in economic development". New Age. ...
NYC Health. 2018. Retrieved March 2, 2019. "2016-2018 Community Health Assessment and Community Health Improvement Plan: Take ... "NYC Prison Expenditure". Table PL-P5 NTA: Total Population and Persons Per Acre - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas ... had 91,601 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 76.2 years.: 2, 20 ... New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. 2016. Retrieved September 8, 2017. "New Yorkers are living longer, ...
"Healthcare expenditure, UK Health Accounts provisional estimates - Office for National Statistics". Retrieved ... OECD, "Health Expenditure". Accessed 10 February 2016. "How does UK healthcare spending compare with other countries?". Office ... Public health matters are handled by Public Health Wales. Each NHS system has developed ways of offering access to non- ... National Health Service Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom Private medicine in the UK Healthcare UK Health in the ...
"Health Care Expenditures Among Asian American Subgroups". Medical Care Research and Review : MCRR. 70 (3): 310-329. doi:10.1177 ...
Provincial expenditures refer to individual candidate expenses. Italicized expenditures refer to submitted totals, and are ... Pallister faced similar criticism during the third wave of the virus in May 2021, with changes to the Public Health Orders ... Dingwall resigned after the accusations were publicized, but later claimed that his expenditures were inaccurately reported and ... Health Minister Heather Stefanson was elected as Pallister's permanent successor on October 30, and was sworn in as premier on ...
Total national health expenditures: $3.8 trillion (2019). *Total national health expenditures as a percent of Gross Domestic ... Percent of national health expenditures for hospital care: 31.4% (2019). *Percent of national health expenditures for nursing ... Health, United States - Topic Page: Health Care Expenditures. *Problems Paying Medical Bills: United States, 2021 [PDF - 563 KB ... Percent of national health expenditures for retail prescription drugs: 9.7% (2019). Source: Health, United States, 2020-2021, ...
Articles Data Collection Economics Health Expenditures Health Promotion Humans Public Health Administration ... "Public Health Rep" (1963). 78(10). "Public Health Rep" 78, no. 10 (1963). "Public Health Rep" vol. 78, no. 10, 1963. Export RIS ... "Public Health Rep" (1963). 78(10). "Public Health Rep" 78, no. 10 (1963). "Public Health Rep" vol. 78, no. 10, 1963. Export RIS ... "Public Health Reports ;" (1963). 78(10). "Public Health Reports ; v. 78 , no. 10 : cover" 78, no. 10 (1963). "Public Health ...
... health care expenditures, personal health care expenditures, types of service expenditures, and sources of funding expenditures ... Health Care Expenditures and Resources. Information on health care expenditures and resources includes data on health research ... annual report Health, United States, a report on the health status of the Nation submitted by the Secretary of Health and Human ... and the Agency for Health Care Policy Research (AHCPR). Different health care expenditure variables will be featured ...
Household surveys of health care demand and health expenditures : a practical guide / by Abdelmajid Tibouti, Yves-Antoine Flori ... Australian health expenditure, 1982-83 to 1985-86. by Australian Institute of Health. ... Centre for Health Economics.. Series: Discussion paper (University of York). Centre for Health Economics ; ; 113Material type: ... Centre for Health Economics.. Series: Discussion paper (University of York). Centre for Health Economics ; ; 95Material type: ...
National Health Accounts aims to track records of transactions, in order to cover all health expenditures without double ... National Health Accounts are developed based on expenditure information collected within an internationally recognized ... Per capita total expenditure on health (THE) expressed in US$ per person ... A new guide for producing National Health Accounts was published in 2011 - the System of Health Accounts 2011. It is aimed to ...
National Health Accounts aims to track records of transactions, in order to cover all health expenditures without double ... National Health Accounts are developed based on expenditure information collected within an internationally recognized ... Per capita total expenditure on health (THE) expressed in US$ per person ... A new guide for producing National Health Accounts was published in 2011 - the System of Health Accounts 2011. It is aimed to ...
Exploring the role of health system quality, transport infrastructure, and environmental expenditures in the revival of the ... Tourism during health disasters: Exploring the role of health system quality, transport in ... The primary purpose of this study is to acquire an empirical understanding of the effects of health crises and disasters on ... The SYS-GMM was used to examine the impact of health calamities and crises, carbon footprints from transportation, and green ...
... current health expenditure per capita, current health expenditure by funding source, current health expenditure by health care ... current health expenditure by health care function, and private health expenditure.. Results. Trends in current health ... Total health expenditure. Total health expenditure measures the value of outlays for the final consumption of health care goods ... The total health expenditure as a percentage of GDP, at current prices, was about 12.3% in 2011. Total health expenditure per ...
CDC WONDER is a system for disseminating Public Health data and information ... Total Expenditures. Total Personal Health. Note: The NMES expenditure categories are from NMES expenditure data previously ... personal health expenditures, as measured in the national health accounts, include some. expenditures--for nursing home care ... expenditures in this category--comprising mostly Public Health Service, Indian Health Service,. and industrial health service ...
... health expenditure; healthcare utilization; spillover; mental comorbidity; depression; community health ... Increased expenditures for other health conditions after an incident of low back pain. ... Study Design: We reviewed healthcare expenditures in a random sample of 655 patients from a managed health plan with new onset ... Conclusion: LBP episodes were associated with increased expenditures for other health conditions. This suggests that the ...
Sports Medicine and Health Science. 2020;2:38-43. *Luu LA, Flowers RH, Kellams AL, et al. Apple cider vinegar soaks [0.5%] as a ... Acetic acid supplementation: Effect on resting and exercise energy expenditure and substrate utilization. Int J Exerc Sci 2021; ... National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National ... are cautioned that any medical or product related decision is the sole responsibility of the consumer and/or the health care ...
Sustainable Development, Health Expenditures, Family Relations Indicador 3.9.2 - Taxa de mortalidade atribuída a fontes de água ... Sustainable Development, Accidents, Traffic/mortality, Health Status Indicators Indicador 3.8.2 - Proporção de pessoas em ... Hepatitis, Viral, Human/epidemiology, Hepatitis B/prevention & control, Hepatitis C/prevention & control, Health Programs and ... Yellow Fever/epidemiology, Brazil/epidemiology, Epidemiological Monitoring, Yellow Fever Vaccine/immunology, Allied Health ...
Neonatal abstinence syndrome and associated health care expenditures: United States, 2000-2009. JAMA. 2012 May 9. 307(18):1934- ... For patient education resources, see Mental Health Center, as well as Barbiturate Abuse and Drug Dependence and Abuse, Narcotic ... Given the stigma of substance abuse during pregnancy, lack of disclosure by the mother to her health provider is common because ... 7] This retrospective cohort study used linked health and child protection databases for all live births in Western Australia ...
Expenditure. Expenditure, Direct. Expenditure, Health. Expenditure, Indirect. Expenditure, Out-of Pocket. Expenditure, Out-of- ... Expenditures. Expenditures, Direct. Expenditures, Health. Expenditures, Indirect. Expenditures, Out of Pocket. Expenditures, ... Health Expenditure. Indirect Expenditure. Indirect Expenditures. Out Of Pocket Expenditure. Out of Pocket Cost. Out of Pocket ... Expenditure, Out-of Pocket Expenditure, Out-of-Pocket Expenditures, Out of Pocket Expenditures, Out-of Pocket Expense, Out-of- ...
  • Methods and Findings Cointegrating regressions were used to predict (1) the difference in per capita cigarette consumption between California and 38 control states as a function of the difference in cumulative expenditures of the California and control state tobacco control programs, and (2) the relationship between the difference in cigarette consumption and the difference in per capita personal health expenditures between the control states and California between 1980 and 2004. (
  • (3 days ago) WebAs of 2022, the total per capita expenditure in Canada for health care was estimated to be about 8,563 Canadian dollars. (
  • (3 days ago) WebTotal health expenditure per capita Provincial/territorial spending by age Note GDP: Gross domestic product. (
  • (2 days ago) WebCurrent Health Expenditure Per Capita in US$ (2019): $5,048 Source: Global Health Observatory. (
  • (1 days ago) WebIn 2021, health expenditure per capita for Canada was 6,086 US dollars. (
  • (4 days ago) WebCanada - Current expenditure on health per capita. (
  • 3] This article includes 2 lists of countries of the world and their total expenditure on health per capita. (
  • Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (1999) Health expenditure bulletin no. 15 - 1997-98 , AIHW, Australian Government, accessed 30 September 2023. (
  • The 2022-2023 Expenditure Estimates set out details of the operating and capital spending requirements of the Ministry of Long-Term Care for the fiscal year commencing April 1, 2022. (
  • (8 days ago) WebMay 24, 2023 In 2022, it was forecasted that hospital expenditures in Canada would average 2,015 Canadian dollars per person. (
  • We investigate the effect of California's large-scale tobacco control program on aggregate personal health care expenditures in the state. (
  • Information on health care expenditures and resources includes data on health research funding, national health care expenditures, personal health care expenditures, types of service expenditures, and sources of funding expenditures such as private health insurance, Medicare, and Medicaid. (
  • WHO has been collecting and estimating National Health Accounts related indicators for more than fifteen years and has made them available at the Global Health Expenditure Database. (
  • The proposed 2022 infrastructure budget is even bigger - shouldn't more of the allocation be used for health, ayuda and small business support instead? (
  • (1 days ago) WebTotal health spending in Canada is expected to reach $331 billion in 2022, or $8,563 per Canadian. (
  • In 2021, health care spending per person with diabetes in Haiti amounted to around 244 U.S. dollars. (
  • Study Design: We reviewed healthcare expenditures in a random sample of 655 patients from a managed health plan with new onset low back pain (LBP) in 1999. (
  • Provides estimates of total expenditure on health services in Australia for 1989-90 to 1997-98. (
  • Expenditure estimates are presented at the aggregate level, as a proportion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), on a per person basis and by source of funding - government, health insurance funds or individuals. (
  • The estimates are, to the greatest extent possible, based on the NHA classification (see the 2006 World health reportj for details). (
  • The file consists of person-level medical expenditure data classified into service categories and separated into sources of payment within each category, a person weight that makes national-level estimates possible, and person-level demographic characteristics. (
  • Key indicators provide information on health status, the determinants of health, health care activities and health expenditure and financing in OECD countries. (
  • The inherent influence of age on the various aspects of an individual's life has tremendous implications for health care and food expenditure, more so with the changing household age and sex composition resulting from the demographic transition. (
  • We aim to examine the socio-demographic distribution of NCD multimorbidity (≥2 diseases) and its implications for health care utilization and out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE) in India. (
  • For both outpatient and inpatient OOPE, medicine constitutes the largest proportion of spending (70.7% for outpatient, 53.6% for inpatient visit), followed by spending for health care provider (14.0% for outpatient, 12.2% for inpatient visit). (
  • Reorientation of the health system is also needed in terms of reducing the share of spending on inpatient services in favour of more day surgery, outpatient and home-based services. (
  • During the 1-year study period, adherence was associated with lower outpatient, inpatient, and total expenditures across the cohorts, ranging from 9% lower outpatient costs (diabetes cohort) to 41.9% lower inpatient costs (hypertension cohort). (
  • Higher education is not a sector in the System of National Accounts, but in the system of research and development, gross domestic expenditures on research and development (GERD), it is separated because of its critical role in the creation and dissemination of new knowledge. (
  • In 2015, the UK was ninth out of 28 countries, when ranked in terms of the size of its social protection expenditure as a proportion of its gross domestic product (GDP). (
  • It contributes to the understanding of total expenditure on health relative to the beneficiary population, adjusted by purchasing power parity (PPP) to facilitate international comparisons. (
  • CM comes down heavily on Congress for their inability to come clear on expenditure of people's money! (
  • 1. The manner in which a health system is financed affects its stewardship, input creation, service provision and achievement of goals such as good health, responsiveness to people's non-medical expectations (short waiting times, respect for dignity, cleanliness of physical facilities, quality meals) and fair financial contributions, so that individuals are not exposed to great financial risk of impoverishment. (
  • These data come from a number of different sources, including surveys and administrative records compiled by several different agencies including the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA), and the Agency for Health Care Policy Research (AHCPR). (
  • The article explores state-level fi scal marksmanship in the context of medical and public health expenditure over the period-2002 to 2017. (
  • Total health expenditure represents the sum of general government and private expenditure on health. (
  • The private sector represents the largest source of health financing (61%) and the burden falls disproportionally on individual households, who account for 63% of private health care expenditure. (
  • The class represents the expenditure classification for each type of payment made against authorized appropriations. (
  • This represents a monthly estimated budget amount calculated by dividing the total expenditure for each expenditure class for the complete prior year, by the amount expended in each individual month. (
  • In cases where there is no prior year expenditure history the monthly estimate represents 1/12th of the current FY appropriation at each reporting level. (
  • The age of an individual is an important factor when it comes to economic and demographic behaviour, health care needs, food habits, and consumption of goods and services. (
  • The study shows the household size, rural to urban migration, and the household budget as the most important factors in explaining changing consumption levels, accounting for about 72 to 79 percent of incremental food expenditure and about 61 to 64 percent of incremental nonfood expenditure. (
  • Demery and Duck [ 8 ] use family expenditure survey, an annual cross-sectional survey of around 7,000 UK households, to analyze the association between consumption behaviour and age structure of households for 30 consecutive calendar years (1969-1993). (
  • Savings of up to $324.53 per member per month in total expenditure were observed for the hypertension cohort.Our findings indicate adherence is associated with lower health care utilization and expenditures within 1 year. (
  • National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) data of the 55th (1999-2000) and the 64th (2007-2008) rounds on household consumer expenditure have been used for this study. (
  • The compositional shift in sex among the elderly in households contributes significantly to the decline in household health and the increase in household food expenditure over time. (
  • Household age-sex composition also determines the pattern of intrahousehold allocation of expenditure. (
  • An important accompanying objective of the paper is to measure and quantify the gender gap in household health care and food expenditure of the elderly and to examine whether the gap is narrowing with time or not. (
  • Huang and Raunikar [ 6 ] study the effect of variation in household age sex composition on food expenditure and conclude that food expenditure among the youngest children is substantially lower than among the adults. (
  • Household surveys of health care demand and health expenditures : a practical guide / by Abdelmajid Tibouti, Yves-Antoine Flori and Anne Juillet. (
  • This fifth edition of Health at a Glance provides the latest comparable data on different aspects of the performance of health systems in OECD countries. (
  • We analyzed cross-sectional nationally representative data from the World Health Organisaion Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (WHO-SAGE), conducted in India during 2007. (
  • The most comprehensive and consistent data on health financing is generated from National Health Accounts. (
  • The principal international references used for the estimation are the EUROSTAT database, International Monetary Fund (IMF), government financial statistics and international financial statistics, OECD health data, and the United Nations national accounts statistics. (
  • Data were obtained from the national health accounts for the period 2000-2011. (
  • Each person record has data on expenditures made in 17 different medical service categories. (
  • An annex provides additional information on the demographic and economic context within which health systems operate, as well as a concise description of key characteristics in health system financing and delivery of services in OECD countries. (
  • Consequently, this research assists us in comprehending, predicting, and preventing the potential adverse effects of COVID-19 and other similar economic, health disasters and crises that could occur in the future and harm the tourism industry . (
  • Sub-Saharan Africa is struggling to navigate an unprecedented health and economic crisis-one that, in just a few months, has jeopardized decades of hard-won development gains and upended the lives and livelihoods of millions. (
  • Limited evidence exists regarding the relationships between adherence, as defined in Pharmacy Quality Alliance (PQA) medication adherence measures, health care utilization, and economic outcomes. (
  • Keeping the foregoing discussion in view, this paper makes an attempt to shed light on the changing pattern of health care and food expenditure of the elderly in India from 1999-2000 to 2007-2008. (
  • For example, a series of national service frameworks introduced in the UK's National Health Service since 2000 are focused on single conditions, such as coronary heart disease. (
  • notably, the System of Health Accounts 1.0 (OECD, 2000) and the NHA Producer Guide (WHO-World Bank-USAID, 2003). (
  • The current level of resource allocation to the health care sector is higher than in many developed countries and is not sustainable. (
  • These approaches are increasingly at odds with growing information that patients with multimorbidity have higher health service utilization, health care expenditure and poorer health outcomes [ 11 ]. (
  • The projected health care expenditure on diabetes per patient in the country is expected to reach nearly 353 U.S. dollars by 2045. (
  • This edition also contains new chapters on the health workforce and on access to care, an important policy objective in all OECD countries. (
  • Financing and delivering health care : a comparative analysis of OECD countries. (
  • Health 2020 core indicators were agreed by the WHO European Region Member States for monitoring progress towards the Health 2020 targets. (
  • The joint monitoring framework (JMF) is used for reporting on indicators under three monitoring frameworks: the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Health 2020 and the Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) 2013-2020. (
  • Total output of the NHS comprises both the volume of various services and their quality while inputs are approximated by total expenditure. (
  • Background Large state tobacco control programs have been shown to reduce smoking and would be expected to affect health care costs. (
  • There is a dearth of literature about fi scal marksmanship beyond total revenue expenditures and defi cits at the central or state level. (
  • These expenditure reports provide a comparison of spending for all accounting units and funding sources in the NH FIRST state financial system, both budgeted and non-budgeted. (
  • Chapter 65, Laws of 2010 instructs that the state transparency Web site include all expenditure by state Agencies reported in a total fund format showing budgeted / revised budgeted amounts spent for the month, for the year, and for the year to date. (
  • The expense detail is reflective of all State agency expenditures regardless of whether the funds were authorized through the State of New Hampshire operating or capital budget process, appropriations from separate legislation or revised statutes annotated (RSA'S), or through the acceptance of funds with the approval of the Joint Fiscal committee of the General Court and the Governor and Executive Council. (
  • Cognizant of the important role of financing in health development, African Heads of State, in 2001, committed themselves to taking all necessary measures to ensure that resources are made available and are efficiently utilized. (
  • and Canada Research Chairs as well as Health Canada and other federal department are included in this sector. (
  • Total research and development performed by the higher education sector is the sum of expenditures made from funds received from other organizations (sponsored research) and the monies spent from the institutions' own budgets (non-sponsored research). (
  • The present paper aims to shed light on the changing pattern of gender disparity in health and food expenditure over time among the elderly in India. (
  • Tourism during health disasters: Exploring the role of health system quality, transport infrastructure, and environmental expenditures in the revival of the global tourism industry. (
  • Diagnostic (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision) and treatment codes (Current Procedural Terminology [CPT]) were used to identify the expenditures for LBP and other conditions. (
  • NHA) which are published by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA). (
  • Many of these statistics have been published in the annual report Health, United States, a report on the health status of the Nation submitted by the Secretary of Health and Human Services to the President and the Congress. (
  • This reduction grew over time, reaching 7.3% (95% CI 2.7%-12.1%) of total health care expenditures in 2004. (
  • The COVID-19 pandemic created unprecedented challenges in the health and long-term care sectors. (
  • ABSTRACT An analysis was made of recent health care spending patterns in the occupied Palestinian territory, in order to inform future health policy-making and planning. (
  • Health check : health care reforms in an international context / Chris Ham, Ray Robinson, Michaela Benzeval. (
  • The primary purpose of this study is to acquire an empirical understanding of the effects of health crises and disasters on international tourism . (
  • The results showed that health crises and natural disasters have a big effect on international tourism . (
  • The results also showed that environmental expenditures have positive short- and long-term effects on international tourism . (
  • National Health Accounts are developed based on expenditure information collected within an internationally recognized framework. (
  • National Health Accounts aims to track records of transactions, in order to cover all health expenditures without double counting, notably by consolidating intergovernmental transfers. (
  • A new guide for producing National Health Accounts was published in 2011 - the System of Health Accounts 2011. (
  • Not all countries have produced their National Health Accounts or regularly update them. (
  • As regard national sources, these include: National Health Accounts (NHA) reports, National Accounts (NA) reports, general government (GG) accounts, public expenditure reviews (PER), government expenditure by purpose reports (COFOG), institutional reports of public entities involved in health care provision or financing, notably social security and other health insurance compulsory agencies and Ministry of Finance (MoF) reports. (
  • Countries are urged to institutionalize national health accounts to facilitate financial planning, monitoring and evaluation. (
  • 4. The aim of this strategy is to foster development of equitable, efficient and sustainable national health financing to achieve the health-related MDGs and other national health goals. (
  • There is ample evidence that the manner in which a health system is financed affects both the performance of its functions and the achievement of its goals.3 The magnitude, efficiency and equity in health financing determine the pace at which individual countries are able to achieve national health development objectives and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). (
  • This report also includes expenditures for the Legislative and Judicial Branch. (
  • It provides striking evidence of large variations across countries in the costs, activities and results of health systems. (
  • Results: Average monthly expenses per patient for other health conditions increased after LBP initiation when compared with the prior 1 to 3 months. (
  • This is a percentage calculation of the actual monthly expenditure versus the prior year expenditures for the same month as described in the above paragraph. (
  • Between 1989 (when it started) and 2004, the California program was associated with $86 billion (2004 US dollars) (95% confidence interval [CI] $28 billion to $151 billion) lower health care expenditures than would have been expected without the program. (
  • This is the recognized current fiscal year to date expenditure at each reporting level as of the last day of each month. (
  • The second explanation is the recent introduction of annually, has been recognized since the fi rst World Health rifampin in Africa. (