Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Delphi Technique: An iterative questionnaire designed to measure consensus among individual responses. In the classic Delphi approach, there is no interaction between responder and interviewer.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Consensus: General agreement or collective opinion; the judgment arrived at by most of those concerned.Benchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Quality Improvement: The attainment or process of attaining a new level of performance or quality.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE established in 1990 to "provide indexing, abstracting, translating, publishing, and other services leading to a more effective and timely dissemination of information on research, demonstration projects, and evaluations with respect to health care to public and private entities and individuals engaged in the improvement of health care delivery..." It supersedes the National Center for Health Services Research. The United States Agency for Health Care Policy and Research was renamed Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) under the Healthcare Research and Quality Act of 1999.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Consensus Development Conferences as Topic: Presentations of summary statements representing the majority agreement of physicians, scientists, and other professionals convening for the purpose of reaching a consensus--often with findings and recommendations--on a subject of interest. The Conference, consisting of participants representing the scientific and lay viewpoints, is a significant means of evaluating current medical thought and reflects the latest advances in research for the respective field being addressed.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Reimbursement, Incentive: A scheme which provides reimbursement for the health services rendered, generally by an institution, and which provides added financial rewards if certain conditions are met. Such a scheme is intended to promote and reward increased efficiency and cost containment, with better care, or at least without adverse effect on the quality of the care rendered.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.United StatesNational Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Process Assessment (Health Care): An evaluation procedure that focuses on how care is delivered, based on the premise that there are standards of performance for activities undertaken in delivering patient care, in which the specific actions taken, events occurring, and human interactions are compared with accepted standards.Great BritainTotal Quality Management: The application of industrial management practice to systematically maintain and improve organization-wide performance. Effectiveness and success are determined and assessed by quantitative quality measures.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.International Agencies: International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Arthritis, Juvenile: Arthritis of children, with onset before 16 years of age. The terms juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) refer to classification systems for chronic arthritis in children. Only one subtype of juvenile arthritis (polyarticular-onset, rheumatoid factor-positive) clinically resembles adult rheumatoid arthritis and is considered its childhood equivalent.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Rheumatology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of inflammatory or degenerative processes and metabolic derangement of connective tissue structures which pertain to a variety of musculoskeletal disorders, such as arthritis.Arthritis, Psoriatic: A type of inflammatory arthritis associated with PSORIASIS, often involving the axial joints and the peripheral terminal interphalangeal joints. It is characterized by the presence of HLA-B27-associated SPONDYLARTHROPATHY, and the absence of rheumatoid factor.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Nursing Service, Hospital: The hospital department which is responsible for the organization and administration of nursing activities.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)EnglandInterviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Nursing Homes: Facilities which provide nursing supervision and limited medical care to persons who do not require hospitalization.Sickness Impact Profile: A quality-of-life scale developed in the United States in 1972 as a measure of health status or dysfunction generated by a disease. It is a behaviorally based questionnaire for patients and addresses activities such as sleep and rest, mobility, recreation, home management, emotional behavior, social interaction, and the like. It measures the patient's perceived health status and is sensitive enough to detect changes or differences in health status occurring over time or between groups. (From Medical Care, vol.xix, no.8, August 1981, p.787-805)EuropeMental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Interdisciplinary Studies: Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Physician Incentive Plans: Compensatory plans designed to motivate physicians in relation to patient referral, physician recruitment, and efficient use of the health facility.Patient Care: The services rendered by members of the health profession and non-professionals under their supervision.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Rheumatic Diseases: Disorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.Self-Assessment: Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Blood Sedimentation: Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (U.S.): A component of the Department of Health and Human Services to oversee and direct the Medicare and Medicaid programs and related Federal medical care quality control staffs. Name was changed effective June 14, 2001.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.GermanyMultivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.United States Department of Veterans Affairs: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Documentation: Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.ArthritisChild, Hospitalized: Child hospitalized for short term care.Refugees: Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Hospital Volunteers: Individuals who donate their services to the hospital.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Safety Management: The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.Scleroderma, Diffuse: A rapid onset form of SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA with progressive widespread SKIN thickening over the arms, the legs and the trunk, resulting in stiffness and disability.Cancer Care Facilities: Institutions specializing in the care of cancer patients.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Risk Adjustment: The use of severity-of-illness measures, such as age, to estimate the risk (measurable or predictable chance of loss, injury or death) to which a patient is subject before receiving some health care intervention. This adjustment allows comparison of performance and quality across organizations, practitioners, and communities. (from JCAHO, Lexikon, 1994)Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.
  • Pediatricians and other child health clinicians strive to provide the best care for children and families. (aappublications.org)
  • Ensure that all clinicians apply PBM as the standard of care for patients facing a medical or surgical intervention who are at high risk of significant blood loss. (safetyandquality.gov.au)
  • This poses a challenge for continuity and coordination of care as patients may consult both TCAM practitioners (TCAMP) and BM doctors (BMD) separately for their illnesses without notifying respective clinicians. (plos.org)
  • Thirty five countries were represented, with attendees including health ministers and senior policy makers, patients, payers, providers, clinicians and medtech and pharma companies. (sciencebusiness.net)
  • 14 The indicators were evidence-based and supported by the participating clinicians. (mja.com.au)
  • This systematic review of the utility of instruments to measure patient experience of hospital quality care will aid clinicians, managers and policy makers to select an instrument fit for purpose. (biomedcentral.com)
  • FQHCs may also need to change how clinicians and other staff work together and with community partners to improve quality and efficiency. (nashp.org)
  • Exploratory analyses were also conducted to investigate (1) differences in patient priorities based on demographic and clinical factors, and (2) differences between patients and health stakeholders (e.g., clinicians, researchers) with respect to patient health care priorities. (springer.com)
  • The National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Flexible Aged Care (NATSIFAC) Program 2019-2020 Bi-Annual One-off Grant Opportunity - Second Approach is a targeted, competitive application process. (health.gov.au)
  • At the population level, or macro-level, assessments of health care quality include indicators such as life expectancy, infant mortality rates, incidence, and prevalence of certain health conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1976 a measure of quality of healthcare, amenable mortality, was introduced by Rutstein. (isciii.es)
  • The preselected indicators were then validated by a trend analysis that identified associations between the timing of innovations and cause-specific mortality trends and by a Delphi-procedure. (isciii.es)
  • After a short review of previous lists of amenable mortality indicators and a detailed description of the innovative procedure in the AMIEHS project we present a list of 14 causes of death that passed our selection criteria. (isciii.es)
  • Functional status, quality of life, and mortality are examples of outcome measures. (aappublications.org)
  • The aim of this study was to analyze maternal and child health indicators and infant mortality rate (IMR) at the cities located at the 18th Health Division (HD) in Parana State, Brazil. (hindawi.com)
  • The concept of maternal and child health has expanded over the years, which also includes a set of knowledge, practices, and attitudes that aim at the promotion of healthy pregnancies, deliveries, and births and also the prevention of maternal and child mortality [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Studies conducted in Paraná State expose inequities in maternal, pregnancy, and neonatal health indicators among cities, showing a disadvantage in health and higher risk for infant mortality in some cities to detriment of others [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) is widely used for measuring functioning in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), since it is a better predictor of future morbidity, mortality and work disability than other disease outcome variables. (scielo.org.za)
  • Controversy has attended the relationship between risk-adjusted mortality and process-of-care. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A discordant debate has subsequently occurred regarding the relationship between risk-adjusted mortality and process-of-care, the latter being variously assessed [ 5 , 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although it is well documented that diabetes is strongly associated with morbidity and mortality, less is known about how this disease affects functional health status and sense of wellbeing. (rrh.org.au)
  • Instead of comparing countries on single indicators like infant mortality (the 'report card' or 'league table' approach), the report paints a fuller picture by presenting data about mortality, low birthweight and preterm birth alongside data about health care and other factors that can affect the outcome of pregnancy. (huliq.com)
  • Maternal mortality ratios: These vary widely, partly because they are based on very small numbers of deaths and partly reflecting differences in health care, which need fuller investigation. (huliq.com)
  • Introduction A positive relationship between longer travel time from home to hospital and mortality has been found in lifethreatening situations like emergency/trauma care and cardiology.1-6 Obstetrics is another setting in which travel time to hospital may potentially affect the outcome. (spotidoc.com)
  • Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic lung diseases, dementia, and chronic kidney disease will likely continue to be the greatest sources of morbidity and mortality, as well as the costliest conditions to healthcare systems. (nih.gov)
  • This finding is consistent with other epidemiological studies in other countries, with detected the alarming problem of surgical site infections and their unwanted repercussions on the increase in morbidity and mortality levels and health care costs (5-8) . (scielo.br)
  • It is well known that nutritional intervention focused on woman's health during the reproductive stage-not only in the preconception period but also during the prenatal period, and culminating in assistance to lactating woman-helps achieve adequate newborn nutritional status and is reflected in childhood health and nutritional conditions (2). (scielosp.org)
  • Archeological findings from the Nile river region as early as 2000 b.c.e., indicate that the Egyptians also had environment health concerns with rain and waste water. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The findings demonstrate that health information can be developed at a local level, the Core Metrics concretely specified, and that the measures are practical, understandable, and usable. (phi.org)
  • The findings in this report are relevant to conditions at the site during the time of this health consultation and should not necessarily be relied upon if site conditions or land use changes in the future. (cdc.gov)
  • Findings were based on a nationwide health insurance claims database covering all parts of Switzerland. (bmj.com)
  • present results of the review to the Ministry of Health and other national stakeholders to ensure understanding and agreement on the findings. (who.int)
  • Health care quality - Findings and intent - Requirements for conducting study under RCW 43.70.066 . (wa.gov)
  • These findings should be considered in plans for the centralisation of obstetric care. (spotidoc.com)
  • Findings revealed a 10-cluster model of 'good health care. (springer.com)
  • Quality assurance is distinct from quality assessment and is based on the principles of total quality management (TQM). (wikipedia.org)
  • Data from the National Committee for Quality Assurance indicate that in 2008, among patients aged 18 to 75 years who were discharged after admission for acute myocardial infarction or coronary angioplasty or who had a diagnosis of ischemic vascular disease, cholesterol screening was performed in 88.9% of patients enrolled in commercial health insurance plans, 88.6% of those enrolled in Medicare, and 79.6% of those enrolled in Medicaid. (jaoa.org)
  • The National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) makes available comparative quality information on health plans (NCQA, 2005c). (nap.edu)
  • In 2011 the Help Ethiopia Address the Low TB Performance (HEAL TB) Project used WHO or national TB indicators as standards of care (SOC) for baseline assessment, progress monitoring, gap identification, assessment of health workers' capacity-building needs, and data quality assurance. (msh.org)
  • In the laboratory area, where there was previously no external quality assurance (EQA) for sputum microscopy, 1,165 health facilities now have quarterly EQA, and 96.1% of the facilities achieved a ≥ 95% concordance rate in blinded rechecking. (msh.org)
  • Quality assurance - Interagency cooperation. (wa.gov)
  • Chung VCH, Ma PHX, Hong LC, Griffiths SM (2012) Organizational Determinants of Interprofessional Collaboration in Integrative Health Care: Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies. (plos.org)
  • We are committed to reducing inequities in health which arise from the social, economic and environmental determinants of health. (nationaldrugstrategy.gov.au)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) (1, 2) cites maternal anthropometric aspects and intake of adequate nutrients as determinants of fetal growth, demonstrating a close association with these parameters and weight and gestational age at birth. (scielosp.org)
  • Specifically, instead of using a separate set of risk-adjusters for each OBQI quality indicator where risk-adjusters are primarily determined based on their statistical fit to the model, this project used a core set of risk-adjusters in all models that theory and prior research suggest are important determinants of home health quality. (hhs.gov)
  • The health service of China has encountered significant challenges due to inequalities in socio-economic determinants of health. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Better organizational integration between TCAM and BM is a possible way of addressing this challenge, and the term "integrative healthcare" (IHC) is being widely used in policy documents and literature to describe a positive relationship between the two paradigms . (plos.org)
  • Objectives The quality of ambulatory care in Switzerland is widely unknown. (bmj.com)
  • Tracking national progress in diabetes care may aid in the evaluation of past efforts and identify residual gaps in care. (nih.gov)
  • Enrollment in this course requires a current health care license and/or credential or permission of instructor, based on evaluation of work experience. (temple.edu)
  • Management Division (HMWMD), CDPHE's Environmental Health Studies Program (EHS), under a Cooperative Agreement with ATSDR, is conducting an evaluation of cancer incidence and PCE concentration in municipal water in Security-Widefield, Colorado. (cdc.gov)
  • Models for assessment and evaluation of water quality will be developed for the study watersheds. (epa.gov)
  • Patient-Centered - providing care that is unique to a patient's needs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background: Family health history can predict a patient's risk for common complex diseases. (uncg.edu)
  • Information on the health of the patient's parents was collected more often than information on the health of other relatives. (uncg.edu)
  • Although some of these factors cannot be modified (e.g. patient's age), others can be controlled or eliminated through an excellent care process focused on prevention (e.g. skin antisepsis, antibiotic prophylaxis, etc. (scielo.br)
  • Maternal indicators went down regarding the mean percentage of teenage mothers and low education, whereas they went up regarding mother with 35 years old or older and mothers without a partner. (hindawi.com)
  • This study provides a better understanding of maternal and child health in the cities located at the 18th HD, supplying grounds to plan actions regarding the real needs of each specific city. (hindawi.com)
  • Maternal and child health is a priority in Brazil's agenda of health programs and actions, as well as in several countries. (hindawi.com)
  • Besides, a study that analyzed maternal and neonatal characteristics in host-cities of Health Divisions in Paraná State pointed to disadvantages at the 18th Health Division host-city compared to other host-cities. (hindawi.com)
  • Logistic regression modelling with adjustments for gestational age, maternal age, parity, ethnicity, socio-economic status, urbanisation, tertiary care centres and volume of the hospital was used. (spotidoc.com)
  • We hope these tools will be helpful to states and communities working in partnership with HRSA and others to improve access and reduce health disparities. (astho.org)
  • The term "community health" refers to the health status of a defined group of people, or community, and the actions and conditions that protect and improve the health of the community. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For example, the health status of the people living in a particular town, and the actions taken to protect and improve the health of these residents, would constitute community health. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The health status of these populations and the actions and conditions needed to protect and improve the health of a population constitute population health. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Health promotion may be defined as any combination of educational and social efforts designed to help people take greater control of and improve their health. (encyclopedia.com)
  • There are many reasons health plan members, patients and caregivers may struggle to understand health information but at JHHC we strive to help patients improve their understanding of their role in managing their behaviors and attitudes towards health maintenance. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • A major opportunity exists to improve care in a way that will make a real difference in the lives of children and families. (aappublications.org)
  • When the right questions are asked, patients' answers can help health care providers better understand the patient experience and learn how they could improve. (rand.org)
  • While monetary incentives and behavioral nudges both have their strengths, neither is enough to reliably change clinician behavior and improve quality of care. (rand.org)
  • Making sure that patients are involved in treatment plans is another way to improve patients' ratings of their care experiences. (thehealthcareblog.com)
  • and 3) incorporating a higher priority on preservation or restoration of native biodiversity coupled with efforts to improve water quality. (epa.gov)
  • Harvard economist Michael Porter argues that, to improve performance, healthcare systems need to measure not what goes in, but what comes out. (sciencebusiness.net)
  • In line with WHO's Thirteenth General Programme of Work 2019‒2023, WHO is collaborating with Member States to improve their health information systems, analytical capacity and reporting for universal health coverage. (who.int)
  • should be provided for all health staff to increase adherence to the strategies for improve prevention, diagnosis and management of OM. (health.gov.au)
  • Opportunities to improve have been identified in relation to the protocols' formal quality and contents. (scielo.br)
  • NCQA's web site includes a summary of HEDIS results by health plan. (wikipedia.org)
  • This may be influenced by the negative results presented by some cities under this Health Division management [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The results points to the need of stimulate the construction and use of instruments of notification and incentive to the full notification of the incidents, because it constitute fundamental tool of quality and can orientate the service management face to indicators that should be improved in the environment of work to, thereby provide safe security and with quality. (isciii.es)
  • The results should be shared between their GP surgery and mental health team. (nice.org.uk)
  • In this analysis we present results from 10 zones (of 28) in which 1,165 health facilities were supported from 2011 through 2015. (msh.org)
  • Results of the study indicated that most occupational therapists have some knowledge of quality frameworks. (scielo.org.za)
  • Each council develops annual goals consistent with the commission of attaining a pervasive perception among nurses that they provide high quality care to patients. (akrongeneral.org)
  • A program designed to provide incentives and disincentives based on performance indicators which measure access and quality of care. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • For example, on Perspectives on Total Worker Health , we provide a set of select papers that provide theoretical and conceptual commentaries on the integration of health protection and health promotion. (cdc.gov)
  • On Resources for Select Worker Health, Safety and Well-being Programs , you will find a set of select resources that provide frameworks and directions that discuss characteristics of comprehensive programs, including the integration of health protection and health promotion. (cdc.gov)
  • Researchers have developed a more effective and reliable way for patients to provide narrative feedback about the care they receive. (rand.org)
  • Yet, even though QAPI requirements for systems reform are becoming widespread, none of them obliges individual health care plans or providers to measure racial and ethnic disparities in the care they provide. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • How will an APM free up your FQHC to provide more robust, patient-centered, and team-based care? (nashp.org)
  • Readiness assessments can help states identify which FQHCs have the capacity to take on a value-based APM, and also pinpoint where the state and PCA should provide technical assistance to help increase FQHC capacity. (nashp.org)
  • In 1999, the Institute of Medicine released six domains to measure and describe quality of care in health: Safe - avoiding injuries to patients from care that is intended to help them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Source: Ola, J. A (with additional content provided by Oyeledun, B.) School Health in Nigeria: National Strategies (1999). (who.int)
  • Since July 1999, home health agencies participating in the Medicare or Medicaid programs have been required to collect OASIS on all patients age 18 or older admitted to Certified Home Health Agencies. (hhs.gov)
  • Even though this study was conducted in a complex population of patients, a set of 5 process indicators were found to have good predictive validity based on the hybrid method. (nih.gov)
  • The searches resulted in 151 structure and process indicators, which were discussed in steering group meetings. (springermedizin.de)
  • Additional process indicators (e.g. frequency of assessment, detection, treatment, and referral) should be considered in order to monitor the level of service. (health.gov.au)
  • According to a report published by Health Canada (2000), the prevalence rate of diabetes among the First Nations people in Canada is two to three times that of the general population of Canada 5,6 . (rrh.org.au)
  • Some of the disparities in health care result from individual provider and patient behavior: prejudice, stereotyping, poor communication, or uncertainty in decision-making. (commonwealthfund.org)
  • This compendium provides support to a state or community assessing where they are on the continuum toward improving access and reducing health disparities. (astho.org)
  • Face validity (median rating of 8 or 9 on a nine point scale with agreement by all panels) for assessing quality of care. (bmj.com)