Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Meningitis, Bacterial: Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.Meningitis, Pneumococcal: An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)Headache Disorders: Various conditions with the symptom of HEADACHE. Headache disorders are classified into major groups, such as PRIMARY HEADACHE DISORDERS (based on characteristics of their headache symptoms) and SECONDARY HEADACHE DISORDERS (based on their etiologies). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Meningitis, Aseptic: A syndrome characterized by headache, neck stiffness, low grade fever, and CSF lymphocytic pleocytosis in the absence of an acute bacterial pathogen. Viral meningitis is the most frequent cause although MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; RICKETTSIA INFECTIONS; diagnostic or therapeutic procedures; NEOPLASTIC PROCESSES; septic perimeningeal foci; and other conditions may result in this syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p745)Meningitis, Viral: Viral infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space. TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RUBELLA; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORBIVIRUS infections; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RHABDOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; JC VIRUS infections; and RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS may cause this form of meningitis. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, neck pain, vomiting, PHOTOPHOBIA, and signs of meningeal irritation. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)Tension-Type Headache: A common primary headache disorder, characterized by a dull, non-pulsatile, diffuse, band-like (or vice-like) PAIN of mild to moderate intensity in the HEAD; SCALP; or NECK. The subtypes are classified by frequency and severity of symptoms. There is no clear cause even though it has been associated with MUSCLE CONTRACTION and stress. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Cluster Headache: A primary headache disorder that is characterized by severe, strictly unilateral PAIN which is orbital, supraorbital, temporal or in any combination of these sites, lasting 15-180 min. occurring 1 to 8 times a day. The attacks are associated with one or more of the following, all of which are ipsilateral: conjunctival injection, lacrimation, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, facial SWEATING, eyelid EDEMA, and miosis. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Meningitis, Fungal: Meningitis caused by fungal agents which may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.Spinal Cord Diseases: Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.Meningitis, Haemophilus: Infections of the nervous system caused by bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS, and marked by prominent inflammation of the MENINGES. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults.Meningitis, Meningococcal: A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)Meningitis, Cryptococcal: Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)Spinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Spinal Cord Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.Vascular Headaches: Secondary headache disorders attributed to a variety of cranial or cervical vascular disorders, such as BRAIN ISCHEMIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS.Migraine Disorders: A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Tuberculosis, Meningeal: A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Spinal Cord Ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Headache Disorders, Secondary: Conditions with HEADACHE symptom that can be attributed to a variety of causes including BRAIN VASCULAR DISORDERS; WOUNDS AND INJURIES; INFECTION; drug use or its withdrawal.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Spinal Puncture: Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Meningitis, Listeria: Inflammation of the meninges caused by LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES infection, usually occurring in individuals under the age of 3 years or over the age of 50 years. It may occur at any age in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, altered mentation, HEADACHE, meningeal signs, focal neurologic signs, and SEIZURES. (From Medicine 1998 Sep;77(5):313-36)Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Spinal Cord Regeneration: Repair of the damaged neuron function after SPINAL CORD INJURY or SPINAL CORD DISEASES.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Meningitis, Escherichia coli: A form of gram-negative meningitis that tends to occur in neonates, in association with anatomical abnormalities (which feature communication between the meninges and cutaneous structures) or as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS in association with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. In premature neonates the clinical presentation may be limited to ANOREXIA; VOMITING; lethargy; or respiratory distress. Full-term infants may have as additional features FEVER; SEIZURES; and bulging of the anterior fontanelle. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp398-400)Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Spinal Canal: The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Spinal NeoplasmsSpinal DiseasesNeurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Umbilical Cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Meninges: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Myelitis: Inflammation of the spinal cord. Relatively common etiologies include infections; AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES; SPINAL CORD; and ischemia (see also SPINAL CORD VASCULAR DISEASES). Clinical features generally include weakness, sensory loss, localized pain, incontinence, and other signs of autonomic dysfunction.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Spinal Stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal canal.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Echovirus Infections: Infectious disease processes, including meningitis, diarrhea, and respiratory disorders, caused by echoviruses.Spinal Cord Stimulation: Application of electric current to the spine for treatment of a variety of conditions involving innervation from the spinal cord.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Anterior Horn Cells: MOTOR NEURONS in the anterior (ventral) horn of the SPINAL CORD which project to SKELETAL MUSCLES.Cordotomy: Any operation on the spinal cord. (Stedman, 26th ed)Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Angiostrongylus cantonensis: A species of parasitic nematodes distributed throughout the Pacific islands that infests the lungs of domestic rats. Human infection, caused by consumption of raw slugs and land snails, results in eosinophilic meningitis.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Myelography: X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.Muscular Atrophy, Spinal: A group of disorders marked by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord resulting in weakness and muscular atrophy, usually without evidence of injury to the corticospinal tracts. Diseases in this category include Werdnig-Hoffmann disease and later onset SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD, most of which are hereditary. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Migraine without Aura: Recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches, not preceded or accompanied by an aura, in attacks lasting 4-72 hours. It is characterized by PAIN of moderate to severe intensity; aggravated by physical activity; and associated with NAUSEA and / or PHOTOPHOBIA and PHONOPHOBIA. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic: Dysfunction of the URINARY BLADDER due to disease of the central or peripheral nervous system pathways involved in the control of URINATION. This is often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, but may also be caused by BRAIN DISEASES or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES.Epidural Space: Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Nerve Tissue ProteinsInfant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins: Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal: A rare epidural hematoma in the spinal epidural space, usually due to a vascular malformation (CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS) or TRAUMA. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a neurologic emergency due to a rapidly evolving compressive MYELOPATHY.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Autonomic Dysreflexia: A syndrome associated with damage to the spinal cord above the mid thoracic level (see SPINAL CORD INJURIES) characterized by a marked increase in the sympathetic response to minor stimuli such as bladder or rectal distention. Manifestations include HYPERTENSION; TACHYCARDIA (or reflex bradycardia); FEVER; FLUSHING; and HYPERHIDROSIS. Extreme hypertension may be associated with a STROKE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp538 and 1232; J Spinal Cord Med 1997;20(3):355-60)Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Meningoencephalitis: An inflammatory process involving the brain (ENCEPHALITIS) and meninges (MENINGITIS), most often produced by pathogenic organisms which invade the central nervous system, and occasionally by toxins, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions.Lampreys: Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Mice, Inbred C57BLElectromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Pyramidal Tracts: Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Oligodendroglia: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.Tuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Syringomyelia: Longitudinal cavities in the spinal cord, most often in the cervical region, which may extend for multiple spinal levels. The cavities are lined by dense, gliogenous tissue and may be associated with SPINAL CORD NEOPLASMS; spinal cord traumatic injuries; and vascular malformations. Syringomyelia is marked clinically by pain and PARESTHESIA, muscular atrophy of the hands, and analgesia with thermoanesthesia of the hands and arms, but with the tactile sense preserved (sensory dissociation). Lower extremity spasticity and incontinence may also develop. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1269)Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Niger: A republic in western Africa, north of NIGERIA and west of CHAD. Its capital is Niamey.Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Contusions: Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Meningeal Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.Migraine with Aura: A subtype of migraine disorder, characterized by recurrent attacks of reversible neurological symptoms (aura) that precede or accompany the headache. Aura may include a combination of sensory disturbances, such as blurred VISION; HALLUCINATIONS; VERTIGO; NUMBNESS; and difficulty in concentrating and speaking. Aura is usually followed by features of the COMMON MIGRAINE, such as PHOTOPHOBIA; PHONOPHOBIA; and NAUSEA. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Blood Patch, Epidural: The injection of autologous blood into the epidural space either as a prophylactic treatment immediately following an epidural puncture or for treatment of headache as a result of an epidural puncture.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Spinal Curvatures: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Spermatic Cord: Either of a pair of tubular structures formed by DUCTUS DEFERENS; ARTERIES; VEINS; LYMPHATIC VESSELS; and nerves. The spermatic cord extends from the deep inguinal ring through the INGUINAL CANAL to the TESTIS in the SCROTUM.Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal: Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.Strychnine: An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup A: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most outbreaks of meningococcal disease in Western Europe and the United States in the first half of the 20th century. They continue to be a major cause of disease in Asia and Africa, and especially localized epidemics in Sub-Sahara Africa.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure: Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Enterovirus InfectionsCauda Equina: The lower part of the SPINAL CORD consisting of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerve roots.Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood: A group of recessively inherited diseases that feature progressive muscular atrophy and hypotonia. They are classified as type I (Werdnig-Hoffman disease), type II (intermediate form), and type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease). Type I is fatal in infancy, type II has a late infantile onset and is associated with survival into the second or third decade. Type III has its onset in childhood, and is slowly progressive. (J Med Genet 1996 Apr:33(4):281-3)Arachnoiditis: Acute or chronic inflammation of the arachnoid membrane of the meninges most often involving the spinal cord or base of the brain. This term generally refers to a persistent inflammatory process characterized by thickening of the ARACHNOID membrane and dural adhesions. Associated conditions include prior surgery, infections, trauma, SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, and chemical irritation. Clinical features vary with the site of inflammation, but include cranial neuropathies, radiculopathies, and myelopathies. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch48, p25)Tryptamines: Decarboxylated monoamine derivatives of TRYPTOPHAN.Central Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Paraparesis: Mild to moderate loss of bilateral lower extremity motor function, which may be a manifestation of SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; MUSCULAR DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; parasagittal brain lesions; and other conditions.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94)Wheelchairs: Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Meningocele: A congenital or acquired protrusion of the meninges, unaccompanied by neural tissue, through a bony defect in the skull or vertebral column.Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Intracranial Hypotension: Reduction of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID pressure characterized clinically by HEADACHE which is maximal in an upright posture and occasionally by an abducens nerve palsy (see ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES), neck stiffness, hearing loss (see DEAFNESS); NAUSEA; and other symptoms. This condition may be spontaneous or secondary to SPINAL PUNCTURE; NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; DEHYDRATION; UREMIA; trauma (see also CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA); and other processes. Chronic hypotension may be associated with subdural hematomas (see HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL) or hygromas. (From Semin Neurol 1996 Mar;16(1):5-10; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp637-8)Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Meningeal Carcinomatosis: Primary or secondary neoplasm in the ARACHNOID or SUBARACHNOID SPACE. It appears as a diffuse fibrotic thickening of the MENINGES associated with variable degrees of inflammation.Ependyma: A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.

*Viral meningitis

... the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord). Symptoms commonly include headache, fever, sensitivity to light, and neck ... Viral meningitis, also known as aseptic meningitis, is a type of meningitis due to a viral infection. It results in ... "Viral Meningitis - Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders - Merck Manuals Consumer Version". Merck Manuals Consumer Version. ... Viruses are the most common cause of aseptic meningitis. Most cases of viral meningitis are caused by enteroviruses (common ...

*Viral meningitis

... the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord). Symptoms commonly include headache, fever, sensitivity to light and neck ... Viral meningitis, also known as aseptic meningitis, is a type of meningitis due to a viral infection. It results in ... "Viral Meningitis - Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders - Merck Manuals Consumer Version". Merck Manuals Consumer Version. ... also known as spinal tap). This fluid, which normally surrounds the brain and spinal cord, is then analyzed for signs of ...

*Mollaret's meningitis

... is a recurrent or chronic inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, ... Since Mollaret's meningitis is a recurrent, benign (non-cancerous), aseptic meningitis, it is now referred to as benign ... Many people have side effects between bouts that vary from chronic daily headaches to after-effects from meningitis such as ... fluid that envelops the brain and the spinal cord) through lumbar puncture (LP). However, if the patient is at risk for a ...

*List of side effects of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole

... most often after IV use in HIV patients Swelling of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord without any obvious ... Haemolysis Stevens-Johnson syndrome Toxic epidermal necrolysis Ataxia Clostridium difficile colitis Aseptic meningitis ... Headache Jaundice Elevated liver transaminases Peripheral neuritis Drowsiness Constipation Photosensitivity (light sensitivity ...

*Poliomyelitis

With the destruction of nerve cells, the muscles no longer receive signals from the brain or spinal cord; without nerve ... Most patients with CNS involvement develop nonparalytic aseptic meningitis, with symptoms of headache, neck, back, abdominal ... preferentially replicating in and destroying motor neurons within the spinal cord, brain stem, or motor cortex. This leads to ... The extent of spinal paralysis depends on the region of the cord affected, which may be cervical, thoracic, or lumbar. The ...

*Enterovirus

... meningitis (inflammation of the membranes that line the brain and spinal cord); and pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas ... Treatment for aseptic meningitis caused by enteroviruses is also mainly symptomatic. In patients with enteroviral carditis, ... Other than fever, symptoms include muscle pain, sore throat, gastrointestinal distress/abdominal discomfort, and headache. In ... Enteroviruses are by far the most common causes of aseptic meningitis in children. In the United States, enteroviruses are ...

*Meningitis

... is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the ... may cause aseptic meningitis. Aseptic meningitis may also result from infection with spirochetes, a type of bacteria that ... the most common symptom of meningitis is a severe headache, occurring in almost 90% of cases of bacterial meningitis, followed ... Meningitis can be life-threatening because of the inflammation's proximity to the brain and spinal cord; therefore, the ...

*Meningeal syphilis

Meningitis inflames and breaks down any protective membrane and cells surrounding the brain, spinal cord, and other parts of ... Meningeal syphilis (as known as syphilitic aseptic meningitis or meningeal neurosyphilis) is a chronic form of syphilis ... Other symptoms may include sore throat, headache, joint pain, fever, and patches of hair loss. As in stage one, lesions may ... This fluid circulates through the brain and spinal cord, and it is produced in the choroid plexuses. The meninges consists of ...

*Lamotrigine

For example, lamotrigine blocked sustained repetitive firing in cultured mouse spinal cord neurons in a concentration-dependent ... DRESS syndrome or aseptic meningitis.[38] Other side effects include loss of balance or coordination, double vision, crossed ... Backonja M (June 2004). "Neuromodulating drugs for the symptomatic treatment of neuropathic pain". Current Pain and Headache ... Lamotrigine has been implicated in the apoptotic neurodegeneration of the developing brain.[52] GlaxoSmithKline investigated ...

*List of MeSH codes (C10)

... spinal cord injuries MeSH C10.228.854.770.500 --- central cord syndrome MeSH C10.228.854.785 --- spinal cord vascular diseases ... meningitis, aseptic MeSH C10.228.228.507.280 --- meningitis, bacterial MeSH C10.228.228.507.280.350 --- meningitis, escherichia ... brain edema MeSH C10.228.140.199 --- brain injuries MeSH C10.228.140.199.250 --- brain concussion MeSH C10.228.140.199.250.500 ... post-dural puncture headache MeSH C10.228.140.546.699.249 --- post-traumatic headache MeSH C10.228.140.546.699.500 --- vascular ...

*Subarachnoid hemorrhage

... the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain. Symptoms may include a severe headache of ... disorders of the blood vessels in the spinal cord, and bleeding into various tumors. Cocaine abuse and sickle cell anemia ( ... In either case, strict aseptic technique must be maintained during insertion. In people with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage ... such as meningitis, migraine, and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Intracerebral hemorrhage, in which bleeding occurs within ...

*Lymphocytic choriomeningitis

... "a viral infection of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord and of the cerebrospinal fluid". The name is based on ... Patients with meningitis may have a stiff neck, fever, headache, myalgia, nausea and malaise. In some occasions, meningitis ... Although not the cause of the outbreak, LCMV was found to be a cause of nonbacterial or aseptic meningitis. In 1996, Peter ... If aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, or meningoencephalitis develops in consequence to LCMV, hospitalization and supportive ...

*Shingles

... or aseptic meningitis. Other serious effects that may occur in some cases include partial facial paralysis (usually temporary ... in the ganglia adjacent to the spinal cord (called the dorsal root ganglion) or the trigeminal ganglion in the base of the ... People were diagnosed at autopsy or by brain biopsy. Brain biopsy is not undertaken lightly: it is reserved only for serious ... The earliest symptoms of shingles, which include headache, fever, and malaise, are nonspecific, and may result in an incorrect ...

*Lamotrigine

For example, lamotrigine blocked sustained repetitive firing in cultured mouse spinal cord neurons in a concentration-dependent ... or aseptic meningitis.[39]. Other side effects include loss of balance or coordination, double vision, crossed eyes, pupil ... Off-label uses include the treatment of peripheral neuropathy, trigeminal neuralgia, cluster headaches, migraines, visual snow ... Brain Research. 612 (1-2): 190-9. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(93)91660-K. PMID 7687190.. ...

*Neurosurgery

Some of the techniques include implantation of deep brain stimulators, spinal cord stimulators, peripheral stimulators and pain ... Meningitis and other central nervous system infections including abscesses Spinal disc herniation Cervical spinal stenosis and ... spinal injuries, hydrocephalus, subdural effusions and headache. In 1910, Paul Berger excavated underneath a Bronze age hearth ... gave accounts for creating aseptic environments using alcohol in wine, and suggested using opium as an anesthetic for patients ...

*جراحی مغز و اعصاب - ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد

Neuropathology is a specialty within the study of pathology focused on the disease of the brain, spinal cord, and neural tissue ... spinal injuries, hydrocephalus, subdural effusions and headache.[7] ... gave accounts for creating aseptic environments using alcohol in wine, and suggested using opium as an anesthetic for patients ... Meningitis and other central nervous system infections including abscesses. *Spinal disc herniation ...

*ICD-10 Chapter VI: Diseases of the nervous system

G94) Other disorders of brain in diseases classified elsewhere. *(G95) Other diseases of spinal cord *(G95.0) Syringomyelia and ... G02) Meningitis in other infectious and parasitic diseases classified elsewhere. *(G03) Meningitis due to other and unspecified ... Headaches[edit]. *(G43) Migraine *(G43.0) Migraine without aura (common migraine). *(G43.1) Migraine with aura (classical ... G32.0) Subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord in diseases classified elsewhere. *(G32.8) Other specified degenerative ...

*زونا - ویکی‌پدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد

... in the ganglia adjacent to the spinal cord (called the dorsal root ganglion) or the trigeminal ganglion in the base of the ... or aseptic meningitis. Other serious effects that may occur in some cases include partial facial paralysis (usually temporary ... People were diagnosed at autopsy or by brain biopsy. Brain biopsy is not undertaken lightly: it is reserved only for serious ... The earliest symptoms of shingles, which include headache, fever, and malaise, are nonspecific, and may result in an incorrect ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Numbers of axons in lateral and ventral funiculi of rat sacral spinal cord. AU - Chung, K.. AU - Coggeshall, R. E.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - The present study determines the numbers of myelinated and unmyelinated axons in the ventral and lateral funiculi of rat sacral spinal cord. On average, there are 55,000 myelinated and 110,000 unmyelinated axons in the lateral funiculus and 26,000 myelinated and 9,000 unmyelinated axons in the ventral funiculus at these levels. These figures combined with data from earlier studies of the posterior funiculus and the tract of Lissauer give approximate figures of 88,500 myelinated and 131,500 unmyelinated axons for the entire white matter of one side of the rat sacral spinal cord. Thus unmyelinated axons predominate in the white matter of the rat sacral spinal cord. The majority of axons, particularly the unmyelinated ...
Headaches come in all different sizes and severities, from a dull ache in your temples to a debilitating pain that makes it difficult to see.. The fact is that all headaches are not created equal. They can vary by severity, symptoms and cause. The most common types of headaches include tension, cluster, migraine, organic, rebound, and chronic daily headaches, among others.. If you suffer from any of these types of headaches, you are not alone. Millions of people experience the pain of headaches regularly.. Tension Headaches. One of the most common types of headaches are those caused by tension. These are related to stress, anxiety and even depression. About 90% of all headaches are classified as tension-related.. With a tension headache, the pain is generalized throughout the head, rather than in the temples, the sinuses or another ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Induction of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and serine-threonine kinase-like immunoreactivity in rabbit spinal cord after transient ischemia. AU - Sakurai, Masahiro. AU - Hayashi, Takeshi. AU - Abe, Koji. AU - Itoyuama, Yasuto. AU - Tabayashi, Koichi. PY - 2001/4/13. Y1 - 2001/4/13. N2 - The mechanism of spinal cord injury has been thought to be related with tissue ischemia, and spinal motor neuron cells are suggested to be vulnerable to ischemia. To evaluate the mechanism of such vulnerability of motor neurons, we attempted to make a reproducible model of rabbit spinal cord ischemia. Using this model, the inductions of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-k) and serine-threonine kinase (Akt) were investigated with immunohistochemical analyses for up to 7 days of the reperfusion following 15 min of ischemia in rabbit spinal cord. It has been ...
There are a variety of different Headaches which can affect individuals. The most common are migraine headaches and Tension headaches. Headaches can be classified as either primary or secondary headaches. Primary headaches include migraines, tension type headaches, and cluster headaches. Secondary headaches include head trauma, neck trauma or injury (ie: following whiplash injury), occipital neuralgia, cranial masses, post dural puncture headaches, and others.. Migraines - Migraine headaches are extremely common and lead to decrease function and missed days from work. Migraine headaches may present with or without an aura. An Aura is a phenomenon which occurs prior to the onset of the headache such flashing lights, altered vision, weakness, altered smell, etc. Usually an aura occurs up to 1 ...
The above table clearly shows overlapping in various aspects of the headaches. So, do not self-diagnose, meet your doctor to understand the headache symptoms. If the doctor says that you have sinus headache symptoms, follow the prescription to treat your paranasal sinuses ...
most common causes of headaches,most common headache,most common reasons for headaches,muscle tension headache,natural cure for headache,natural cures for migraine headaches,natural cures for migraines,natural headache relief,natural migraine relief,natural migraine treatment,natural remedies for headaches,natural remedies for migraine headaches,natural remedies for migraines,neck headache,neck pain,neck pain headache,new migraine treatment,occipital headache,ocular migraine
what can cause headaches,what can cause major headaches,what can cause migraine headaches,what can cause migraines,what can cause severe headaches,what causes a lot of headaches,what causes bad headaches,what causes brain pain,what causes chronic headaches,what causes consistent headaches,what causes extreme headaches,what causes frequent headaches,what causes head pain,what causes headache pain,what causes headaches,what causes headaches and migraines
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of aminophylline and isoproterenol on spinal cord blood flow after impact injury. AU - Dow-Edwards, D.. AU - DeCrescito, V.. AU - Tomasula, J. J.. AU - Flamm, Eugene S.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - A study of the effects of spinal cord injury upon spinal cord blood flow was carried out in cats. A 400 g-cm impact produced an overall reduction in spinal cord blood flow of 24% in the white matter and 30% in the gray matter, as determined by 14C-antipyrine autoradiography. At the level of the injury, white-matter flow was 8.1 ml/100 g/min, g/min, a reduction of 49%, and in the gray matter, 12.5 ml/100 g/min, a reduction of 76%. Treatment with aminophylline and isoproterenol improved the overall blood flow in the spinal cord. At the level of the injury, white-matter flow after this treatment was no longer significantly ...
New York-There are few things in life that are worse than a head-splitting, world-ending headache. Unfortunately, pretty much everyone is bound to experience a headache at some point. At the best, theyre inconveniences; at their worst, headaches can land people in the hospital. Each type of headache has unique treatments and causes, which can make finding the right solution a nightmare. When headaches get in the way of your plans, check out treatheadaches.com for your headache solution.. Treatheadaches.com is a one stop shop for headache relief. They provide both headache relief,remedies and information about each type of headache. Rather than blindly offering information about generalized headaches, this website takes the time to detail many different types of headaches to ensure the reader ...
Click here to view all pages of our website for information on causes of headaches, types of headaches, headache diagnosis, and headache treatment.
If you suffer from tension headaches and would like more information on headache treatment, contact Dr. Ira Shapira located in Chicago, Illinois.
Introduction: The rate of spinal cord infarction associated with repair of an aortic aneurysm or dissection is uncertain.. Methods: We identified all adult patients discharged from nonfederal acute care hospitals in California, New York, and Florida who underwent surgical or endovascular repair of a thoracic or abdominal aortic aneurysm or dissection between 2005 and 2013. Our outcome was a spinal cord infarction (ICD9-CM codes: 336.1 or 344.1-5) occurring during the index hospitalization for aortic repair. Patients with a spinal cord infarction prior to the hospitalization for aortic repair were excluded. Descriptive statistics with exact confidence intervals (CIs) were used to report crude rates of spinal cord infarction in patients with repair of ruptured aortic aneurysm or dissection and in patients with repair of unruptured aneurysm. In a secondary analysis, we ...
The posterior spinal cord contains longer perforating arteries that might be more susceptible to the effects of CADASIL vasculopathy. This explains the clinical (predominantly dorsal column involvement and motor deficit) and imaging features compared with those in the more common anterior spinal cord infarction (predominantly spinothalamic tract involvement and motor deficit). The stepwise progression could be explained by sequential involvement of perforating spinal cord arteries. Her clinical improvement is likely attributable to the combination of corticosteroid-responsive peri-ischaemic inflammatory changes and natural recovery.. Spinal cord involvement in CADASIL is well recognised but rare. In a UK cohort of 200 patients, there were no cases of spinal cord infarction.1 An anterior spinal cord infarct ...
article{181863, author = {Leybaert, Luc and DEHEMPTINNE, A}, issn = {0014-4819}, journal = {EXPERIMENTAL BRAIN RESEARCH}, language = {eng}, number = {3}, pages = {392--402}, title = {Changes of intracellular free calcium following mechanical injury in a spinal cord slice preparation.}, volume = {112}, year = {1996 ...
For Statistics: For Business: TDD:. Mar 05, · Key Statistics for Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors The American Cancer Society s estimates for brain and spinal cord tumors in the United States for include both adults and children. About 23, 820 malignant tumors of the brain or spinal cord ( 13, 410 in males and 10, 410 in. 7 percent of spinal cord injury survivors are married, and the rate of marriage increases as spinal cord injury survivors age, suggesting that a spinal cord injury doesn t have to mean a life free of romantic relationships. And the higher the injury occurs in the spinal cord, the more severe the damage. Spinal Cord Injury Statistics Every year thousands of Americans experience ...
The phospholipid and phospholipid fatty acid compositions of mixed murine spinal cord neuronal cultures are reported. The phospholipid composition was primarily comprised of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids (44.8%) and choline glycerophospholipids (43.5%). Plasmalogens made up 29.1% of the ethanola...
The spinal cord is surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid (spinal fluid) throughout its course in the spinal canal. The spinal fluid serves as a buffer of fluid that surrounds the spinal cord providing protection and insulation from movements and trauma to the body. The spinal fluid is kept in place by two thin membranes- the arachnoid and dura. The arachnoid is a very thin see through membrane that is suspended in the spinal fluid while the dura is a slightly thicker and stronger membrane that surrounds the spinal fluid space.. A ventral spinal cord herniation may occur if a breach or weakness of the dura occurs. Spinal fluid can leak through this opening causing headaches as part of a condition called spontaneous intracranial hypotension. In rare circumstances, ...
Methods of treating an injured vertebrate spinal cord are described. In one aspect of the invention, a method of treating an injured vertebrate spinal cord includes contacting the spinal cord with a biomembrane fusion agent such as a polyalkylene glycol, especially polyethylene glycol. In alternative embodiments of the invention, methods of treating an injured vertebrate spinal cord include contacting the cord with a biomembrane fusion agent and a potassium channel blocker. Other aspects of the invention include compositions for treating a vertebrate nervous system. A preferred composition includes a biomembrane fusion agent, such as a polyalkylene glycol, and a potassium channel blocker, such as an amino-substituted pyridine.
BACKGROUND. Spinal cord tumors are rare in cats and dogs. The most common spinal cord tumors are lymphoma in cats and meningioma in dogs. The majority of cats with spinal lymphoma are FeLV positive. Other spinal cord tumors include intradural-extramedullary spinal cord tumor of young dogs (also known as nephroblastoma and ependymoma) and glial tumors such as astrocytomas, oligodendroglioma, and choroid plexus tumors. The spinal cord can also be affected by extension of peripheral nerve tumors into the spinal canal. Spinal cord tumors cause neurologic dysfunction with clinical signs being dependent on their location along the spinal cord. Metastasis is rare.. DIAGNOSIS. Survey and contrast radiographs (myelogram) are important to rule out ...
Neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) transplantation is a promising therapy for spinal cord injury (SCI). However, little is known about NSPC from the adult human spinal cord as a donor source. We demonstrate for the first time that multipotent and self-renewing NSPC can be cultured, passaged and transplanted from the adult human spinal cord of organ transplant donors. Adult human spinal cord NSPC require an adherent substrate for selection and expansion in EGF (epidermal growth factor) and FGF2 (fibroblast growth factor) enriched medium. NSPC as an adherent monolayer can be passaged for at least 9 months and form neurospheres when plated in suspension culture. In EGF/FGF2 culture, NSPC proliferate and primarily express nestin and Sox2, and low levels of markers for differentiating cells. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) promotes NSPC proliferation and significantly enhances ...
Tethered spinal cord syndrome is a neurological disorder caused by tissue attachments that limit the movement of the spinal cord within the spinal column. These attachments cause an abnormal stretching of the spinal cord. The course of the disorder is progressive. In children, symptoms may include lesions, hairy patches, dimples, or fatty tumours on the lower back; foot and spinal deformities; weakness in the legs; low back pain; scoliosis; and incontinence. Tethered spinal cord syndrome may go undiagnosed until adulthood, when sensory and motor problems and loss of bowel and bladder control emerge. This delayed presentation of symptoms is related to the degree of strain placed on the spinal cord over time. Tethered spinal cord syndrome appears to be the result of improper ...
Assessment of spinal cord pathology following trauma using early changesin the spinal cord evoked potentials: a pharmacological and morphologicalstudy in the rat. ...
spinal cord anatomy, spinal cord, spinal cord anatomy, cauda equina, image, anatomy of spinal cord, spinal nerves, cauda equina anatomy, human spinal cord anatomy, sacral spinal cord, spinal cord nerves, Spinal Nerve Anatomy, spinal cord anatomy, spinal cord segments, conus medullaris, Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves, spinal cord, real spinal cord, thoracic spinal cord, human spinal cord, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Methylprednisolone reduces excitatory amino acid release following experimental spinal cord injury. AU - Liu, Danxia. AU - McAdoo, David J.. PY - 1993/4/23. Y1 - 1993/4/23. N2 - Administration of methylprednisolone within several hours after injury to the spinal cord has been shown to reduce subsequent impairment in humans and experimental animals. Secondary damage following initial trauma is probably caused in part by the toxicity of released excitatory amino acids. We demonstrate here that methylprednisolone reduces the release of excitatory amino acids following experimental spinal cord injury in rats.. AB - Administration of methylprednisolone within several hours after injury to the spinal cord has been shown to reduce subsequent impairment in humans and experimental animals. Secondary damage following initial trauma is probably caused in part by the ...
Looking for online definition of Lumbar spinal cord in the Medical Dictionary? Lumbar spinal cord explanation free. What is Lumbar spinal cord? Meaning of Lumbar spinal cord medical term. What does Lumbar spinal cord mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Suppression of detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia by immunoneutralization of nerve growth factor in lumbosacral spinal cord in spinal cord injured rats. AU - Seki, Satoshi. AU - Sasaki, Katsumi. AU - Igawa, Yasuhiko. AU - Nishizawa, Osamu. AU - Chancellor, Michael B.. AU - De Groat, William C.. AU - Yoshimura, Naoki. PY - 2004/1. Y1 - 2004/1. N2 - Purpose: We investigated the effects of intrathecal application of nerve growth factor (NGF) antibodies (NGF-Abs) and desensitization of C-fiber afferent pathways by capsaicin treatment on detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia (DSD) after spinal cord injury (SCI). Materials and Methods: In adult female rats SCI was induced by complete transection of the spinal cord at Th8 to 9. Ten days after spinalization vehicle or NGF-Ab (10 μg daily) was continuously administered at the level of the L6-S1 ...
We have shown previously that mats made from the glycoprotein fibronectin are permissive for axonal growth when implanted into the injured spinal cord. Recent evidence has indicated that fibronectin and its peptides also have neuroprotective effects in the CNS. We have therefore examined the neuroprotective effects of fibronectin applied to a spinal cord injury site. Adult rats with fibronectin mats implanted into a spinal cord lesion cavity had decreased apoptosis in the intact adjoining spinal cord tissue at 1 and 3 days post-injury compared to rats that had gelfoam implanted into the lesion cavity. Rats with fibronectin mat implants also showed enhanced hindlimb locomotor performance for the first 3 weeks post-surgery compared to control animals. To further examine the neuroprotective potential of fibronectin following spinal cord injury, ...
When the Good Lord made the human being, He gave us a very important piece of equipment- the spinal cord. It is an incredibly intricate, detailed and multi-facted part of our body.. Damage to the spinal cord can be a very big deal, that can have life-long ramifications.. I can help if your spinal cord has been injured as the result of anothers carelessness.. Spinal cord injuries occur when the spine (or rather, the discs and nerve tissues within the spine) become damaged, usually due to excessive force or some type of trauma. A large majority of spinal cord injuries occur as the result of some type of accident, such as auto accidents, motorcycle accidents, truck accidents, pedestrian accidents, bicycle accidents, slip and falls (due to dangerous property conditions), and more.. If you were injured or involved in an accident, and as a result ...
In contrast to cyclin D1 and D2, the expression level of cyclin D3 was high in the hindbrain at the E15.5 stage (Figure 3I, arrowhead). Moreover, in the midbrain cyclin D3 was expressed in cells closer to the ventricle than those expressing cyclin D2 (Figure 3H, I, arrows).. Discussion. At the E10.5 stage, all three D-type cyclins were expressed in most of the spinal cord cells but cyclin D1 and D3 showed higher expression levels in the dorsal half of the spinal cord. Wianny et al. (1998) found that the dorso-ventral gradient of the cyclin D1 transcript also occurs in the spinal cord of 7-9 somite-stage embryos. However, in our study we found that at the E10.5 stage cyclin D2 was not missing from the floor plate and also that cyclin D3 was not expressed only ventrally, as was reported for the transcripts of the genes in 7-9 somite stage embryos by Wianny et al. (1998). This ...
Cervical myelopathy. Dvorak J, Sutter M, Herdmann J. Cervical myelopathy: clinical and neurophysiological evaluation. European Spine Journal. 2003 Oct 1;12(2):S181-7.. AYDEMIR, S., et al. The effect of melatonin on spinal cord after ischemia in rats. Spinal cord, 2015.. FATIMA, G.; SHARMA, V. P.; VERMA, N. S. Circadian variations in melatonin and cortisol in patients with cervical spinal cord injury. Spinal cord, 2015.. DURGA, Padmaja, et al. Neurological deterioration during intubation in cervical spine disorders. Indian journal of anaesthesia, 2014, 58. Jg., Nr. 6, S. 684.. ALSHAREEF, Mohammed, et al. Effect of Spinal Cord Compression on Local Vascular Blood Flow and Perfusion Capacity. PloS one, 2014, 9. Jg., Nr. 9, S. e108820.. LAGINHA, Inês, et al. Natural Killer (NK) Cell Functionality after human Spinal ...
Bcl11a is expressed in both presynaptic sensory neurons and postsynaptic spinal target neurons (Fig. 1). We next asked whether Bcl11a is required for correct wiring, and if so, on which site. Central axons of sensory neurons were labeled at E16.5 with DiI. In the superficial dorsal horns of Brn4-Cre;Bcl11a mutants, the density of DiI-positive fibers was greatly reduced and the remaining fibers appeared disorganized. Only a few axons crossing the midline or located in a dorsolateral region of the dorsal horn were detectable by DiI labeling in mutants (Fig. 5A,B). TrkA (Ntrk1 - Mouse Genome Informatics) -positive nociceptive fibers preferentially terminate in the superficial dorsal horn. Immunohistological analysis with antibodies against TrkA or aquaporin 1, a water channel protein that is expressed by small-diameter nociceptive fibers (Oshio et al., 2006), invariably revealed almost complete loss of such fibers in the dorsal horn of Brn4-Cre;Bcl11a mutants (Fig. 5C-F). Similar results were ...
Director, Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Program. People often ask me when or if there will ever be a cure for spinal cord injury. Although there are many differing opinions about this, I am confident there will be a cure in my lifetime. In the meantime, anyone with a spinal cord injury should have a long-term plan for their treatment and care.. The number of spinal cord injuries per year has remained fairly stable over the last two decades, with nearly 12,000 occurring each year mostly from sports injuries, car accidents and other forms of traumatic injury. Currently in the United States there are approximately 200,000 people are living with spinal cord injuries or spinal dysfunction. With todays advanced medical treatments, more spinal cord injury patients survive the trauma compared to ...
While research in animal models of spinal cord injury have provided many promising insights, human studies have failed to produce effective therapies. We propose to investigate the drug Minocycline (a metalloproteinase inhibitor) for the treatment of spinal cord injured patients aiming to limit neurological injury and improve neurological outcome. This drug influences several secondary injury mechanisms implicated in spinal cord injury and has been effective in improving outcome after spinal cord injury in animal models. We also propose to examine the safety and feasibility of spinal cord perfusion pressure augmentation with a protocol of IV fluids and inotrope medications versus standard maintenance of mean arterial pressure in subjects who exhibit a decrease in perfusion pressure to less than 75 mmHg. The purpose of this pilot study is 1) ...
Spinal cord stimulation is a way to manage various types of pain. A spinal cord stimulator is an implanted device that sends low levels of electricity directly into the spinal cord. Electrical stimulation is a more modern way to stimulate the nerves of muscles to treat pain, and its been used for more than 30 years. Other methods of this type of stimulation are TENS (transcutaneous electrical stimulation) units, peripheral nerve stimulation, and deep brain stimulation. Spinal cord stimulators consist of electrodes, or leads, placed in the epidural space around the spinal cord. ...
Imaging studies in multiple sclerosis have shown that spinal cord atrophy correlates with clinical disability. The pathological substrate of atrophy has not as yet been investigated adequately. In order to determine the cause of spinal cord atrophy in multiple sclerosis, five different sections of the spinal cord were examined histopathologically in 33 controls and 55 multiple sclerosis cases. In the multiple sclerosis cases in each section the total lesion load and the cross-sectional area of the cord were measured. Multiple regression models were estimated, controlling for sex, age, duration of the disease and location of the cord sections. The multiple sclerosis cords were found to be significantly smaller than the controls. The duration of the disease played the most important role in determining cord atrophy. The degree of atrophy ...
GlobalDatas clinical trial report, "Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2014" provides data on the Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury clinical trial scenario. This report provides elemental information and data relating to the clinical trials on Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury. It includes an overview of the trial numbers and their recruitment status as per the site of trial conduction across the globe. The databook offers a preliminary coverage of disease clinical trials by their phase, trial status, prominence of the sponsors and also provides briefing pertaining to the number of trials for the key drugs for treating Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury. This report is built using data and information sourced from proprietary databases, primary and secondary research and in-house analysis by GlobalDatas team of industry experts ...
Looking for online definition of spinal cord compression in the Medical Dictionary? spinal cord compression explanation free. What is spinal cord compression? Meaning of spinal cord compression medical term. What does spinal cord compression mean?
NEW JERSEY COMMISSION ON SPINAL CORD RESEARCH 2006 B CYCLE DIRECTORY OF GRANT AWARDS FOR SPINAL CORD INJURY AND DISEASE RESEARCH DECEMBER 2005 NEW JERSEY COMMISSION ON SPINAL CORD RESEARCH This data was
Spinal Cord Stimulation - A Compelling Treatment Alternative for Chronic PainVladimir N. Kramskiy, MDAssistant Attending Neurologist, Hospital for Special SurgeryClinical Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology, Weill Cornell Medical CollegeWhat Is Spinal Cord Stimulation?Spinal cord stimulation is a neuromodulation technique that is used to treat various types of chronic pain. Neuromodulation is […]
Spinal Cord Stimulation - A Compelling Treatment Alternative for Chronic PainVladimir N. Kramskiy, MDAssistant Attending Neurologist, Hospital for Special SurgeryClinical Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology, Weill Cornell Medical CollegeWhat Is Spinal Cord Stimulation?Spinal cord stimulation is a neuromodulation technique that is used to treat various types of chronic pain. Neuromodulation is […]
Spinal Cord Stimulation II (SCS) contains the state of the art of this innovative method in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease.The volume presents such topics as: Spinal Cord Stimulation for Chronic Pain.- Management of Critical Limb Ischemia.- Spinal Cord Stimulation for Angina
There has been substantial controversy regarding the use of spinal cord stimulation in ischemic extremity disease. However, current information favors the use of this treatment in inoperable ischemic extremity disease. There have been a large number of prospective studies, as well as a systematic Cochrane Review, indicating the appropriateness of spinal cord stimulation in this scenario.5 However, the studies focus primarily on atherosclerotic vascular disease. Although the exact mechanism of action of spinal cord stimulation in ischemic extremity disease is still uncertain, it most certainly affects peripheral vasoconstriction and therefore should be effective in vasospastic disease, such as Raynauds Disease ...
There are two new groundbreaking developments in paralysis and spinal cord research. These are peripheral nerve re-routing, and suppression of scar formation and spinal cord regeneration.. Peripheral Nerve Re-Routing. Peripheral nerve re-routing entails taking the peripheral nerves above the point of injury, and surgically rerouting them so they are connected to peripheral nerves below the injury site. This allows new functional connections between the brain and previously dormant muscle or sensory system to be created.. Peripheral nerve re-routing has been around for about 100 years, and has been attempted on hundreds of patients with spinal cord injuries. While peripheral nerve re-routing cant completely cure a spinal cord injury, it can allow for various degrees of improvement. For example, patients with C1 to C4 injuries have experienced improved ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Huge epidural hematoma after surgery for spinal cord stimulation. AU - Franzini, A.. AU - Ferroli, P.. AU - Marras, C.. AU - Broggi, G.. PY - 2005/5. Y1 - 2005/5. N2 - Objective and importance. Spinal epidural haematoma (SEH) following implantation of an epidural spinal cord electrode is a very rare complication but one that must not be overlooked. This case is unusual because of the almost "holocord" extension of the haematoma and the excellent recovery obtained by prompt surgical treatment. Clinical presentation. A 69 years old man with normal serum coagulation parameters was submitted to spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for chronic pain syndrome. After a minimal L1 laminotomy the patient developed paraplegia due to a large haematoma at D4-L2. Intervention. Surgical removal of the entire clot by a D4-L2 laminectomy was performed immediately. Conclusion. Large ...
Spinal cord infarction (SCI) is a rare type of stroke. The initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is usually normal and can mimic the presentation of the acute transverse myelitis (ATM), acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and compressive myelopathies from neoplasm, epidural or subdural hematoma, or abscess. The aim of this report is to describe and discuss the case of a patient with SCI presenting as a diagnostic confusion with acute transverse myelitis. A 64-year-old male with a medical history of hypertension presented with an acute onset of urinary retention with lower limb weakness. Based on the initial MRI and evaluation, a diagnosis of acute transverse myelitis was made. Despite thorough evaluation, the etiology of transverse myelitis was undetermined. Hence, the MRI of the thoracic spine was repeated which showed patchier enhancements of the vertebral body with features suggestive of the spinal cord and vertebral body ...
Rationale:. Electrical stimulation of the dorsal columns of the spinal cord (Spinal Cord Stimulation or SCS) for pain relief has been used in humans for several decades. The most common indication for SCS is the treatment of refractory neuropathic leg pain, particularly when these symptoms persist after an anatomically successful operation (Failed Back Surgery Syndrome or FBSS).. Low frequency - conventional - SCS (LF-SCS) is applied in frequencies ranging from 30 to 60 Hertz (Hz) and the subject feels paraesthesias in the painful area, which is considered the ideal situation. Recently, LF-SCS has been challenged by the development of stimulation modes at higher frequencies which provide pain relief at sub-perception threshold, i.e. without paraesthesias. A recent case series reported that High Frequency Spinal Cord Stimulation (HF-SCS) appears to show better pain relief for both back and limb pain in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of doxapram on medullary respiratory neurones in brainstem-spinal cord preparations from newborn rats. AU - Osaka, Y.. AU - Onimaru, H.. AU - Kotani, S.. AU - Kashiwagi, M.. AU - Morisaki, Hiroshi. AU - Takeda, J.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Doxapram is the only dedicated respiratory stimulant used to aid recovery of breathing after major surgery. Doxapram acts on peripheral chemoreceptors and although the central action of doxapram has been suggested, its detailed neuronal mechanism is unknown. We assessed doxapram-induced changes in spontaneous cervical nerve (C4) inspiratory activity and the firing of action potentials in pre-inspiratory and inspiratory neurones in the medulla. Experiments were performed in neonatal rat brainstem-spinal cord preparations, which can produce respiratory rhythm for several hours under in vitro conditions. Doxapram application (for 15 min) ...
Approximately 250,000 - 400,000 people are currently living with spinal cord injuries in the United States, and about 11,000 new spinal cord injuries occur each year (30 injuries per day). A staggering 42 percent of these annual injuries are caused by motor vehicle accidents, and another 22 percent result from traumatic falls.. Sustaining a spinal cord injury can severely affect a persons quality of life, both physically and emotionally. A spinal cord injury often requires rehabilitation therapy, medication, surgery, prosthesis, and the use of a wheelchair and/or computer device to assist with daily routines. The costs of these treatments and technologies can be exorbitant, which is why it is so important to seek damages for any and all medical expenses that will arise throughout the victims lifetime with the help of a personal injury lawyer.. If you are a Kansas or Missouri ...
INTRODUCTION. The narrow therapeutic index of 5% hyperbaric lidocaine on neuroaxis has been shown since the early 1990, when Cauda Equina syndrome was associated to its spinal administration via microcatheter in continuous infusion 1,2, after single pencil point needle injection 3,4 and repeated injections due to blockade failure 5.. Lidocaine concentration potentially able to determine nervous tissue injury is still not well established. Experimental studies in rats, in which the anesthetic was administered via spinal catheter, have shown neurotoxicity in concentrations varying from 2.5% 6 to 7.5% 7,8. The criticism to this model is that it does not reproduce the anesthetic technique used in the clinical practice 6.. This study aimed at investigating the effect on spinal cord and meninges of increasing spinal lidocaine concentrations in single injection through Quincke needle.. METHODS. After the Animal Experiment Ethical ...
Researchers at UTHealth have demonstrated in rats that transplanting genetically modified adult stem cells into an injured spinal cord can help restore the electrical pathways associated with movement. The results are published in todays issue of the Journal of Neuroscience.. In spinal cord injury, demyelination, or the destruction of the myelin sheath in the central nervous system, occurs. The myelin sheath, produced by cells called oligodendrocytes, wraps around the axons of nerves and helps speed activity and insulate electrical conduction. Without it, the nerves cannot send messages to make muscles move.. The research team, led by Qilin Cao, M.D., principal investigator and associate professor of neurosurgery at UTHealth (The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston), discovered that transplanted adult stem cells (oligodendrocyte precursor cells or OPC) from the spinal ...
spinal cord anatomy, spinal cord, spinocerebellar tract, corticospinal tract, spinocerebellar tract, Spinal cord tracts, spinothalamic tract, spinocerebellar tract, spinothalamic pathway, lateral corticospinal tract, spinocerebellar pathway, spinal cord tracts, spinal cord tract, sensory pathway, spinothalamic tract, anatomy of spinal cord, spinal tract, Dorsal spinocerebellar tract, sensory pathways, image, ...
Cervical spinal stenosis is a bone disease involving the narrowing of the spinal canal at the level of the neck. It is frequently due to chronic degeneration, but may also be congenital. Treatment is frequently surgical. Cervical spinal stenosis is one of the most common forms of spinal stenosis, along with lumbar spinal stenosis (which occurs at the level of the lower back instead of in the neck). Thoracic spinal stenosis, at the level of the mid-back, is much less common. Cervical spinal stenosis can be far more dangerous by compressing the spinal cord. Cervical canal stenosis may lead to serious symptoms such as major body weakness and paralysis. Such severe spinal stenosis symptoms are virtually absent in lumbar stenosis, however, as the spinal cord terminates at the top end of the adult lumbar spine, ...
The case of a 39 year old woman who had diastasis of pubic symphysis following childbirth and later developed severe chronic neuropathic pain and disability is presented. She received extensive surgical and medical treatment for 6 years with no improvement of symptoms. The VNRS (Visual Numerical Rating Scale) pain score was 7/10 or more most of the time. This was quite disabling in terms of her quality of life. A spinal cord stimulator was inserted after failure of other modalities of pain management which resulted in dramatic improvement in the quality of life measured with SF-36 questionnaire. Her pain score became 0/10 VNRS and she was free from opioids and psychotropic medications within 3 months post insertion. Spinal cord stimulator can be considered for the management of pain due to diastasis of pubic symphysis, not amenable to other therapies ...
1. A method of implanting a spinal cord stimulator lead into an epidural space of a human or animal subject for treatment, the epidural space having a tissue obstruction, the method comprising: providing the spinal cord stimulator lead with: a biocompatible shaft defining an axis, including a distal tip surface that is transverse to the shaft axis, and including a distal portion that is adjacent to the distal tip surface, wherein at least a portion of the shaft is flexible; at least one electrode positioned along the shaft and adapted to deliver an electrical impulse within the epidural space; a first lumen extending through at least a portion of the shaft for carrying a first pressurized fluid; a distensible balloon in fluid communication with the first lumen and positioned at a terminal end of the first lumen, peripherally all the way around the distal end portion of the shaft, and adjacent to the distal tip surface for inflation by the ...
As someone who has faced a spinal cord injury, I can tell you that the difference between surviving and thriving is support," said Adam Taliaferro, founder of the Adam Taliaferro Foundation and former patient of Magee Rehabilitation Hospital. "The Golf Outing is my way of giving back, of bolstering the research, rehab and programs that helped me, to ensure all people with spinal cord injuries have the same opportunities that made my recovery so successful.". A cornerback for Penn State University, Adam sustained a spinal cord injury on the football field in 2000 while making a clean hit in a game against Ohio State. Told by doctors he may never walk again, Adam came to Magee for his rehabilitation and walked out of the hospital just months later. He founded the Adam Taliaferro Foundation to provide emotional, financial and educational support to individuals who have sustained a catastrophic head or ...
FAQs on Spinal Cord Stimulator Therapy for Arachnoiditis - from a Top Gilbert AZ Pain Management Doctor What is arachnoiditis? Arachnoiditis is a chronic
... Published by QYResearch at researchbeam.com . United States Spinal Cord Stimulators Industry 2015 Deep Market Research Report is a research report by Key Manufacturers, Applications, Developments and Trends with covering regions China, US, Europe & Japan
The purposes of radiologic evaluation for patients suspected of having ATM are to differentiate other spinal cord lesions, and to investigate the cause of ATM [1,2]. The diagnostic criteria by TMCWG recommends spinal MRI evaluation with gadolinium enhancement to facilitate early identification of ATM and to determine the cause [7]. However, because there were cases that showed normal findings on spinal MRI, "possible ATM" cases should be reevaluated later with spinal MRI [5,7]. According to previous studies, 53% of ATM cases showed normal findings on spinal MRI, and 19% to 42.1% showed no gadolinium enhancement on spinal MRI [5,16]. In the present study, 65.2% of the subjects showed high signal intensity of T2-weighted images, and 43.3% of subjects showed gadolinium enhancement on spinal MRI. Lesions at the thoracic spinal ...
Pathological and genetic aspects of spinal muscular atrophy in Red Danish dairy cattle are described. A total of 312 calves suspected of having the condition was reported in the Danish Bovine Genetic Disease Programme, 162 of them were examined post mortem and spinal muscular atrophy was diagnosed in 82 of these. Seventy-five per cent of the affected calves had bronchopneumonia. The diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy was based on histopathological examinations of the spinal cord and musculature. The lesions were primarily characterised by degeneration of the spinal cord motor neurons with neuronophagia and denervation muscular atrophy. The ages of the affected calves varied from those recumbent from birth to a 21-week-old calf. All the necropsied cases appeared in a clearly familial pattern and could be traced back to American Brown Swiss bulls.. ...
Management of the neurogenic bladder has the primary objectives of maintaining continence, ensuring low bladder pressure (to avoid renal damage) and avoiding or minimising infection. Options include intermittent urethral catheterisation, indwelling urethral or suprapubic catheterisation, timed voiding, use of external catheter (for men), drug treatment, augmentation cystoplasty and urinary diversion. [1] Long-term indwelling urethral catheterisation is common amongst people with cervical spinal cord injury; however, this carries a high risk of developing a catheter-related urinary tract infection and associated complications especially bypassing and leakage. [2, 3]. Carers and health professionals tend to assume that urethral catheter drainage is satisfactory in spinal cord injury patients if the catheter is draining clear urine, there is no blood in urethral meatus, and the patient does not develop features of autonomic dysreflexia. In male ...
Spinal cord injuries are either complete or incomplete. A complete spinal cord injury causes a total loss of function below the injury. For this reason, a complete SCI in the neck results in a loss of function of all limbs and the torso (quadriplegia/tetraplegia), while the same injury in the middle or lower back results in a loss of function of part of the torso and the legs (paraplegia). An incomplete SCI may result in pain to partial paralysis and anything in between. Unfortunately, medical advances in this area have been modest. Thanks to new rehabilitation techniques, a complete SCI may convert to an incomplete SCI, but whether the injury is complete or incomplete, the effect on quality of life is always significant.. The lawyers at Litwiniuk & Company have comprehensive experience negotiating on behalf of clients who have suffered spinal cord injuries. We know there will be extensive costs for medical ...
Myelopathy describes any neurologic deficit related to the spinal cord. When due to trauma, it is known as (acute) spinal cord injury. When inflammatory, it is known as myelitis. Disease that is vascular in nature is known as vascular myelopathy. The most common form of myelopathy in human, cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), is caused by arthritic changes (spondylosis) of the cervical spine, which result in narrowing of the spinal canal (spinal stenosis) ultimately causing compression of the spinal cord. In Asian populations, spinal cord compression often occurs due to a different, inflammatory process affecting the posterior longitudinal ligament. Clinical signs and symptoms depend on which spinal cord level (cervical, thoracic or lumbar) is affected and the extent (anterior, posterior or lateral) of ...
Looking for an attorney in West Palm Beach, Florida to help with a Spinal Cord Injuries claim? Our directory enables you to easily compare the services and qualifications of West Palm Beach Spinal Cord Injuries lawyers near you.
With a highly sensitive electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR MS) system, proteins were identified in minimal amounts of spinal cord from patients with the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and compared to proteins in spinal cord from control subjects. The results show 18 versus 16 significantly identified (p | 0.05) proteins, respectively, all known to be found in the central nervous system. The most abundant protein in both groups was the glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP. Other proteins were, for example, hemoglobin alpha- and beta chain, myelin basic protein, thioredoxin, alpha enolase, and choline acetyltransferase. This study also includes the technique of laser microdissection in combination with pressure catapulting (LMPC) for the dissection of samples and specific neurons. Furthermore, complementary experiments with nanoLC-matrix assisted laser ...
BACKGROUND Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels have been associated with a higher risk of developing multiple sclerosis and increased relapse rates in patients with multiple sclerosis. As a sterol hormone involved in multiple immunologic pathways, vitamin D may play a role in preventing monophasic immune-mediated central nervous system attacks from developing into recurrent disease. OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between low serum vitamin D levels and recurrent spinal cord disease. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS We performed a retrospective analysis at Johns Hopkins Transverse Myelitis Center, Baltimore, Maryland, evaluating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in 77 patients with monophasic and recurrent inflammatory diseases of the spinal cord. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. RESULTS Vitamin D levels are significantly lower in patients who developed recurrent spinal cord disease, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dynorphin promotes abnormal pain and spinal opioid antinociceptive tolerance. AU - Vanderah, Todd W. AU - Gardell, Luis R.. AU - Burgess, Shannon E.. AU - Ibrahim, Mohab. AU - Dogrul, Ahmet. AU - Zhong, Cheng Min. AU - Zhang, En Tan. AU - Malan, T. Philip. AU - Ossipov, Michael H.. AU - Lai, Josephine. AU - Porreca, Frank. PY - 2000/9/15. Y1 - 2000/9/15. N2 - The nonopioid actions of spinal dynorphin may promote aspects of abnormal pain after nerve injury. Mechanistic similarities have been suggested between opioid tolerance and neuropathic pain. Here, the hypothesis that spinal dynorphin might mediate effects of sustained spinal opioids was explored. Possible abnormal pain and spinal antinociceptive tolerance were evaluated after intrathecal administration of [D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly-ol5]enke phalin (DAMGO), an opioid μ agonist. Rats infused with DAMGO, but not saline, demonstrated tactile allodynia and ...
The effects of 3 phosphodiesterase inhibitors, aminophylline, isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), and RO 20-1724, were tested on descending intraspinal and spinal reflex transmission to sympathetic preganglionic neurons in unanesthetized spinal cats. Sympathetic discharges, recorded from upper thoracic preganglionic white rami, were evoked by stimulation (0.1 Hz) of descending excitatory pathways in the cervical dorsolateral funiculus (intraspinal) or of adjacent intercostal nerves (spinal reflex). Each phosphodiesterase rapidly and markedly enhanced transmission through intraspinal pathways but only slowly and modestly enhanced transmission through spinal reflex pathways. Pretreatment with a methyltyrosine-reserpine combination, chlorpromazine, or prazosin markedly restricted the enhancement of intraspinal transmission by IBMX to levels typically produced on ...
Compression of the spinal cord in the cervical spine that results in motor and sensory dysfunction affecting the upper extremities is known as cervical myelopathy. Sometimes a severe compression of the spinal cord at the cervical region can also cause motor and sensory deficient in the lower extremities and disrupt the bowel and bladder function. Degenerative changes in the cervical spine can cause severe cervical myelopathy. There are a few causes that lead to compression of the spinal cord in the cervical region. Narrowing of the spinal canal where the spinal cord is located due to degenerative processes or congenital causes can cause cervical myelopathy. Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament or calcification of the ligamentum flavum can result in spinal cord compression. Posterior bony osteophytes arising ...
Request for :- spinal muscular atrophy free sample page. Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) Epidemiology The Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) epidemiology division provide insights about historical and current Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) patient pool and forecasted trend for every seven major countries. It helps to recognize the causes of current and forecasted trends by exploring numerous studies and views of key opinion leaders. This part of the DelveInsight report also provides the diagnosed patient pool and their trends along with assumptions undertaken. Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) Market Outlook. The Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) market outlook of the report helps to build the detailed comprehension of the historic, current, and forecasted Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) market trends by analyzing the impact of current therapies on the market, unmet needs, drivers and barriers and demand of ...
Request for :- spinal muscular atrophy free sample page. Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) Epidemiology The Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) epidemiology division provide insights about historical and current Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) patient pool and forecasted trend for every seven major countries. It helps to recognize the causes of current and forecasted trends by exploring numerous studies and views of key opinion leaders. This part of the DelveInsight report also provides the diagnosed patient pool and their trends along with assumptions undertaken. Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) Market Outlook. The Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) market outlook of the report helps to build the detailed comprehension of the historic, current, and forecasted Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) market trends by analyzing the impact of current therapies on the market, unmet needs, drivers and barriers and demand of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients with spinal cord injury. T2 - Effects of sequential pneumatic compression and heparin. AU - Winemiller, Mark H.. AU - Stolp-Smith, Kathryn A.. AU - Silverstein, Marc D.. AU - Therneau, Terry M.. PY - 1999/1/1. Y1 - 1999/1/1. N2 - Objective: To estimate the incidence of and risk factors for venous thromboembolism in patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and evaluate the effectiveness of sequential pneumatic compression devices (SCD), gradient elastic stockings (GES), and heparin in preventing thromboembolism. Design: Prentices case-cohort design. Setting: All patients admitted to our hospital between 1976 and 1995 with acute traumatic SCI. Main outcome measures: Demographic characteristics, venous thromboembolism risk factors, methods of surveillance and prophylaxis, and thromboembolic events during the first 6 weeks following injury. Results: Venous ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Optimal treatment for Spinal Cord Injury associated with cervical canal Stenosis (OSCIS). T2 - A study protocol for a randomized controlled trial comparing early versus delayed surgery. AU - Chikuda, Hirotaka. AU - Ohtsu, Hiroshi. AU - Ogata, Toru. AU - Sugita, Shurei. AU - Sumitani, Masahiko. AU - Koyama, Yurie. AU - Matsumoto, Morio. AU - Toyama, Yoshiaki. PY - 2013/8/7. Y1 - 2013/8/7. N2 - Background: The optimal management of acute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) associated with preexisting canal stenosis remains to be established. The objective of this study is to examine whether early surgical decompression (within 24 hours after admission) would result in greater improvement in motor function compared with delayed surgery (later than two weeks) in cervical SCI patients presenting with canal stenosis, but without bony injury.Methods/design: OSCIS is a randomized, controlled, parallel-group, assessor-blinded, ...
Neurocutaneous melanosis (NCM) is a rare congenital syndrome consisting of benign or malignant melanotic tumors of the central nervous system with large or numerous cutaneous melanocytic nevi. The Dandy-Walker complex (DWC) is characterized by an enlarged posterior fossa with high insertion of the tentorium, hypoplasia or aplasia of the cerebellar vermis, and cystic dilatation of the fourth ventricle. These each two conditions are rare, but NCM associated with DWC is even more rare. Most patients of NCM with DWC present neurological symptoms early in life such as intracranial hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, and malignant transformation of the melanocytes. We report a 14-year-old male patient who was finally diagnosed as NCM in association with DWC with extensive intracerebral and spinal cord involvement. ...
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a genetic disease which is characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy. The disease arises from mutations in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene causing degeneration of spinal cord motor neurons. No effective treatment is currently available for SMA however it may be possible to treat the disease using gene therapy. The aim of this project is to develop potential therapies for SMA by investigating different viral and non-viral gene therapy vectors and assessing the effect of potential disease modifying genes. The data collected are described under four chapters as follows: 1: The aim here was to develop a novel approach based on polymer nanoparticles (polymersomes) for gene delivery. Encapsulation of DNA by polymersomes was optimised and polymersomes were used to restore SMN levels into a fibroblast cell line isolated from a child with severe SMA. 2: The ability of adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (AAV5) vectors ...
In the hours and days following acute CNS injury, a secondary wave of events is initiated that exacerbate spinal tissue damage and neuronal cell death. A potential mechanism driving these secondary events is opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and subsequent release of several cell death proteins. Previous studies have shown that inhibition of cyclophilin D(CypD), the key regulating component in mPTP opening, was protective against insults that induce necrotic cell death. We therefore hypothesized that CypD-null mice would show improved functional and pathological outcomes following spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Moderate and severe spinal contusion was produced in wild-type (WT) and CypD-null mice at the T-10 level using the Infinite Horizon impactor. Changes in locomotor function were evaluated using the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) at 3 days post-injury followed by ...
E = Normal: Motor and sensory function are normal. Supra-sacral spinal cord injury may result in neurogenic bladder, characterized in part by frequent urinary tract infections from inadequate bladder emptying. The high bladder pressures related to large post-void residuals can lead to autonomic dysreflexia, vesicoureteral reflux, upper urinary tract dilations, hydronephrosis, and eventual renal failure. Sacral anterior root stimulation is intended to provide bladder evacuation by delivering electrical stimulation to intact spinal nerve roots in order to elicit functional contraction of the innervated muscles. Implantation of a sacral anterior root stimulator is typically performed in conjunction with a simultaneous posterior rhizotomy. The rhizotomy results in an areflexive bladder with low intravesicular pressure and high compliance. When the user activates the implanted stimulator, the urethral sphincter and bladder contract and relax, allowing the bladder ...
Background: Bone metastases occur in most patients with advanced hormone-refractory prostate cancer causing pain, pathologic fractures, and spinal cord compression. Few studies specifically address surgical treatment of metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) in prostate cancer. Criteria for identifying patients who may benefit from surgery are poorly defined. Most of the current knowledge regarding tumor biology in prostate cancer is based on studies of primary tumors or soft tissue metastases. The mechanisms regulating growth of bone metastases are not fully established.. Aims: a) to evaluate outcome after surgery for MSCC in prostate cancer and to identify prognostic factors for survival and functional recovery; b) to evaluate current practice for referral of prostate cancer patients with MSCC; c) to analyze expression of androgen receptor (AR), cell proliferation, apoptosis, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in bone metastases with ...
To report the incidence of urethral stricture and its management in patients with spinal cord injury treated with clean intermittent self-catheterization.The clinical records of 333 patients with spinal cord injury treated with clean intermittent self-catheterization since 2001 were identified and those that developed a urethral stricture during their follow-up, including their treatment and results achieved were analyzed.
Talk to a Denver spinal cord injury lawyer at our law firm if you were involved in a motorcycle accident and sustained a spinal cord injury of any kind.
... (SMA3), also known as juvenile SMA, is one type of a group of conditions known as spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs), which are inherited disorders that cause a child to lose a specific type of cell in their spinal cord (motor neurons) and a part of their brain that is connected to the spinal cord (brain stem). Without these important parts of the brain and spinal cord, an affected child loses control of muscle movement, has muscle weakness, and loses muscle tissue (atrophy). SMA3 is considered to be a more mild form of SMA and symptoms usually present after the age of 12 months. The muscle weakness in SMA3 affects both arms and legs, but legs are typically more severely affected. The disease can sometimes cause a curvature of the spine (scoliosis). Most children with SMA3 can walk without help, but they may fall often. People with SMA3 ...
1. The differential diagnosis of a spinal cord tumor is determined by the anatomic compartment in which it occurs (i.e. extradural, intradural-extramedullary, or intramedullary).. 2. Syringohydromyelia is an abnormal fluid cavity within the spinal cord, which may cause progressive neurologic dysfunction.. 3. Spinal dysraphism is broadly classified into two forms: spina bifida occulta and spina bifida cystica.. 4. Myelomeningocele is the most common significant spinal birth defect and results from disruption of the process of neurulation between days 24 and 28 following conception.. Websites. Chiari malformation: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1483583-overview Intramedullary spinal cord tumors: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/251133-overview Neural tube defects: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1177162-overview Spinal cord ...
People with spinal cord injury (SCI) paraplegia who receive exercise treatment for shoulder pain experience significant increases in social participation and improvements in quality of life (QOL), say authors of an article in The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. However, they add, increases in social participation did not significantly affect improvements in QOL.. Fifty-eight participants with SCI paraplegia and shoulder pain were selected and randomized to either an exercise treatment or a control group. Participants in the treatment group participated in a 12-week, at-home exercise and movement optimization program designed to strengthen shoulder muscles and modify movements related to upper extremity weight bearing.. Participants filled out self-report measures at baseline, 12 weeks after the end of treatment, and at a 4-week follow-up. Outcomes were measured using the Wheelchair Users Shoulder Pain Index (WUSPI), the Social Interaction ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Treatment of spinal muscular atrophy by sodium butyrate. AU - Chang, Jan Gowth. AU - Hsieh-Li, Hsiu Mei. AU - Jong, Yuh Jyh. AU - Wang, Nancy M.. AU - Tsai, Chang Hai. AU - Li, Hung. PY - 2001/8/14. Y1 - 2001/8/14. N2 - Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by degeneration of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord, leading to muscular paralysis with muscular atrophy. No effective treatment of this disorder is presently available. Studies of the correlation between disease severity and the amount of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein have shown an inverse relationship. We report that sodium butyrate effectively increases the amount of exon 7-containing SMN protein in SMA lymphoid cell lines by changing the alternative splicing pattern of exon 7 in the SMN2 gene. In vivo, sodium butyrate treatment of SMA-like mice resulted in increased expression of SMN protein in motor neurons of ...
Microglial cell-associated neuroinflammation is considered as a potential contributor to the pathophysiology of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, the specific role of microglia in the disease pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. We studied the activation profiles of the microglial cultures exposed to the cerebrospinal fluid from these patients which recapitulates the neurodegeneration seen in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This was done by investigating the morphological and functional changes including the expression levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), arginase, and trophic factors. We also studied the effect of chitotriosidase, the inflammatory protein found upregulated in the cerebrospinal fluid from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients, on these cultures. We report that the cerebrospinal fluid from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients ...
The same technology that has been used to strengthen polymers1, de-ice helicopter wings2, and create more efficient batteries3 may one day help those with damaged or even severed spinal cords walk again. The Tour Lab at Rice University, headed by Dr. James Tour, is harnessing the power of graphene nanoribbons to create a special new material called Texas-PEG that may revolutionize the way we treat spinal cord injuries; one day, it may even make whole body transplants a reality.. Dr. Tour, the T.T. and W.F. Chao Professor of Chemistry, Professor of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, and Professor of Computer Science at Rice University, is a synthetic organic chemist who mainly focuses on nanotechnology. He currently holds over 120 patents and has published over 600 papers, and was inducted into the National Academy of Inventors in 2015.4 His lab is currently working on several different projects, such as investigating various applications ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tethered spinal cord and VACTERL association. AU - Kuo, Meng Fai. AU - Tsai, Yihsin. AU - Hsu, Wen Ming. AU - Chen, Ruei Sheng. AU - Tu, Yong Kwang. AU - Wang, Huei Shyong. PY - 2007/3/1. Y1 - 2007/3/1. N2 - Object. Vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiovascular anomalies, tracheoesophageal fistulas (TEFs), renal anomalies, and limb defects (most often of the radius) are commonly associated and known collectively by the acronym VACTERL. The authors studied these nonrandomly associated birth defects to determine if a further relationship exists between VACTERL association and the presence of a tethered spinal cord (TSC). Methods. From 2001 to 2004, 12 patients with VACTERL association who were treated operatively by a single pediatric surgeon underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to evaluate the intraspinal abnormalities that may cause tethering. Three patients were excluded from the study due to ...
Chiari malformation is a structural defect in cerebellum, the area in the back of the head where the brain and the spinal cord connect. The congenital (present at birth) defect occurs when the indented space at the base of the skull is too small to hold the lower part of the cerebellum, forcing it down into the spinal column. As a result, the brain and spinal cord are compressed, blocking flow of spinal fluid.. There are different types of Chiari malformation. Type I is the most common type observed in children, but it can also develop in adults. Many people with Type I Chiari malformations have no symptoms, whereas others develop symptoms in their 20s or 30s, and may include headache, dizziness, neck pain, impaired balance, nausea, and vision problems. The diagnosis of Chiari malformation includes a physical examination, a complete neurological evaluation ...
The vocal cords are soft mucosal folds with fibrous muscles and ligaments, whose vibration, produced by the passage of air from the lungs, produces the voice. When the vocal cords are damaged, the symptoms most often observed are: dysphonia (modified sounds), pain, hoarseness, croakiness, lowering of the voice tone. Sometimes these symptoms hinder communication and affect a persons social life.. Voice disorders are most often linked to overuse of the vocal cords or more rarely to lesions of the mucosa including inflammation, infection, polyps and neurological disorders.. Some toxins expose the vocal cords to damage, including tobacco, alcohol, sulphuric acid, dust, or welding smoke.. Drugs induce vocal cord damage by various mechanisms: mucosal deposits, mucosal dryness and reduced vocal cord lubrication, changes in salivary composition, oedema, erythema, necrosis, or mucosal haematomas, paralysis of the ...
Cervical radiculopathy results when the nerves leaving the spinal cord at the neck are pinched or compressed as they exit the spine. Herniated discs, degenerative disc disease, bone spurs, and spinal stenosis are common causes of cervical radiculopathy. A herniated disc occurs when the outer disc layer ruptures and the contents come out of the disc. If the contents extend into the spinal canal, it can put pressure on the spinal nerves. Degenerative disc disease is a condition that causes the intervertebral discs in the spine to deteriorate or breakdown. As the disc deteriorates, the vertebrae may thicken and extend into the spinal canal. Bone spurs, abnormal bone overgrowths caused by osteoarthritis, can grow in to the spinal canal or nerve root openings on the vertebrae. Bone spurs can contribute to a condition in which the spinal canal is narrowed, called ...
When a spinal stenosis surgery is planned due to the failure of non operative methods, the surgeon has an intention to treat the portions of spinal canal which are very narrow, this process is termed as decompression. It is a form of mechanical lumbar traction. It is frequently prescribed by spinal surgeons and medical doctors as an option to prevent the need for spinal surgery. L5-S1 so severe causing pain always on my left buttock and left leg. Percutaneous Image-guided Lumbar Decompression (PILD) [Includes Minimally Invasive Lumbar Decompression (mild®)] 9. While this treatment isnt right for everyone, it does provide many benefits. Chiropractic spinal decompression in the form of Cox Technic F/D is billable as spinal manipulation; it is chiropractic which recent published reports show as costing less than 2% of the total cost to treat a lumbar herniated disc (10) and costing 40% less than medical doctor ...
C5-6 intervertebral disc compressing the spinal nerve root, resulting in arm pain and numbness witha subsequent surgical repair via discectomy (diskectomy) and spinal fusion surgery. Labels include annulus fibrosis, nucleus pulposus, nerve root and spinal cord. Surgical steps: A. An incision is made to expose the cervical vertebrae; B. The C5-6 disc material and vertebral end plates are removed; C. The extruded disc fragments and osteophytes are removed; D. A depiction of the spinal fusion.
Definition of Spinal muscular atrophy in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Spinal muscular atrophy? Meaning of Spinal muscular atrophy as a legal term. What does Spinal muscular atrophy mean in law?
Cervical nerve root injury commonly leads to pain. The duration of an applied compression has been shown to contribute to both the onset of persistent pain and also the degree of spinal cellular and molecular responses related to nociception that are produced. This thesis uses a rat model of a transient cervical nerve root compression to study how the duration of an applied compression modulates both peripherally-evoked activity in spinal cord neurons during a root compression and the resulting neuronal and glutamatergic responses in the nerve root and spinal cord. Studies define the compression duration threshold that inhibits peripherally-evoked action potentials in the spinal cord during a root compression to be at 6.6±3.0 minutes and this is similar to the threshold for eliciting persistent mechanical allodynia after a cervical root compression that lies between 3 and 10 minutes. ...
Clinical Message Neuromyelitis optica is certainly a rare inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that predominantly targets the optic nerves and spinal cord. myelitis. The syndrome was eponymously named Devics disease 2. The discovery of a specific NMO immunoglobulin (NMO‐IgG) opened a new era in the classification and understanding of the pathogenesis of NMO 3. NMO‐IgG binds to aquaporin‐4 which is the main channel that regulates water homeostasis in the CNS. Diagnostic criteria for NMO with aquaporin‐4 antibodies (AQP4‐Ab) requires at least one core clinical characteristic a positive test for AQP4‐Ab using best available detection method (cell‐based assay recommended) and exclusion of alternative diagnoses 1. The core clinical characteristics are for example optic neuritis severe myelitis severe brainstem symptoms symptomatic narcolepsy or symptomatic cerebral symptoms with regular NMO human brain lesions 1. ...
Patients with various types of spinal cord injury and different neurological problems as stroke, multiple sclerosis and Parkinsonism can suffer from different urologic problems including urinary incontinence as a result of bladder and sphincteric dysfunction, recurrent urinary tract infection, urinary stone diseases, deterioration of kidney function and sexual dysfunction.. At West coast Urology, we have the most advance technology in evaluating the bladder and sphincetric function using VideoUrodynamic with pelvic floor motion. This will provide us with adequate information on how to manage the neurogenic bladder and the urinary problems that can result from it.. What is Neurogenic Bladder?. Neurogenic bladder is a bladder dysfunction resulting from improper functioning of the nerves, which carry messages between the brain and the bladder muscles to facilitate urination. Proper bladder function depends on these nerves to sense the fullness of the bladder ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tibialis Anterior Tendon Lengthening. T2 - Adjunctive Treatment of Plantar Lateral Column Diabetic Foot Ulcers. AU - Kim, Paul J.. AU - Steinberg, John S.. AU - Kikuchi, Mamoru. AU - Attinger, Christopher E.. PY - 2015/7/1. Y1 - 2015/7/1. N2 - Tendon lengthening and rebalancing are adjunctive procedures for the treatment of chronic ulcerations in the diabetic foot. For example, the equinus deformity has been implicated as a major deforming force and is surgically treated by lengthening the Achilles tendon. A contracted tibialis anterior tendon can also play a role by potentiating a varus rotational force, increasing the pressures along the lateral column of the forefoot, and resulting in the development or chronicity of an ulceration. We present a novel application of tibialis anterior tendon lengthening for the adjunctive treatment of chronic ulcerations in the diabetic foot.. AB - Tendon lengthening and rebalancing are adjunctive procedures for the treatment of chronic ...
Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (SPMS) - Pipeline Insight, 2017 is a market research report available at US $1250 for a Single User PDF License from RnR Market Research Reports Library.

Viral Meningitis (Aseptic Meningitis) - EpidemiologyViral Meningitis (Aseptic Meningitis) - Epidemiology

What is viral meningitis? Meningitis means inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Viral meningitis ... What are the symptoms of viral meningitis? Symptoms of meningitis include the sudden onset of fever with headache, stiff neck, ... If meningitis is suspected, doctors will take samples of blood and/or fluid near the spinal cord and send them to the ... Who gets viral meningitis? Viral meningitis can affect anyone. The disease is most often seen in infants and people whose ...
more infohttp://www.vdh.virginia.gov/epidemiology/epidemiology-fact-sheets/viral-meningitis-aseptic-meningitis/

Listeria meningitis contagious - Doctor answersListeria meningitis contagious - Doctor answers

Can listeria meningitis be contracted from other people? No. Listeria meningitis is usually contracted from eating foods ... A condition in which the membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord becomes inflamed. Symptoms include headaches, fever, ... Aseptic meningitis: Usually the patient with viral meningitis becomes contagious for 3-5 days before the onset of symptoms to 7 ... Maybe: Im sorry to hear that your friend has meningitis. She has an infection in the membranes covering her brain and spinal ...
more infohttps://www.healthtap.com/topics/listeria-meningitis-contagious

Polio | Encyclopedia.comPolio | Encyclopedia.com

... tissues which cover the spinal cord and brain). This syndrome is called aseptic meningitis . The term aseptic is used to ... They include severe headache and neck and back pain.. The worst effects of polio are caused when the virus invades motor nerves ... tissues which cover the spinal cord and brain). This syndrome is called "aseptic meningitis." The term "aseptic" is used to ... The brain stem is located at the base of the brain. It connects the brain to the spinal cord. A person may have trouble ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/diseases-and-conditions/pathology/polio

Medications for Myositis - HSS.eduMedications for Myositis - HSS.edu

Meningitis means inflammation of the meninges -- the layers that cover the brain and the spinal cord. This may require you to ... This is called aseptic meningitis. Aseptic means it is not viral or bacterial. ... The side effects of gamma globulin may include mild to severe headaches. Within 48 hours, this medication peaks in the ... headaches, and flushing of the skin. The long-term side effects may include: cataracts, steroid-induced diabetes, and bone ...
more infohttps://www.hss.edu/conditions_medications-for-myositis.asp

An Overview of Enterovirus and the Different StrainsAn Overview of Enterovirus and the Different Strains

Viral (aseptic) Meningitis Meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges (membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord). ... Patients have fever, headache, and sometimes confusion. They may lose consciousness and have impaired function. ... In can rarely cause neurologic effects, such as brain-stem encephalitis that delay neurodevelopment. A particular genotype C4 ... Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain, causing tiredness, comas, seizures, loss of movement or coordination. ...
more infohttps://www.verywellhealth.com/enterovirus-strains-and-facts-1958863

Viral meningitis - WikipediaViral meningitis - Wikipedia

... the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord). Symptoms commonly include headache, fever, sensitivity to light, and neck ... Viral meningitis, also known as aseptic meningitis, is a type of meningitis due to a viral infection. It results in ... "Viral Meningitis - Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders - Merck Manuals Consumer Version". Merck Manuals Consumer Version. ... Viruses are the most common cause of aseptic meningitis. Most cases of viral meningitis are caused by enteroviruses (common ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viral_meningitis

Symptoms of Herpes of the Spine | Livestrong.comSymptoms of Herpes of the Spine | Livestrong.com

... while meningitis means inflammation of the connective tissue lining the spinal cord and brain. Symptoms of meningitis include ... spinal herpes can also lead to a condition known as aseptic meningitis. The term aseptic refers to the absence of bacteria, ... Headaches occur in as many as 15 percent of patients with recurrent genital herpes and, according to the article in Archives ... Meningitis due to spinal herpes may also be accompanied by back, buttock, perineal and lower extremity pain, urinary retention ...
more infohttps://www.livestrong.com/article/75344-symptoms-herpes-spine/

Causes and Symptoms of Aseptic MeningitisCauses and Symptoms of Aseptic Meningitis

... is a disease involving inflammation in the area between the middle and inner tissue layers covering the brain and spinal cord ( ... They may suffer from headache, sore throat and a stiff neck. This Article. * Vote Improved My Health 0 ... Aseptic meningitis is brought on by infection from other sources. About 50 % of aseptic meningitis cases will stem from two ... Aseptic meningitis is more common but less severe than bacterial meningitis.. What is meningitis ...
more infohttp://www.empowher.com/aseptic-meningitis/content/causes-and-symptoms-aseptic-meningitis

Lamictal XR (Lamotrigine Extended-Release Tablets): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & UsesLamictal XR (Lamotrigine Extended-Release Tablets): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses

4. LAMICTAL XR may rarely cause aseptic meningitis, a serious inflammation of the protective membrane that covers the brain and ... spinal cord.. Call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of the following symptoms: ... Instruct them to notify their physician immediately if they develop signs and symptoms of meningitis such as headache, fever, ... Aseptic Meningitis. Therapy with lamotrigine increases the risk of developing aseptic meningitis. Because of the potential for ...
more infohttps://www.rxlist.com/lamictal-xr-drug.htm

These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Lamotrigine tablets safely and effectively. See full...These highlights do not include all the information needed to use Lamotrigine tablets safely and effectively. See full...

... a serious inflammation of the protective membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord. ... 5.6 Aseptic Meningitis. Therapy with Lamotrigine increases the risk of developing aseptic meningitis. Because of the potential ... should be advised to notify their physician immediately if they develop signs and symptoms of meningitis such as headache, ... 17.9 Aseptic Meningitis. Patients should be advised that Lamotrigine may cause aseptic meningitis. Patients ...
more infohttps://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/fda/fdaDrugXsl.cfm?setid=d33c4293-347c-49a1-9d98-f291c3dab6da&type=display

ratio-Lamotrigine - Uses, Side Effects, Interactions - MedBroadcast.comratio-Lamotrigine - Uses, Side Effects, Interactions - MedBroadcast.com

... lamotrigine can cause symptoms of aseptic meningitis (inflammation or swelling of the membranes around the brain and spinal ... signs of meningitis not caused by infection (e.g., headache [severe], throbbing, or with stiff neck or back) ... cord that is not caused by bacteria). If you have an autoimmune condition (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed connective ... If you experience symptoms such as stiff neck, severe headache, nausea, vomiting, fever, or changes in consciousness, stop ...
more infohttps://medbroadcast.com/drug/getdrug/ratio-lamotrigine

Lamotrigine by Sivem - Uses, Side Effects, Interactions - MedBroadcast.comLamotrigine by Sivem - Uses, Side Effects, Interactions - MedBroadcast.com

Lamotrigine works by decreasing the chemicals in the brain that are believed to contribute to seizures. ... lamotrigine can cause symptoms of aseptic meningitis (inflammation or swelling of the membranes around the brain and spinal ... signs of meningitis not caused by infection (e.g., headache [severe], throbbing, or with stiff neck or back) ... cord that is not caused by bacteria). If you have an autoimmune condition (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed connective ...
more infohttps://medbroadcast.com/drug/getdrug/lamotrigine-by-sivem

Enterovirus Infections | definition of Enterovirus Infections by Medical dictionaryEnterovirus Infections | definition of Enterovirus Infections by Medical dictionary

Outer covering of the spinal cord and brain. Infection is called meningitis, which can lead to damage to the brain or spinal ... of cases of aseptic meningitis, and most often hit children and young adults. Headache, fever, avoidance of light, and eye pain ... Occasionally, not only the meninges;mdash;the covering around the brain and spinal cord;mdash;is infected, but also brain ... Aseptic meningitis encephalitis is a well known syndrome caused by this group of viruses. In fact, enteroviruses are ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Enterovirus+infections

Poliovirus Isolation:  No Evidence  by Jim WestPoliovirus Isolation: No Evidence by Jim West

... the spinal cord and brain. The type or degree of paralysis induced depends upon the location and extent of motor neuron ... aseptic meningitis (swelling of the membranes surrounding the brain) can result. This minor illness of poliomyelitis (as it is ... The major illness of poliomyelitis usually develops suddenly, with fever, stiff neck and back, severe headache, and muscle pain ... by injecting diseased human spinal cord tissue into the brains of monkeys. After a monkey fell ill, a suspension of its ...
more infohttp://whale.to/c/poliovirus_isolation.html

FDA Warns of Potential Meningitis Risk Associated with LamictalFDA Warns of Potential Meningitis Risk Associated with Lamictal

Aseptic meningitis is an inflammation of the protective membranes (meninges) that cover the brain and spinal cord. Aseptic ... Symptoms can include headache, fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, stiff neck and sensitivity to light. Hospitalization may be ... "Aseptic meningitis is a rare but serious side effect of Lamictal use," said Russell Katz, M.D., director of the Division of ... Aseptic meningitis has a number of causes including, but not limited to, viruses, toxic agents, some vaccines, autoimmune ...
more infohttps://psychcentral.com/news/2010/08/14/fda-warns-of-potential-risk-associated-with-lamotrigine/16819.html

pms-Lamotrigine - Uses, Side Effects, Interactions - Canada.compms-Lamotrigine - Uses, Side Effects, Interactions - Canada.com

... lamotrigine can cause symptoms of aseptic meningitis (inflammation or swelling of the membranes around the brain and spinal ... signs of meningitis not caused by infection (e.g., headache [severe], throbbing, or with stiff neck or back) ... cord that is not caused by bacteria). If you have an autoimmune condition (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed connective ... If you experience symptoms such as stiff neck, severe headache, nausea, vomiting, fever, or changes in consciousness, stop ...
more infohttps://bodyandhealth.canada.com/drug/getdrug/pms-lamotrigine

Lamotrigine by Pro Doc - Uses, Side Effects, Interactions - Canada.comLamotrigine by Pro Doc - Uses, Side Effects, Interactions - Canada.com

... lamotrigine can cause symptoms of aseptic meningitis (inflammation or swelling of the membranes around the brain and spinal ... signs of meningitis not caused by infection (e.g., headache [severe], throbbing, or with stiff neck or back) ... cord that is not caused by bacteria). If you have an autoimmune condition (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed connective ... If you experience symptoms such as stiff neck, severe headache, nausea, vomiting, fever, or changes in consciousness, stop ...
more infohttps://bodyandhealth.canada.com/drug/getdrug/lamotrigine-by-pro-doc

Side Effect: Central Nervous System (meningitis, demyelinating disease)Side Effect: Central Nervous System (meningitis, demyelinating disease)

Meningitis is an inflammation of the protective membranes (the meninges) that cover the brain and spinal cord. Aseptic ... Symptoms of meningitis may include headache, fever, stiff neck, nausea, vomiting, rash, and sensitivity to light. In cases of ... Aseptic Meningitis Risk with Use of Seizure Drug Lamictal:. "Aseptic meningitis is a rare but serious side effect of Lamictal ... Popular Seizure And Bipolar Disorder Medication Lamictal Associated With Aseptic Meningitis In August 2010. FDA Working With ...
more infohttps://www.drug-injury.com/druginjurycom/side-effect-central-nervous-system-meningitis-demyelinating-disease/

Avon High School student is treated for non-bacterial meningitis - Live5News.com | Charleston, SC | News, Weather, SportsAvon High School student is treated for non-bacterial meningitis - Live5News.com | Charleston, SC | News, Weather, Sports

Mike Laub of the Avon Local School District confirmed that a high school student was diagnosed non-bacterial meningitis this ... The General Health District said meningitis is an irritation over the covering of the brain and spinal cord. ... Symptoms of aseptic meningitis include a fever, headache, stomach pain, lack of appetite, vomiting and stiff neck. Within a ... The type of meningitis found in the high school student, known as aseptic or viral meningitis, is considered to be the most ...
more infohttp://www.live5news.com/story/23547002/avon-high-school-student-is-treated-for-non-bacterial-meningitis

Neurological Problems and Management | Stroke | MeningitisNeurological Problems and Management | Stroke | Meningitis

... localized collection of exudate in the brain or in the spinal cord b. a recurrent aseptic meningitis c. considered ... Recurrent muscular-contraction headache (pressure, tension headache) a. most common form of headache b. may be direct result of ... controls basic body functions and relays impulses to and from spinal cord; the connection between the brain and spinal cord ... A watery cushion that protects the brain and spinal cord from physical impact and bathes the brain in electrolytes and proteins ...
more infohttps://www.scribd.com/document/92844521/Neurological-Problems-and-Management

PPT - Basic Infection Prevention Training PowerPoint Presentation - ID:6797163PPT - Basic Infection Prevention Training PowerPoint Presentation - ID:6797163

Meningitis OverviewInflammation of the meninges, which surrounds the brain and spinal cord. The inflammation may have ... often called aseptic meningitis, which refers to all non bacterial causes of the meningitis, such as viruses, fungi, parasitic ... Presentation - both viral and bacterial present the same (fever, neck stiffness, altered mental status, headache photophobia, ... 70 Meningitis - Cerebral spinal fluid • Lumbar puncture - The results of the CSF fluid; WBC count, protein, and glucose are ...
more infohttps://www.slideserve.com/edward-haney/basic-infection-prevention-training?utm_source=slideserve&utm_medium=website&utm_campaign=related+section+click

Lamictal PDR+ Consumer Monograph | PDR.netLamictal PDR+ Consumer Monograph | PDR.net

Aseptic meningitis (a brain or spinal cord inflammation), with symptoms such as headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, stiff neck, ... have had aseptic meningitis after taking Lamictal; a history of rash or allergic reaction to another seizure medication; or if ... More common side effects may include: dizziness, headache, double vision, problems with coordination, nausea, blurred vision, ... Lamictal is thought to help keep electrical signals balanced in the brain. ...
more infohttps://www.pdr.net/pdr-consumer-monograph/lamictal?druglabelid=206&ConsumerId=1217&cardtypeid=1

EncephalitisEncephalitis

Meningitis and encephalitis are inflammatory diseases of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord and are caused ... Meningitis and encephalitis are inflammatory diseases of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord and are caused ... Viral meningitis is sometimes called aseptic meningitis to indicate it is not the result of bacterial infection and cannot be ... Symptoms of meningitis, which may appear suddenly, often include high fever, severe and persistent headache, stiff neck, nausea ...
more infohttps://www.medications.com/encephalitis

Lamictal  - Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Overdose, Pregnancy, Alcohol | RxWikiLamictal - Side Effects, Uses, Dosage, Overdose, Pregnancy, Alcohol | RxWiki

Lamictal may rarely cause aseptic meningitis, a serious inflammation of the protective membrane that covers the brain and ... spinal cord. Meningitis has many causes other than Lamictal, which your doctor would check for if you developed meningitis ... while taking Lamictal.Call your doctor right away if you experience headache, fever, nausea/vomiting, stiff neck, rash, or ... have had aseptic meningitis after taking Lamictal or Lamictal XR.. *are taking oral contraceptives (birth control pills) or ...
more infohttps://www.rxwiki.com/lamictal

Grandkids Chasing Mice - How Cool!! | Defenders of the Catholic Faith | Hosted by Stephen K. RayGrandkids Chasing Mice - How Cool!! | Defenders of the Catholic Faith | Hosted by Stephen K. Ray

... inflammation of the membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord) and/or encephalitis (inflammation of the brain itself). ... Lymphocytic Chorio-meningitis (LCM) - A rodent-borne viral infectious disease presenting as aseptic meningitis ( ... Symptoms include vomiting, fever, headache, myalgia, and cough. Leptospirosis - Rats and mice are both carriers of this ...
more infohttp://www.catholicconvert.com/blog/2013/06/09/grandkids-chasing-mice-how-cool/
  • Patients with herpes meningitis should be under contact precautions, as it can be spread like the flu. (healthtap.com)
more