The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The anterior portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that contains mainly the nucleus with highly compact CHROMATIN material.
Aseptic or avascular necrosis of the femoral head. The major types are idiopathic (primary), as a complication of fractures or dislocations, and LEGG-CALVE-PERTHES DISEASE.
Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)
Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.
The portion of the upper rounded extremity fitting into the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA. (from Stedman, 27th ed)
Lice of the genus Pediculus, family Pediculidae. Pediculus humanus corporus is the human body louse and Pediculus humanus capitis is the human head louse.
Parasitic attack or subsistence on the skin by members of the order Phthiraptera, especially on humans by Pediculus humanus of the family Pediculidae. The hair of the head, eyelashes, and pubis is a frequent site of infestation. (From Dorland, 28th ed; Stedman, 26th ed)
A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).
The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.
Scalp dermatoses refer to various inflammatory skin conditions affecting the scalp, including seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and tinea capitis, often characterized by symptoms such as redness, scaling, itching, and hair loss.
Head injuries which feature compromise of the skull and dura mater. These may result from gunshot wounds (WOUNDS, GUNSHOT), stab wounds (WOUNDS, STAB), and other forms of trauma.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
A primitive form of vertebrate kidney that is found in adults of some primitive FISHES and in the embryos of more advanced fishes. In some species of fishes it contains phagocytic cells and is also a major site of HEMATOPOIESIS, analogous to the mammalian BONE MARROW.
An increase in the rate of speed.
The position or attitude of the body.
The portion of the optic nerve seen in the fundus with the ophthalmoscope. It is formed by the meeting of all the retinal ganglion cell axons as they enter the optic nerve.
An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)
A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.
A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
Neoplasms of the SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in tissue composed of squamous elements.
A general concept for tumors or cancer of any part of the EAR; the NOSE; the THROAT; and the PHARYNX. It is used when there is no specific heading.
The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.
Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.
Replacement for a hip joint.
Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.
Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.
Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).
A particular type of FEMUR HEAD NECROSIS occurring in children, mainly male, with a course of four years or so.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)
A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.
The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.
The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Replacement of the hip joint.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)
Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.
The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.
A symptom, not a disease, of a twisted neck. In most instances, the head is tipped toward one side and the chin rotated toward the other. The involuntary muscle contractions in the neck region of patients with torticollis can be due to congenital defects, trauma, inflammation, tumors, and neurological or other factors.
"Dislocation is a traumatic injury wherein the normal articulation between two bones at a joint is disrupted, resulting in the complete separation of the bone ends and associated soft tissues from their usual position."
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The part of the pelvis that comprises the pelvic socket where the head of FEMUR joins to form HIP JOINT (acetabulofemoral joint).
Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).
Decreased salivary flow.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A number of tests used to determine if the brain or balance portion of the inner ear are causing dizziness.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.
A two-person sport in which the fists are skillfully used to attack and defend.
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE between the DURA MATER and the arachnoidal layer of the MENINGES. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.
Pathological processes of the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH which contains part of the balancing apparatus. Patients with vestibular diseases show instability and are at risk of frequent falls.
Displacement of the femur bone from its normal position at the HIP JOINT.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
The excision of the head of the pancreas and the encircling loop of the duodenum to which it is connected.
General or unspecified injuries to the soft tissue or bony portions of the face.
The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Death of a bone or part of a bone, either atraumatic or posttraumatic.
A radius fracture is a break in the bone that runs from the wrist to the elbow, located on the thumb-side of the forearm, which can occur at various sites such as near the wrist, middle of the bone or closer to the elbow.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.

A Wnt5a pathway underlies outgrowth of multiple structures in the vertebrate embryo. (1/1895)

Morphogenesis depends on the precise control of basic cellular processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Wnt5a may regulate these processes since it is expressed in a gradient at the caudal end of the growing embryo during gastrulation, and later in the distal-most aspect of several structures that extend from the body. A loss-of-function mutation of Wnt5a leads to an inability to extend the A-P axis due to a progressive reduction in the size of caudal structures. In the limbs, truncation of the proximal skeleton and absence of distal digits correlates with reduced proliferation of putative progenitor cells within the progress zone. However, expression of progress zone markers, and several genes implicated in distal outgrowth and patterning including Distalless, Hoxd and Fgf family members was not altered. Taken together with the outgrowth defects observed in the developing face, ears and genitals, our data indicates that Wnt5a regulates a pathway common to many structures whose development requires extension from the primary body axis. The reduced number of proliferating cells in both the progress zone and the primitive streak mesoderm suggests that one function of Wnt5a is to regulate the proliferation of progenitor cells.  (+info)

Cardiovascular and neuronal responses to head stimulation reflect central sensitization and cutaneous allodynia in a rat model of migraine. (2/1895)

Reduction of the threshold of cardiovascular and neuronal responses to facial and intracranial stimulation reflects central sensitization and cutaneous allodynia in a rat model of migraine. Current theories propose that migraine pain is caused by chemical activation of meningeal perivascular fibers. We previously found that chemical irritation of the dura causes trigeminovascular fibers innervating the dura and central trigeminal neurons receiving convergent input from the dura and skin to respond to low-intensity mechanical and thermal stimuli that previously induced minimal or no responses. One conclusion of these studies was that when low- and high-intensity stimuli induce responses of similar magnitude in nociceptive neurons, low-intensity stimuli must be as painful as the high-intensity stimuli. The present study investigates in anesthetized rats the significance of the changes in the responses of central trigeminal neurons (i.e., in nucleus caudalis) by correlating them with the occurrence and type of the simultaneously recorded cardiovascular responses. Before chemical stimulation of the dura, simultaneous increases in neuronal firing rates and blood pressure were induced by dural indentation with forces >/= 2.35 g and by noxious cutaneous stimuli such as pinching the skin and warming > 46 degrees C. After chemical stimulation, similar neuronal responses and blood pressure increases were evoked by much smaller forces for dural indentation and by innocuous cutaneous stimuli such as brushing the skin and warming it to >/= 43 degrees C. The onsets of neuronal responses preceded the onsets of depressor responses by 1.7 s and pressor responses by 4.0 s. The duration of neuronal responses was 15 s, whereas the duration of depressor responses was shorter (5.8 s) and pressor responses longer (22.7 s) than the neuronal responses. We conclude that the facilitated cardiovascular and central trigeminal neuronal responses to innocuous stimulation of the skin indicate that when dural stimulation induces central sensitization, innocuous stimuli are as nociceptive as noxious stimuli had been before dural stimulation and that a similar process might occur during the development of cutaneous allodynia during migraine.  (+info)

Otx expression during lamprey embryogenesis provides insights into the evolution of the vertebrate head and jaw. (3/1895)

Agnathan or jawless vertebrates, such as lampreys, occupy a critical phylogenetic position between the gnathostome or jawed vertebrates and the cephalochordates, represented by amphioxus. In order to gain insight into the evolution of the vertebrate head, we have cloned and characterized a homolog of the head-specific gene Otx from the lamprey Petromyzon marinus. This lamprey Otx gene is a clear phylogenetic outgroup to both the gnathostome Otx1 and Otx2 genes. Like its gnathostome counterparts, lamprey Otx is expressed throughout the presumptive forebrain and midbrain. Together, these results indicate that the divergence of Otx1 and Otx2 took place after the gnathostome/agnathan divergence and does not correlate with the origin of the vertebrate brain. Intriguingly, Otx is also expressed in the cephalic neural crest cells as well as mesenchymal and endodermal components of the first pharyngeal arch in lampreys, providing molecular evidence of homology with the gnathostome mandibular arch and insights into the evolution of the gnathostome jaw.  (+info)

Expression and developmental regulation of the Hydra-RFamide and Hydra-LWamide preprohormone genes in Hydra: evidence for transient phases of head formation. (4/1895)

Hydra magnipapillata has three distinct genes coding for preprohormones A, B, and C, each yielding a characteristic set of Hydra-RFamide (Arg-Phe-NH2) neuropeptides, and a fourth gene coding for a preprohormone that yields various Hydra-LWamide (Leu-Trp-NH2) neuropeptides. Using a whole-mount double-labeling in situ hybridization technique, we found that each of the four genes is specifically expressed in a different subset of neurons in the ectoderm of adult Hydra. The preprohormone A gene is expressed in neurons of the tentacles, hypostome (a region between tentacles and mouth opening), upper gastric region, and peduncle (an area just above the foot). The preprohormone B gene is exclusively expressed in neurons of the hypostome, whereas the preprohormone C gene is exclusively expressed in neurons of the tentacles. The Hydra-LWamide preprohormone gene is expressed in neurons located in all parts of Hydra with maxima in tentacles, hypostome, and basal disk (foot). Studies on animals regenerating a head showed that the prepro-Hydra-LWamide gene is expressed first, followed by the preprohormone A and subsequently the preprohormone C and the preprohormone B genes. This sequence of events could be explained by a model based on positional values in a morphogen gradient. Our head-regeneration experiments also give support for transient phases of head formation: first tentacle-specific preprohormone C neurons (frequently associated with a small tentacle bud) appear at the center of the regenerating tip, which they are then replaced by hypostome-specific preprohormone B neurons. Thus, the regenerating tip first attains a tentacle-like appearance and only later this tip develops into a hypostome. In a developing bud of Hydra, tentacle-specific preprohormone C neurons and hypostome-specific preprohormone B neurons appear about simultaneously in their correct positions, but during a later phase of head development, additional tentacle-specific preprohormone C neurons appear as a ring at the center of the hypostome and then disappear again. Nerve-free Hydra consisting of only epithelial cells do not express the preprohormone A, B, or C or the LWamide preprohormone genes. These animals, however, have a normal phenotype, showing that the preprohormone A, B, and C and the LWamide genes are not essential for the basic pattern formation of Hydra.  (+info)

The head inducer Cerberus is a multifunctional antagonist of Nodal, BMP and Wnt signals. (5/1895)

Embryological and genetic evidence indicates that the vertebrate head is induced by a different set of signals from those that organize trunk-tail development. The gene cerberus encodes a secreted protein that is expressed in anterior endoderm and has the unique property of inducing ectopic heads in the absence of trunk structures. Here we show that the cerberus protein functions as a multivalent growth-factor antagonist in the extracellular space: it binds to Nodal, BMP and Wnt proteins via independent sites. The expression of cerberus during gastrulation is activated by earlier nodal-related signals in endoderm and by Spemann-organizer factors that repress signalling by BMP and Wnt. In order for the head territory to form, we propose that signals involved in trunk development, such as those involving BMP, Wnt and Nodal proteins, must be inhibited in rostral regions.  (+info)

Goosecoid and mix.1 repress Brachyury expression and are required for head formation in Xenopus. (6/1895)

The Xenopus homologue of Brachyury, Xbra, is expressed in the presumptive mesoderm of the early gastrula. Induction of Xbra in animal pole tissue by activin occurs only in a narrow window of activin concentrations; if the level of inducer is too high, or too low, the gene is not expressed. Previously, we have suggested that the suppression of Xbra by high concentrations of activin is due to the action of genes such as goosecoid and Mix.1. Here, we examine the roles played by goosecoid and Mix.1 during normal development, first in the control of Xbra expression and then in the formation of the mesendoderm. Consistent with the model outlined above, inhibition of the function of either gene product leads to transient ectopic expression of Xbra. Such embryos later develop dorsoanterior defects and, in the case of interference with Mix.1, additional defects in heart and gut formation. Goosecoid, a transcriptional repressor, appears to act directly on transcription of Xbra. In contrast, Mix.1, which functions as a transcriptional activator, may act on Xbra indirectly, in part through activation of goosecoid.  (+info)

MIRD Pamphlet No. 15: Radionuclide S values in a revised dosimetric model of the adult head and brain. Medical Internal Radiation Dose. (7/1895)

Current dosimetric models of the brain and head lack the anatomic detail needed to provide the physical data necessary for suborgan brain dosimetry. During the last decade, several new radiopharmaceuticals have been introduced for brain imaging. The marked differences of these tracers in tissue specificity within the brain and their increasing use for diagnostic studies support the need for a more anthropomorphic model of the human brain and head for use in estimating regional absorbed dose within the brain and its adjacent structures. METHODS: A new brain model has been developed that includes eight subregions: the caudate nuclei, the cerebellum, the cerebral cortex, the lateral ventricles, the lentiform nuclei, the thalami, the third ventricle and the white matter. This brain model is incorporated within a total revision of the head model presented in MIRD Pamphlet No. 5 Revised. Modifications include the addition of the eyes, the teeth, the mandible, an upper facial region, a neck region and the cerebrospinal fluid within both the cranial and spinal regions. RESULTS: Absorbed fractions of energy for photon and electron sources located in 14 source regions within the new model were calculated using the EGS4 Monte Carlo radiation transport code for particles in the energy range 10 keV-4 MeV. These absorbed fractions were then used along with radionuclide decay data to generate S values for 24 radionuclides that are used in clinical or investigational studies of the brain, 12 radionuclides that localize within the cranium and spinal skeleton and 12 radionuclides that selectively localize in the thyroid gland. CONCLUSION: A substantial revision to the dosimetric model of the adult head and brain originally published in MIRD Pamphlet No. 5 Revised is presented. This revision supports suborgan brain dosimetry for a variety of radiopharmaceuticals used in neuroimaging. Dose calculations for the neuroimaging agent 1231-tropane provide an example of the new model and yield mean brain doses that are consistent with published values. However, the absorbed dose to subregions within the brain such as the caudate and lentiform nuclei may exceed the average brain dose by a factor of up to 5.  (+info)

Myotube heterogeneity in developing chick craniofacial skeletal muscles. (8/1895)

Avian skeletal muscles consist of myotubes that can be categorized according to contraction and fatigue properties, which are based largely on the types of myosins and metabolic enzymes present in the cells. Most mature muscles in the head are mixed, but they display a variety of ratios and distributions of fast and slow muscle cells. We examine the development of all head muscles in chick and quail embryos, using immunohistochemical assays that distinguish between fast and slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms. Some muscles exhibit the mature spatial organization from the onset of primary myotube differentiation (e.g., jaw adductor complex). Many other muscles undergo substantial transformation during the transition from primary to secondary myogenesis, becoming mixed after having started as exclusively slow (e.g., oculorotatory, neck muscles) or fast (e.g., mandibular depressor) myotube populations. A few muscles are comprised exclusively of fast myotubes throughout their development and in the adult (e.g., the quail quadratus and pyramidalis muscles, chick stylohyoideus muscles). Most developing quail and chick head muscles exhibit identical fiber type composition; exceptions include the genioglossal (chick: initially slow, quail: mixed), quadratus and pyramidalis (chick: mixed, quail: fast), and stylohyoid (chick: fast, quail: mixed). The great diversity of spatial and temporal scenarios during myogenesis of head muscles exceeds that observed in the limbs and trunk, and these observations, coupled with the results of precursor mapping studies, make it unlikely that a lineage based model, in which individual myoblasts are restricted to fast or slow fates, is in operation. More likely, spatiotemporal patterning of muscle fiber types is coupled with the interactions that direct the movements of muscle precursors and subsequent segregation of individual muscles from common myogenic condensations. In the head, most of these events are facilitated by connective tissue precursors derived from the neural crest. Whether these influences act upon uncommitted, or biased but not restricted, myogenic mesenchymal cells remains to be tested.  (+info)

In medical terms, the "head" is the uppermost part of the human body that contains the brain, skull, face, eyes, nose, mouth, and ears. It is connected to the rest of the body by the neck and is responsible for many vital functions such as sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and thought processing. The head also plays a crucial role in maintaining balance, speech, and eating.

Head and neck neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the head and neck region, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These tumors can develop in various sites, including the oral cavity, nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx, hypopharynx, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands, and thyroid gland.

Benign neoplasms are slow-growing and generally do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or structures. Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade nearby tissues and organs and may also metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Head and neck neoplasms can have various symptoms depending on their location and size. Common symptoms include difficulty swallowing, speaking, or breathing; pain in the mouth, throat, or ears; persistent coughing or hoarseness; and swelling or lumps in the neck or face. Early detection and treatment of head and neck neoplasms are crucial for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.

Head movements refer to the voluntary or involuntary motion of the head in various directions. These movements can occur in different planes, including flexion (moving the head forward), extension (moving the head backward), rotation (turning the head to the side), and lateral bending (leaning the head to one side).

Head movements can be a result of normal physiological processes, such as when nodding in agreement or shaking the head to indicate disagreement. They can also be caused by neurological conditions, such as abnormal head movements in patients with Parkinson's disease or cerebellar disorders. Additionally, head movements may occur in response to sensory stimuli, such as turning the head toward a sound.

In a medical context, an examination of head movements can provide important clues about a person's neurological function and help diagnose various conditions affecting the brain and nervous system.

The femoral head is the rounded, ball-like top portion of the femur (thigh bone) that fits into the hip socket (acetabulum) to form the hip joint. It has a smooth, articular cartilage surface that allows for smooth and stable articulation with the pelvis. The femoral head is connected to the femoral neck, which is a narrower section of bone that angles downward and leads into the shaft of the femur. Together, the femoral head and neck provide stability and range of motion to the hip joint.

A sperm head is the anterior (front) part of a spermatozoon, which contains the genetic material (DNA). It is covered by a protein layer called the acrosome, which plays a crucial role in fertilization. The sperm head is followed by the midpiece and the tail, which provide mobility to the sperm for its journey towards the egg.

Femoral head necrosis, also known as avascular necrosis of the femoral head, is a medical condition that results from the interruption of blood flow to the femoral head, which is the rounded end of the thigh bone that fits into the hip joint. This lack of blood supply can cause the bone tissue to die, leading to the collapse of the femoral head and eventually resulting in hip joint damage or arthritis.

The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including trauma, alcohol abuse, corticosteroid use, radiation therapy, and certain medical conditions such as sickle cell disease and lupus. Symptoms may include pain in the hip or groin, limited range of motion, and difficulty walking. Treatment options depend on the severity and progression of the necrosis and may include medication, physical therapy, or surgical intervention.

A closed head injury is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that occurs when there is no penetration or breakage of the skull. The brain is encased in the skull and protected by cerebrospinal fluid, but when the head experiences a sudden impact or jolt, the brain can move back and forth within the skull, causing it to bruise, tear blood vessels, or even cause nerve damage. This type of injury can result from various incidents such as car accidents, sports injuries, falls, or any other event that causes the head to suddenly stop or change direction quickly.

Closed head injuries can range from mild (concussion) to severe (diffuse axonal injury, epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma), and symptoms may not always be immediately apparent. They can include headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, memory loss, difficulty concentrating, mood changes, sleep disturbances, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness, seizures, or even coma. It is essential to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect a closed head injury, as prompt diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve the outcome.

Craniocerebral trauma, also known as traumatic brain injury (TBI), is a type of injury that occurs to the head and brain. It can result from a variety of causes, including motor vehicle accidents, falls, sports injuries, violence, or other types of trauma. Craniocerebral trauma can range in severity from mild concussions to severe injuries that cause permanent disability or death.

The injury typically occurs when there is a sudden impact to the head, causing the brain to move within the skull and collide with the inside of the skull. This can result in bruising, bleeding, swelling, or tearing of brain tissue, as well as damage to blood vessels and nerves. In severe cases, the skull may be fractured or penetrated, leading to direct injury to the brain.

Symptoms of craniocerebral trauma can vary widely depending on the severity and location of the injury. They may include headache, dizziness, confusion, memory loss, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, changes in vision or hearing, weakness or numbness in the limbs, balance problems, and behavioral or emotional changes. In severe cases, the person may lose consciousness or fall into a coma.

Treatment for craniocerebral trauma depends on the severity of the injury. Mild injuries may be treated with rest, pain medication, and close monitoring, while more severe injuries may require surgery, intensive care, and rehabilitation. Prevention is key to reducing the incidence of craniocerebral trauma, including measures such as wearing seat belts and helmets, preventing falls, and avoiding violent situations.

Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer that begins in the squamous cells, which are flat, thin cells that form the outer layer of the skin (epidermis). It commonly occurs on sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, lips, and backs of the hands. Squamous cell carcinoma can also develop in other areas of the body including the mouth, lungs, and cervix.

This type of cancer usually develops slowly and may appear as a rough or scaly patch of skin, a red, firm nodule, or a sore or ulcer that doesn't heal. While squamous cell carcinoma is not as aggressive as some other types of cancer, it can metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body if left untreated, making early detection and treatment important.

Risk factors for developing squamous cell carcinoma include prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds, fair skin, a history of sunburns, a weakened immune system, and older age. Prevention measures include protecting your skin from the sun by wearing protective clothing, using a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, avoiding tanning beds, and getting regular skin examinations.

Head protective devices are equipment designed to protect the head from potential injuries or trauma. These devices often include helmets, hard hats, and bump caps. They are engineered to absorb the impact force, shield the head from sharp objects, or prevent contact with harmful substances. The specific design and construction of these devices vary depending on their intended use, such as for construction, sports, military, or healthcare purposes. It's important to choose and use a head protective device that is appropriate for the specific activity and follows established safety guidelines.

The humeral head is the rounded, articular surface at the proximal end of the humerus bone in the human body. It forms the upper part of the shoulder joint and articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula to form the glenohumeral joint, allowing for a wide range of motion in the arm. The humeral head is covered with cartilage that helps to provide a smooth, lubricated surface for movement and shock absorption.

"Pediculus" is the medical term for a type of small, wingless parasitic insect that can be found in human hair and on the body. There are two main species that affect humans:

1. Pediculus humanus capitis - also known as the head louse, it primarily lives on the scalp and is responsible for causing head lice infestations.
2. Pediculus humanus corporis - also known as the body louse, it typically lives in clothing and on the body, particularly in seams and folds of clothing, and can cause body lice infestations.

Both species of Pediculus feed on human blood and can cause itching and skin irritation. They are primarily spread through close personal contact and sharing of items such as hats, combs, and clothing.

A lice infestation, also known as pediculosis, is a condition characterized by the presence and multiplication of parasitic insects called lice on a person's body. The three main types of lice that can infest humans are:

1. Head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis): These lice primarily live on the scalp, neck, and behind the ears, feeding on human blood. They lay their eggs (nits) on hair shafts close to the scalp. Head lice infestations are most common in children aged 3-12 years old.

2. Body lice (Pediculus humanus corporis): These lice typically live and lay eggs on clothing, particularly seams and collars, near the body's warmest areas. They move to the skin to feed on blood, usually at night. Body lice infestations are more common in people who experience homelessness or overcrowded living conditions with limited access to clean clothing and hygiene facilities.

3. Pubic lice (Pthirus pubis): Also known as crab lice, these lice primarily live in coarse body hair, such as the pubic area, armpits, eyelashes, eyebrows, beard, or mustache. They feed on human blood and lay eggs on hair shafts close to the skin. Pubic lice infestations are typically sexually transmitted but can also occur through close personal contact with an infected individual or sharing contaminated items like bedding or clothing.

Symptoms of a lice infestation may include intense itching, tickling sensations, and visible red bumps or sores on the skin caused by lice bites. In some cases, secondary bacterial infections can occur due to scratching. Diagnosis is usually made through visual identification of lice or nits on the body or clothing. Treatment typically involves topical medications, such as shampoos, creams, or lotions, and thorough cleaning of bedding, clothing, and personal items to prevent reinfestation.

A vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is a automatic motion of the eyes that helps to stabilize images on the retina during head movement. It is mediated by the vestibular system, which includes the semicircular canals and otolith organs in the inner ear.

When the head moves, the movement is detected by the vestibular system, which sends signals to the oculomotor nuclei in the brainstem. These nuclei then generate an eye movement that is equal and opposite to the head movement, allowing the eyes to remain fixed on a target while the head is moving. This reflex helps to maintain visual stability during head movements and is essential for activities such as reading, walking, and driving.

The VOR can be tested clinically by having the patient follow a target with their eyes while their head is moved passively. If the VOR is functioning properly, the eyes should remain fixed on the target despite the head movement. Abnormalities in the VOR can indicate problems with the vestibular system or the brainstem.

In the context of medicine, particularly in anatomy and physiology, "rotation" refers to the movement of a body part around its own axis or the long axis of another structure. This type of motion is three-dimensional and can occur in various planes. A common example of rotation is the movement of the forearm bones (radius and ulna) around each other during pronation and supination, which allows the hand to be turned palm up or down. Another example is the rotation of the head during mastication (chewing), where the mandible moves in a circular motion around the temporomandibular joint.

A skull fracture is a break in one or more of the bones that form the skull. It can occur from a direct blow to the head, penetrating injuries like gunshot wounds, or from strong rotational forces during an accident. There are several types of skull fractures, including:

1. Linear Skull Fracture: This is the most common type, where there's a simple break in the bone without any splintering, depression, or displacement. It often doesn't require treatment unless it's near a sensitive area like an eye or ear.

2. Depressed Skull Fracture: In this type, a piece of the skull is pushed inward toward the brain. Surgery may be needed to relieve pressure on the brain and repair the fracture.

3. Diastatic Skull Fracture: This occurs along the suture lines (the fibrous joints between the skull bones) that haven't fused yet, often seen in infants and young children.

4. Basilar Skull Fracture: This involves fractures at the base of the skull. It can be serious due to potential injury to the cranial nerves and blood vessels located in this area.

5. Comminuted Skull Fracture: In this severe type, the bone is shattered into many pieces. These fractures usually require extensive surgical repair.

Symptoms of a skull fracture can include pain, swelling, bruising, bleeding (if there's an open wound), and in some cases, clear fluid draining from the ears or nose (cerebrospinal fluid leak). Severe fractures may cause brain injury, leading to symptoms like confusion, loss of consciousness, seizures, or neurological deficits. Immediate medical attention is necessary for any suspected skull fracture.

In medical terms, the "neck" is defined as the portion of the body that extends from the skull/head to the thorax or chest region. It contains 7 cervical vertebrae, muscles, nerves, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and glands (such as the thyroid gland). The neck is responsible for supporting the head, allowing its movement in various directions, and housing vital structures that enable functions like respiration and circulation.

Scalp dermatoses refer to various skin conditions that affect the scalp. These can include inflammatory conditions such as seborrheic dermatitis (dandruff, cradle cap), psoriasis, atopic dermatitis (eczema), and lichen planus; infectious processes like bacterial folliculitis, tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp), and viral infections; as well as autoimmune conditions such as alopecia areata. Symptoms can range from mild scaling and itching to severe redness, pain, and hair loss. The specific diagnosis and treatment of scalp dermatoses depend on the underlying cause.

Penetrating head injuries are a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that occurs when an object pierces the skull and enters the brain tissue. This can result in damage to specific areas of the brain, depending on the location and trajectory of the penetrating object. Penetrating head injuries can be caused by various objects, such as bullets, knives, or sharp debris from accidents. They are often severe and require immediate medical attention, as they can lead to significant neurological deficits, disability, or even death.

Neck muscles, also known as cervical muscles, are a group of muscles that provide movement, support, and stability to the neck region. They are responsible for various functions such as flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral bending of the head and neck. The main neck muscles include:

1. Sternocleidomastoid: This muscle is located on either side of the neck and is responsible for rotating and flexing the head. It also helps in tilting the head to the same side.

2. Trapezius: This large, flat muscle covers the back of the neck, shoulders, and upper back. It is involved in movements like shrugging the shoulders, rotating and extending the head, and stabilizing the scapula (shoulder blade).

3. Scalenes: These three pairs of muscles are located on the side of the neck and assist in flexing, rotating, and laterally bending the neck. They also help with breathing by elevating the first two ribs during inspiration.

4. Suboccipitals: These four small muscles are located at the base of the skull and are responsible for fine movements of the head, such as tilting and rotating.

5. Longus Colli and Longus Capitis: These muscles are deep neck flexors that help with flexing the head and neck forward.

6. Splenius Capitis and Splenius Cervicis: These muscles are located at the back of the neck and assist in extending, rotating, and laterally bending the head and neck.

7. Levator Scapulae: This muscle is located at the side and back of the neck, connecting the cervical vertebrae to the scapula. It helps with rotation, extension, and elevation of the head and scapula.

Eye movements, also known as ocular motility, refer to the voluntary or involuntary motion of the eyes that allows for visual exploration of our environment. There are several types of eye movements, including:

1. Saccades: rapid, ballistic movements that quickly shift the gaze from one point to another.
2. Pursuits: smooth, slow movements that allow the eyes to follow a moving object.
3. Vergences: coordinated movements of both eyes in opposite directions, usually in response to a three-dimensional stimulus.
4. Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR): automatic eye movements that help stabilize the gaze during head movement.
5. Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN): rhythmic eye movements that occur in response to large moving visual patterns, such as when looking out of a moving vehicle.

Abnormalities in eye movements can indicate neurological or ophthalmological disorders and are often assessed during clinical examinations.

In fish anatomy, the "head kidney" (also known as the pronephros) refers to a specialized endocrine and hematopoietic tissue located in the anterior part of the fish's body, near or within the posterior portion of the head. It is part of the excretory and immune systems in fish.

The head kidney has two main functions:

1. Endocrine function: The head kidney contains chromaffin cells that produce and release hormones such as catecholamines (e.g., adrenaline and noradrenaline) into the bloodstream, which help regulate various physiological processes like metabolism, heart rate, and stress response.

2. Hematopoietic function: The head kidney is responsible for the production of blood cells (red and white blood cells) in fish. It contains hematopoietic tissue that gives rise to different types of blood cells during various stages of the fish's life cycle.

It is important to note that the term "head kidney" is specific to fish anatomy, and it should not be confused with the adrenal glands in mammals, which are also involved in hormone production but are located near the kidneys rather than in the head region.

In the context of medicine and physiology, acceleration refers to the process of increasing or quickening a function or process. For example, heart rate acceleration is an increase in the speed at which the heart beats. It can also refer to the rate at which something increases, such as the acceleration of muscle strength during rehabilitation. In physics terms, acceleration refers to the rate at which an object changes its velocity, but this definition is not typically used in a medical context.

Posture is the position or alignment of body parts supported by the muscles, especially the spine and head in relation to the vertebral column. It can be described as static (related to a stationary position) or dynamic (related to movement). Good posture involves training your body to stand, walk, sit, and lie in positions where the least strain is placed on supporting muscles and ligaments during movement or weight-bearing activities. Poor posture can lead to various health issues such as back pain, neck pain, headaches, and respiratory problems.

The optic disk, also known as the optic nerve head, is the point where the optic nerve fibers exit the eye and transmit visual information to the brain. It appears as a pale, circular area in the back of the eye, near the center of the retina. The optic disk has no photoreceptor cells (rods and cones), so it is insensitive to light. It is an important structure to observe during eye examinations because changes in its appearance can indicate various ocular diseases or conditions, such as glaucoma, optic neuritis, or papilledema.

The vestibular system is a part of the inner ear that contributes to our sense of balance and spatial orientation. It is made up of two main components: the vestibule and the labyrinth.

The vestibule is a bony chamber in the inner ear that contains two important structures called the utricle and saccule. These structures contain hair cells and fluid-filled sacs that help detect changes in head position and movement, allowing us to maintain our balance and orientation in space.

The labyrinth, on the other hand, is a more complex structure that includes the vestibule as well as three semicircular canals. These canals are also filled with fluid and contain hair cells that detect rotational movements of the head. Together, the vestibule and labyrinth work together to provide us with information about our body's position and movement in space.

Overall, the vestibular system plays a crucial role in maintaining our balance, coordinating our movements, and helping us navigate through our environment.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

A brain concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury that is typically caused by a blow to the head or a violent shaking of the head and body. A concussion can also occur from a fall or accident that causes the head to suddenly jerk forward or backward.

The impact or forceful movement causes the brain to move back and forth inside the skull, which can result in stretching and damaging of brain cells, as well as disrupting the normal functioning of the brain. Concussions can range from mild to severe and may cause a variety of symptoms, including:

* Headache or a feeling of pressure in the head
* Temporary loss of consciousness
* Confusion or fogginess
* Amnesia surrounding the traumatic event
* Dizziness or "seeing stars"
* Ringing in the ears
* Nausea or vomiting
* Slurred speech
* Fatigue

In some cases, concussions may also cause more serious symptoms, such as seizures, difficulty walking, loss of balance, and changes in behavior or mood. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else has a brain concussion. A healthcare professional can evaluate the severity of the injury and provide appropriate treatment and follow-up care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hydra" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. Hydra is a genus of small, simple aquatic animals, belonging to the class Hydrozoa in the phylum Cnidaria. They are named after the multi-headed creature from Greek mythology due to their ability to regenerate lost body parts.

If you're looking for a medical term related to hydra, one possibility could be "Hydralazine," which is a medication used to treat high blood pressure. It works by relaxing the muscle in the walls of blood vessels, causing them to widen and the blood to flow more easily.

I hope this information is helpful! If you have any other questions or need clarification on a different topic, please let me know.

A brain injury is defined as damage to the brain that occurs following an external force or trauma, such as a blow to the head, a fall, or a motor vehicle accident. Brain injuries can also result from internal conditions, such as lack of oxygen or a stroke. There are two main types of brain injuries: traumatic and acquired.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by an external force that results in the brain moving within the skull or the skull being fractured. Mild TBIs may result in temporary symptoms such as headaches, confusion, and memory loss, while severe TBIs can cause long-term complications, including physical, cognitive, and emotional impairments.

Acquired brain injury (ABI) is any injury to the brain that occurs after birth and is not hereditary, congenital, or degenerative. ABIs are often caused by medical conditions such as strokes, tumors, anoxia (lack of oxygen), or infections.

Both TBIs and ABIs can range from mild to severe and may result in a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms that can impact a person's ability to perform daily activities and function independently. Treatment for brain injuries typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, including medical management, rehabilitation, and supportive care.

Cephalometry is a medical term that refers to the measurement and analysis of the skull, particularly the head face relations. It is commonly used in orthodontics and maxillofacial surgery to assess and plan treatment for abnormalities related to the teeth, jaws, and facial structures. The process typically involves taking X-ray images called cephalograms, which provide a lateral view of the head, and then using various landmarks and reference lines to make measurements and evaluate skeletal and dental relationships. This information can help clinicians diagnose problems, plan treatment, and assess treatment outcomes.

The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is a standardized tool used by healthcare professionals to assess the level of consciousness and neurological response in a person who has suffered a brain injury or illness. It evaluates three aspects of a patient's responsiveness: eye opening, verbal response, and motor response. The scores from these three categories are then added together to provide an overall GCS score, which can range from 3 (indicating deep unconsciousness) to 15 (indicating a normal level of consciousness). This scale helps medical professionals to quickly and consistently communicate the severity of a patient's condition and monitor their progress over time.

Myosins are a large family of motor proteins that play a crucial role in various cellular processes, including muscle contraction and intracellular transport. They consist of heavy chains, which contain the motor domain responsible for generating force and motion, and light chains, which regulate the activity of the myosin. Based on their structural and functional differences, myosins are classified into over 35 classes, with classes II, V, and VI being the most well-studied.

Class II myosins, also known as conventional myosins, are responsible for muscle contraction in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscles. They form filaments called thick filaments, which interact with actin filaments to generate force and movement during muscle contraction.

Class V myosins, also known as unconventional myosins, are involved in intracellular transport and organelle positioning. They have a long tail that can bind to various cargoes, such as vesicles, mitochondria, and nuclei, and a motor domain that moves along actin filaments to transport the cargoes to their destinations.

Class VI myosins are also unconventional myosins involved in intracellular transport and organelle positioning. They have two heads connected by a coiled-coil tail, which can bind to various cargoes. Class VI myosins move along actin filaments in a unique hand-over-hand motion, allowing them to transport their cargoes efficiently.

Overall, myosins are essential for many cellular functions and have been implicated in various diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and cancer.

The semicircular canals are part of the vestibular system in the inner ear that contributes to the sense of balance and spatial orientation. They are composed of three fluid-filled tubes, each located in a different plane (anterior, posterior, and horizontal) and arranged at approximately right angles to each other. The semicircular canals detect rotational movements of the head, enabling us to maintain our equilibrium during movement.

When the head moves, the fluid within the semicircular canals moves in response to that motion. At the end of each canal is a structure called the ampulla, which contains hair cells with hair-like projections (stereocilia) embedded in a gelatinous substance. As the fluid moves, it bends the stereocilia, stimulating the hair cells and sending signals to the brain via the vestibular nerve. The brain then interprets these signals to determine the direction and speed of head movement, allowing us to maintain our balance and orientation in space.

The skull is the bony structure that encloses and protects the brain, the eyes, and the ears. It is composed of two main parts: the cranium, which contains the brain, and the facial bones. The cranium is made up of several fused flat bones, while the facial bones include the upper jaw (maxilla), lower jaw (mandible), cheekbones, nose bones, and eye sockets (orbits).

The skull also provides attachment points for various muscles that control chewing, moving the head, and facial expressions. Additionally, it contains openings for blood vessels, nerves, and the spinal cord to pass through. The skull's primary function is to protect the delicate and vital structures within it from injury and trauma.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, "movement" refers to the act or process of changing physical location or position. It involves the contraction and relaxation of muscles, which allows for the joints to move and the body to be in motion. Movement can also refer to the ability of a patient to move a specific body part or limb, which is assessed during physical examinations. Additionally, "movement" can describe the progression or spread of a disease within the body.

Spermatozoa are the male reproductive cells, or gametes, that are produced in the testes. They are microscopic, flagellated (tail-equipped) cells that are highly specialized for fertilization. A spermatozoon consists of a head, neck, and tail. The head contains the genetic material within the nucleus, covered by a cap-like structure called the acrosome which contains enzymes to help the sperm penetrate the female's egg (ovum). The long, thin tail propels the sperm forward through fluid, such as semen, enabling its journey towards the egg for fertilization.

Squamous cell neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that originate from squamous cells, which are flat, scale-like cells that make up the outer layer of the skin and the lining of mucous membranes. These neoplasms can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). When malignant, they are called squamous cell carcinomas.

Squamous cell carcinomas often develop in areas exposed to excessive sunlight or ultraviolet radiation, such as the skin, lips, and mouth. They can also occur in other areas of the body, including the cervix, anus, and lungs. Risk factors for developing squamous cell carcinoma include fair skin, a history of sunburns, exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, and a weakened immune system.

Symptoms of squamous cell carcinomas may include rough or scaly patches on the skin, a sore that doesn't heal, a wart-like growth, or a raised bump with a central depression. Treatment for squamous cell carcinomas typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with radiation therapy or chemotherapy in some cases. Early detection and treatment can help prevent the spread of the cancer to other parts of the body.

Otorhinolaryngologic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the structures related to the head and neck, which are studied and managed by the medical specialty of otorhinolaryngology (also known as ENT - ear, nose, and throat). These neoplasms can be benign or malignant and can develop in various areas such as:

1. The external auditory canal (the ear canal)
2. The middle ear and inner ear
3. The nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses
4. The pharynx (throat), including the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx
5. The larynx (voice box)

The symptoms and treatment options for otorhinolaryngologic neoplasms depend on their location, size, and type (benign or malignant). Common symptoms include:

* A mass or growth in the ear, nose, or throat
* Difficulty swallowing or speaking
* Hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
* Nosebleeds or nasal congestion
* Facial pain or numbness
* Swelling in the neck or face

It is essential to consult an otorhinolaryngologist if any concerning symptoms are present, as early detection and treatment can significantly improve outcomes.

The hip joint, also known as the coxal joint, is a ball-and-socket type synovial joint that connects the femur (thigh bone) to the pelvis. The "ball" is the head of the femur, while the "socket" is the acetabulum, a concave surface on the pelvic bone.

The hip joint is surrounded by a strong fibrous capsule and is reinforced by several ligaments, including the iliofemoral, ischiofemoral, and pubofemoral ligaments. The joint allows for flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial and lateral rotation, and circumduction movements, making it one of the most mobile joints in the body.

The hip joint is also supported by various muscles, including the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, iliopsoas, and other hip flexors and extensors. These muscles provide stability and strength to the joint, allowing for weight-bearing activities such as walking, running, and jumping.

In a medical context, "orientation" typically refers to an individual's awareness and understanding of their personal identity, place, time, and situation. It is a critical component of cognitive functioning and mental status. Healthcare professionals often assess a person's orientation during clinical evaluations, using tests that inquire about their name, location, the current date, and the circumstances of their hospitalization or visit.

There are different levels of orientation:

1. Person (or self): The individual knows their own identity, including their name, age, and other personal details.
2. Place: The individual is aware of where they are, such as the name of the city, hospital, or healthcare facility.
3. Time: The individual can accurately state the current date, day of the week, month, and year.
4. Situation or event: The individual understands why they are in the healthcare setting, what happened leading to their hospitalization or visit, and the nature of any treatments or procedures they are undergoing.

Impairments in orientation can be indicative of various neurological or psychiatric conditions, such as delirium, dementia, or substance intoxication or withdrawal. It is essential for healthcare providers to monitor and address orientation issues to ensure appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and patient safety.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Neck injuries refer to damages or traumas that occur in any part of the neck, including soft tissues (muscles, ligaments, tendons), nerves, bones (vertebrae), and joints (facet joints, intervertebral discs). These injuries can result from various incidents such as road accidents, falls, sports-related activities, or work-related tasks. Common neck injuries include whiplash, strain or sprain of the neck muscles, herniated discs, fractured vertebrae, and pinched nerves, which may cause symptoms like pain, stiffness, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the neck, shoulders, arms, or hands. Immediate medical attention is necessary for proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent further complications and ensure optimal recovery.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

The otolithic membrane is a part of the inner ear's vestibular system, which contributes to our sense of balance and spatial orientation. It is composed of a gelatinous material containing tiny calcium carbonate crystals called otoconia or otoliths. These crystals provide weight to the membrane, allowing it to detect linear acceleration and gravity-induced head movements.

There are two otolithic membranes in each inner ear, located within the utricle and saccule, two of the three main vestibular organs. The utricle is primarily responsible for detecting horizontal movement and head tilts, while the saccule senses vertical motion and linear acceleration.

Damage to the otolithic membrane can result in balance disorders, vertigo, or dizziness.

"Trauma severity indices" refer to various scoring systems used by healthcare professionals to evaluate the severity of injuries in trauma patients. These tools help standardize the assessment and communication of injury severity among different members of the healthcare team, allowing for more effective and consistent treatment planning, resource allocation, and prognosis estimation.

There are several commonly used trauma severity indices, including:

1. Injury Severity Score (ISS): ISS is an anatomical scoring system that evaluates the severity of injuries based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). The body is divided into six regions, and the square of the highest AIS score in each region is summed to calculate the ISS. Scores range from 0 to 75, with higher scores indicating more severe injuries.
2. New Injury Severity Score (NISS): NISS is a modification of the ISS that focuses on the three most severely injured body regions, regardless of their anatomical location. The three highest AIS scores are squared and summed to calculate the NISS. This scoring system tends to correlate better with mortality than the ISS in some studies.
3. Revised Trauma Score (RTS): RTS is a physiological scoring system that evaluates the patient's respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurological status upon arrival at the hospital. It uses variables such as Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), systolic blood pressure, and respiratory rate to calculate a score between 0 and 7.84, with lower scores indicating more severe injuries.
4. Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS): TRISS is a combined anatomical and physiological scoring system that estimates the probability of survival based on ISS or NISS, RTS, age, and mechanism of injury (blunt or penetrating). It uses logistic regression equations to calculate the predicted probability of survival.
5. Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS): PTS is a physiological scoring system specifically designed for children under 14 years old. It evaluates six variables, including respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, systolic blood pressure, capillary refill time, GCS, and temperature to calculate a score between -6 and +12, with lower scores indicating more severe injuries.

These scoring systems help healthcare professionals assess the severity of trauma, predict outcomes, allocate resources, and compare patient populations in research settings. However, they should not replace clinical judgment or individualized care for each patient.

A hip prosthesis, also known as a total hip replacement, is a surgical implant designed to replace the damaged or diseased components of the human hip joint. The procedure involves replacing the femoral head (the ball at the top of the thigh bone) and the acetabulum (the socket in the pelvis) with artificial parts, typically made from materials such as metal, ceramic, or plastic.

The goal of a hip prosthesis is to relieve pain, improve joint mobility, and restore function, allowing patients to return to their normal activities and enjoy an improved quality of life. The procedure is most commonly performed in individuals with advanced osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or other degenerative conditions that have caused significant damage to the hip joint.

There are several different types of hip prostheses available, each with its own unique design and set of benefits and risks. The choice of prosthesis will depend on a variety of factors, including the patient's age, activity level, overall health, and specific medical needs. In general, however, all hip prostheses are designed to provide a durable, long-lasting solution for patients suffering from debilitating joint pain and stiffness.

The humerus is the long bone in the upper arm that extends from the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) to the elbow joint. It articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula to form the shoulder joint and with the radius and ulna bones at the elbow joint. The proximal end of the humerus has a rounded head that provides for movement in multiple planes, making it one of the most mobile joints in the body. The greater and lesser tubercles are bony prominences on the humeral head that serve as attachment sites for muscles that move the shoulder and arm. The narrow shaft of the humerus provides stability and strength for weight-bearing activities, while the distal end forms two articulations: one with the ulna (trochlea) and one with the radius (capitulum). Together, these structures allow for a wide range of motion in the shoulder and elbow joints.

The Injury Severity Score (ISS) is a medical scoring system used to assess the severity of trauma in patients with multiple injuries. It's based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), which classifies each injury by body region on a scale from 1 (minor) to 6 (maximum severity).

The ISS is calculated by summing the squares of the highest AIS score in each of the three most severely injured body regions. The possible ISS ranges from 0 to 75, with higher scores indicating more severe injuries. An ISS over 15 is generally considered a significant injury, and an ISS over 25 is associated with a high risk of mortality. It's important to note that the ISS has limitations, as it doesn't consider the number or type of injuries within each body region, only the most severe one.

Laryngeal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the larynx, also known as the voice box. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Laryngeal neoplasms can affect any part of the larynx, including the vocal cords, epiglottis, and the area around the vocal cords called the ventricle.

Benign laryngeal neoplasms may include papillomas, hemangiomas, or polyps. Malignant laryngeal neoplasms are typically squamous cell carcinomas, which account for more than 95% of all malignant laryngeal tumors. Other types of malignant laryngeal neoplasms include adenocarcinoma, sarcoma, and lymphoma.

Risk factors for developing laryngeal neoplasms include smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to industrial chemicals, and a history of acid reflux. Symptoms may include hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, sore throat, ear pain, or a lump in the neck. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the neoplasm but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

Myosin subfragments refer to the smaller components that result from the dissociation or proteolytic digestion of myosin, a motor protein involved in muscle contraction. The two main subfragments are called S1 and S2.

S1 is the "head" of the myosin molecule, which contains the actin-binding site, ATPase activity, and the ability to generate force and motion during muscle contraction. It has a molecular weight of approximately 120 kDa.

S2 is the "tail" of the myosin molecule, which has a molecular weight of about 350 kDa and is responsible for forming the backbone of the thick filament in muscle sarcomeres. S2 can be further divided into light meromyosin (LMM) and heavy meromyosin (HMM). HMM consists of S1 and part of S2, while LMM comprises the remaining portion of S2.

These subfragments are essential for understanding myosin's structure, function, and interactions with other muscle components at a molecular level.

Legg-Calve-Perthes disease is a childhood hip disorder that occurs when the blood supply to the ball part of the thigh bone (femoral head) is disrupted. This causes the bone tissue to die, leading to its collapse and deformity. The femoral head then regenerates itself, but often not as round and smooth as it should be, which can lead to hip problems in later life.

The disease is named after three doctors who independently described it: Arthur Legg, Jacques Calve, and Georg Perthes. It typically affects children between the ages of 4 and 10, more commonly boys than girls. Symptoms may include limping, pain in the hip or knee, reduced range of motion in the hip, and muscle wasting. Treatment often involves rest, physical therapy, and sometimes surgery to realign or reshape the femoral head.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Unconsciousness is a state of complete awareness where a person is not responsive to stimuli and cannot be awakened. It is often caused by severe trauma, illness, or lack of oxygen supply to the brain. In medical terms, it is defined as a lack of response to verbal commands, pain, or other stimuli, indicating that the person's brain is not functioning at a level necessary to maintain wakefulness and awareness.

Unconsciousness can be described as having different levels, ranging from drowsiness to deep coma. The causes of unconsciousness can vary widely, including head injury, seizure, stroke, infection, drug overdose, or lack of oxygen supply to the brain. Depending on the cause and severity, unconsciousness may last for a few seconds or continue for an extended period, requiring medical intervention and treatment.

The elbow joint, also known as the cubitus joint, is a hinge joint that connects the humerus bone of the upper arm to the radius and ulna bones of the forearm. It allows for flexion and extension movements of the forearm, as well as some degree of rotation. The main articulation occurs between the trochlea of the humerus and the trochlear notch of the ulna, while the radial head of the radius also contributes to the joint's stability and motion. Ligaments, muscles, and tendons surround and support the elbow joint, providing strength and protection during movement.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Combined modality therapy (CMT) is a medical treatment approach that utilizes more than one method or type of therapy simultaneously or in close succession, with the goal of enhancing the overall effectiveness of the treatment. In the context of cancer care, CMT often refers to the combination of two or more primary treatment modalities, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic therapies (chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, etc.).

The rationale behind using combined modality therapy is that each treatment method can target cancer cells in different ways, potentially increasing the likelihood of eliminating all cancer cells and reducing the risk of recurrence. The specific combination and sequence of treatments will depend on various factors, including the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and individual preferences.

For example, a common CMT approach for locally advanced rectal cancer may involve preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemoradiation therapy, followed by surgery to remove the tumor, and then postoperative (adjuvant) chemotherapy. This combined approach allows for the reduction of the tumor size before surgery, increases the likelihood of complete tumor removal, and targets any remaining microscopic cancer cells with systemic chemotherapy.

It is essential to consult with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals to determine the most appropriate CMT plan for each individual patient, considering both the potential benefits and risks associated with each treatment method.

Traffic accidents are incidents that occur when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, a pedestrian, an animal, or a stationary object, resulting in damage or injury. These accidents can be caused by various factors such as driver error, distracted driving, drunk driving, speeding, reckless driving, poor road conditions, and adverse weather conditions. Traffic accidents can range from minor fender benders to severe crashes that result in serious injuries or fatalities. They are a significant public health concern and cause a substantial burden on healthcare systems, emergency services, and society as a whole.

The "sperm tail" is also known as the flagellum, which is a whip-like structure that enables the sperm to move or swim through fluid. The human sperm tail is made up of nine microtubule doublets and a central pair of microtubules, which are surrounded by a mitochondrial sheath that provides energy for its movement. This complex structure allows the sperm to navigate through the female reproductive tract in order to reach and fertilize an egg.

Osteotomy is a surgical procedure in which a bone is cut to shorten, lengthen, or change its alignment. It is often performed to correct deformities or to realign bones that have been damaged by trauma or disease. The bone may be cut straight across (transverse osteotomy) or at an angle (oblique osteotomy). After the bone is cut, it can be realigned and held in place with pins, plates, or screws until it heals. This procedure is commonly performed on bones in the leg, such as the femur or tibia, but can also be done on other bones in the body.

Hip arthroplasty, also known as hip replacement surgery, is a medical procedure where the damaged or diseased joint surfaces of the hip are removed and replaced with artificial components. These components typically include a metal or ceramic ball that replaces the head of the femur (thigh bone), and a polyethylene or ceramic socket that replaces the acetabulum (hip socket) in the pelvis.

The goal of hip arthroplasty is to relieve pain, improve joint mobility, and restore function to the hip joint. This procedure is commonly performed in patients with advanced osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, hip fractures, or other conditions that cause significant damage to the hip joint.

There are several types of hip replacement surgeries, including traditional total hip arthroplasty, partial (hemi) hip arthroplasty, and resurfacing hip arthroplasty. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, such as the patient's age, activity level, overall health, and the extent of joint damage.

After surgery, patients typically require rehabilitation to regain strength, mobility, and function in the affected hip. With proper care and follow-up, most patients can expect significant pain relief and improved quality of life following hip arthroplasty.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat various types of cancers, including testicular, ovarian, bladder, head and neck, lung, and cervical cancers. It is an inorganic platinum compound that contains a central platinum atom surrounded by two chloride atoms and two ammonia molecules in a cis configuration.

Cisplatin works by forming crosslinks between DNA strands, which disrupts the structure of DNA and prevents cancer cells from replicating. This ultimately leads to cell death and slows down or stops the growth of tumors. However, cisplatin can also cause damage to normal cells, leading to side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hearing loss, and kidney damage. Therefore, it is essential to monitor patients closely during treatment and manage any adverse effects promptly.

Pathological nystagmus is an abnormal, involuntary movement of the eyes that can occur in various directions (horizontal, vertical, or rotatory) and can be rhythmical or arrhythmic. It is typically a result of a disturbance in the vestibular system, central nervous system, or ocular motor pathways. Pathological nystagmus can cause visual symptoms such as blurred vision, difficulty with fixation, and oscillopsia (the sensation that one's surroundings are moving). The type, direction, and intensity of the nystagmus may vary depending on the underlying cause, which can include conditions such as brainstem or cerebellar lesions, multiple sclerosis, drug toxicity, inner ear disorders, and congenital abnormalities.

Pharyngeal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the pharynx, which is the part of the throat that lies behind the nasal cavity and mouth, and above the esophagus and larynx. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Pharyngeal neoplasms can occur in any part of the pharynx, which is divided into three regions: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and hypopharynx. The most common type of pharyngeal cancer is squamous cell carcinoma, which arises from the flat cells that line the mucosal surface of the pharynx.

Risk factors for developing pharyngeal neoplasms include tobacco use, heavy alcohol consumption, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Symptoms may include sore throat, difficulty swallowing, ear pain, neck masses, and changes in voice or speech. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the neoplasm, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

The vestibular nerve, also known as the vestibulocochlear nerve or cranial nerve VIII, is a pair of nerves that transmit sensory information from the balance-sensing structures in the inner ear (the utricle, saccule, and semicircular canals) to the brain. This information helps the brain maintain balance and orientation of the head in space. The vestibular nerve also plays a role in hearing by transmitting sound signals from the cochlea to the brain.

Torticollis, also known as wry neck, is a condition where the neck muscles contract and cause the head to turn to one side. There are different types of torticollis including congenital (present at birth), acquired (develops after birth), and spasmodic (neurological).

Congenital torticollis can be caused by a tight or shortened sternocleidomastoid muscle in the neck, which can occur due to positioning in the womb or abnormal blood vessels in the muscle. Acquired torticollis can result from injury, infection, or tumors in the neck. Spasmodic torticollis is a neurological disorder that causes involuntary contractions of the neck muscles and can be caused by a variety of factors including genetics, environmental toxins, or head trauma.

Symptoms of torticollis may include difficulty turning the head, tilting the chin upwards or downwards, pain or discomfort in the neck, and a limited range of motion. Treatment for torticollis depends on the underlying cause and can include physical therapy, stretching exercises, medication, or surgery.

A dislocation is a condition in which a bone slips out of its normal position in a joint. This can happen as a result of trauma or injury, such as a fall or direct blow to the body. Dislocations can cause pain, swelling, and limited mobility in the affected area. In some cases, a dislocation may also damage surrounding tissues, such as ligaments, tendons, and nerves.

Dislocations are typically treated by reducing the dislocation, which means putting the bone back into its normal position. This is usually done with the help of medication to relieve pain and relaxation techniques to help the person stay still during the reduction. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissues or if the dislocation cannot be reduced through other methods. After the dislocation has been reduced, the joint may be immobilized with a splint or sling to allow it to heal properly.

It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you suspect that you have a dislocation. If left untreated, a dislocation can lead to further complications, such as joint instability and chronic pain.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Ocular fixation is a term used in ophthalmology and optometry to refer to the ability of the eyes to maintain steady gaze or visual focus on an object. It involves the coordinated movement of the extraocular muscles that control eye movements, allowing for clear and stable vision.

In medical terminology, fixation specifically refers to the state in which the eyes are aligned and focused on a single point in space. This is important for maintaining visual perception and preventing blurring or double vision. Ocular fixation can be affected by various factors such as muscle weakness, nerve damage, or visual processing disorders.

Assessment of ocular fixation is often used in eye examinations to evaluate visual acuity, eye alignment, and muscle function. Abnormalities in fixation may indicate the presence of underlying eye conditions or developmental delays that require further investigation and treatment.

Oropharyngeal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the oropharynx, which is the middle part of the pharynx (throat) that includes the back one-third of the tongue, the soft palate, the side and back walls of the throat, and the tonsils. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Oropharyngeal cancer is a significant global health concern, with squamous cell carcinoma being the most common type of malignant neoplasm in this region. The primary risk factors for oropharyngeal cancers include tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Early detection and treatment are crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

The acetabulum is the cup-shaped cavity in the pelvic bone (specifically, the os coxa) where the head of the femur bone articulates to form the hip joint. It provides a stable and flexible connection between the lower limb and the trunk, allowing for a wide range of movements such as flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, and circumduction. The acetabulum is lined with articular cartilage, which facilitates smooth and frictionless movement of the hip joint. Its stability is further enhanced by various ligaments, muscles, and the labrum, a fibrocartilaginous rim that deepens the socket and increases its contact area with the femoral head.

Chromium alloys are materials made by combining chromium with other metals, such as nickel, cobalt, or iron. The addition of chromium to these alloys enhances their properties, making them resistant to corrosion and high temperatures. These alloys have a wide range of applications in various industries, including automotive, aerospace, and medical devices.

Chromium alloys can be classified into two main categories: stainless steels and superalloys. Stainless steels are alloys that contain at least 10.5% chromium by weight, which forms a passive oxide layer on the surface of the material, protecting it from corrosion. Superalloys, on the other hand, are high-performance alloys designed to operate in extreme environments, such as jet engines and gas turbines. They contain significant amounts of chromium, along with other elements like nickel, cobalt, and molybdenum.

Chromium alloys have several medical applications due to their excellent properties. For instance, they are used in surgical instruments, dental implants, and orthopedic devices because of their resistance to corrosion and biocompatibility. Additionally, some chromium alloys exhibit superelasticity, a property that allows them to return to their original shape after being deformed, making them suitable for use in stents and other medical devices that require flexibility and durability.

"Body patterning" is a general term that refers to the process of forming and organizing various tissues and structures into specific patterns during embryonic development. This complex process involves a variety of molecular mechanisms, including gene expression, cell signaling, and cell-cell interactions. It results in the creation of distinct body regions, such as the head, trunk, and limbs, as well as the organization of internal organs and systems.

In medical terminology, "body patterning" may refer to specific developmental processes or abnormalities related to embryonic development. For example, in genetic disorders such as Poland syndrome or Holt-Oram syndrome, mutations in certain genes can lead to abnormal body patterning, resulting in the absence or underdevelopment of certain muscles, bones, or other structures.

It's important to note that "body patterning" is not a formal medical term with a specific definition, but rather a general concept used in developmental biology and genetics.

I apologize, but "video recording" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the process of capturing and storing moving visual images on electronic media, which is used in various medical fields for different purposes such as surgical training, telemedicine consultations, or monitoring patient conditions. However, there is no unique medical meaning associated with this term.

Xerostomia is a medical term that describes the subjective feeling of dryness in the mouth due to decreased or absent saliva flow. It's also commonly referred to as "dry mouth." This condition can result from various factors, including medications, dehydration, radiation therapy, Sjögren's syndrome, and other medical disorders. Prolonged xerostomia may lead to oral health issues such as dental caries, oral candidiasis, and difficulty with speaking, chewing, and swallowing.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Vestibular function tests are a series of diagnostic assessments used to determine the functionality and health of the vestibular system, which is responsible for maintaining balance and spatial orientation. These tests typically include:

1. **Caloric Testing:** This test evaluates the response of each ear to stimulation with warm and cold water or air. The resulting responses are recorded and analyzed to assess the function of the horizontal semicircular canals and the vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR).

2. **Rotary Chair Testing:** This test measures how well the vestibular system adapts to different speeds of rotation. The patient sits in a chair that moves in a controlled, consistent manner while their eye movements are recorded.

3. **Videonystagmography (VNG):** This test uses video goggles to record eye movements in response to various stimuli, such as changes in head position, temperature, and visual environment.

4. **Electronystagmography (ENG):** Similar to VNG, this test records eye movements but uses electrodes placed near the eyes instead of video goggles.

5. **Dix-Hallpike Test:** This is a clinical maneuver used to diagnose benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). It involves rapidly moving the patient's head from an upright position to a position where their head is hanging off the end of the examination table.

6. **Head Shaking Test:** This test involves shaking the head back and forth for 15-20 seconds and then observing the patient's eye movements for nystagmus (involuntary eye movement).

These tests help diagnose various vestibular disorders, including benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, labyrinthitis, vestibular neuritis, Meniere's disease, and other balance disorders.

Developmental gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the activation or repression of specific genes during embryonic and fetal development. These regulatory mechanisms ensure that genes are expressed at the right time, in the right cells, and at appropriate levels to guide proper growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis of an organism.

Developmental gene expression regulation is a complex and dynamic process involving various molecular players, such as transcription factors, chromatin modifiers, non-coding RNAs, and signaling molecules. These regulators can interact with cis-regulatory elements, like enhancers and promoters, to fine-tune the spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development.

Dysregulation of developmental gene expression can lead to various congenital disorders and developmental abnormalities. Therefore, understanding the principles and mechanisms governing developmental gene expression regulation is crucial for uncovering the etiology of developmental diseases and devising potential therapeutic strategies.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Prosthesis failure is a term used to describe a situation where a prosthetic device, such as an artificial joint or limb, has stopped functioning or failed to meet its intended purpose. This can be due to various reasons, including mechanical failure, infection, loosening of the device, or a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis.

Mechanical failure can occur due to wear and tear, manufacturing defects, or improper use of the prosthetic device. Infection can also lead to prosthesis failure, particularly in cases where the prosthesis is implanted inside the body. The immune system may react to the presence of the foreign material, leading to inflammation and infection.

Loosening of the prosthesis can also cause it to fail over time, as the device becomes less stable and eventually stops working properly. Additionally, some people may have a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis, leading to tissue damage or other complications that can result in prosthesis failure.

In general, prosthesis failure can lead to decreased mobility, pain, and the need for additional surgeries or treatments to correct the problem. It is important for individuals with prosthetic devices to follow their healthcare provider's instructions carefully to minimize the risk of prosthesis failure and ensure that the device continues to function properly over time.

Radiotherapy, also known as radiation therapy, is a medical treatment that uses ionizing radiation to kill cancer cells, shrink tumors, and prevent the growth and spread of cancer. The radiation can be delivered externally using machines or internally via radioactive substances placed in or near the tumor. Radiotherapy works by damaging the DNA of cancer cells, which prevents them from dividing and growing. Normal cells are also affected by radiation, but they have a greater ability to repair themselves compared to cancer cells. The goal of radiotherapy is to destroy as many cancer cells as possible while minimizing damage to healthy tissue.

Morphogenesis is a term used in developmental biology and refers to the process by which cells give rise to tissues and organs with specific shapes, structures, and patterns during embryonic development. This process involves complex interactions between genes, cells, and the extracellular environment that result in the coordinated movement and differentiation of cells into specialized functional units.

Morphogenesis is a dynamic and highly regulated process that involves several mechanisms, including cell proliferation, death, migration, adhesion, and differentiation. These processes are controlled by genetic programs and signaling pathways that respond to environmental cues and regulate the behavior of individual cells within a developing tissue or organ.

The study of morphogenesis is important for understanding how complex biological structures form during development and how these processes can go awry in disease states such as cancer, birth defects, and degenerative disorders.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

A mouth neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth or tumor in the oral cavity, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant mouth neoplasms are also known as oral cancer. They can develop on the lips, gums, tongue, roof and floor of the mouth, inside the cheeks, and in the oropharynx (the middle part of the throat at the back of the mouth).

Mouth neoplasms can have various causes, including genetic factors, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Symptoms may include a lump or thickening in the oral soft tissues, white or red patches, persistent mouth sores, difficulty swallowing or speaking, and numbness in the mouth. Early detection and treatment of mouth neoplasms are crucial for improving outcomes and preventing complications.

Physiologic nystagmus is a type of normal, involuntary eye movement that occurs in certain situations. It is characterized by rhythmical to-and-fro movements of the eyes, which can be horizontal, vertical, or rotatory. The most common form of physiologic nystagmus is called "optokinetic nystagmus," which occurs when a person looks at a moving pattern, such as stripes on a rotating drum or scenery passing by a car window.

Optokinetic nystagmus helps to stabilize the image of the environment on the retina and allows the brain to perceive motion accurately. Another form of physiologic nystagmus is "pursuit nystagmus," which occurs when the eyes attempt to follow a slowly moving target. In this case, the eyes may overshoot the target and then make a corrective movement in the opposite direction.

Physiologic nystagmus is different from pathological nystagmus, which can be caused by various medical conditions such as brain damage, inner ear disorders, or medications that affect the nervous system. Pathological nystagmus may indicate a serious underlying condition and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional.

'Boxing' is a combat sport that involves two competitors throwing punches at each other with gloved hands within a ring. According to medical definitions, boxing can pose several potential risks and injuries to the participants, including but not limited to:

1. Cuts and bruises from punches or headbutts
2. Fractures or dislocations of bones in the hands, wrists, or face
3. Concussions or traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) from blows to the head
4. Eye injuries, including retinal detachment and cataracts
5. Internal bleeding or organ damage
6. Long-term neurological problems, such as Parkinson's disease or chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)

It is important for boxers to undergo regular medical evaluations and take measures to minimize the risks associated with the sport, such as wearing protective gear and using proper technique.

Anatomic models are three-dimensional representations of body structures used for educational, training, or demonstration purposes. They can be made from various materials such as plastic, wax, or rubber and may depict the entire body or specific regions, organs, or systems. These models can be used to provide a visual aid for understanding anatomy, physiology, and pathology, and can be particularly useful in situations where actual human specimens are not available or practical to use. They may also be used for surgical planning and rehearsal, as well as in medical research and product development.

Prosthesis design is a specialized field in medical device technology that involves creating and developing artificial substitutes to replace a missing body part, such as a limb, tooth, eye, or internal organ. The design process typically includes several stages: assessment of the patient's needs, selection of appropriate materials, creation of a prototype, testing and refinement, and final fabrication and fitting of the prosthesis.

The goal of prosthesis design is to create a device that functions as closely as possible to the natural body part it replaces, while also being comfortable, durable, and aesthetically pleasing for the patient. The design process may involve collaboration between medical professionals, engineers, and designers, and may take into account factors such as the patient's age, lifestyle, occupation, and overall health.

Prosthesis design can be highly complex, particularly for advanced devices such as robotic limbs or implantable organs. These devices often require sophisticated sensors, actuators, and control systems to mimic the natural functions of the body part they replace. As a result, prosthesis design is an active area of research and development in the medical field, with ongoing efforts to improve the functionality, comfort, and affordability of these devices for patients.

A subdural hematoma is a type of hematoma (a collection of blood) that occurs between the dura mater, which is the outermost protective covering of the brain, and the brain itself. It is usually caused by bleeding from the veins located in this potential space, often as a result of a head injury or trauma.

Subdural hematomas can be classified as acute, subacute, or chronic based on their rate of symptom progression and the time course of their appearance on imaging studies. Acute subdural hematomas typically develop and cause symptoms rapidly, often within hours of the head injury. Subacute subdural hematomas have a more gradual onset of symptoms, which can occur over several days to a week after the trauma. Chronic subdural hematomas may take weeks to months to develop and are often seen in older adults or individuals with chronic alcohol abuse, even after minor head injuries.

Symptoms of a subdural hematoma can vary widely depending on the size and location of the hematoma, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Common symptoms include headache, altered mental status, confusion, memory loss, weakness or numbness, seizures, and in severe cases, coma or even death. Treatment typically involves surgical evacuation of the hematoma, along with management of any underlying conditions that may have contributed to its development.

Vestibular diseases are a group of disorders that affect the vestibular system, which is responsible for maintaining balance and spatial orientation. The vestibular system includes the inner ear and parts of the brain that process sensory information related to movement and position.

These diseases can cause symptoms such as vertigo (a spinning sensation), dizziness, imbalance, nausea, and visual disturbances. Examples of vestibular diseases include:

1. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV): a condition in which small crystals in the inner ear become dislodged and cause brief episodes of vertigo triggered by changes in head position.
2. Labyrinthitis: an inner ear infection that can cause sudden onset of vertigo, hearing loss, and tinnitus (ringing in the ears).
3. Vestibular neuronitis: inflammation of the vestibular nerve that causes severe vertigo, nausea, and imbalance but typically spares hearing.
4. Meniere's disease: a disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss, and a feeling of fullness in the affected ear.
5. Vestibular migraine: a type of migraine that includes vestibular symptoms such as dizziness, imbalance, and disorientation.
6. Superior canal dehiscence syndrome: a condition in which there is a thinning or absence of bone over the superior semicircular canal in the inner ear, leading to vertigo, sound- or pressure-induced dizziness, and hearing loss.
7. Bilateral vestibular hypofunction: reduced function of both vestibular systems, causing chronic imbalance, unsteadiness, and visual disturbances.

Treatment for vestibular diseases varies depending on the specific diagnosis but may include medication, physical therapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

A hip dislocation is a medical emergency that occurs when the head of the femur (thighbone) slips out of its socket in the pelvis. This can happen due to high-energy trauma, such as a car accident or a severe fall. Hip dislocations can also occur in people with certain health conditions that make their hips more prone to displacement, such as developmental dysplasia of the hip.

There are two main types of hip dislocations: posterior and anterior. In a posterior dislocation, the femur head moves out of the back of the socket, which is the most common type. In an anterior dislocation, the femur head moves out of the front of the socket. Both types of hip dislocations can cause severe pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected leg.

Immediate medical attention is necessary for a hip dislocation to realign the bones and prevent further damage. Treatment typically involves sedation or anesthesia to relax the muscles around the joint, followed by a closed reduction procedure to gently guide the femur head back into the socket. In some cases, surgery may be required to repair any associated injuries, such as fractures or damaged ligaments. After treatment, physical therapy and rehabilitation are usually necessary to restore strength, mobility, and function to the affected hip joint.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Articular Range of Motion (AROM) is a term used in physiotherapy and orthopedics to describe the amount of movement available in a joint, measured in degrees of a circle. It refers to the range through which synovial joints can actively move without causing pain or injury. AROM is assessed by measuring the degree of motion achieved by active muscle contraction, as opposed to passive range of motion (PROM), where the movement is generated by an external force.

Assessment of AROM is important in evaluating a patient's functional ability and progress, planning treatment interventions, and determining return to normal activities or sports participation. It is also used to identify any restrictions in joint mobility that may be due to injury, disease, or surgery, and to monitor the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs.

Three-dimensional (3D) imaging in medicine refers to the use of technologies and techniques that generate a 3D representation of internal body structures, organs, or tissues. This is achieved by acquiring and processing data from various imaging modalities such as X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, or confocal microscopy. The resulting 3D images offer a more detailed visualization of the anatomy and pathology compared to traditional 2D imaging techniques, allowing for improved diagnostic accuracy, surgical planning, and minimally invasive interventions.

In 3D imaging, specialized software is used to reconstruct the acquired data into a volumetric model, which can be manipulated and viewed from different angles and perspectives. This enables healthcare professionals to better understand complex anatomical relationships, detect abnormalities, assess disease progression, and monitor treatment response. Common applications of 3D imaging include neuroimaging, orthopedic surgery planning, cancer staging, dental and maxillofacial reconstruction, and interventional radiology procedures.

Aluminum oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Al2O3. It is also known as alumina and it is a white solid that is widely used in various industries due to its unique properties. Aluminum oxide is highly resistant to corrosion, has a high melting point, and is an electrical insulator.

In the medical field, aluminum oxide is used in a variety of applications such as:

1. Dental crowns and implants: Aluminum oxide is used in the production of dental crowns and implants due to its strength and durability.
2. Orthopedic implants: Aluminum oxide is used in some types of orthopedic implants, such as knee and hip replacements, because of its biocompatibility and resistance to wear.
3. Medical ceramics: Aluminum oxide is used in the production of medical ceramics, which are used in various medical devices such as pacemakers and hearing aids.
4. Pharmaceuticals: Aluminum oxide is used as an excipient in some pharmaceutical products, such as tablets and capsules, to improve their stability and shelf life.
5. Medical research: Aluminum oxide is used in medical research, for example, as a substrate material for growing cells or as a coating material for medical devices.

It's important to note that while aluminum oxide has many useful applications in the medical field, exposure to high levels of aluminum can be harmful to human health. Therefore, it is important to use aluminum oxide and other aluminum-containing materials safely and according to established guidelines.

Pancreaticoduodenectomy, also known as the Whipple procedure, is a complex surgical operation that involves the removal of the head of the pancreas, the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine), the gallbladder, and the distal common bile duct. In some cases, a portion of the stomach may also be removed. The remaining parts of the pancreas, bile duct, and intestines are then reconnected to allow for the digestion of food and drainage of bile.

This procedure is typically performed as a treatment for various conditions affecting the pancreas, such as tumors (including pancreatic cancer), chronic pancreatitis, or traumatic injuries. It is a major surgical operation that requires significant expertise and experience to perform safely and effectively.

Facial injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the face, which may include the bones of the skull that form the face, teeth, salivary glands, muscles, nerves, and skin. Facial injuries can range from minor cuts and bruises to severe fractures and disfigurement. They can be caused by a variety of factors such as accidents, falls, sports-related injuries, physical assaults, or animal attacks.

Facial injuries can affect one or more areas of the face, including the forehead, eyes, nose, cheeks, ears, mouth, and jaw. Common types of facial injuries include lacerations (cuts), contusions (bruises), abrasions (scrapes), fractures (broken bones), and burns.

Facial injuries can have significant psychological and emotional impacts on individuals, in addition to physical effects. Treatment for facial injuries may involve simple first aid, suturing of wounds, splinting or wiring of broken bones, reconstructive surgery, or other medical interventions. It is essential to seek prompt medical attention for any facial injury to ensure proper healing and minimize the risk of complications.

The radius is one of the two bones in the forearm in humans and other vertebrates. In humans, it runs from the lateral side of the elbow to the thumb side of the wrist. It is responsible for rotation of the forearm and articulates with the humerus at the elbow and the carpals at the wrist. Any medical condition or injury that affects the radius can impact the movement and function of the forearm and hand.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Osteonecrosis is a medical condition characterized by the death of bone tissue due to the disruption of blood supply. Also known as avascular necrosis, this process can lead to the collapse of the bone and adjacent joint surfaces, resulting in pain, limited mobility, and potential deformity if left untreated. Osteonecrosis most commonly affects the hips, shoulders, and knees, but it can occur in any bone. The condition may be caused by trauma, corticosteroid use, alcohol abuse, certain medical conditions (like sickle cell disease or lupus), or for no apparent reason (idiopathic).

A radius fracture is a break in the bone that runs from the wrist to the elbow, located on the thumb side of the forearm. Radius fractures can occur as a result of a fall, direct blow to the forearm, or a high-energy collision such as a car accident. There are various types of radius fractures, including:

1. Distal radius fracture: A break at the end of the radius bone, near the wrist joint, which is the most common type of radius fracture.
2. Radial shaft fracture: A break in the middle portion of the radius bone.
3. Radial head and neck fractures: Breaks in the upper part of the radius bone, near the elbow joint.
4. Comminuted fracture: A complex radius fracture where the bone is broken into multiple pieces.
5. Open (compound) fracture: A radius fracture with a wound or laceration in the skin, allowing for communication between the outside environment and the fractured bone.
6. Intra-articular fracture: A radius fracture that extends into the wrist joint or elbow joint.
7. Torus (buckle) fracture: A stable fracture where one side of the bone is compressed, causing it to buckle or bend, but not break completely through.

Symptoms of a radius fracture may include pain, swelling, tenderness, bruising, deformity, limited mobility, and in some cases, numbness or tingling in the fingers. Treatment options depend on the type and severity of the fracture but can range from casting to surgical intervention with implant fixation.

Radiotherapy dosage refers to the total amount of radiation energy that is absorbed by tissues or organs, typically measured in units of Gray (Gy), during a course of radiotherapy treatment. It is the product of the dose rate (the amount of radiation delivered per unit time) and the duration of treatment. The prescribed dosage for cancer treatments can range from a few Gray to more than 70 Gy, depending on the type and location of the tumor, the patient's overall health, and other factors. The goal of radiotherapy is to deliver a sufficient dosage to destroy the cancer cells while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissues.

Athletic injuries are damages or injuries to the body that occur while participating in sports, physical activities, or exercise. These injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Trauma: Direct blows, falls, collisions, or crushing injuries can cause fractures, dislocations, contusions, lacerations, or concussions.
2. Overuse: Repetitive motions or stress on a particular body part can lead to injuries such as tendonitis, stress fractures, or muscle strains.
3. Poor technique: Using incorrect form or technique during exercise or sports can put additional stress on muscles, joints, and ligaments, leading to injury.
4. Inadequate warm-up or cool-down: Failing to properly prepare the body for physical activity or neglecting to cool down afterwards can increase the risk of injury.
5. Lack of fitness or flexibility: Insufficient strength, endurance, or flexibility can make individuals more susceptible to injuries during sports and exercise.
6. Environmental factors: Extreme weather conditions, poor field or court surfaces, or inadequate equipment can contribute to the risk of athletic injuries.

Common athletic injuries include ankle sprains, knee injuries, shoulder dislocations, tennis elbow, shin splints, and concussions. Proper training, warm-up and cool-down routines, use of appropriate protective gear, and attention to technique can help prevent many athletic injuries.

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... (often punctuated as the more grammatically correct Lawyer's Head) is a prominent landmark on the coast of Otago, ... Lawyers Head is an integral part of Chisholm Park Golf Links, developed by the city of Dunedin in 1933. The Links has hosted ... The head itself commands a view across the city's southern suburbs and along the Otago coast for over 80 kilometres to the ... Other nearby headlands nearby include the higher 75 m Maori Head, one kilometre to the east, the cliffs along the coast of ...
... may refer to: Horse Head, Virginia Horse Head (South Georgia), a rocky point on South Georgia Horse Head Island in ... Horse head mask Horse-head fiddle (disambiguation) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Horse Head ... Greenland Horse Head, an American musician who is a member of the collective GothBoiClique Horsehead (disambiguation) ...
In 2016, Brow Head was used as a filming location for Star Wars: The Last Jedi. "Ceann Bró/Brow Head". logainm.ie. Placenames ... "Brow Head Signal Tower". castles.nl. Retrieved 16 May 2023. "The Mizen Peninsula - Brow Head". Cork Guide. Retrieved 15 ... Brow Head (Irish: Ceann Bró) is the most southerly point of mainland Ireland. It is in the rural townland of Mallavoge near ... The Brow Head station was raided and destroyed by a local detachment of the Irish Republican Army, during the Irish War of ...
... at AllMusic Head Automatica on Myspace Daryl Palumbo Interview with Revolt Music Blog (Pages using the ... "Head Automatica announce UK tour , News". Nme.Com. April 25, 2007. Retrieved December 25, 2012. "Head Automatica - Beating ... "Head Automatica- graduation day". YouTube. Archived from the original on December 13, 2021. Retrieved December 25, 2012. "Head ... "Head Automatica to play Furnace Fest". Lambgoat. Retrieved December 16, 2022. Sacher, Andrew (December 16, 2022). "Head ...
In oil drilling, a casing head is a simple metal flange welded or screwed onto the top of the conductor pipe (also known as ... Casing head is the primary interface for the surface pressure control equipment, for example blowout preventers (for well ... drilling) or the Christmas tree (for well production). The casing head, when installed, is typically tested to very strict ...
"Head, Alan Kenneth". Encyclopedia of Australian Science. Retrieved 8 July 2020. Head, A. K. (1957). "A New Form for a Giant ... Head earned a Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science from the University of Melbourne, PhD from the University of Bristol, ... Alan Kenneth Head AO, FAA, FRS (10 August 1925 - 9 January 2010) was an Australian physicist, and Chief of the Division of ... "Alan Kenneth Head AO FAA. 10 August 1925 - 9 January 2010". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 57: 147-166. ...
... is an American politician who served in the Vermont House of Representatives from 2002 to 2019. "Helen Head's ... "Representative Helen Head, 2019-2020". Vermont Legislature. Retrieved 2020-12-23. v t e (Articles with short description, Short ...
... Bay Turks Head Ridge This article incorporates public domain material from "Turks Head". Geographic Names ... Turks Head (77°40′S 166°46′E / 77.667°S 166.767°E / -77.667; 166.767) is a precipitous black headland over 200 m high, 5 ... Discovered by the Discovery expedition (1901-04) and so named because of its resemblance to a head swathed in a turban. ...
... is a hamlet in the Yorkshire Dales, North Yorkshire. It lies 5 miles (8 km) of Aysgarth and to the north is a ... Walden Head, like the other small settlements in the Walden Valley, have changed little over modern times. The Walden Valley is ... Media related to Walden Head at Wikimedia Commons v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from ...
Within its boundaries are the Cascade Head Scenic Research Area, Cascade Head Experimental Forest, the Cascade Head Preserve, ... Cascade Head is an extinct, uplifted volcano that was once under the Pacific Ocean. UNESCO Cascade Head Biosphere Region ... Cascade Head Experimental Forest and Scenic Research Area Archived 2007-08-18 at the Wayback Machine homepage "Cascade Head ... "Cascade Head". Archived from the original on 2007-01-26. Retrieved 2007-12-19. "Biosphere Reserve Information: Cascade Head". ...
... has a bird observatory. A Franco-American squadron fought the Battle of Flamborough Head with a pair of Royal ... Map sources for Flamborough Head Flamborough Bird Observatory Flamborough Head Information Danes Dyke Dutch symphonic rockgroup ... Flamborough Head and the village of Flamborough are the setting for the book Bill Takes the Helm by Betty Bowen. In the book an ... Flamborough Head was featured in the finale of series 3 of the ITV drama Scott & Bailey. North Landing beach was used as a film ...
... at Discogs (list of releases) Shepherd Head at MusicBrainz (list of releases) Shepherd Head at Saddle Creek ( ... Shepherd Head is the sixth studio album by American indie rock band Young Jesus. It was released on September 16, 2022, by ... Shepherd Head was met with "generally favorable" reviews from critics. At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average rating ... King, Pat (September 12, 2022). "Young Jesus Contemplates What Death Has in Store on Meditative Shepherd Head". Paste. ...
... although some heads are available for less than $100. Tripod head Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ball heads. "the- ... A ball head is a metal or plastic apparatus placed on top of a tripod that increases stability and provides faster, more ... They are lighter than traditional three-way pan-tilt tripod heads.[citation needed] With fewer parts and a much simpler ... most professional-quality heads are more than US$200, ... mechanism, ball heads are usually preferred by more advanced ...
... (Scottish Gaelic: An Fharaird) is a small peninsula on the northern coast of Sutherland, Highland, Scotland, ... RAF Faraid Head ('RAI') CEW R10 ROTOR Radar station, Subterranea Britannica, 2004-06-15. Retrieved 2013-02-20. Assessment of ... Extensive sand dunes can be found at Faraid Head which forms part of the Oldshoremore, Cape Wrath and Durness Special Landscape ... Durness Balnakeil Cape Wrath "Faraid Head, Rotor Centrimetric [sic] Early Warning Radar Station". Canmore Record of the ...
... (Scottish Gaelic: An Ceann Àrd, "high headland") is a headland projecting into the North Sea, within the town of ... Kinnaird Head Castle [Wikidata], also known as Fraserburgh Castle and Kinnairdshead Castle, was begun in March 1570. The ... "Kinnaird Head Lighthouse". Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland. Retrieved 29 August 2013. "The ... "Former Kinnaird Head Lighthouse, including outbuildings and fog horn, Stevenson Road, Fraserburgh (Category A Listed Building ...
... which makes it head-medial in a sense. It is head-initial insofar as the head X0 precedes its complement, but it is head-final ... lack a clear head. Heads are crucial to establishing the direction of branching. Head-initial phrases are right-branching, head ... For example, the head of the noun phrase boiling hot water is the noun (head noun) water. Analogously, the head of a compound ... The four trees above show a head-final structure. The following trees illustrate head-final structures further as well as head- ...
"Murray Head". NNDB.com. Retrieved 19 December 2016. "Murray Head: Biography". Internet Movie Database. "Murray Head Official ... Head's younger brother Anthony Head is also an actor, best known for playing Rupert Giles in the TV series Buffy the Vampire ... In 1979, Head appeared in the miniseries Prince Regent and the final episode of the ITV program Return of the Saint. Head ... Head was born in London to Seafield Laurence Stewart Murray Head (20 August 1919 - 22 March 2009) and Helen Shingler (29 August ...
... or Owl's Head may refer to: in Canada (by province) Owls Head, Halifax, Nova Scotia, a community in the Halifax ... Iowa Owls Head, Maine, a town in Knox County on Penobscot Bay Owls Head Light, at the entrance to Rockland Harbor Owls Head ... a mountain in Grafton County Owls Head (Hebron, New Hampshire), a log cabin in Grafton County Owl's Head Park, Brooklyn, New ... an island Mont Owl's Head, Quebec in the United States (by state) Owl's Head Historic District, Des Moines, ...
... (54°33′S 36°29′W / 54.550°S 36.483°W / -54.550; -36.483) is a prominent rocky headland, 880 metres (2,900 ft) high ... "Leon Head". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior. ... This article incorporates public domain material from "Leon Head". Geographic Names Information System. United States ...
... lighthouse at Trinity House www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Strumble Head and surrounding area 52°01′44″N 5°04′26″ ... Strumble Head, which is on the Pembrokeshire Coast Path, comprises part of the Strumble Head - Llechdafad Cliffs Site of ... Strumble Head (Welsh: Pen Caer,Trwyn-câr, Pen Strwmbl) is a rocky headland in the community of Pencaer in Pembrokeshire, Wales ... The Bardse of the Pile of Fowdrey was wrecked off Strumble Head on 3 October 1763 laden with a cargo of iron and copper from ...
... is one of the first mass-market products from the organic products movement beginning in the early 1970s. It is ... The product was first sold through drug paraphernalia shops, or "head shops," hence the name. It is red in color and a ... produced by the Head Organics Company of Carson, California USA. The product is a shampoo first produced in 1971 by two Los ... colorless version, Clearly Head, was produced in response to concerns it would turn consumers' hair red. Official website ( ...
... (70°43′S 61°57′W / 70.717°S 61.950°W / -70.717; -61.950) is a high coastal point, or headland, along the ... This article incorporates public domain material from "Dawson Head". Geographic Names Information System. United States ...
The Sabouroff head is a Late Archaic Greek marble sculpture. It is dated to circa 550-525 BC. This head of a Kouros was named ... is very rare for Greek sculpture and gives an exotic look to the head. The head has been described as "nearer to a portrait ... This marble head may have belonged to a life-size statue. It has been the object of various debates regarding the unusual ... Sabouroff head on YouTube. Analysis using the GigaMesh Software Framework as described by Hölscher et al., cf. doi:10.11588/ ...
"President Head" was applied by the United Kingdom Antarctic Place-Names Committee (UK-APC) in 1961 in order to preserve the ... President Head (62°43′34.7″S 61°12′05.8″W / 62.726306°S 61.201611°W / -62.726306; -61.201611) is a headland forming the east ... ISBN 978-954-92032-6-4 President Head. SCAR Composite Antarctic Gazetteer This article incorporates public domain material from ... "President Head". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. v t e (Use dmy dates from April 2022, ...
"Head Cases"]"". United States Copyright Office. Retrieved 2017-06-22. Head Cases at IMDb Donnell, Goldberg Crazy for Head Cases ... Some shows just make you want to head in the opposite direction. With Head Cases, the driving-away force is equal parts concept ... Head Cases is an American comedy-drama television program, best known as the first show cancelled for the 2005-06 season. It ... But Fox doesn't help its case by hiring Adam Goldberg and Chris O'Donnell, who seem ill-equipped to head this or any series, ...
... , as here applied, is in accord with the BGLE interpretation. "Ferin Head". Geographic Names Information System. ... Ferin Head (65°59′S 65°20′W / 65.983°S 65.333°W / -65.983; -65.333) is a headland 4 nautical miles (7 km) north of the ... This article incorporates public domain material from "Ferin Head". Geographic Names Information System. United States ...
... may refer to: Chris Head (musician), guitarist with Anti-Flag Chris Head (politician) (born 1963), American ...
Head injuries include both injuries to the brain and those to other parts of the head, such as the scalp and skull. Head ... Among these are the Canadian Head CT rule, the PECARN Head Injury/Trauma Algorithm, and the New Orleans/Charity Head Injury/ ... A head injury is any injury that results in trauma to the skull or brain. The terms traumatic brain injury and head injury are ... A non-contrast CT of the head should be performed immediately in all those who have sustained a moderate or severe head injury ...
Education and information about head lice, head lice treatment, and pediculosis. ... Head lice survive less than 1-2 days if they fall off a person and cannot feed; nits cannot hatch and usually die within a week ... When treating head lice. *Do not use extra amounts of any lice medication unless instructed to do so by your physician and ... Nit (head lice egg) combs, often found in lice medicine packages, should be used to comb nits and lice from the hair shaft. ...
... heads, Saxons heads, Egyptians heads or Turks heads), or specifically identified (such as the head of Moses in the crest of ... heads, nuns heads (often veiled), and occasionally queens heads. The arms of Devaney of Norfolk include "three nuns heads ... Cylinder head, pothead, and weatherhead are three such examples. Nerves of the human head, from Grays Anatomy, 1858 Head of St ... "To be big-headed" - to be overly full of oneself "To come to a head" - to reach a critical stage and require immediate action " ...
Moors head from Corsicas Flag. A Moors head, also known as a Maure, since the 11th century, is a symbol depicting the head ... "Moors head" Peter aragon - Google Search". www.google.com.. *^ Martone, Eric (December 8, 2008). Encyclopedia of Blacks in ... The Moors head became a symbol of the islands.[4] Flags, seals, and emblems[edit]. This symbol is used in heraldry, ... where an unblindfolded Moors head represents Corsica as a territory of the Crown of Aragon. Interestingly, the Moors head is ...
It is important to know the warning signs of a moderate or severe head injury. Learn when to seek medical attention. ... Head Injuries (American Academy of Family Physicians) Also in Spanish * Overview of Head Injuries (Merck & Co., Inc.) Also in ... Head Trauma, First Aid (VisualDX) * Head Trauma: First Aid (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research) Also in Spanish ... Head Injuries (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish * Head Injury: What to Do if Your Child Loses Consciousness (American ...
Same virus as Yaquina Head virus, or very closely related to it. ... Yaquina Head Abbreviation: YHV Status. Possible Arbovirus ...
Head and neck cancer, which includes cancers of the larynx, nasal passages, oral cavity, pharynx, salivary glands, and thyroid ... Head and Neck Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma * Microarray Technologies in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Head and Neck ... Head and Neck Carcinoma in the Young Patient * ... Head, Neck Cancer Regimen Saves Time When Resources Limited. ... Head and Neck Cancer - Resection and Neck Dissection * ... DART Can Limit Toxicities in Head, Neck Cancer. Medscape ...
Discover the anatomy of the radius head and its role in forming the elbow joint. ... The head of radius is the disc shaped, expanded portion on the proximal part of the bone. It is the superior continuation of ... the articular circumference of head of radius, which articulates with the radial notch of ulna, forming the proximal radioulnar ... the articular facet of head of radius, which articulates with the capitulum of humerus, forming the humeroradial joint. ...
There really is a Phillips! Henry F. Phillips, of Portland, OR, invented the X-shaped socket head screw for car makers who ... Who is the Phillips head screwdriver named after? Is there really a Phillips? ... who in 1936 persuaded General Motors to use the Phillips head screw in manufacturing Cadillacs. ...
Head Lice news - latest news direct from companies - read online or subscribe to feed or by email - press releases - By Tag ... Head Lice Press Releases. Exclusive News. Topics Locations Industries Dates. "Dont Let Lice Ruin Your Childs Day: Lice-Proof ...
Most patients with TBI (75-80%) have mild head injuries; the remaining injuries are divided equally between moderate and severe ... Mild head injuries are generally defined as those associated with a GCS score of 13-15, and moderate head injuries are those ... Almost 100% of persons with severe head injury and as many as two thirds of those with moderate head injury will be permanently ... TBI may be divided into 2 broad categories, closed head injury and penetrating head injury. This is not purely a mechanistic ...
... průzkumy a soutěžemi od HEAD Sport GmbH ohledně sortimentu a služeb sportovních produktů HEAD Group. Svůj souhlas mohu kdykoli ... průzkumy a soutěžemi od HEAD Sport GmbH ohledně sortimentu a služeb sportovních produktů HEAD Group. Svůj souhlas mohu kdykoli ... Platí pouze v online obchodě Head. Poukaz je platný jednou pro nové předplatitele bez minimální objednávky. Poukaz nelze ... Všechny další podrobnosti týkající se zpracování dat najdete v zásadách ochrany osobních údajů společnosti HEAD. Rovněž ...
In my head / In my head / Cardboard boxes filled ... Read or print original In My Head lyrics 2024 updated! Im ... In my head. Plastic icons, glowin red. In my head. Theyre in my head. I experiment with myself. In my head. In my head. Look ... In my head. In my head. Cardboard boxes filled with hate. In my head. Theyre in my head. Nest of termites, glowin red. In my ... Theyre in my head. [Chorus:]. Look behind the mask. Try to find peace of mind. And youll find. Just look behind the man. And ...
CONTENTS: Reel 1 (approx. 28 min.): Solos (1980-1984): Civilian. Perf. by Lemon. -- Interlude: Strange story. Writer: Robert Walser. Narrative; no dance. -- Wanda in the awkward age: excerpt. Music: Hector Berlioz (Damour lardente flamme from La damnation de Faust, sung by Frederica von Stade. Costume: Kay Stuntz. Perf. by Lemon. -- The ants burden. Music: Bob Roman. Perf. by Lemon. -- Reel 2: Forest. Score: Linda Bouchard. Tape editing: Estuardo Callirgos. Scenery: Lemon. Costumes: Charles Schoonmaker. Perf. by Peter U. Espiritu (Fate), Hetty King (the hunter), and Lemon (the satyr). ...
CHARLOTTE - When head coach Ron Rivera announced that pass defense coordinator Steve Wilks was being promoted to assistant head ... "A head coach is always looking for a guy to be honest with him so he can see certain things in a different light," Wilks said ... Wilks aspires to be an NFL head coach and believes this title gives him an opportunity to further develop. But his No. 1 ... Wilks named assistant head coach Feb 16, 2015 at 08:56 AM ... who also served as assistant head coach under Norv Turner in ...
... Posted: April 8, 2022 ... culminating in her current role as Head of Books at SAE International. ...
Our plugs can be used for replacing out one of the heads in a manifold system, and for wintering a system. They come in a ... Use 3M™ Bypass Plugs to enable water to flow directly through the filter head when replacing the filter cartridge. ... Use for taking out of use one of the filter heads in a manifold system ... Use for taking out of use one of the filter heads in a manifold system ...
Subscribe to CUI Weekly and get a roundup of the weeks stories sent to your inbox every Monday. ...
... we figured it would be the same for the Chat Head feature as well. As most know, Chat Heads is the only part of the Home ... Floating Touch is Like Chat Heads But With Quick Toggles, App Shortcuts, and Other Tools. Kellen July 8, 2013. 22 ... Paranoid Android to Introduce New Multi-Windowing Chat Head-like Feature in Upcoming Alpha Build. Tim April 30, 2013. 41 ... Ninja SMS, Brings Chat Head-like Texting Feature to All Android Phones. Tim April 10, 2013. 39 ...
... the head i was looking at was an ampeg 350 anniversery head and on the site i read later... ... Im looking forward to getting a nice 350 Watt half stack, the head i was looking at was an ampeg 350 anniversery head and on ... If portability is an issue, be sure to remember that the big, fat tone of a tube amp comes at the cost of a big, heavy head ( ... Its a solid state amp in the same chasis as the original all tube SVT heads. So the B2R ,i,is,/i, very compatable in sound to ...
American Jew to Head Teva. American Jew Dr. Jeremy Levin was named new CEO for Teva Pharmaceuticals Monday, when Shlomo Yanai ... said that he wants to devote his energies to public service after serving five years as the head of Teva. He was immediately ...
Democrat Schiffs head on a pike comment draws outrage from GOP senators. "I have not been told that my head is on a pike," ... Not only have I never heard the head on the pike line, but also I know of no Republican senator who has been threatened in ... And all of us were shaking our head like, where in the world did that story come from? And Adam Schiff just kept saying it ... To say that we somehow live in fear and that the president has threatened all of us to put our head on a pike. ...
... headed toward Bermuda after killing three people in Cuba and causing flooding in parts of Florida. Alex reached tropical storm ... Tropical Storm Alex, which became the first named storm of the Atlantic hurricane season Sunday, headed toward Bermuda after ...
The discussion board is currently closed ...
Head Boom MP 2024 Tennis Racquet Frame $279.95 Free Stringing Promotion. Shop All: Tennis Racquets and Strings. Free Stringing ... Head Lynx Tour 17G Tennis String $21.95 Free Stringing Promotion. Shop All: Tennis Racquets and Strings. Free Stringing ... Head Velocity MLT 16G Tennis String $25.95 Free Stringing Promotion. Shop All: Tennis Racquets and Strings. Free Stringing ... Head RIP Control 17G Tennis String $25.95 Free Stringing Promotion. Shop All: Tennis Racquets and Strings. Free Stringing ...
Displaying items by tag: St Michaels Head. 26th March 2019 Refixed St Michaels Head Cancelled ... St Michaels Head of the River, OBriens Bridge, Saturday. Overall: 1 St Michaels Masters Eight 10 min 34 seconds, 2 ... Rowing: St Michaels Head of the River, which was refixed for this Sunday, March 31st, has been cancelled. The event was ... Rowing: UCDs mens intermediate eight just came out on top as the fastest crew at the St Michaels Head of the River in ...
Re: Head shave New England - CC March 16, 2024, 1:56 pm *Re: Head shave New England - shaved mainer November 26, 2023, 9:22 am ... Re: Head shave New England - shaved mainer December 18, 2023, 3:39 pm *Re: Head shave New England - MB December 18, 2023, 5:50 ... Re: Head shave New England Posted by MB on December 18, 2023, 5:50 pm, in reply to "Re: Head shave New England " ... Re: Head shave New England - Tommyboy605 December 17, 2023, 7:36 pm *Re: Head shave New England - Barbershopfetish November 27 ...
  • When 2023 became 2024, Anna Lundberg took over as Head of The Sociology of Law Department. (lu.se)
  • Treatment for head lice is recommended for persons diagnosed with an active infestation. (cdc.gov)
  • however, such additional (non-pharmacologic) measures generally are not required to eliminate a head lice infestation. (cdc.gov)
  • Nit (head lice egg) combs, often found in lice medicine packages, should be used to comb nits and lice from the hair shaft. (cdc.gov)
  • Head lice do not survive long if they fall off a person and cannot feed. (cdc.gov)
  • The ported a much higher annual incidence traditional perception of head lice as a (37.4%) in England ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • But other head injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion , or traumatic brain injury . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Head injuries can be open or closed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some common causes of head injuries are falls , motor vehicle accidents , violence, and sports injuries . (medlineplus.gov)
  • The impact is even greater when one considers that most severe head injuries occur in adolescents and young adults. (medscape.com)
  • Head injuries cause immediate death in 25% of acute traumatic injuries. (medscape.com)
  • [ 10 ] Penetrating intracranial injuries have worse outcomes than closed head injuries. (medscape.com)
  • [ 11 ] Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) are the most common cause of closed head injuries for teenagers and young adults. (medscape.com)
  • The financial burden of head injuries in the United States is estimated to be $75-100 billion annually. (medscape.com)
  • Closed head injuries are classified as either primary or secondary. (medscape.com)
  • It is important to know the warning signs of a moderate or severe head injury. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Almost 100% of persons with severe head injury and as many as two thirds of those with moderate head injury will be permanently disabled in some fashion and will not return to their premorbid level of function. (medscape.com)
  • In hyperpronation, the practitioner supports the child's arm at the elbow and places moderate pressure with a finger on the radial head. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Radial head subluxation, common among toddlers, is caused by traction on the forearm and usually manifests as refusal to move the elbow (pseudoparalysis). (msdmanuals.com)
  • However, in toddlers (about 2 to 3 years old), the radial head is no wider than the radial neck and can easily slip through these ligaments (radial head subluxation). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Consider radial head subluxation in toddlers if they are unwilling to move their elbow. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Symptoms of radial head subluxation may include pain and tenderness. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The radial head may be only mildly tender. (msdmanuals.com)
  • How To Reduce a Radial Head Subluxation (Nursemaid Elbow) A hyperpronation or a supination-flexion technique may be used to reduce a radial head subluxation (nursemaid elbow). (msdmanuals.com)
  • A subtle palpable pop or click is often detected when the radial head resumes its normal position. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A pop can be felt at the radial head when it is reduced. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Radial head subluxation recurs in 20 to 40% of children. (msdmanuals.com)
  • [ 12 ] Alcohol or drug use contributes to as many of 38% of cases of severe head trauma in younger patients. (medscape.com)
  • Head injury significantly contributes to deaths from trauma. (medscape.com)
  • A primary injury results from the initial anatomical and physiological insult, which is usually direct trauma to the head, regardless of cause. (medscape.com)
  • Cerebral concussion is defined as an altered mental state that may or may not include loss of consciousness that occurs as a result of head trauma. (medscape.com)
  • Though invertebrate chordates - such as the tunicate larvae or the lancelets - have heads, there has been a question of how the vertebrate head, characterized by a bony skull clearly separated from the main body, might have evolved from the head structures of these animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, the incidence of closed head injury is estimated to be approximately 200 cases per 100,000 persons per year. (medscape.com)
  • Concurrent chemoradiation therapy is the current standard of care for patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. (medscape.com)
  • [ 7 , 9 ] Patients with severe head injury have a 30-50% mortality rate, and those who survive are often left with severe neurological deficits that may include a persistent vegetative state. (medscape.com)
  • The objective of this study was to assess the dental and malignant risk factors associated with head and neck radiotherapy complications in patients treated at the Radiotherapy Center in Aracaju, Sergipe. (bvsalud.org)
  • A clinical assessment was done of 30 patients who were receiving head and neck radiotherapy at the Radiotherapy Center. (bvsalud.org)
  • 3%). When a significant head injury occurs, cerebral edema often develops, which increases the relative volume of the brain. (medscape.com)
  • If head and facial pain seem stronger and scarier than pain elsewhere, it's because a special pathway in the brain is heightening our emotions from pain at those sites, according to studies in mice. (asianage.com)
  • CHARLOTTE - When head coach Ron Rivera announced that pass defense coordinator Steve Wilks was being promoted to assistant head coach at a recent staff meeting, wide receivers coach Ricky Proehl said what many in the room were likely thinking. (panthers.com)
  • In 2007, he was assigned to Nyala, South Dafur, as Acting WHO Darfur Programme Coordinator and later as Head of the WHO sub-office there. (who.int)
  • The human head is an anatomical unit that consists of the skull, hyoid bone and cervical vertebrae. (wikipedia.org)
  • clarification needed ( The skull can also be described as being composed of the cranium, )] Sculptures of human heads are generally based on a skeletal structure that consists of a cranium, jawbone, and cheekbone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mid-sagittal section of a human skull, by Leonardo da Vinci, c. 1489 Transection of a human head, by Thomas Bartholin, 1673 The evolution of a head is associated with the cephalization that occurred in Bilateria some 555 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2014, a transient larva tissue of the lancelet was found to be virtually indistinguishable from the neural crest-derived cartilage which forms the vertebrate skull, suggesting that persistence of this tissue and expansion into the entire headspace could be a viable evolutionary route to formation of the vertebrate head. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pain, especially chronic pain, is not just a sensory disorder, but also an emotional disorder, and chronic head and face pain directly and robustly affect the patient's emotional suffering," Wang told Reuters Health by email. (asianage.com)
  • Former Head of Department Isabel Schoultz leads a time-sensitive research project examining strategies between prosecutors, lawyers, and counsels for the injured party in the trial against Orrön (formerly Lundin Energy, among others). (lu.se)
  • Therefore, she chose not to stand for re-election as Head of Department. (lu.se)
  • How has it been being Head of Department? (lu.se)
  • I usually think that if I do what the previous Head of Department did, it will be fine. (lu.se)
  • What do you want to achieve as Head of Department? (lu.se)
  • How does being Head of Department affect your research? (lu.se)
  • I hope to be able to combine research with being the Head of the Department. (lu.se)
  • Appropriate management of TBI requires an understanding of the pathophysiology of head injury. (medscape.com)
  • The rationale for each treatment of head injury is based on the concept of the Monro-Kellie doctrine and how a particular intervention affects the intracranial compliance. (medscape.com)
  • Nursing home residency after head injury. (cdc.gov)
  • 1985). Nursing home residency after head injury. (cdc.gov)
  • Fife, D and Hollinshead, W and Faich, G "Nursing home residency after head injury. (cdc.gov)
  • There is also good cooperation with the heads of the other departments at the faculty and with HR. (lu.se)
  • Lewis and his wife Amy started a support group for people with head and neck cancers. (cdc.gov)
  • The Moor's head appears on the logo for the Corsican football team SC Bastia , who play in the French football system's Ligue 2 . (wikipedia.org)
  • There's been several times where he's had to do certain things and I would run the team, run meetings, run practice," said Wilks, who also served as assistant head coach under Norv Turner in San Diego in 2011. (panthers.com)
  • Eyes in the head found, in several types of insects, are in the form of a pair of compound eyes with multiple faces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Description of Caravaggio's work Head of Medusa. (bvsalud.org)
  • Yanai, who was in the IDF for 32 years and was disappointed that he did not reach the position of Chief of Staff, said that he wants to devote his energies to public service after serving five years as the head of Teva. (israelnationalnews.com)
  • Probably because the face/head is more important to the system in terms of survival. (asianage.com)
  • A typical insect head is composed of eyes, antennae, and components of mouth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wilks aspires to be an NFL head coach and believes this title gives him an opportunity to further develop. (panthers.com)
  • If you have been looking for a Chat Heads-like notification center, but don't find yourself comfortable with the custom ROM flashing, then you will be happy to hear that a standalone application is currently being developed called, Floating Notifications. (droid-life.com)
  • Souhlasím se zasíláním e -mailů s nabídkami, novinkami, průzkumy a soutěžemi od HEAD Sport GmbH ohledně sortimentu a služeb sportovních produktů HEAD Group . (head.com)
  • As most know, Chat Heads is the only part of the Home experience we are really excited about, so to see. (droid-life.com)
  • Facebook Home may be a massive bust in our eyes, but if there was one innovation that came out of that project, it's pretty clear that it was Chat Heads. (droid-life.com)