The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
Light sources used to activate polymerization of light-cured DENTAL CEMENTS and DENTAL RESINS. Degree of cure and bond strength depends on exposure time, wavelength, and intensity of the curing light.
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via chemical reactions, usually involving two components. This type of dental bonding uses a self-cure or dual-cure system.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)
The use of a layer of tooth-colored material, usually porcelain or acrylic resin, applied to the surface of natural teeth, crowns, or pontics by fusion, cementation, or mechanical retention.
Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.
The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.
The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.
The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.
Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.
A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Restorations of metal, porcelain, or plastic made to fit a cavity preparation, then cemented into the tooth. Onlays are restorations which fit into cavity preparations and overlay the occlusal surface of a tooth or teeth. Onlays are retained by frictional or mechanical factors.
Organic-inorganic hybrid polymers developed primarily for DENTAL RESTORATION. They typically contain a defined mixture of ORGANOSILICON COMPOUNDS; CERAMICS; and organic POLYMERS.
Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.
A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.
Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.
A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
A prosthetic appliance for the replacement of areas of the maxilla, mandible, and face, missing as a result of deformity, disease, injury, or surgery. When the prosthesis replaces portions of the mandible only, it is referred to as MANDIBULAR PROSTHESIS.
A fabricated tooth substituting for a natural tooth in a prosthesis. It is usually made of porcelain or plastic.
Occlusal wear of the surfaces of restorations and surface wear of dentures.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.
Material from which the casting mold is made in the fabrication of gold or cobalt-chromium castings. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p168)
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.
The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)
A partial denture intended for short-term use in a temporary or emergency situation.
Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.
Coloring, shading, or tinting of prosthetic components, devices, and materials.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Scanning microscopy in which a very sharp probe is employed in close proximity to a surface, exploiting a particular surface-related property. When this property is local topography, the method is atomic force microscopy (MICROSCOPY, ATOMIC FORCE), and when it is local conductivity, the method is scanning tunneling microscopy (MICROSCOPY, SCANNING TUNNELING).
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.
The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.
Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.
Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.
A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.
Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)
Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.
Alloys that contain a high percentage of gold. They are used in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
The properties and processes of materials that affect their behavior under force.
The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.
Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
The constricted part of the tooth at the junction of the crown and root or roots. It is often referred to as the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), the line at which the cementum covering the root of a tooth and the enamel of the tooth meet. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p530, p433)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Any preparations used for cleansing teeth; they usually contain an abrasive, detergent, binder and flavoring agent and may exist in the form of liquid, paste or powder; may also contain medicaments and caries preventives.
Compounds that provide LUBRICATION between surfaces in order to reduce FRICTION.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
Technique by which phase transitions of chemical reactions can be followed by observation of the heat absorbed or liberated.
Material applied to the tissue side of a denture to provide a soft lining to the parts of a denture coming in contact with soft tissue. It cushions contact of the denture with the tissues.
The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.
A solution used for irrigating the mouth in xerostomia and as a substitute for saliva.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.
A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
Therapeutic technique for replacement of minerals in partially decalcified teeth.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].
Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.
Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Arctiin (LIGNANS) is in the seed.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.
A partial denture attached to prepared natural teeth, roots, or implants by cementation.
Substances used to create an impression, or negative reproduction, of the teeth and dental arches. These materials include dental plasters and cements, metallic oxide pastes, silicone base materials, or elastomeric materials.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.
Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.
The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.
The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)
The part of a denture that overlies the soft tissue and supports the supplied teeth and is supported in turn by abutment teeth or the residual alveolar ridge. It is usually made of resins or metal or their combination.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The joining of pieces of metal through the use of an alloy which has a lower melting point, usually at least 100 degrees Celsius below the fusion temperature of the parts being soldered. In dentistry, soldering is used for joining components of a dental appliance, as in assembling a bridge, joining metals to orthodontic bands, or adding to the bulk of certain structures, such as the establishment of proper contact areas on inlays and crowns with adjacent teeth. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
The use of a chemical oxidizing agent to whiten TEETH. In some procedures the oxidation process is activated by the use of heat or light.
An autosomal dominant disorder of tooth development characterized by opalescent dentin resulting in discoloration of the teeth. The dentin develops poorly with low mineral content while the pulp canal is obliterated.
Sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. These detergent substances are obtained by boiling natural oils or fats with caustic alkali. Sodium soaps are harder and are used as topical anti-infectives and vehicles in pills and liniments; potassium soaps are soft, used as vehicles for ointments and also as topical antimicrobials.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)
Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.
The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.
Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.
The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.
The plan, delineation, and location of actual structural elements of dentures. The design can relate to retainers, stress-breakers, occlusal rests, flanges, framework, lingual or palatal bars, reciprocal arms, etc.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The elaboration of dental enamel by ameloblasts, beginning with its participation in the formation of the dentino-enamel junction to the production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992).
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
Relating to the size of solids.
It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.
A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.
A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
An alkaloid from Hydrastis canadensis L., Berberidaceae. It is also found in many other plants. It is relatively toxic parenterally, but has been used orally for various parasitic and fungal infections and as antidiarrheal.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.
A vinyl polymer made from ethylene. It can be branched or linear. Branched or low-density polyethylene is tough and pliable but not to the same degree as linear polyethylene. Linear or high-density polyethylene has a greater hardness and tensile strength. Polyethylene is used in a variety of products, including implants and prostheses.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Used for general articles concerning statistics of births, deaths, marriages, etc.
The consumption of liquids.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
A competitive team sport played on a rectangular field. This is the American or Canadian version of the game and also includes the form known as rugby. It does not include non-North American football (= SOCCER).
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
The infusion of leaves of CAMELLIA SINENSIS (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Asian tea, which contains CATECHIN (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and CAFFEINE.
Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.
Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A chronic multi-system disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. It is characterized by SCLEROSIS in the SKIN, the LUNGS, the HEART, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, the KIDNEYS, and the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Other important features include diseased small BLOOD VESSELS and AUTOANTIBODIES. The disorder is named for its most prominent feature (hard skin), and classified into subsets by the extent of skin thickening: LIMITED SCLERODERMA and DIFFUSE SCLERODERMA.

Amsorb: a new carbon dioxide absorbent for use in anesthetic breathing systems. (1/634)

BACKGROUND: This article describes a carbon dioxide absorbent for use in anesthesia. The absorbent consists of calcium hydroxide with a compatible humectant, namely, calcium chloride. The absorbent mixture does not contain sodium or potassium hydroxide but includes two setting agents (calcium sulphate and polyvinylpyrrolidine) to improve hardness and porosity. METHODS: The resultant mixture was formulated and subjected to standardized tests for hardness, porosity, and carbon dioxide absorption. Additionally, the new absorbent was exposed in vitro to sevoflurane, desflurane, isoflurane, and enflurane to determine whether these anesthetics were degraded to either compound A or carbon monoxide. The performance data and inertness of the absorbent were compared with two currently available brands of soda lime: Intersorb (Intersurgical Ltd., Berkshire, United Kingdom) and Dragersorb (Drager, Lubeck, Germany). RESULTS: The new carbon dioxide absorbent conformed to United States Pharmacopeia specifications in terms of carbon dioxide absorption, granule hardness, and porosity. When the new material was exposed to sevoflurane (2%) in oxygen at a flow rate of 1 l/min, concentrations of compound A did not increase above those found in the parent drug (1.3-3.3 ppm). In the same experiment, mean +/-SD concentrations of compound A (32.5 +/- 4.5 ppm) were observed when both traditional brands of soda lime were used. After dehydration of the traditional soda limes, immediate exposure to desflurane (60%), enflurane (2%), and isoflurane (2%) produced concentrations of carbon monoxide of 600.0 +/- 10.0 ppm, 580.0 +/- 9.8 ppm, and 620.0 +/-10.1 ppm, respectively. In contrast, concentrations of carbon monoxide were negligible (1-3 ppm) when the anhydrous new absorbent was exposed to the same anesthetics. CONCLUSIONS: The new material is an effective carbon dioxide absorbent and is chemically unreactive with sevoflurane, enflurane, isoflurane, and desflurane.  (+info)

Phase transformations and age-hardening behaviors related to Au3Cu in Au-Cu-Pd alloys. (2/634)

Phase transformation behaviors in Au-Cu-Pd alloys were investigated by means of electrical resistivity measurements, hardness tests, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Anisothermal and isothermal annealing were performed. Two types of phase transformations were found, namely related to the single phase of Au3Cu and the coexistent phase of Au3Cu and AuCu I. The latter produced more remarkable hardening than the former. Hardening was brought about by the antiphase domain size effect of Au3Cu ordered phase in the single phase and by the formation of AuCu I ordered phase in the Au3Cu ordered matrix. There are three modes of phase transformation in the coexistent region depending on the composition. Each sequence is discussed.  (+info)

Phase transformation mechanisms in (AuCu)1-xPdx pseudobinary alloys by direct aging method. (3/634)

Phase transformation mechanisms in the AuCu-Pd pseudobinary system were studied by means of electrical resistivity measurements, hardness tests, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. A direct aging method was employed to eliminate the otherwise unavoidable ordering that takes place rapidly during quenching into ice brine, hence it is important to distinguish the ordering processes with and without an incubation period. Three phase transformation modes occurred, namely; ordering at grain boundaries and in the grain interior with nucleation and growth mechanism after incubation, and spinodal ordering without any incubation period. The age-hardening of the alloys examined was attributed to AuCu I ordering. Nucleation and growth mechanism followed by twinning occurred in the specimens aged at higher temperatures, while spinodal ordering was seen in specimens aged in lower temperature. The spinodal ordering temperature of AuCu-Pd alloys increased according to Pd content.  (+info)

Reinforcement mechanism of dentin mechanical properties by intracanal medicaments. (4/634)

The reinforcement mechanism of dentin mechanical properties by intracanal medicaments was investigated. The dumbbell-shaped specimens were prepared from a collagen sheet, demineralized dentin and organic dissolved dentin. After immersing the specimens in intracanal medicaments (eugenol and formocresol), the tensile test was carried out in 37 degrees C water and the Vickers hardness test was performed. The tensile strengths increased after eugenol and formocresol immersion, especially collagen and organic dissolved dentin after formocresol immersion and demineralized dentin after eugenol immersion. Thus, formocresol immersion might have reinforced the dentin tensile strength by protein coagulation, while eugenol immersion might have reinforced the dentin tensile strength by not only protein coagulation but also chelation with hydroxyapatite. However, the hardness values did not significantly change after intracanal medicament immersion.  (+info)

Isothermal age-hardening behaviour in a multi-purpose dental casting gold alloy. (5/634)

The isothermal age-hardening behaviour of a multi-purpose dental casting gold alloy was investigated by means of hardness testing, X-ray diffraction study, scanning electron microscopic observations and energy dispersive spectroscopy. By ageing of the solution-treated specimen at 400-500 degrees C, two phases of the Au-rich alpha 1 phase with an f.c.c. structure and the alpha 2 phase with an ordered f.c.c. structure based on Pt3In were transformed into three phases of the alpha 1 phase, the alpha 2 phase and the beta phase with an ordered f.c.t. structure based on PtZn. Hardening was attributed to the fine nodular precipitation resulting from the formation of the beta phase in the alpha 1 matrix. Softening was due to the coarsening of the fine nodular precipitates as the result of consumption of the alpha 2 phase.  (+info)

Isothermal age-hardening behaviour in a Au-1.6 wt% Ti alloy. (6/634)

This study describes research with a view to developing a new age-hardenable, high-carat dental gold alloy with better biocompatibility by addition of a small quantity of titanium to gold. The relationship between isothermal age-hardening and phase transformation of the Au-1.6 wt% Ti alloy was investigated by means of hardness testing, X-ray diffraction study, scanning electron microscopic observation and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The hardening in the initial stage of ageing seemed to be attributable to the continuous precipitation of the Au4Ti ordered phase in the supersaturated alpha solid solution matrix. The overaging with softening was attributed mainly to the formation of precipitates at the grain boundaries, which grew to bright lamellae and seemed to be composed of the Au4Ti phase.  (+info)

Effects of thermal cycling on dynamic viscoelastic properties of four commercial resins for crown and bridge. (7/634)

To elucidate the effects of thermal cycling on the viscoelastic properties of four commercial resins for crown and bridge, dynamic shear modulus (G'), mechanical loss tangent (tan delta), Knoop hardness, water sorption and appearance of specimen surfaces before and after thermal cycling test were determined. The changes of G' and tan delta for two materials were insignificant with increased repetitions of thermal cycling. Those of the other two materials were statistically significant: in particular, G' at temperatures above 60 degrees C was inclined to increase slightly and tan delta decreased considerably. While the Knoop hardness of the materials was a little decreased over a number of 75,000 thermal cycles, the water sorption almost attained an equilibrium in uptake after 14,000 thermal cycles. Furthermore, cracks on the specimen surface were observed after 37,500 to 75,000 thermal cycles. From these results, the deterioration of materials was observed as damage to the specimen surface. Moreover, it could be presumed that the materials would be further polymerized during the period of thermal cycling.  (+info)

Influence of composite inlay/onlay thickness on hardening of dual-cured resin cements. (8/634)

This investigation evaluated the effect of resin composite inlay/onlay thickness on the hardness of a group of eight dual-cure resin-based cements. Fourteen disc specimens measuring 6 mm in diameter and 2.5 mm thick were prepared from each of eight dual-cure cements: Adherence, Choice, Duolink, Enforce, Lute-It, Nexus, Resinomer and Variolink. Two specimens from each material were directly light-cured while the remainder of the specimens were light-cured through resin composite spacers varying in thickness from 1 mm to 6 mm. Curing through the spacers always resulted in a decrease in the Knoop hardness number. For some cements, hardness values were reduced by 50% or more when the resin composite spacer thickness was 4 mm or greater even when measurements were made one week after dual-curing. Low hardness values indicate the presence of a weak chemical-curing mechanism that may compromise cement quality in areas of the cavity not readily accessible to the curing light.  (+info)

In a process for hydrocracking heavy polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the heavy feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst in a hydrocracking zone, thereafter separating at least a major portion of the lighter hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten metal halide and thereafter regenerating the spent molten metal halide by incinerating the spent molten metal halide by combustion of carbon and sulfur compounds in the spent molten metal halide in an incineration zone, the improvement comprising: (a) contacting the heavy feedstocks and hydrogen in the presence of the molten metal halide in the hydrocracking zone at reaction conditions effective to convert from about 60 to about 90 weight percent of the feedstock to lighter hydrocarbon fuels; (b) separating at least a major portion of the lighter hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten metal halide; (c) contacting the
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A metal halide lamp of the present invention comprises a luminous tube alone without any outer bulb, the luminous tube containing metal halides such as neodymium halides (NdX3), dysprosium halides (DyX3) and cesium halides (CsX) in a total amount by mole of 1 10-6 to 8 10-6 mol/cc and the following molar ratios: ##EQU1## as well as rare gas serving as starting auxiliary gas and mercury serving as buffer gas. This structure permits a predetermined vapor pressure of the metal halides sealed in the luminous tube to be obtained without increasing the wall load, as well as the formation of a metal halide lamp having a long life and good color characteristics.
Over the years, weve grown accustomed to living and working under certain models of overhead lighting, metal halide and high-pressure sodium lamps among them. Known for their bright light and their ability to withstand cool temperatures, metal halide and high-pressure sodium lights have been used in a variety of lighting applications for decades.. But with declining efficiency and a high cost to operate, this lighting no longer makes sense.. While you may still see metal halide and high-pressure sodium lamps in commercial and industrial facilities and in public spaces such as parking garages and large sports arenas, LED technology now outperforms high-intensity discharges lamps in every way.. For that reason, BC Hydro has made 1500-2000W HID categories for metal halide and high-pressure sodium lamps eligible for upgrade to LED. The HID category has been added to the e.Catalog that lists the configurations and products eligible for our energy-saving incentives for businesses.. ...
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BS EN ISO 4545-4:2018 Metallic materials. Knoop hardness test Table of hardness values, Category: 77.040.10 Mechanical testing of metals
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The bond and molecular polarizabilities are studied for the gas-phase metal halides using delta-function potential model of chemical binding on the basis of quantum mechanical approach. The applicability of the model is demonstrated. The contribution of the polarity corrections for the metal halides is thoroughly investigated and it has been found that it plays a significant role for fluorides. Our polarizability calculations resolve the discrepancy about the conformation of the barium dichloride and mercury dichloride and favour the nonlinear structure. Due to lack of experimental results for most of halides of transition metals, the decision whether to incorporate polarity corrections or not remains uncertain at this stage: we must await measurements of more experimental values before we reach any final conclusion. The ionic bond orders have been used for the first time to investigate polarizabilities of monomers and dimers of alkali halides. The results for dimers reveal that polarity ...
A unique electrode plaque tester, and a method of testing for the hardness of an electrode plaque specimen, are taught. The hardness tester is of the indentation type, and permits the hardness testing of an electrode plaque that is very thin e.g., 0.75 mm and that is made of non-homogenous, sintered material, such as a nickel electrode plaque. A fixed load, comprising a lesser first load and a larger second load, is applied in sequence to a test specimen of the electrode plaque, with two superimposed indentations resulting. The hardness of the electrode plaque, as a result of the use of this tester, is inversely related to the difference in the depths of the two indentations. Data acquired as a result of testing specimens with this hardness tester establishes that the harder the electrode plaque is, the less efficient is the performance of an active battery electrode which includes this electrode plaque.
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Wheat is generally used for a food after converting grain components into different degrees of flour. The perfect milling operation needs to get enough knowledge about kernel mechanical properties and mainly hardness, to estimate correctly its effect on grinding performance. This study determined the influence of wheat hardness on milling energy and efficiency. The results showed great effect of wheat hardness on milling performance. The lowest values of specific energy were recorded in the case of cultivar Katoda. This cultivar is characterised by the lowest value of hardness index. The study indicates that, it is possible to select cultivars with low specific energy and high efficiency during milling, which in effect will cause a reduction of production costs ...
With Anton Paars versatile indentation hardness testers you can precisely determine the mechanical properties of thin films, or coatings, and conduct hardness tests.
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Learn all you need to know about Vickers microhardness testing and microhardness testing machines - with knowledge, insight and troubleshooting tips from Struers, one of the worlds leading Vickers micro hardness tester manufacturers.
HID light bulbs including Metal Halide High Pressure Sodium and Mercury Vapor. Hundreds of sizes, styles and wattages are available. Single bulbs to pallet quantities are available. Contact us for larger quantity orders.
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TIME5432C Shore Hardness Tester for Microporous Materials-BEIJING TIME HIGH TECHNOLOGY Ltd.-TIME5432C is a derivative of TIME5432 Shore AO Durometer. It also adopts the AO type indenter, but has a rectangular press foot. It is designed to test microporous materials for shoes made of rubber and plastic when the compression is 50% and the stress is 0.049 MPa or more.
One of the most serious limitations to Vickers hardness testing in the micro-load range (10-1000 gf or 0.098-9.81 N) has been the variability in measured hardness with loads ≤ 100 gf (≤ 0.98 N). In the literature four HV-load trends have been reported for this range. In the order of most common to least common, the trends are: the hardness decreases with decreasing load; the hardness increases slightly and then decreases; the hardness increases with decreasing load; and, the hardness is constant. Many publications have concentrated on the most common trend and attributed it to material factors. Samuels [1] stated, however, that these problems were due to microscope limitations, such as limited contrast and resolution, and visual perception limitations. At the same symposium, Westrich [2] showed that the SEM could be used to measure small Vickers indents and yield virtually constant hardness as a function of load.. An ASTM inter-laboratory round robin test program was conducted in the ...
Yarn Package Hardness Tester is used to evaluate the hardness of yarn packages, cones, top rollers of Draw Frame, Roving Frame &Ring Frame etc
The device works with both ultrasonic contact impedance (UCI) and dynamic (Leeb) probes. User get the benefits of two methods of measurement - it is the maximum that can be obtained from a portable hardness tester.
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Lights & Heaters Hi Bob and or Crew: A couple quick questions in regard to lights and heaters. First with heaters I currently have two Visitherm 300 Watt heaters in a 110G reef tank which I would like to move to the sump. Is mounting horizontally a problem with these heaters? ,I have never had a problem mounting them this way., Is this too much wattage for a 110? ,maybe slightly more than needed, but they are thermostatically controlled and will not overheat your water. They merely have extra capacity to heat your water if need be., Would I be better off with two Jager-Jager 200 or 250 Watt (I like the 2MM thickness especially in a sump)? ,They are a better product., Now on to lighting, I am about to buy a Giesemann 2x250 watt metal halide with actinic PCs which I will hang about a foot above the water surface. This light uses the double ended metal halide bulbs which create a very brilliant light but also seem to throw more heat than the common socket metal halide. Any info in regard to these ...
The photos of indentations by the Vickers pyramid i n a sodium chlorate c r y s t a l are presented i n Figure 2 and give an idea of r e s u l t i n g cracks and l i f t - o f f s . 6 N). In the case of potassium n i t r a t e the Vickers hardness indentat i o n s have not a quadratic shape. This i s due t o a d i r e c t i o n dependent hardness i n the c r y s t a l l a t t i c e of t h i s material. ch004 46 CRYSTALLIZATION AS A SEPARATIONS PROCESS 4. ch004 t i c e . The force-dependency o f the Vickers hardness isshown i n the p l o t i n Figure 3. The force-dependency o f the Vickers hardness isshown i n the p l o t i n Figure 3. In the diagram there are two curves of the Vickers hardness r e s u l t i n g always from the same indentation image. The hardness values d i f f e r by a f a c t o r of two. The one curve r e s u l t s from the data o f the longer and the other from the shorter diagonal o f each intendation. This d i r e c t i o n dependency was so f a r only observed for the case ...
Hi, Just started our new pool last week. Parameters are like this: FC: 7 (slowly going down from shock condition, targeting 3) CC: 0 PH: 7.5 TA: 70 CH: 500 CYA: untested, will do this week-end
I was wondering if anyone could lead me in the right direction. We have purchased and Microhardness tester for one job in particular and to save some money we bought a dinosaur Wilson Tukon model M30.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Solvent Degradation and Reduced Fracture Toughness in Aged Composites. AU - Ferracane, J. L.. AU - Marker, V. A.. PY - 1992/1. Y1 - 1992/1. N2 - Quartz- and barium-glass-filled composites aged for more than one year in ethanol experienced a significant reduction in fracture toughness (KIc), essentially identical to that experienced after two months of aging. This reduction is mainly attributed to a softening of the resin matrix, but cracking within the resin and at the filler/ matrix interface, as revealed by SEM microscopy, may also have contributed. No significant cracking could be seen in the composites aged in water. Composites post-cured at temperatures approaching their glass-transition temperature also experienced a reduction in KIc after alcohol storage. Storage in water for one year had little effect on the KIc of composites cured at oral temperatures, but a significant increase was observed for those post-cured at elevated temperatures. This increase is difficult to ...
Since joining the Old School Pico Contest Ive been feeling nostalgic and looking to set up a bigger reef system like it was 1999. Metal halides, T5s, Kalkwasser you get the picture. Ive been thinking about an upgrade tank for sometime now, but had a hard time picking a system that I will be happy with for sometime thats inexpensive, bigger but not huge and easy to manage. I wanted the same ease of use that I get from my EVO 13.5 but with more space for corals,fish, and more room in the rear chambers. Most of the AIOs out there didnt quite check all the boxes or out of the budget. I will be keeping this build on a tight budget, but also try and make it as nice as possible in the process. That being said I will be using most of the equipment I already have or in use. My vision for this build will be lots of flow, light, and mainly sps dominant. I think it will be cool to have a nano still running metal halide/t5/led. It will be interesting to see colors and growth from all three lighting ...
Commercial purity aluminium (99.5%) has been cold rolled to a true strain of 5.5 (99.6% reduction in thickness). The material is very strong but low temperature recovery may be a limiting factor. This has been investigated by isothermal annealing treatments in the temperature range 5-100C. Hardness tests, microstructural investigations by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were carried out to identify and characterise possible recovery mechanisms. Annihilation of zigzagged dislocations, positioned between deformationinduced lamellar boundaries of medium-to-high angles, and annihilation of dislocations in boundaries were found to be important recovery mechanisms, whereas other mechanisms, such as triple junction motion, subgrain coalescence, and boundary migration, were less important or negligible. The recovery kinetics was analysed based on hardness data, showing that the apparent activation energy for recovery at low temperatures was 60-86 kJ ...
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Imada E2 Durometer now feature an environmentally friendly magnesium alloy housing. E2 durometers are quick and easy to operate with a high degree of repeatability. Optional peak indicators are available on each model.
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Hi there everyone! Have been reading your forum for quite some time, alot of great info here. Im a fulltime gunsmith and machinist. I have recently pu
1) закалка 2) упрочнение 3) твердение • - case hardening - electrodischarge hardening - flame hardening - high-speed continuous laser hardening - induction hardening - isothermal hardening - laser hardening - laser shock hardening - laser transformation hardening - local hardening - localized hardening - precipitation age.
Chart mohs scale of hardness fire mountain gems and beadshe mohs hardness scale measures the relative hardness of gemstones, as determined by their scratch hardness the resistance of a mineral when scratched with a pointed testing objectthe diamond is the hardest natural gemstone in the world and measures a ten on the hardness scale.
A flexible piston rod includes a piston and a row of elements, each having top, bottom, and lateral surfaces, the top surface of one element being connected to the bottom surface of an adjacent element by a hinge that allows the two adjacent elements to pivot from a first position, where a portion of the top surface of one element abuts a corresponding portion of the bottom surface of the adjacent element and corresponding to a rectilinear, relatively stiff configuration of the piston rod, to a second position wherein the top surface of one element is spaced from the bottom surface of the adjacent element and corresponding to a curved configuration of the piston rod. The lateral surface of each element has first and second mutually-opposed cylindrical surface portions incorporating a thread for meshing with a corresponding thread of an actuator for displacing the piston rod longitudinally.
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An accumulative swaging and bundling technique is used to prepare composite wires made of Ti and an Al alloy. These wires show reasonable higher yield stresses than expected from the pure material flow curves. The additional strengthening in the composite is analyzed using nanoindentation measurements, tensile testings and investigations of the microstructure. In addition, these properties are analyzed in relation to the fracture surface of the mechanically tested wires. Additional strengthening due to the presence of phase boundaries could be verified. Indications for residual stresses are found that cause a global hardness gradient from the center to the wire rim. Finally, the yield stress of the wires are calculated based on local hardness measurements.
J-Integral fracture toughness tests were conducted on tritium-exposed-and-aged Types 304L and 21-6-9 stainless steel weldments in order to measure the combined effects of tritium and its decay product, helium-3 on the fracture toughness properties. Initially, weldments have fracture toughness values about three times higher than base-metal values. Delta-ferrite phase in the weld microstructure improved toughness provided no tritium was present in the microstructure. After a tritium-exposure-and-aging treatment that resulted in ~1400 atomic parts per million (appm) dissolved tritium, both weldments and base metals had their fracture toughness values reduced to about the same level. The tritium effect was greater in weldments (67 % reduction vs. 37% reduction) largely because the ductile discontinuous delta-ferrite phase was embrittled by tritium and decay helium. For both base metals and weldments, fracture toughness values decreased with increasing decay helium content in the range tested ...
A conforming heat sink assembly for removing heat from heat generating components, having respective top surfaces defining different heights is provided with a flexible thermally conductive base member with a top surface and a bottom surface. The bottom surface is adapted to be positioned in flush thermal communication with the top surfaces of each of the components. The bottom portions of a heat dissipating element are embedded in a flexible thermally conductive base member. The heat dissipating member is corrugated to define a number of lower contact points and upstanding fin members. The lower contact points are movable relative to one another in accordance with the top surface of the flexible thermally conductive base member. The heat dissipating element is affixed to the flexible thermally conductive base member at its lower contact points to form a conforming heat sink assembly.
Hardness/abrasion number[edit]. It is a measure of the activated carbon's resistance to attrition. It is an important indicator ... There are large differences in the hardness of activated carbons, depending on the raw material and activity levels. ...
Mechanical hardness[edit]. Unlike temperature and electric current, there is no abstract physical concept of the hardness of a ... Rebound, or dynamic, hardness measured with a Shore scleroscope.. Of these, indentation hardness itself leads to many ... However, there is not always a simple relationship between the various hardness scales. Vickers and Rockwell hardness numbers ... Rockwell hardness test - using a diamond cone indenter.. In all these, a process is defined for loading the indenter, measuring ...
Softness/hardness of various light sources[edit]. Most light sources have a non-negligible size and therefore exhibit the ... The hardness or softness of light depends mostly on the following two factors: *Distance. The closer the light source, the ...
"Mohs Hardness Test". www.oakton.edu. Retrieved 2019-12-20. "Hardness". Earth's Minerals. learnbps.bismarckschools.org. ... It has a brassy to golden yellow color and a hardness of 3.5 to 4 on the Mohs scale. Its streak is diagnostic as green tinged ... Some important mineral characteristics that help distinguish these minerals are hardness and streak. Chalcopyrite is much ...
The display explains how minerals are different from rocks, and has sections about: mineral colour; streak; hardness; magnetism ...
Hardness 324. Softness 325. Elasticity 326. Inelasticity 327. Tenacity 328. Brittleness 329. Texture 330. Pulverulence 331. ...
Indentation hardness; and Rebound, or dynamic, hardness measured with a Shore scleroscope. Of these, indentation hardness ... However, there is not always a simple relationship between the various hardness scales. Vickers and Rockwell hardness numbers ... Vickers hardness test - using a pyramidal diamond indenter; and Rockwell hardness test - using a diamond cone indenter. In all ... Unlike temperature and electric current, there is no abstract physical concept of the hardness of a material. It is a slightly ...
The hardness is due to water being obtained from underground chalk sources by the water company Southern Water. In East Kent, ... "Water Hardness". Southern Water. Retrieved 21 June 2007. "Wye 1971-2000 averages". Met Office. Archived from the original on 29 ...
ISBN 978-0-415-14098-0.; "Water Hardness". Waterwise.org.uk. 2006. Archived from the original on 15 March 2017. Retrieved 14 ...
Hardness = ∼2. Radioactive. Contents of Al and U are very stable (1±0.05 and 2±0.07 atoms per As+P+U = 4 apfu respectively). ...
North West England is the wettest region in England, and water hardness across the region is soft to very soft. In 1989 the ... "Water hardness". www.unitedutilities.com. Retrieved 14 August 2020. "United Utilities - Share price history". www. ...
Pearson, Ralph G. (1997). "The HSAB Principle". Chemical Hardness. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. pp. 1-27. doi:10.1002/ ...
... hardness is also a critical factor in food processing and may be altered or treated by using a chemical ion exchange ... Water hardness is classified based on concentration of calcium carbonate the water contains. Water is classified as soft if it ... "Water hardness". US Geological Service. 8 April 2014. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2015. M.M. ... ISBN 978-0-8342-1234-3. "Map showing the rate of hardness in mg/l as Calcium carbonate in England and Wales" (PDF). DEFRA/ ...
... has a hardness of 20-30 Brinell. An increase in the carbon content will cause a significant increase in the hardness and ... Maximum hardness of 65 Rc is achieved with a 0.6% carbon content, although the alloy has low tensile strength. Because of the ... Those properties can be evaluated in various ways, including the Brinell test, the Rockwell test and the Vickers hardness test ... ISBN 0-87170-389-0. "Hardness Conversion Chart". Maryland Metrics. Archived from the original on 18 June 2015. Retrieved 23 May ...
... softness or hardness; dimensional stability; high heat and pressure tolerance; binding and barrier (e.g. moisture, oil) ...
This relieves strain on the surface of the steel after hardening, and provides the correct level of hardness. Unlike many axes ... "Rockwell Hardness Scale". Surface Engineering. "Manufacturing process". Helko. "Vario 2000 axe system". Rocky Mountain ... the hardness of Helko edges is between 47-56 HRC (Rockwell) up to 30 millimeters from the cutting edge, while the eye is ...
"Erection Hardness Score". sexhealthmatters.org/. Sexual Medicine Society of North America. Retrieved 23 January 2015. " ...
Hardness: Very high. Alkalinity: Higher side. Sodium: Concentration of sodium was found to be lower. Potassium: The ...
Who is like the wise? And who knows the interpretation of a thing? A man's wisdom makes his face shine, and the hardness of his ... Numbers 6:25). "Hardness" (KJV: "boldness"; NKJV: "sternness"): literally, "strength". Echoing the idea in Ecclesiastes 3:16-17 ...
Copper: high hardness; high corrosion resistance; highest mechanical properties of alloys die cast; excellent wear resistance; ...
Computational hardness assumption • Computer insecurity • Computer and network surveillance • COMSEC equipment • Conch (SSH) • ...
Laffan, R.M.; Hardness, H.D.; Simmons, J.L.A. (6 July 1848). Appendix No. 17 : East and West Yorkshire Junction Railway. ...
She `endured hardness.' when in China and on long journeys, putting up with much discomfort. She ministered to her fellow- ...
... hardness 31/2. A variety known as cuprodescloizite is dull green in color; it contains a considerable amount of copper ...
The hardness of a mineral defines how much it can resist scratching. This physical property is controlled by the chemical ... A mineral's hardness is not necessarily constant for all sides, which is a function of its structure; crystallographic weakness ... The 2:1 clay minerals (pyrophyllite-talc) consist of T-O-T stacks, but they are softer (hardness from 1 to 2), as they are ... The kaolinite-serpentine group consists of T-O stacks (the 1:1 clay minerals); their hardness ranges from 2 to 4, as the sheets ...
HardnessEdit. Elastic constants of adamantane were measured using large (centimeter-sized) single crystals and the ultrasonic ...
It has a hardness of 5.0 to 5.5 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness and is relatively dense, about 4.6 to 5.7 g/cm3. There ...
... has a Mohs hardness of 2-2.25 parallel to the [001] face, 4 perpendicular to the [001] and a specific gravity of 2.76 ...
hardness. 5-6[1]. Luster. Vitreous. Specific gravity. c. 2.4[2]. Optical properties. Translucent. ...
Minimum mating surface hardness n/a RC 35 References[edit]. *^ a b c "Rulon". San Diego Plastics, Inc. Retrieved 2008-01-23.. . ...
Scratch hardness[edit]. Main article: Scratch hardness. Scratch hardness is the measure of how resistant a sample is to ... there are different measurements of hardness: scratch hardness, indentation hardness, and rebound hardness. ... Common indentation hardness scales are Rockwell, Vickers, Shore, and Brinell.. Rebound hardness[edit]. Rebound hardness, also ... Indentation hardness[edit]. Main article: Indentation hardness. Indentation hardness measures the resistance of a sample to ...
HARDNESS?? Doc. Hello there. Firstly, what do you call the condition when the scar tissue goes hard in the breast after ...
Amethyst Galleries Mineral Gallery What is important about hardness?. galleries.com *^ Mineral Hardness and Hardness Scales ... "Mohs Hardness Scale: Testing the Resistance to Being Scratched". geology.com.. *^ a b "Material Hardness Tables, Ted Pella, Inc ... Mohs hardness is useful in milling. It allows assessment of which kind of mill will best reduce a given product whose hardness ... Mohs hardness kit, containing one specimen of each mineral on the ten-point hardness scale ...
Convert a specific material hardness or hardness number to various other systems. Compute with hardness systems based on ... The Mohs hardness scale is one of the more commonly recognized and was designed to measure the hardness of minerals by using ... Material Hardness Convert between various hardness scales by specifying a scale and value or by requesting a specific formula. ... Material Hardness. Material hardness is measured using a variety of scales in research as well in industrial applications. The ...
Water hardness in the United States. Mean hardness as calcium carbonate at NASQAN water-monitoring sites during the 1975 water ... Measures of water hardness. Hardness is caused by compounds of calcium and magnesium, and by a variety of other metals. General ... Water Hardness. The simple definition of water hardness is the amount of dissolved calcium and magnesium in the water. Hard ... Depending on the hardness of your water, after using soap to wash you may have felt like there was a film of residue left on ...
... Causes of white residue on glassware, dishes and household plumbing fixtures CLICK HERE TO ...
Water hardness refers to the amount of calcium and magnesium in your water supply. Hard water in your home can leave spots on ... Buy a test kit for carbonate hardness and general hardness. Unlike regular tap water where you only check the general hardness ... Checking for Water Hardness with Soap * {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/4\/44\/Measure-Water-Hardness- ... Determining Water Hardness in an Aquarium * {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/c\/c9\/Measure-Water- ...
Soap solution is used to measure the hardness of rain water, temporarily hard water and sea-water. The effect of boiling the ... Testing the hardness of water. Class practical. Soap solution. is used to measure the hardness. of rain water. , temporarily ... whether sea water contains permanent hardness, temporary hardness or a mixture of both.. ... not to overcome hardness. This volume should be subtracted from the other volumes before the relative hardnesses are compared. ...
In recent years silicon photonic platforms have undergone rapid maturation enabling not only optical communication but complex scientific experiments ranging fr
MACHINES Rockwell Hardness Tester Brinell Hardness Tester Vickers Hardness Tester Dynamic Hardness Tester Webster Hardness ... 7. DUROMETERS MANUAL SHORE A Hardness Tester SHORE D Hardness Tester SHORE A DIGITAL SHORE A & D HARDNESS TESTER OPERATING ... 5. DIFFERENT TYPES OF PORTABLE HARDNESS TESTERS ULTRASONIC HARDNESS TESTER The Ultrasonic Hardness Tester uses ultrasonic ... 2. ROCKWELL HARDNESS TESTERS MRS MRB MSM MRS-N TRSD-N BRINELL HARDNESS TESTERS AKB-3000 OPAB-3000 OPAB-3000PC OPAB-3000 IPC ...
What ions cause hardness in water?. Class practical. Hardness. in water indicates an inability to form a lather. with soap ... What ions cause hardness in water? Description. In this experiment the effect of dissolved salts, containing several different ... Hardness of water is usually attributed to calcium and magnesium salts but any cation with two or more charges can cause it (eg ... Intermediate students should be able to track the cause of hardness down to these cations and say that the anions make no ...
... there are different measurements of hardness: scratch hardness, indentation hardness, and rebound hardness. Hardness is ... Two scales that measures rebound hardness are the Leeb rebound hardness test and Bennett hardness scale. Ultrasonic Contact ... 8. An introduction to materials hardness Guidelines to hardness testing Testing the Hardness of Metals. ... Rebound hardness, also known as dynamic hardness, measures the height of the "bounce" of a diamond-tipped hammer dropped from a ...
Learn what water hardness is, and how it affects waters suitability for drinking and other everyday uses. Youve heard the ... www.questionsanswered.net/article/how-test-hardness-water. Have you noticed a white residue on your clothing and cooking pots ... and wondered if you need water softening equipment? Heres a look at how to test the hardness of water. ... How to Test the Hardness of Water ...
NetApp accused of short-stroking its new hardness. Everyone short-strokes, admits industry rival. By Chris Mellor 8 Nov 2011 ...
When water passes through or over mineral deposits such as limestone, the levels of certain ions present in the water increase greatly and cause the water to be classified as hard water. This term results from the fact that calcium or magnesium ions in water combine with soap molecules, forming a sticky scum that interferes with soap action and makes it "hard" to get suds. Soft water, such as rainwater or melted snow, is mostly free of these ions. Soft water, when mixed with soap will form suds. A Conductivity Probe can be used to test for ions in water. Hard water, because of the ions it contains, gives a high conductivity reading. Soft water gives a low conductivity reading.. ...
... the known hardnesses of which are assembled into a standard scale, as the Mohs scale of minerals. See more. ... Scratch hardness definition, resistance of a material, as a stone or metal, to scratching by one of several other materials, ... scratch hardness. scratch card, scratch coat, scratch hardness, scratch hit, scratching, scratch line ... resistance of a material, as a stone or metal, to scratching by one of several other materials, the known hardnesses of which ...
... 14 pages•Published: September 17, 2018. Nicos Isaak and Loizos Michael ... inproceedings{GCAI-2018:Data_Driven_Metric_of_Hardness, author = {Nicos Isaak and Loizos Michael}, title = {A Data-Driven ... suggesting that the performance of the particular automated approach could be used as a metric of hardness for WSC instances.. ... Metric of Hardness for WSC Sentences}, booktitle = {GCAI-2018. 4th Global Conference on Artificial Intelligence}, editor = { ...
Symbiosis for hardness of beetles. Hisashi Anbutsu, Minoru Moriyama, Naruo Nikoh, Takahiro Hosokawa, Ryo Futahashi, Masahiko ... Symbiosis for hardness of beetles. Hisashi Anbutsu, Minoru Moriyama, Naruo Nikoh, Takahiro Hosokawa, Ryo Futahashi, Masahiko ... Small genome symbiont underlies cuticle hardness in beetles. Hisashi Anbutsu, Minoru Moriyama, Naruo Nikoh, Takahiro Hosokawa, ... 6 H and I) revealed that, unexpectedly, the elastic modulus, a qualitative index of physical hardness, was not significantly ...
Carbonate hardness, is a measure of the water hardness caused by the presence of carbonate (CO2− 3) and bicarbonate (HCO− 3) ... Water portal dGH or DGH or Degree of General Hardness, a measure of the hardness of water Hard water "Lime Softening". ... The term carbonate hardness is also sometimes used as a synonym for temporary hardness, in which case it refers to that portion ... whereas Carbonate Hardness CH (mg/L) = [ HCO 3 − ] + [ CO 3 2 − ] {\displaystyle {\text{Carbonate Hardness CH (mg/L)}}=[{\text{ ...
... broadly whether hardness/intractability/glassiness is an emergent property of quantum mechanical systems of recognizable ...
574 Rockwell hardness testers are designed to meet a range of Rockwell testing applications within the automotive and aerospace ... Mitutoyo America HR-530 Series Hardness Tester. MKII Portable Hardness Tester. Buehler Wilson Universal Hardness Tester. ... 574 Rockwell hardness testers are designed to meet a range of Rockwell testing applications within the automotive and aerospace ... Available in regular, superficial and twin-scale models, the hardness testing solution provides a rugged industrial design, an ...
Though many complex tests are available, hardness testing gets the job done. ... Hardness testing-a quick, relatively inexpensive nondestructive test-is used to characterize materials and determine if they ... "Easier Hardness Testing" "Not So Hard". "Rockwell Standard Revealed" Tech Tips. *Hardness testing is a nondestructive test used ... When testing the hardness of a steel roll, the roll hardness must be within a certain range for optimal performance without ...
... www.ferret.com.au showcases products from suppliers of Hardness Testing Machines and other related products and services. ... the Wolpert UH930 is a universal hardness tester that displays hardness values for all common hardness test procedures. ... Hardness testing file set - HRC 40-HRC 65. 12/11/09 - Robinson International now has available an innovative hardness testing ... Erichsen scratch hardness testers from Novasys Group. 16/05/12 - Novasys Group offers Model 291 scratch hardness testers from ...
Mean hardness as calcium carbonate at NASQAN water-monitoring sites during the 1975 water year. Colors represent streamflow ...
The workshop will address this issue and present methods to test electronics for radiation hardness and also highlight the ...
... prevents soap from lathering by causing the development of an insoluble curdy precipitate in the water; hardness ... Water treatment can improve hardness issues.. Scale deposits from hardness buildup affects fixtures and appliances found ... For this reason, hardness is typically addressed with treatment of water for the whole house or building rather than just at a ... Hardness minerals can be reduced in water for the whole house to make it "softer" by using one of the following means: ...
The kit also gives students an opportunity to go out into their local environment and investigate the relative hardness of the ... With this kit students become familiar with the Mohs hardness scale and develop skills that will help them throughout their ... The Mohs hardness scale was invented by Friedrich Mohs in 1812. Since then, the Mohs hardness scale has assisted geologists in ... Mohs Hardness Test Kit. Item # GEO8690 Online Only *bvseo_sdk, java_sdk, bvseo-4.0.0 ...
Get the latest magnesium hardness news on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and ... The sensors ion-selective tip has been specially developed for titrating calcium/magnesium hardness in drinking water. ... ...
  • Another tool used to make these tests is the pocket hardness tester. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5. DIFFERENT TYPES OF PORTABLE HARDNESS TESTERS ULTRASONIC HARDNESS TESTER The Ultrasonic Hardness Tester uses ultrasonic impedence method of measuring hardness standardized according to ASTM A1038 Ultrasonic contact-impedance (UCI) probe is used for measurement of hardness of small products, objects with a thin-wall, complex shapes for measuring the hardness of hardened layer's surface. (slideshare.net)
  • 8. HARDNESS TESTER SPARES & ACCESSORIES Brinell Microscope Brinell Microscope (Impd. (slideshare.net)
  • Though these complex robotic systems may be ideal, a basic hardness tester can still get the job done. (qualitymag.com)
  • 18/08/11 - Testequip's TH-170 portable hardness tester has now been updated with advanced features, following the Leebs principle. (ferret.com.au)
  • 15/02/11 - Available now from Hylec Controls, the Wolpert UH930 is a universal hardness tester that displays hardness values for all common hardness test procedures. (ferret.com.au)
  • Its not much of a manual, but if you are somewhat familiar as to how a hardness tester should work you can get by with it. (practicalmachinist.com)
  • The 3825 Brinell hardness tester incorporates the latest load cell and closed loop technology. (starrett.com)
  • The whole weight of the Brinell Hardness tester is 50% less than the traditional dead weights type tester. (starrett.com)
  • The Brinell hardness Tester features a fully automatic test cycle, load application, holding, unloading, is performed fully automatically. (starrett.com)
  • Datasheet with main details, features, specifications, and included accessories of the 3825 Hardness Tester. (starrett.com)
  • Dynamic Ultra Micro Hardness Tester A new evaluation system for measuring the material strength of micro regions, such as semicond. (tradeindia.com)
  • It allows you to control your micro-hardness tester via computer and uses a camera to automatically measure your indents. (buehler.com)
  • Today, PRECIDUR lives on the Wilson Hardness Minuteman Software that is optimized for our Tukon 1102/1202 Hardness Tester as well as the Tukon 2500 Knoop/Vickers Hardness Tester. (buehler.com)
  • The Minuteman software being backwards compatible with PRECIDUR, also can be used to upgrade your (micro) hardness tester. (buehler.com)
  • Electric Brinell Hardness Tester BH-3000L The Brinell hardness testing creates the largest indentation comparing all other hardness testing methods. (phrmg.org)
  • Portable Leeb Hardness Tester , portable hardness tester ,digital hardness tester RHL30 Features LCD display of 128×64 matrix with back-light, showing all functions and parameters. (phrmg.org)
  • HVS-1000 Digital Micro Vickers Hardness Tester with Easy operating system The micro-Vickers hardness tester HVS-1000 is especially well suited for high precision hardness testing of small and/or thin specimens such as. (phrmg.org)
  • Anyone have a brinell hardness tester to confirm this? (shootersforum.com)
  • Scratch Resistance: To assess a coating's resistance to scratch there are a number of different instruments that can be used: Pencil Hardness Tester (Wolff-Wilborn), Sclerometer, Clemen Apparatus, Scratching and Shearing Instrument. (elcometer.com)
  • For coatings in particular, there are three common methods where the depth of penetration of a weighted tool is used to show the coating's resistance to penetration: Buchholz Hardness Tester, Barcol Impressor Hardness Testr, Shore Durometer. (elcometer.com)
  • 574 Rockwell hardness testers are designed to meet a range of Rockwell testing applications within the automotive and aerospace industries, appropriate for flat and cylindrical work pieces in both laboratory and workshop testing. (qualitymag.com)
  • Today the company's hardness testing product lines include Rockwell along with microindentation, automatic computer controlled systems, Brinell, portable testers, Shore durometers and accessories. (qualitymag.com)
  • Zwick Roell provides a range of hardness testers for tests on metals, plastics, rubber and special materials according to all relevant and worldwide standards. (qualitymag.com)
  • High performance Hardness Testers with advanced technology to ensure accurate results. (ferret.com.au)
  • 13/08/15 - Bestech Australia announces the new Versitron Series Rockwell hardness testers. (ferret.com.au)
  • 16/05/12 - Novasys Group offers Model 291 scratch hardness testers from Erichsen, a leading supplier of testing equipment for quality management. (ferret.com.au)
  • 12/09/11 - Testequip presents the TH-172 TIME C integrated portable hardness testers, which are ideally used on thinner metal thicknesses. (ferret.com.au)
  • We sell and support portable hardness testers only. (qualitymag.com)
  • With Anton Paar's versatile indentation hardness testers you can precisely determine the mechanical properties of thin films, coatings, or substrates such as elastic modulus and conduct hardness tests. (anton-paar.com)
  • Anton Paar's instrumented indentation hardness testers employ a wide range of forces and thus represent the most versatile and applicable solutions on the market. (anton-paar.com)
  • In contrast to conventional micro-hardness testers, Anton Paar's MHT³ not only measures a material's hardness but also determines its elastic modulus based on the high-precision technique of Instrumented Indentation Testing (IIT). (anton-paar.com)
  • PRECIDUR was developed in Germany by Fritz Müller GmbH in the early 1990's and is used on many Micro Hardness testers by a variety of manufacturers. (buehler.com)
  • Connect a camera to your Vickers/Knoop hardness testers and measure the indents on your PC screen. (buehler.com)
  • Reicherter offered a broad range of hardness testers characterized by stable construction, outstanding accuracy and ease of use. (buehler.com)
  • With over 40,000 installations Reicherter hardness testers gained the trust of users all over the world. (buehler.com)
  • Reicherter produced Vickers, Rockwell, Brinell and Universal hardness testers that were known globally and manufactured in Germany with sturdy machine construction, maximum testing accuracy and ease of use and maintenance. (buehler.com)
  • Microprocessor-controlled hardness testers not only allow fast, reliable and accurate testing, but also data storage and acquisition and report generation. (industrialheating.com)
  • Hardness tests carried out manually using conventional hardness testers makes the process highly cost and time intensive. (industrialheating.com)
  • AURORA, Ill.-Mitutoyo America Corp. released the newest HR-530 series Rockwell Hardness Testers, including the HR-530 and HR-530L. (rubbernews.com)
  • Please I would like to know the limiting values of water total hardness that use for 316L Stainless Steel Heat Exchangers? (eng-tips.com)
  • Some of machine manufacturer recommend Total hardness below 100 mg/l and some between 70-600 mg/l like Evaporative Condenser and others 200 mg/l. (eng-tips.com)
  • Total hardness is only one of four or five critical factors, if people are telling you that you can control just on hardness then they either think that you are too stupid to do it correctly or they are too stupid to know the difference. (eng-tips.com)
  • The Total Hardness Test provides a simple method of checking water hardness over the range 5 - 500 mg/l. (wilhelmsen.com)
  • 1. This test measures total hardness, i.e. the total content of calcium and magnesium ions in the water. (wilhelmsen.com)
  • Description: Stamolys CA71HA total hardness analyzer is a compact photometric analysis system for total hardness measurement in drinking water systems. (globalspec.com)
  • Total hardness equals the sum of carbonate and noncarbonate hardness. (ufl.edu)
  • The Water Hardness Test by Tier1 contains 3 test strips that measure total hardness in your water. (waterfilters.net)
  • Total Hardness (TH) is a measure of the total amount of calcium and magnesium naturally leached into your water through watersheds. (waterfilters.net)
  • The PRECIDUR software complements the Wilson Hardness product portfolio with its well-known flexibility and powerful automatic Vickers/Knoop measurements. (buehler.com)
  • The choice of scale depends on the level of hardness needing measured. (wolframalpha.com)
  • Depending on the room where the flooring will be installed, a certain level of hardness may make it a more desirable choice. (builddirect.com)
  • This Tier1 Water Hardness Test will give you a recognized level of hardness and the associated effects of that amount. (waterfilters.net)
  • High levels of hardness prevent the formation of lather with soap, and can cause scaling in water systems, particularly steam boilers, engine cooling systems and fresh water pipework. (wilhelmsen.com)
  • Trend analyses showed an increasing odds ratio for pancreatic cancer with decreasing levels of hardness in drinking water. (nih.gov)
  • Two scales that measures rebound hardness are the Leeb rebound hardness test and Bennett hardness scale . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Mohs scale of mineral hardness ( / m oʊ z / ) is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Mohs scale hardness of minerals can be commonly found in reference sheets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Mohs scale has been used to evaluate the hardness of smartphone screens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most modern smartphone displays use Gorilla Glass that scratches at level 6 with deeper grooves at level 7 on the Mohs scale of hardness. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is based on the ability of one natural sample of mineral to scratch another mineral visibly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hardness of a material is measured against the scale by finding the hardest material that the given material can scratch, or the softest material that can scratch the given material. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, if some material is scratched by apatite but not by fluorite, its hardness on the Mohs scale would fall between 4 and 5. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the Mohs scale, a streak plate (unglazed porcelain ) has a hardness of approximately 7.0. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using these ordinary materials of known hardness can be a simple way to approximate the position of a mineral on the scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Mohs hardness scale is one of the more commonly recognized and was designed to measure the hardness of minerals by using one mineral to scratch another. (wolframalpha.com)
  • Convert between various hardness scales by specifying a scale and value or by requesting a specific formula. (wolframalpha.com)
  • resistance of a material, as a stone or metal, to scratching by one of several other materials, the known hardnesses of which are assembled into a standard scale, as the Mohs' scale of minerals. (dictionary.com)
  • Available in regular, superficial and twin-scale models, the hardness testing solution provides a rugged industrial design, an all-new control panel with LCD display and a built-in USB port for transfer to Microsoft Excel or other applications. (qualitymag.com)
  • hardness typically causes the buildup of hardness scale (such as seen in cooking pans). (wqa.org)
  • Scale deposits from hardness buildup affects fixtures and appliances found throughout the entire home or business. (wqa.org)
  • Then, you can refer to the Mohs hardness scale, which ranks common minerals by hardness. (wikihow.com)
  • This scale was developed over 200 years ago and it's still the accepted way to test a mineral's hardness. (wikihow.com)
  • Where hardness acceptance values are specified and a conversion from one scale to another is necessary the source of the conversion data should be stated and understood by the parties involved. (mdmetric.com)
  • This is the Traditional Scale of Hardness Collection and a Test Kit. (forestry-suppliers.com)
  • UNHT³ HTV is a low-load nanomechanical test system used for elastic modulus and hardness measurements of thin films and coatings up to 800 °C. The user-friendly and versatile NHT3 is designed to provide low loads with depth measurements on the nanometer scale. (anton-paar.com)
  • Description: Removing hardness also reduces the need for expensive chemical treatment to control scale. (globalspec.com)
  • What is the Janka Hardness Scale? (builddirect.com)
  • The Janka Hardness Scale determines the hardness of a particular type of wood over another. (builddirect.com)
  • The scale was developed as a means for displaying the results of the Janka hardness test. (builddirect.com)
  • Wood is also tested on the sides or ends, because that provides a different hardness rating, but these ratings are not displayed on the typical hardness scale. (builddirect.com)
  • The Janka Hardness Scale starts at zero, with this option being the softest wood choice, making it easy to dent and scratch. (builddirect.com)
  • Where do engineered hardwoods stand on the Janka Hardness scale? (builddirect.com)
  • Since these hardwoods are made with a layer of softer wood beneath them, their hardness cannot really be gauged correctly with the scale. (builddirect.com)
  • Rockwell hardness values are expressed as a combination of a hardness number and a scale symbol representing the indenter and the minor and major loads. (buehler.com)
  • The hardness number is expressed by the symbol HR and the scale designation. (buehler.com)
  • These combinations make up 30 different scales and are expressed as the actual hardness number followed by the letters HR and then the respective scale. (buehler.com)
  • A recorded hardness number of 63HRC signifies a hardness of 63 on the Rockwell C scale. (buehler.com)
  • Mohs hardness is measured on a scale from 1 to 10. (windows2universe.org)
  • Mohs hardness is measured on a scale from 1 to 10 with softer minerals designated by low numbers and harder minerals designated by high numbers. (windows2universe.org)
  • The required hardness scale can be selected with the touch panel. (rubbernews.com)
  • Created in 1822 by German geologist and mineralogist Friedrich Mohs , it is one of several definitions of hardness in materials science , some of which are more quantitative. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mohs hardness is useful in milling . (wikipedia.org)
  • The Rockwell hardness test is based on the measurement of the depth to which an indenter is forced by a heavy (major) load beyond the depth resulting from a previously applied preliminary (minor) load. (buehler.com)
  • Accordingly, most conventional hardness tests involve a hard indenter (one made of diamond, for example) that is pressed vertically into the surface of the sample being tested. (industrialheating.com)
  • Water systems using groundwater as a source are concerned with water hardness, since as water moves through soil and rock it dissolves small amounts of naturally-occurring minerals and carries them into the groundwater supply . (usgs.gov)
  • O. Alo, L. Umoru, J. Ajao and K. Oluwasegun, "Thermal, Hardness and Microstructural Characterization of Al-Si-SiC p Composites," Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering , Vol. 11 No. 2, 2012, pp. 159-168. (scirp.org)
  • The ions responsible for alkalinity and hardness originate from the dissolution of geological minerals into rain and groundwater. (ufl.edu)
  • scratch hardness , indentation hardness , and rebound hardness . (wikipedia.org)
  • Scratch hardness is the measure of how resistant a sample is to fracture or permanent plastic deformation due to friction from a sharp object. (wikipedia.org)
  • When testing coatings, scratch hardness refers to the force necessary to cut through the film to the substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • This response produces the observed properties of scratch and indentation hardness, as described and measured in materials science. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you get a scratch with the copper but not with the fingernail, you know that the mineral has a hardness of at least 3 since that's the hardness of the copper. (wikihow.com)
  • To figure out the hardness of a mineral, try to scratch it with an object of known hardness. (windows2universe.org)
  • For instance, if a fingernail cannot scratch a mystery mineral, we know it has a hardness of more than 2.5. (windows2universe.org)
  • If the mystery mineral can't scratch glass, we know it has a hardness of less than 5.5. (windows2universe.org)
  • But in layman's terms, you may notice water hardness when your hands still feel slimy after washing with soap and water, or when your drinking glasses at home become less than crystal clear. (usgs.gov)
  • Depending on the hardness of your water, after using soap to wash you may have felt like there was a film of residue left on your hands. (usgs.gov)
  • Soap solution is used to measure the hardness of rain water, temporarily hard water and sea-water. (rsc.org)
  • Hardness in water indicates an inability to form a lather with soap solution . (rsc.org)
  • Use soap to find water hardness. (vernier.com)
  • The term hardness was originally applied to waters that were hard to wash in, referring to the soap wasting properties of hard water. (wqa.org)
  • The hardness of water is most commonly recognized by high soap consumption. (usf.edu)
  • Hardness is most commonly associated with the ability of water to precipitate soap. (ufl.edu)
  • As hardness increases, more soap is needed to achieve the same level of cleaning due to the interactions of the hardness ions with the soap. (ufl.edu)
  • The number of separate measurements needed to establish hardness varies over a large range and depends on the sample and the definition of the particular measurement problem. (industrialheating.com)
  • In the coatings industry, hardness measurement can be used to determine the resistance of the coating to scratching from general wear and tear and also if a coating is fully cured. (elcometer.com)
  • The HR-530 series also can test the hardness of an inside ring wall without cutting the ring. (rubbernews.com)
  • 03/04/09 - The 30kN Brinell hardness testing machine, from Hylec Controls, is used for the higher load Brinell scales (>187.5kgf). (ferret.com.au)
  • Brinell Hardness Calculator (BHC) make the Brinell hardness value calculation easier and convenient. (starrett.com)
  • The series features electronic controls, which provide capabilities for Rockwell, Rockwell Superficial and Rockwell testing of plastics (A & B) and Light Force Brinell hardness testing, according to a company release. (rubbernews.com)
  • To determine the hardness of your water, it can be tested using simple test strips or a titration drop test. (pentair.com)
  • However, the number can be many times greater to determine the hardness profile across a weldment cross section. (industrialheating.com)
  • 12/11/09 - Robinson International now has available an innovative hardness testing file set that provides a quick, efficient and inexpensive means to check steel hardness. (ferret.com.au)
  • Assessing Radiation Hardness of Silicon Photonic Sensors. (nist.gov)
  • The workshop will address this issue and present methods to test electronics for radiation hardness and also highlight the introduction of wide bandgap semiconductors, which are inherently more radiation hard than prevailing silicon. (kth.se)
  • The measurements enable you to determine a material's mechanical properties, by for instance conducting hardness tests and measuring elastic modulus and creep. (anton-paar.com)
  • Hardness can be defined as a material's resistance to permanent deformation. (elcometer.com)
  • The incorporation of ketoconazole, chlorhexidine, nystatin, and miconazole have shown to cause significant increase in the material's hardness (although itraconazole did not affect hardness) 18 . (nature.com)
  • Ramor ® 500 is a ballistic protection steel of high hardness, available in thicknesses of 2‑30 mm (0.079‑1.18″) and hardnesses of 490‑560 HBW. (ssab.com)
  • inproceedings{GCAI-2018:Data_Driven_Metric_of_Hardness, author = {Nicos Isaak and Loizos Michael}, title = {A Data-Driven Metric of Hardness for WSC Sentences}, booktitle = {GCAI-2018. (easychair.org)
  • The lowest hardness levels are typically during spring snowmelt and the highest hardness levels are between December and February. (calgary.ca)
  • One mark below the highest hardness but my fish do fine in it. (aquaticcommunity.com)
  • The Bow and Elbow Rivers each have different hardness levels and provide water to different parts of the city. (calgary.ca)
  • Carbonate hardness, is a measure of the water hardness caused by the presence of carbonate (CO2− 3) and bicarbonate (HCO− 3) anions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is equivalent in carbonate hardness to a solution containing 0.71423 mmol/L of (calcium) carbonate, or 71.485 mg/l of calcium carbonate (molar mass 100.09 g/mol). (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonate hardness should not be confused with a similar measure Carbonate Alkalinity which is expressed in either [milli[equivalent]s] per litre (meq/L) or ppm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbonate hardness expressed in ppm does not necessarily equal carbonate alkalinity expressed in ppm. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a solution where only CO2 affects the pH, carbonate hardness can be used to calculate the concentration of dissolved CO2 in the solution with the formula CO2 = 3 × KH × 10(7-pH), where KH is degrees of carbonate hardness and CO2 is given in ppm by weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The term carbonate hardness is also sometimes used as a synonym for temporary hardness, in which case it refers to that portion of hard water that can be removed by processes such as boiling or lime softening, and then separation of water from the resulting precipitate. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbonate hardness and noncarbonate hardness . (ufl.edu)
  • Carbonate hardness is usually due to the presence of bicarbonate [Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 and Mg(HCO 3 ) 2 ] and carbonate (CaCO 3 and MgCO 3 ) salts. (ufl.edu)
  • To complement this algorithm, we show the following hardness results: If the Non-Uniform Spars-est Cut problem has a ρ-approximation for series-parallel graphs (where ρ ≥ 1), then the MaxCut problem has an algorithm with approximation factor arbitrarily close to 1/ρ. (psu.edu)
  • 2. The expression of hardness results is normally expressed as mg/l CaCO3 (calcium carbonate). (wilhelmsen.com)
  • This is a convention to allow the comparison of different results and does not necessarily indicate that the hardness is present in the water in only the calcium form. (wilhelmsen.com)
  • This analyzer detects calcium as a major component of hardness in real time, providing accurate and reliable results. (thermofisher.com)
  • The results obtained showed that the hardness of the composite increased gradually as the silicon and silicon carbide particles content increased. (scirp.org)
  • The series provides numeric displays of statistical analysis results, including maximum and minimum values, mean value and graphic display of X-R control charts and histograms required for hardness evaluation. (rubbernews.com)
  • Listed in order of increasing hardness, here are the results for a few wood species, as tested at 12-percent moisture content. (woodmagazine.com)
  • The Lab tech 'flagged' two items on this mineral / hardness well water test. (activerain.com)
  • If you want to identify a mineral, a hardness test can give you valuable information. (wikihow.com)
  • What ions cause hardness in water? (rsc.org)
  • The calcium, magnesium and iron(II) ions cause 'hardness', that is they stop the lathering that should be apparent in the distilled water and the other test-tubes. (rsc.org)
  • Water �hardness' is defined as the content of metallic ions in waters which react with sodium in soaps. (ozcoasts.org.au)
  • Most water hardness is attributable to calcium (Ca 2+ ) and magnesium (Mg 2+ ) ions. (ozcoasts.org.au)
  • Alkalinity and hardness are related through common ions formed in aquatic systems. (ufl.edu)
  • Specifically, the counter-ions associated with the bicarbonate and carbonate fraction of alkalinity are the principal cations responsible for hardness (usually Ca ++ and Mg ++ ) (Equations 3 and 4). (ufl.edu)
  • Learn what water hardness is, and how it affects water's suitability for drinking and other everyday uses. (reference.com)
  • I can not seem to find what affects the hardness of them, only how to calculate it after you have the data from experiments via google. (physicsforums.com)
  • Learn more about water hardness, including the difference between hard and soft water, how water hardness affects dishwashers and washing machines, and the water hardness ratings for different parts of Calgary. (calgary.ca)
  • Ultrasonic Contact Impedance (UCI) method determines hardness by measuring the frequency of an oscillating rod. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting number, expressed in pounds of force, determines the hardness rating of the species. (woodmagazine.com)
  • The carbon content of a steel determines the maximum hardness attainable. (majortests.com)
  • Water hardness refers to the amount of calcium and magnesium in your water supply. (wikihow.com)
  • It investigates elastic modulus and creep, and enables hardness measurements. (anton-paar.com)
  • For example, 6 to 10 measurements typically are sufficient to determine local case hardness. (industrialheating.com)
  • Water hardness is caused by the presence of calcium and magnesium salts. (wilhelmsen.com)
  • Companies need to know the hardness of their coatings in order to determine whether it is appropriate for their intended application. (atslab.com)
  • In addition to Ca ++ and Mg ++ , iron (Fe ++ ), strontium (Sr ++ ), and manganese (Mn ++ ) may also contribute to hardness (APHA et al. (ufl.edu)
  • Even still, a "good" Janka rating serves only as an indication, because it is not just the hardness that plays a role in the appearance and durability of a floor over time. (builddirect.com)
  • What is A "Bad" Janka Hardness Rating? (builddirect.com)
  • A procedure called the Janka hardness test provides the answers, Dale. (woodmagazine.com)
  • Valuable for a variety of applications, including nitrate coating, determining hardness in layers, testing on thin specimens, and welding, to name a few. (leco.com)
  • Click here to find products certified by WQA for hardness reduction (certified to NSF/ANSI Standard 44). (wqa.org)
  • 3M™ ScaleGard™ Blend Series of Cartridges for Hardness & Chloramines Reduction delivers custom water quality that you control. (3m.com)
  • Reduce water hardness and help maintain equipment efficiency with our 3M™ ScaleGard™ Blend Series of Cartridges for Hardness & Chloramines Reduction. (3m.com)
  • Hardness" in the elastic range-a small temporary change in shape for a given force-is known as stiffness in the case of a given object, or a high elastic modulus in the case of a material. (wikipedia.org)
  • An advantage is a maintained softener can provide hardness removal for many years and models can handle high volumes of water. (pentair.com)
  • Hardness is a little high you have calcium and magnesium in the water it is NOT a health risk. (activerain.com)
  • The company offers hardness testing solutions from standard applications up to fully automatic and high-end test systems. (qualitymag.com)
  • Surface and groundwater sources in areas with limestone formations are especially likely to have high hardness and alkalinity due to the dissolution of bicarbonates and carbonates. (ufl.edu)
  • Therefore, some stones with high hardness are suitable for multi-cylinder hydraulic cone crushers. (kbt.co.za)
  • Jaw Crusher which is widely applied to crush high hardness, mid hardness and soft rocks and ores such as slag, construction materials, marble, etc. (kbt.co.za)
  • It has the characteristics of high hardness and high toughness, which makes the liner of the crusher have good wear resistance and excellent performance price ratio. (kbt.co.za)
  • Hammer crusher is a common crushing equipment, Hammer crusher relying on a single hammer for strike broken, Compared with similar crusher, efficiency is not high, it is not suitable for crushing ore hardness or high hardness, because the loss will be great, with these limitations, so his price is the lowest of all the stone crusher. (kbt.co.za)
  • If the jaw crusher processes the materials with small hardness such as limestone, the replacement is less frequent, but if the jaw crusher processes the materials with high hardness such as quartz, it must have a large impact on the equipment, and the replacement of vulnerable parts is more frequent. (kbt.co.za)
  • Such damage (or excessive wear of the tip) will change the resistance to penetration, and typically result in a high hardness reading. (buehler.com)
  • The ballistic protection steel with high hardness. (ssab.com)
  • Common indentation hardness scales are Rockwell , Vickers , Shore , and Brinell . (wikipedia.org)
  • Material hardness is measured using a variety of scales in research as well in industrial applications. (wolframalpha.com)
  • Additional hardness scales have been developed for different applications with some being finer grained than others. (wolframalpha.com)
  • Comparison of Hardness Scales approx. (mdmetric.com)
  • Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hardness is defined as the resistance of a material to indentation by a body made of a harder material. (industrialheating.com)
  • Some systems allow a range of tests-such as hardness, roughness, tensile or impact-on the same sample. (qualitymag.com)
  • The objective of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of nanostructured silver vanadate decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgVO 3 ) on antimicrobial activity, hardness, roughness, and adhesion of a soft denture liner. (nature.com)
  • Roughness, hardness, and adhesion properties were also evaluated. (nature.com)
  • AgVO 3 incorporation to a soft denture liner promoted antimicrobial activity against E . faecalis , P . aeruginosa , and C . albicans without affecting roughness, maintaining the hardness properties recommended for soft and extra soft liners, and improving the adhesion between the liner and the acrylic resin used for dentures. (nature.com)
  • For this reason, hardness is typically addressed with treatment of water for the whole house or building rather than just at a specific faucet . (wqa.org)
  • This can come from many sources, all of which will typically cause low readings for Rockwell hardness. (buehler.com)
  • 06/04/09 - The latest release from Hylec Controls in the Wolpert Wilson hardness testing equipment product range is the Universal Hardness Zoom Testor 1000 series. (ferret.com.au)
  • 2. The composite membrane of claim 1 with a hardness of greater than 1000 MPa. (google.es)
  • 21. A composite membrane comprising a base material having a microstructure of nodes and fibrils forming interconnected passages and pathways and having a hardness greater than 1000 mPa, and an ion exchange material impregnated throughout the base material, the composite membrane having a Gurley number of greater than 10,000 seconds, wherein the ion exchange material substantially impregnates the base membrane so as to render said passages and pathways substantiatly occlusive. (google.es)
  • Rebound hardness, also known as dynamic hardness , measures the height of the "bounce" of a diamond-tipped hammer dropped from a fixed height onto a material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Covering material hardness tests in the nano, micro and macro-range, the instruments can test countless materials, including metals, ceramics, semiconductors and polymers. (anton-paar.com)
  • The design feature that truly sets Anton Paar's testing methods apart from other comparable material hardness test instruments is its unique surface referencing system. (anton-paar.com)
  • Hardness is a simple-to-measure material attribute with which to differentiate between and describe materials and their physical condition during processing. (industrialheating.com)
  • The use of silver nanoparticles caused a decrease in adhesion to the prosthesis, modified the type of adhesive failure, and decreased the hardness of the material with increasing concentrations of antimicrobial agent 19 . (nature.com)