Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Palate, Hard: The anteriorly located rigid section of the PALATE.Ciliophora: A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Reticulum: The second stomach of ruminants. It lies almost in the midline in the front of the abdomen, in contact with the liver and diaphragm and communicates freely with the RUMEN via the ruminoreticular orifice. The lining of the reticulum is raised into folds forming a honeycomb pattern over the surface. (From Concise Veterinary Dictionary, 1988)Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Ruminants: A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Abomasum: The fourth stomach of ruminating animals. It is also called the "true" stomach. It is an elongated pear-shaped sac lying on the floor of the abdomen, on the right-hand side, and roughly between the seventh and twelfth ribs. It leads to the beginning of the small intestine. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Stomach, RuminantFibrobacter: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria in the family Fibrobacteraceae, isolated from the human GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Silage: Fodder converted into succulent feed for livestock through processes of anaerobic fermentation (as in a silo).Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Methanobrevibacter: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, cocci to short rod-shaped ARCHAEA, in the family METHANOBACTERIACEAE, order METHANOBACTERIALES. They are found in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or other anoxic environments.Ruminococcus: A genus of gram-positive bacteria in the family Lachnospiraceae that inhabits the RUMEN; LARGE INTESTINE; and CECUM of MAMMALS.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Omasum: The third stomach of ruminants, situated on the right side of the abdomen at a higher level than the fourth stomach and between this latter and the second stomach, with both of which it communicates. From its inner surface project large numbers of leaves or folia, each of which possesses roughened surfaces. In the center of each folium is a band of muscle fibers which produces a rasping movement of the leaf when it contracts. One leaf rubs against those on either side of it, and large particles of food material are ground down between the rough surfaces, preparatory to further digestion in the succeeding parts of the alimentary canal. (Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Butyrivibrio: A species of anaerobic bacteria, in the family Lachnospiraceae, found in RUMINANTS. It is considered both gram-positive and gram-negative.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Peptococcaceae: A family of bacteria found in the mouth and intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals as well as in the human female urogenital tract. Its organisms are also found in soil and on cereal grains.Propionates: Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.Monensin: An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Eubacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.Prevotella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods. Organisms of this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings in 1990 indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was established.N-Terminal Acetyltransferase E: An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa50p catalytic subunit, and the Naa10p and Naa15p auxiliary subunits. It has specificity for the N-terminal METHIONINE of peptides where the next amino acid in the chain is hydrophobic.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)N-Terminal Acetyltransferase A: An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa10p catalytic subunit and the Naa15p auxiliary subunit. The structure of this enzyme is conserved between lower and higher eukaryotes. It has specificity for N-terminal SERINE; ALANINE; THREONINE; GLYCINE; VALINE; and CYSTINE residues and acts on nascent peptide chains after the removal of the initiator METHIONINE by METHIONYL AMINOPEPTIDASES.Hydrogenation: Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Eructation: The ejection of gas or air through the mouth from the stomach.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Cellobiose: A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Gastric Juice: The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Selenomonas: Curved bacteria, usually crescent-shaped rods, with ends often tapered, occurring singly, in pairs, or short chains. They are non-encapsulated, non-sporing, motile, and ferment glucose. Selenomonas are found mainly in the human buccal cavity, the rumen of herbivores, and the cecum of pigs and several rodents. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Butyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxypropane structure.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Tungsten: Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.Palatal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PALATE, including those of the hard palate, soft palate and UVULA.
  • Through eructations from individuals, and particularly herds, ruminants inadvertently signal their presence to hard ticks. (biologists.org)
  • Hard ticks feeding upon wild ruminants represent significant foci for tick-borne diseases that afflict man and his domestic animals. (biologists.org)
  • Given the affiliation of hard ticks for large wandering ungulates such as ruminants, we hypothesised that chemicals eructed from the rumen to the exterior might be significant in mediating their recruitment to suitable hosts. (biologists.org)
  • Microbiota of the rumen wall constitute an important niche of rumen microbial ecology and their composition has been elucidated in different ruminants during the last years. (frontiersin.org)
  • Most methane emissions from ruminants are synthesised by methanogenic archaea in rumen. (climatetechwiki.org)
  • If acetogens that can out compete methanogens in hydrogen intake are selected by genetically modified technology and then form stable microflora in rumen, less methane would be produced from ruminants. (climatetechwiki.org)
  • In ruminants, AAs are supplied by ruminally synthesized microbial protein, rumen-undegradable protein (RUP), and to a lesser extent, endogenous protein. (kemin.com)
  • Ruminants, on the other hand, produce B12 in the rumen, well ahead of the digestive tract, so it's absorbed, which is why ruminant animal flesh (cows & such) is high in B12. (freetheanimal.com)
  • Animal feed products mainly for ruminants, with the fibres having a very positive effect on the rumen but also excellent for the horse´s digestive system. (nordicsugar.com)
  • Frothy bloat is a serious metabolic disorder that affects stocker cattle grazing hard red winter wheat forage in the Southern Great Plains causing reduced performance, morbidity, and mortality. (frontiersin.org)
  • We hypothesize that a microbial dysbiosis develops in the rumen microbiome of stocker cattle when grazing on high quality winter wheat pasture that predisposes them to frothy bloat risk. (frontiersin.org)
  • The rumen of cattle, sheep and goats is like a large container in which a mixture of partly digested feed and liquid is continuously fermenting, producing large quantities of gas. (infonet-biovision.org)
  • Although cattle are bedded with straw, Mr Manning believes adding chopped straw to rations improves intakes and makes the rumen work harder. (fwi.co.uk)
  • The body temperature of cattle rises with rumen fermentation (the microbial breakdown of feed within the rumen). (missouri.edu)
  • It is intended primarily for dairy cows, replacement heifers and beef cattle but is also suitable for use in hard feeds for sheep and goats. (donaghys.com)
  • Michael Steele from the University of Guelph in Canada was the 2010 graduate winner and won with a groundbreaking research paper that examined the molecular mechanisms underlying rumen epithelial adaption to high-grain diets in dairy cattle. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The heavier, autumn-bought cattle are pushed hard, and are sold as soon after the 90-day Farm Assurance threshold as possible. (dailypost.co.uk)
  • Allowing a proper rumen fiber mat to be rebuilt, and bugs to not be depressed due to shipping stress, will allow these cattle to come up on feed in a healthy manner, not necessarily quicker, depending on their risk factor, but healthy and consistent. (progressivecattle.com)
  • Additionally, in contrast to cattle being fed grain-based diets, the size of the rumen limits the amount of energy that can be consumed with forage-based diets, and digestible energy intake decreases with increasing forage maturity. (osu.edu)
  • In my April column I focused on the principles of protein nutrition in beef cattle with an emphasis on rumen degradable and undegradable protein and on meeting the metabolizable protein needs of the animal. (canadiancattlemen.ca)
  • Emerging research has demonstrated that using coated folic acid along with palm fat powder in cattle feed can boost growth performance and rumen health without causing negative side effects. (thebeefsite.com)
  • Other studies show that folic acid stimulates microbial growth in the rumen and improves overall metabolic rates in cattle. (thebeefsite.com)
  • Prokaryote diversity in the rumen of yak ( Bos grunniens ) and Jinnan cattle ( Bos taurus ) estimated by 16S rRNA homology analyses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Even though urea can be utilized, the cattle may still be short on protein, particularly the protein that bypasses the rumen for use by the cattle (termed rumen undegradable protein or RUP). (thebeefsite.com)
  • No other economical source of protein provides as much RUP as distillers though, so it is hard to replace in some cattle growing situations. (thebeefsite.com)
  • One of the intestinal environments in which Ciliates have been described is the rumen, a highly specialized foregut differentiation in herbivorous mammals like cattle, sheep and goats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An ideal rumen pH also helps cows have optimal digestion. (purinamills.com)
  • They calculate that the yield boost from leaving barley the additional three weeks or so in the field to advance from the late-milk stage to the hard-dough stage could provide feed for 23 per cent more cows from the same land base at no extra cost. (canadiancattlemen.ca)
  • Likewise, oat crops cut at the hard-dough stage could feed 57 per cent more cows than if cut at the late-milk stage. (canadiancattlemen.ca)
  • The goal when feeding dairy cows should be to maximize microbial amino acid production as much as possible and then, complement the microbial supply with additional amino acids that are expected to escape rumen fermentation. (milkproduction.com)
  • In the second experiment, Russian knapweed and alfalfa were compared as protein supplements using 48 midgestation, beef cows (530 ± 5 kg) offered ad libitum hard fescue (Festuca brevipila Tracey) straw in an 84-d study. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Four Holstein dairy cows fistulated in rumen were used in the in situ stage. (scirp.org)
  • Italy's Foreign Minister Luigi di Maio, who met with Bulgarian President Rumen Radev, stressed that Italy supports Bulgaria's accession to the Schengen area. (bnr.bg)
  • President Rumen Radev and Foreign Minister Luigi di Maio discussed bilateral cooperation and the health and social consequences of the Covid-19 crisis. (bnr.bg)
  • He reiterated that the anti-graft protests and calls for early polls by the opposition Socialists and President Rumen Radev were undermining the Balkan country's chances of weathering a looming coronavirus crisis that will hit incomes and jobs hard. (reuters.com)
  • Forage particles over ½ inch long may reflect a lack of long forage particles to maintain the rumen mat and adequate cud chewing. (gov.mb.ca)
  • Several related trials to study the question of later cutting from all sides increase confidence that letting these crops advance to the hard-dough stage improves dry-matter (DM) yield without compromising forage intake, digestibility and digestible energy intake. (canadiancattlemen.ca)
  • Another key finding from the study involved the rumen, which is an essential organ for sheep to convert plant forage into animal protein. (sheepusa.org)
  • Forages are naturally higher in protein used in the rumen (termed rumen degradable protein or RDP), and sorting is a greater concern in forage diets. (thebeefsite.com)
  • Percent in vitro digestible dry matter (IVDDM) of seven forages was estimated using rumen inocula from three fallow deer (Dama dama), two sika deer (Cervus nippon) and two white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the Edwards Plateau region of south-central Texas, 4-5 November 1987. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • LysiGEM™ is a rumen-protected lysine that offers a cost-effective solution for balancing amino acids in dairy cow diets. (kemin.com)
  • At this stage, the study stands as more of a proof of concept instead of a hard-and-fast nutrition recommendation for dairy farmers. (thebeefsite.com)
  • HARDER, H./KHOL-PARISINI, A./METZLER-ZEBELI, B./KLEVENHUSEN, F./ZEBELI, Q. (2015): Treatment of grain with organic acids modulates ruminal microbial community structure and fermentation patterns at two different dietary phosphorus levels in vitro. (sparklingscience.at)
  • HARDER, H. (2015): Assessing the efficacy of processing grain with organic acids and pullulanase to modulate its nutrient composition and improve ruminal fermentation in vitro. (sparklingscience.at)
  • The results demonstrate that, when submitted to ruminal incubation, due to their hard and impermeable teguments, legume seeds presented high resistance potential, and, thus, greater chances of germinating after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of bovines, when defecated in pastures. (scirp.org)
  • Any disease leading to pharyngeal or esophageal dysphagia may lead to the aspiration of rumen contents, food, water and/or saliva into the trachea and the rest of the respiratory tract. (vetstream.com)
  • Evidence appears to be lacking but it is suspected that water or saliva aspiration is unlikely to be as critical as aspirated rumen contents (high foreign body and microbe load) or drugs/ drenches/ milk. (vetstream.com)
  • Cud-chewing produces saliva which buffers the rumen and decreases rumen acidity. (milkproduction.com)
  • Two strictly anaerobic, proteolytic bacterial strains, designated strain D3RC-2 T and D3RC-3r, were isolated from a cellulose-degrading mixed culture enriched from yak rumen content. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The phylogenetic clustering with bacterial genes, coupled with the absence of close relatives of these genes in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila , indicates that they have been acquired via Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) after the colonization of the gut by the rumen Ciliates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Beyond rumen bypass benefits, LysiGEM delivers the amount of bioavailable and digestible lysine the ruminant needs. (kemin.com)
  • It might be hard to digest what these roles actually mean, but it's pretty simple. (purinamills.com)
  • If lambs go outside too early they can fill up on grass which is difficult for them to digest and actually delays rumen development compared to eating grain-based feeds. (farmlands.co.nz)
  • Their digestion is rather complicated and you could do your own research on it but essentially having four chambers helps break down cellulose, which is a component of grass that is hard to digest. (experts123.com)
  • Aside from that, moldy feeds wreak havoc on the rumen fiber mat, destroying the animal's ability to digest fiber and further reducing dry matter intake and performance. (progressivecattle.com)
  • However, when hybrids are harvested as silage - before full kernel maturity - there is only very minimal difference between vitreous (hard or flinty corn) hybrids and floury (soft or dent corn) hybrids. (pioneer.com)
  • Corn kernels from corn silage reflect that the seed was too hard for digestion and chewing by the cow. (gov.mb.ca)
  • Mature and dry corn silage can cause this observation as grain is hard. (gov.mb.ca)
  • Legume silage (i.e. alfalfa or sweet clover) while harder to ensile, is typically superior to cereal silages in terms of CP content, averaging 16 to 18 per cent CP. (canadiancattlemen.ca)
  • Barley cut for greenfeed or swath grazing at the hard-dough stage rather than late-milk stage give higher yields with no loss in feed quality. (canadiancattlemen.ca)
  • Work got underway in 2011 with small plots of barley, oat, wheat and millet cut at head elongation, late milk (oat)/early dough (barley), hard dough, and full maturity to confirm the effect of stage of cutting on yield and nutritional characteristics. (canadiancattlemen.ca)
  • There were significant differences in nutrient composition from the late-milk stage to the hard-dough stage, but very little change from then to maturity. (canadiancattlemen.ca)
  • A large international team of researchers has completed the sequence of the sheep genome as part of a study entitled, "The Sheep Genome Illuminates Biology of the Rumen and Lipid Metabolism. (sheepusa.org)
  • While the decision problem is NP-complete, the optimization problem is NP-hard, its resolution is at least as difficult as the decision problem, and there is no known polynomial algorithm which can tell, given a solution, whether it is optimal (which would mean that there is no solution with a larger V, thus solving the NP-complete decision problem). (wikipedia.org)
  • Rumen pH normally ranges from 6.5 to 7.0 with temporary dips after eating that are considered normal and a sign of adequate feed quality and feed intake. (canadiancattlemen.ca)
  • Findings by a University of Saskatchewan team of researchers with the animal science and crop science departments support changing the recommendation to cutting barley and oat crops at the hard-dough stage for use as greenfeed and swath grazing. (canadiancattlemen.ca)