Palate, Hard: The anteriorly located rigid section of the PALATE.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Curing Lights, Dental: Light sources used to activate polymerization of light-cured DENTAL CEMENTS and DENTAL RESINS. Degree of cure and bond strength depends on exposure time, wavelength, and intensity of the curing light.Water SofteningDental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Self-Curing of Dental Resins: The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via chemical reactions, usually involving two components. This type of dental bonding uses a self-cure or dual-cure system.Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)Dental Veneers: The use of a layer of tooth-colored material, usually porcelain or acrylic resin, applied to the surface of natural teeth, crowns, or pontics by fusion, cementation, or mechanical retention.Dental Polishing: Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Dental Casting Technique: The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.Resin Cements: Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)Pliability: The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Siloxanes: Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.Dental Porcelain: A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Elastic Modulus: Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.Inlays: Restorations of metal, porcelain, or plastic made to fit a cavity preparation, then cemented into the tooth. Onlays are restorations which fit into cavity preparations and overlay the occlusal surface of a tooth or teeth. Onlays are retained by frictional or mechanical factors.Organically Modified Ceramics: Organic-inorganic hybrid polymers developed primarily for DENTAL RESTORATION. They typically contain a defined mixture of ORGANOSILICON COMPOUNDS; CERAMICS; and organic POLYMERS.Polymethacrylic Acids: Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Dental Restoration, Permanent: A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Energy Drinks: Beverages consumed as stimulants and tonics. They usually contain a combination of CAFFEINE with other substances such as herbal supplements; VITAMINS; AMINO ACIDS; and sugar or sugar derivatives.Maxillofacial Prosthesis: A prosthetic appliance for the replacement of areas of the maxilla, mandible, and face, missing as a result of deformity, disease, injury, or surgery. When the prosthesis replaces portions of the mandible only, it is referred to as MANDIBULAR PROSTHESIS.Tooth, Artificial: A fabricated tooth substituting for a natural tooth in a prosthesis. It is usually made of porcelain or plastic.Dental Restoration Wear: Occlusal wear of the surfaces of restorations and surface wear of dentures.Mastication: The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Acrylic ResinsTitanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Carbon Compounds, Inorganic: Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.Dental Casting Investment: Material from which the casting mold is made in the fabrication of gold or cobalt-chromium castings. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p168)Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Denture, Partial, Temporary: A partial denture intended for short-term use in a temporary or emergency situation.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Prosthesis Coloring: Coloring, shading, or tinting of prosthetic components, devices, and materials.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Microscopy, Scanning Probe: Scanning microscopy in which a very sharp probe is employed in close proximity to a surface, exploiting a particular surface-related property. When this property is local topography, the method is atomic force microscopy (MICROSCOPY, ATOMIC FORCE), and when it is local conductivity, the method is scanning tunneling microscopy (MICROSCOPY, SCANNING TUNNELING).Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Zirconium: Zirconium. A rather rare metallic element, atomic number 40, atomic weight 91.22, symbol Zr. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Diamond: Diamond. A crystalline form of carbon that occurs as hard, colorless or tinted isomeric crystals. It is used as a precious stone, for cutting glass, and as bearings for delicate mechanisms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate: The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Tooth Demineralization: A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.Povidone: A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.Hoof and Claw: Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Polymethyl Methacrylate: Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Glass Ionomer Cements: A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Polyurethanes: A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.Drug Storage: The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Tablets, Enteric-Coated: Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Metal Ceramic Alloys: The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.Gold Alloys: Alloys that contain a high percentage of gold. They are used in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Mechanical Phenomena: The properties and processes of materials that affect their behavior under force.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Methylmethacrylates: The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Denture Liners: Material applied to the tissue side of a denture to provide a soft lining to the parts of a denture coming in contact with soft tissue. It cushions contact of the denture with the tissues.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Tooth Cervix: The constricted part of the tooth at the junction of the crown and root or roots. It is often referred to as the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), the line at which the cementum covering the root of a tooth and the enamel of the tooth meet. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p530, p433)Microwaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Dentifrices: Any preparations used for cleansing teeth; they usually contain an abrasive, detergent, binder and flavoring agent and may exist in the form of liquid, paste or powder; may also contain medicaments and caries preventives.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Lubricants: Compounds that provide LUBRICATION between surfaces in order to reduce FRICTION.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Differential Thermal Analysis: Technique by which phase transitions of chemical reactions can be followed by observation of the heat absorbed or liberated.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.Saliva, Artificial: A solution used for irrigating the mouth in xerostomia and as a substitute for saliva.Elastomers: A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Calcium Sulfate: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.Dental Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Tooth Remineralization: Therapeutic technique for replacement of minerals in partially decalcified teeth.Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission: The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.Carbonated Beverages: Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].N-Terminal Acetyltransferase E: An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa50p catalytic subunit, and the Naa10p and Naa15p auxiliary subunits. It has specificity for the N-terminal METHIONINE of peptides where the next amino acid in the chain is hydrophobic.Bite Force: The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.Dimethylpolysiloxanes: Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.N-Terminal Acetyltransferase A: An N-terminal acetyltransferase subtype that consists of the Naa10p catalytic subunit and the Naa15p auxiliary subunit. The structure of this enzyme is conserved between lower and higher eukaryotes. It has specificity for N-terminal SERINE; ALANINE; THREONINE; GLYCINE; VALINE; and CYSTINE residues and acts on nascent peptide chains after the removal of the initiator METHIONINE by METHIONYL AMINOPEPTIDASES.Arctium: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Arctiin (LIGNANS) is in the seed.Denture Bases: The part of a denture that overlies the soft tissue and supports the supplied teeth and is supported in turn by abutment teeth or the residual alveolar ridge. It is usually made of resins or metal or their combination.Water Pollution, RadioactiveMasseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Denture, Partial, Fixed: A partial denture attached to prepared natural teeth, roots, or implants by cementation.Dental Impression Materials: Substances used to create an impression, or negative reproduction, of the teeth and dental arches. These materials include dental plasters and cements, metallic oxide pastes, silicone base materials, or elastomeric materials.Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Magnesium Oxide: Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.Tooth Crown: The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Potassium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.Dental Marginal Adaptation: The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.Dental Soldering: The joining of pieces of metal through the use of an alloy which has a lower melting point, usually at least 100 degrees Celsius below the fusion temperature of the parts being soldered. In dentistry, soldering is used for joining components of a dental appliance, as in assembling a bridge, joining metals to orthodontic bands, or adding to the bulk of certain structures, such as the establishment of proper contact areas on inlays and crowns with adjacent teeth. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Tooth Bleaching: The use of a chemical oxidizing agent to whiten TEETH. In some procedures the oxidation process is activated by the use of heat or light.Dentinogenesis Imperfecta: An autosomal dominant disorder of tooth development characterized by opalescent dentin resulting in discoloration of the teeth. The dentin develops poorly with low mineral content while the pulp canal is obliterated.Hardness: The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.Soaps: Sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. These detergent substances are obtained by boiling natural oils or fats with caustic alkali. Sodium soaps are harder and are used as topical anti-infectives and vehicles in pills and liniments; potassium soaps are soft, used as vehicles for ointments and also as topical antimicrobials.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Dental Cavity Preparation: An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)Aluminum Oxide: An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Mouthwashes: Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Wettability: The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.Palatal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PALATE, including those of the hard palate, soft palate and UVULA.Dentin-Bonding Agents: Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.Hardness Tests: A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Corrosion: The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Agrobacterium: A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Denture Design: The plan, delineation, and location of actual structural elements of dentures. The design can relate to retainers, stress-breakers, occlusal rests, flanges, framework, lingual or palatal bars, reciprocal arms, etc.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Chromium Alloys: Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Amelogenesis: The elaboration of dental enamel by ameloblasts, beginning with its participation in the formation of the dentino-enamel junction to the production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992).Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Cephalexin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of CEPHALORIDINE or CEPHALOTHIN, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Ixodidae: A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.Sodium Hypochlorite: It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Dosage Forms: Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship: A quantitative prediction of the biological, ecotoxicological or pharmaceutical activity of a molecule. It is based upon structure and activity information gathered from a series of similar compounds.Mercenaria: A genus of hard-shelled clams in the family Veneridae, class BIVALVIA, commonly called quahogs. They are found just below the surface in the subtidal or lower intertidal coastal waters.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Dental Bonding: An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.Berberine: An alkaloid from Hydrastis canadensis L., Berberidaceae. It is also found in many other plants. It is relatively toxic parenterally, but has been used orally for various parasitic and fungal infections and as antidiarrheal.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Cariostatic Agents: Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Elasticity Imaging Techniques: Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Persons With Hearing Impairments: Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.Education of Hearing Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Tungsten: Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Polyethylene: A vinyl polymer made from ethylene. It can be branched or linear. Branched or low-density polyethylene is tough and pliable but not to the same degree as linear polyethylene. Linear or high-density polyethylene has a greater hardness and tensile strength. Polyethylene is used in a variety of products, including implants and prostheses.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Vital Statistics: Used for general articles concerning statistics of births, deaths, marriages, etc.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Football: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular field. This is the American or Canadian version of the game and also includes the form known as rugby. It does not include non-North American football (= SOCCER).Nickel: A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Wales
Hard and soft light
Softness/hardness of various light sources. Most light sources have a non-negligible size and therefore exhibit the ... Hard light. Hard light sources cast shadows whose appearance of the shadow depends on the lighting instrument. For ... Hard light casts strong, well defined shadows. When hitting a textured surface at an angle, hard light will accentuate the ... Even the sun does not cast perfectly hard shadows. In "hard" light sources, the parallelism of the rays is an important factor ...
Liverpool, a vital port for supplies from North America, was especially hard hit - the city was the most bombed in the UK ... ISBN 978-0-415-14098-0. ; "Water Hardness". Waterwise. 2006. Archived from the original on 15 March 2017. Retrieved 14 March ... The deindustrialisation that followed in the second half of the 20th century hit Northern England hard, and many towns remain ... "Everything You Ever Wanted To Know About Hard Water .." Yorkshire Tea. 9 February 2012. Archived from the original on 30 July ...
List of blade materials
The hardness of steel is usually stated as a number on the Rockwell C scale (HRC). The Rockwell scale is a hardness scale based ... Carbide inclusions are very hard. Expensive. Increases chip resistance. Ceramics are harder than metals but more brittle. ... It has a combination of high attainable hardness capability (68-70 HRC), red hardness, and abrasive wear resistance for ... attainable hardness, and red hardness available in a high-speed steel. CPM REX 20 (HS) is a cobalt-free super high speed steel ...
When a white horse is not a horse
Fair item assignment
and prove hardness of calculating utilitarian-optimal and Nash-optimal allocations. present an approximation procedure for Nash ... Dall'Aglio, Marco; Mosca, Raffaele (2007). "How to allocate hard candies fairly". Mathematical Social Sciences. 54 (3): 218. ... and present some stronger hardness results. The special case of optimizing egalitarian welfare with additive utilities is ... is NP-hard. This can be proved by reduction from the partition problem. When the valuations are more restricted, better ...
Bright hard gold on contacts, with Knoop hardness between 120-300 and purity of 99.7-99.9% gold. Often contains a small amount ... Bright hard gold on printed circuit board tabs is deposited using lower concentration of gold in the baths. Usually contains ... Its Knoop hardness ranges between 60-85. The plating baths have to be kept free of contamination. ... for high-purity plating Acid gold plating for bright hard gold and gold alloy plating Non-cyanide, generally sulphite or ...
Acids and bases interact, and the most stable interactions are hard-hard and soft-soft. This theory has found use in organic ... Pearson, Ralph G. (2005). "Chemical hardness and density functional theory" (PDF). Journal of Chemical Sciences. 117 (5): 369- ... Hard' applies to species that are small, have high charge states, and are weakly polarizable. 'Soft' applies to species that ... ISBN 0-08-022057-6. Pearson, Ralph G. (1963). "Hard and Soft Acids and Bases". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 85 (22 ...
For example, OsB2 is hard (hardness comparable to that of sapphire), but not superhard. Osmium borides are produced in vacuum ... Their most remarkable property is potentially high hardness. It is thought that a combination of high electron density of ... April 27, 2005). "Osmium Diboride, An Ultra-Incompressible, Hard Material". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 127 (20 ...
Kheer (Bengali sweets)
Another issue is the hardness of the water; where it is necessary to use hard water, regular re-potting is recommended to avoid ... General advice is hard to give, since the frequency of watering required depends on where the cacti are being grown, the nature ... shape and hardness, as well as in whether all the spines produced by an areole are similar or whether they are of distinct ...
Cutting tool material
Due to their ability to retain hardness at higher temperature, higher cutting speeds are possible. cemented carbides. Harder ... "super hard materials": cubic boron nitride. It is nearly as hard as diamond. diamond. The hardest known material, but can only ... They lose their hardness at 200 °C High speed steels. They lose their hardness at 600 °C, and are widely used in machining. ... The following properties are required for cutting tool materials: hardness, hot hardness and pressure resistance bending ...
Monster of Lake Tota
"On Understanding Change" (通變論; Tōngbiàn Lùn) "On Hardness and Whiteness" (堅白論; Jiānbái Lùn): based on the example of a stone ... I united the same and different, separated hard from white, made so the not-so and admissible the inadmissible. I confounded ... that is both hard and white. "On Name and Substance" (名實論; Míngshí Lùn) "Storehouse of Traces" (跡府; Jifǔ) Zhou, Yunzhi, " ...
showed that any hardness of SVP implies the same hardness for CVP. Using PCP tools, Arora et al. showed that CVP is hard to ... However, experimental evidence suggests that most NP-hard problems lack this property: they are probably only worst case hard. ... Moreover, worst-case hardness of some lattice problems have been used to create secure cryptographic schemes. The use of worst- ... By contrast, the equivalent problem with respect to the uniform norm is known to be NP-hard. To solve the exact version of SVP ...
It is very hard, measuring between 65 and 69 HRC (also based on the base metal's hardness). Hard chrome tends to be thicker ... Modern "engineered coatings" do not suffer such drawbacks, which often price hard chrome out due to labor costs alone. Hard ... A typical hard chrome vat plates at about 1 mil (25 μm) per hour. Various linishing and buffing processes are used in preparing ... In hard coating applications, the corrosion resistance of thicker coatings is not quite as good as it is with hexavalent ...
This may cause hardness and humilation to the punishment. It is famous mostly. There will be more than one student and they ... Then it will be extra hard to complete. It is also varient used with the simple situps. Here the punished's heals should touch ... This makes the punishment more hard as the punished have to take weight of anothers. Also criss-cross earholding can be applied ...
List of important publications in theoretical computer science
Description: These three papers established the surprising fact that certain problems in NP remain hard even when only an ... Arora, S.; Lund, C.; Motwani, R.; Sudan, M.; Szegedy, M. (1998). "Proof verification and the hardness of approximation problems ... Feige, U.; Goldwasser, S.; Lovász, L.; Safra, S.; Szegedy, M. (1996). "Interactive proofs and the hardness of approximating ...
Inline speed skating
Harder outdoor wheels can also be used effectively indoors. Skaters sometimes combine different hardness wheels on the same ... Wheels for indoor use are hardest with a durometer of 88-97. They tend to last well, but can be easily damaged if used outdoors ... A longer frame is faster but much harder to turn. The frame position can usually be adjusted with respect to the skate, to ... The time trial is the hardest of races, called "The Truth" because it's the true test of the individual with no help from ...
Postage stamp paper
Another comparative set of terms refers to the paper's hardness. Hard, stout hard, and soft have been used to describe the ... A sharper snap implied hard paper because the hardness is a characteristic of the amount or kind of sizing used when making the ... Experts have described the snap of the stamp when flicked as a means to determine if the stamp was printed on hard or soft ... Characteristics such as composition, weight, color, size, watermark, surface finish, opacity, hardness and strength all have to ...
When the nib alloy has been pressed thick it will result in a hard nib, while thinly pressed nibs are more flexible. Nibs can ... These metals share qualities of extreme hardness and corrosion resistance. The tipping material is often called "iridium", but ... Gold and most steel and titanium nibs are tipped with a hard, wear-resistant alloy that typically includes metals from the ...
... "hard". The Edwards equation parameters have since been used to help categorize acids and bases as hard or soft, due to the ... Yingst, Austin; MacDaniel, Darl H. (1967). "Use of the Edwards Equation to Determine Hardness of Acids". Inorganic Chemistry. 6 ... This observation led Pearson to develop his hard-soft acid-base theory, which is arguably the most important contribution that ... Pearson, Ralph G. (1963). "Hard and Soft Acids and Bases". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 85 (22): 3533-3539. doi:10.1021/ja00905a001. ...
Published descriptions of these spheres being harder than steel are meaningless in terms of Mohs scale of mineral hardness. ... An examination of several Klerksdorp spheres found none to be harder than 5.0 on the Mohs scale. For comparison, common glass ... has a Mohs hardness of 5.5. Geofact Cremo, M., and R.L. Thompson, 1993, Forbidden Archeology: The Hidden History of the Human ...
Celluloid gradually replaced hard rubber, which enabled production in a much wider range of colors and designs. At the same ... These metals share qualities of extreme hardness and corrosion resistance. The tipping material is often called "iridium", but ... When the nib alloy has been pressed thick it will result in a hard nib, while thinly pressed nibs are more flexible. Nibs can ... Those were the iridium-tipped gold nib, hard rubber, and free-flowing ink. The first fountain pens making use of all these key ...
The hardness of a metal is directly proportional to the uniaxial yield stress at the location of the imposed strain. A harder ... Knife blades - a high hardness blade keeps a sharp edge. Bearings - necessary to have a very hard surface that will withstand ... Machine cutting tools (drill bits, taps, lathe tools) need be much harder than the material they are operating on in order to ... This phase is called martensite, and is extremely hard due to a combined effect of the distorted crystal structure and the ...
Group 3 element
Therefore, it is hard to calculate which element should be the next group 3 element. Calculations suggest that ... such as hardness. At the same time, if group 3 is continued with lutetium and lawrencium, several trends are broken. For ... Group 3 elements are generally hard metals with low aqueous solubility, and have low availability to the biosphere. No group 3 ... and are often harder to extract from their ores. The abundance of elements in Earth's crust for group 3 is quite low - all the ...
Level of measurement
A few minerals such as calcite and kyanite have a hardness that depends significantly on direction.:254-255 Hardness can ... A harder mineral will scratch a softer, so an unknown mineral can be placed in this scale by which minerals it scratches and ... Hardness is determined by comparison with other minerals. In the Mohs scale, a standard set of minerals are numbered in order ... These can be classified into density (often given as specific gravity); measures of mechanical cohesion (hardness, tenacity, ...
An iron-carbon alloy is only considered steel if the carbon level is between 0.01% and 2.00%. For the steels, the hardness and ... Ceramics are as soft as clay or as hard as stone and concrete. Usually, they are crystalline in form. Most glasses contain a ... hardness, corrosion resistance, high/low temperature behavior, wear resistance, and so on. Most of the traditional materials ( ...
... chromium increases hardness and melting temperature, and vanadium also increases hardness while making it less prone to metal ... To inhibit corrosion, at least 11% chromium is added to steel so that a hard oxide forms on the metal surface; this is known as ... This rapid cooling results in a hard but brittle martensitic structure. The steel is then tempered, which is just a ... These qualities include such things as the hardness, quenching behavior, need for annealing, tempering behavior, yield strength ...
It is four times harder than fused silica glass, 85% as hard as sapphire, and nearly 15% harder than magnesium aluminate spinel ... Knoop hardness 1800 kg/mm2 (0.2 kg load). *Fracture toughness 2.0 MPa·m1/2 ... ALON is the hardest polycrystalline transparent ceramic available commercially. Its combination of optical and mechanical ...
Diamond is the hardest natural material, and has a Mohs hardness of 10. ... Streak testing is constrained by the hardness of the mineral, as those harder than 7 powder the streak plate instead. ... The hardness of a mineral defines how much it can resist scratching. This physical property is controlled by the chemical ... A mineral's hardness is not necessarily constant for all sides, which is a function of its structure; crystallographic weakness ...
As the carbon percentage content rises, steel has the ability to become harder and stronger through heat treating; however, it ... Mild steel has a relatively low tensile strength, but it is cheap and easy to form; surface hardness can be increased through ... Approximately 1.25-2.0% carbon content. Steels that can be tempered to great hardness. Used for special purposes like (non- ... Normalized steel has a higher strength than annealed steel; it has a relatively high strength and hardness. ...
Group 5 element
But this classification systejm is becoming hard to use with each new generation of people. With this bone is the frame of life ... and the resistance and hardness of bones (biophysics). A person who examines bones and determines cause of death is a forensic ... There has also been frequent evidence that much of the population had traces of broken bones from frequent fighting and hard ...
Determining that a tree is a spruce is not difficult; evergreen needles that are more or less quadrangled, and especially the pulvinus, give it away. Beyond that, determination can become more difficult. Intensive sampling in the Smithers/Hazelton/Houston area of British Columbia showed Douglas (1975), according to Coates et al. (1994), that cone scale morphology was the feature most useful in differentiating species of spruce; the length, width, length: width ratio, the length of free scale (the distance from the imprint of the seed wing to the tip of the scale), and the percentage free scale (length of free scale as a percentage of the total length of the scale) were most useful in this regard. Daubenmire (1974), after range-wide sampling, had already recognized the importance of the 2 latter characters. Taylor (1959) had noted that the most obvious morphological difference between typical Picea glauca and typical P. engelmannii was the cone scale, and Horton ...
Radiocarbon dating considerations
This is known as the hard water effect, because it is often associated with calcium ions, which are characteristic of hard ... It is not possible to deduce the effect of the effect by determining the hardness of the water: the aged carbon is not ... Hard water effect. If the carbon in freshwater is partly acquired from aged carbon, such as rocks, then the result will ... These effects are hard to predict-the town of Akrotiri, on Santorini, was destroyed in a volcanic eruption thousands of years ...
Barium - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Particularly, a very hard special antireflection coating of diamond-like carbon (DLC), refractive index 2.0, is a good match ... Mohs hardness. 6.0 CAS Number. 7440-56-4 History. Naming. after Germany, homeland of the discoverer. ... It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon ... and produces a diamond-hard surface that can withstand much environmental abuse. ...
It may be "hard" (i.e. sharply angled) or "soft" (gradually contoured). A chine made of a single timber is known as a chine log ... Its abrasion resistance varies according to the hardness and density of the wood and it can deteriorate if fresh water or ... By attaching the ply sheets to the longwood rather than directly to the frames this avoids hard spots or an unfair hull. ...
The harder the material to our informal perception, the greater the number it will achieve on our respective hardness scales. ... Mechanical hardness. Unlike temperature and electric current, there is no abstract physical concept of the hardness of a ... Rebound, or dynamic, hardness measured with a Shore scleroscope.. Of these, indentation hardness itself leads to many ... However, there is not always a simple relationship between the various hardness scales. Vickers and Rockwell hardness numbers ...
Drainage system (geomorphology)
They form where hard and soft rocks exist parallel to each other. Trellis drainage is characteristic of folded mountains, such ... dissected structural dome or basin where erosion has exposed rimming sedimentary strata of greatly varying degrees of hardness ... They are governed by the topography of the land, whether a particular region is dominated by hard or soft rocks, and the ...
Additive in Neodymium based magnets, lasers, magnetostrictive alloys such as terfenol-D, hard disk drives 5.2 ... Rare-earth elements in this category are used in the electric motors of hybrid vehicles, wind turbines, hard disc drives, ... from the Greek "dysprositos", meaning hard to get. ... Hardness. *Heat capacity. *Heat of fusion. *Heat of ...
A hard, compact variety of coal that has a submetallic luster. Anthracite coal. Black coal, hard coal, stone coal, blind coal, ... Anthracite differs from ordinary bituminous coal by its greater hardness (2.75-3 on the Mohs scale), its higher relative ... Anthracite, often referred to as hard coal, is a hard, compact variety of coal that has a submetallic luster. It has the ... hard coal, stone coal, dark coal, coffee coal, blind coal (in Scotland), Kilkenny coal (in Ireland), crow coal or ...
Hard pastels: These have a higher portion of binder and less pigment, producing a sharp drawing material that is useful for ... They are available in varying degrees of hardness, the softer varieties being wrapped in paper. Some pastel brands use pumice ... Hard pastels are traditionally used to create the preliminary sketching out of a composition. However, the colors are less ... In order to create hard and soft pastels, pigments are ground into a paste with water and a gum binder and then rolled, pressed ...
The drawknife ideally is used when the operator is in a seated position astride a traditional shaving horse, which safely grips the working stock, and they can also use their legs for additional pulling power. The ideal working stock has the grain of the wood running parallel to the shaving horse, and perpendicular to the blade of the drawknife, so that the drawknife shaves away the entire wood fibre and does not cut against it. It is best not pulled with blade perfectly perpendicular to the wood stock, but pulled slightly upward toward them in a skewed (blade at a slight diagonal) or slithering fashion, aiming not to take off as much wood as possible, but gradually "shave" the work. The operator gently levers the blade to "bite" into the wood and then controls the depth of the cut by raising or lowering the handles as they pull the drawknife towards them. ...
Hard plastic skate guards are used when the skater must walk in his or her skates when not on the ice, to protect the blade ... Ice quality is judged by smoothness, friction, hardness, and brittleness. Factors affecting ice quality include temperature ... "Russian skating slump hits home hard". NBC Olympic broadcasts. February 24, 2010. Archived from the original on February 26, ...
Speeds and feeds
At high temperature, moisture can be drawn out too quick that a thick hard layer is formed in the surface of the mango. The ... Common traits of dried mango going bad are discolouration, hardness, and loss of flavour. ... Whether fresh, soft-dried or hard-dried, they helped to give character to meat dishes and grain pies. They were valued by ... This phenomenon of developing hard skin-like outer layer is called case-hardening. ...
Hardness Master No Salt Hard | Bizrate
Explore discounts on Hardness master no salt hard. Compare Prices, & Save Money on brands such as Sonor and Seachem at Bizrate. ... It restores general hardness using a balanced blend of both "soft" and "hard" salts.... more ... product : SCH 13 mallet usage : for glockenspiels mallet head : wood and rubber head mallet hardness : hard mallet shaft : ... hard (calcium, magnesium) salts 500 ml (16.9 fl. oz)... more ... relevant minerals Replenish restores General Hardness (GH) ...
Super Hi-Polymer - Tagged 'Lead Hardness: 2H (Hard Lead - Light Imprint)' - Pentel of America, Ltd.
The Difference Between Hard and Soft Wood Has Zero to Do With Hardness
But what exactly makes a given piece of wood qualify as either hard or soft and how did those definitions come about? ... The Difference Between Hard and Soft Wood Has Zero to Do With Hardness. ... It is also distinguished via "side hardness" and "end hardness" (whether this test was done on the surface of a plank (side) or ... hardwoods are usually harder than softwoods. This leaves the obvious question of how exactly one classifies how hard a piece of ...
bellawood hardwood flooring&averageoverallrating=1&averageoverallrating=2&WT.ad=SUBNAV TopRatedBellawood&installation type=Glue...
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Hardness Monitoring (Monitoring and Testing) News on Environmental XPRT
Get the latest hardness monitoring (monitoring and testing) news on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental ... Unlocking locked hard drives Unlocking locked hard drives Many clients receive hard drives that are locked and do not know what ... Work Hard, Play Hard! As Jack Nicholson knows, all work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. It can also make you a little crazy ... New Hard Drives Benefit From Incoming Inspection Not all new hard drives were created equal, so it is a good idea to add ...
phosphate hard rock hardness
Rock Hardness References. Hardness of Rock; Soft: Medium: Hard: Very Hard: MOHS Scale of Hardness: TESTING (you can do in the ... Phosphate Rock Hardness Pnmwg Fertilizers » Learn More. hardness of phosphate rock. cone crushers mohs hardness. mohs hardness ... Meniral Rock Manganes Hardness - cz-eu Meniral Rock Manganes Hardness. is manganese a hard rock mining ore,boring machine. is ... Hardness - generally quite soft, but can be hard and .... Rock Crusher Hardness - globalconsultancy. The GME10 Jaw Rock Crusher ...
hard wood floors high hardness faux
Wood Hardness Scale - Armstrong Flooring.Use the wood hardness scale to compare species - the harder the hardwood, the more ... Wood Hardness Scale - Armstrong Flooring. flooring! Use the wood hardness scale to compare species - the harder the hardwood, ... But if you still want wood, go for these super-hard species as measured by the industry standard Janka hardness scale. hard ... An engineered wood hardness The harder the wood, the less prone it is to dents and gouges. The table shown . samples of ...
Water hardness in Calgary
How hard is Calgarys water? *What is the water hardness in north Calgary? *What is the water hardness is south Calgary? What ... How hard is Calgarys water?. The hardness of Calgarys water varies seasonally and by location:. *The lowest hardness levels ... Can water hardness affect dishwashers and washing machines?. Hard water can reduce the effectiveness of detergent. Hard water ... Water hardness reports. Learn more about water hardness, including the difference between hard and soft water, how water ...
Hard and soft light - Wikipedia
Softness/hardness of various light sources. Most light sources have a non-negligible size and therefore exhibit the ... Hard light. Hard light sources cast shadows whose appearance of the shadow depends on the lighting instrument. For ... Hard light casts strong, well defined shadows. When hitting a textured surface at an angle, hard light will accentuate the ... Even the sun does not cast perfectly hard shadows. In "hard" light sources, the parallelism of the rays is an important factor ...
pool Calcium hardness increaser | Hard and Soft Water
Swimming pool watercalcium hardness in pool, calcium hardness pool, pool calcium hardness, pool Calcium hardness increaser, ... Tag Archives: pool Calcium hardness increaser. Pool calcium hardness increaser and reducer November 1, 2015. ... Hard and Soft Water. Hard and soft water provides information on water filter, softener and water purification or treatment ... Both high and low levels of calcium hardness create problems in swimming pool. The perfect level of calcium hardness in pool ...
IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Glyphosate, Hard Water and Nephrotoxic Metals: Are They the Culprits Behind the Epidemic of Chronic...
A strong association between the consumption of hard water and the occurrence of this special kidney disease has been observed ... The degree of hardness is classified as, soft, moderately hard, hard or very hard when the Ca and Mg content is 0-60 mg/L, 61- ... where the ground water hardness level is known to also be hard or very hard, there have not been any significant number of CKDu ... Glyphosate-hard water/Ca/Mg interaction has been the subject of many scientific studies. The negative influence of hard water ...
Hard Science : The Relative Hardness of Being | guernseydonkey.com
Hard Science : The Relative Hardness of Being Hard Science : The Relative Hardness of Being. Published on May 1, 2018 in ... Heres a rather random, but nevertheless interesting, science fact : Did you know that theres a Scientific scale of hardness ? ... the Mohs scale of mineral hardness arranges 10 minerals in an order of increasing hardness, the difference being that a mineral ... The scale does not simply apply to these 10 minerals - it can be used to assess the hardness of any solid. So, if we take the ...
Hardness - Wikipedia
Stiffness is often confused for hardness. Some materials are stiffer than diamond (e.g. osmium) but are not harder, and ... Scratch hardness. Main article: Scratch hardness. Scratch hardness is the measure of how resistant a sample is to ... there are different measurements of hardness: scratch hardness, indentation hardness, and rebound hardness. ... Common indentation hardness scales are Rockwell, Vickers, Shore, and Brinell.. Rebound hardness. Rebound hardness, also ...
Well Water Supply (Water Hardness - Water and Wastewater) News on Environmental XPRT
... water hardness - water and wastewater) news on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and ... Preventing scaling caused by hard water for a whole town without chemicals For over 20 years Fluid Dynamics Colloid-A-Tron non ... Environmental Firm Uses Belt Skimmer to Remove Oil from Hard-to-Reach Wells Removing oil and hydrocarbons from water is ... World`s Largest Natural Gas Producer Eliminates Hard Water Scaling Without Using Any Chemicals Gazprom is one of the largest ...
Hardness Water Test (Laboratory Test) [Hard-LAB-1] - £59.99 : Simplex Health
Hard-LAB-1] - This laboratory test will check for Hardness in your water sample. Potable water is water that is safe enough to ... Ref: Hard-LAB-1 Stock Status: 100 Units in Stock Manufactured by: Simplex Health ... This laboratory test will check for Hardness in your water sample. Potable water is water that is safe enough to be consumed by ... Simplex Health Hardness Water Test (Laboratory Test) [ ... Hardness Water Test (Laboratory Test). Price Starting at: £ ...
Maximize Hard Milling with Balanced Machining Process Factors : MoldMaking Technology
Hardness and Machinability. The measured hardness of typical hardened steels is in the range of 48-65 HRC. However, when it ... Because milling hard materials generates a significant amount of heat, many of the carbide end mills used in hard milling ... Successful hard-milling operations require the perfect balance of all the factors present in a system, including cutting tools ... To avoid thermal shock, air blast or oil/air mist generally replaces coolant when materials harder than 48 HRC are being milled ...
Water hardness | News | Unilever Australasia
It is important to know whether you live in a hard, medium or soft water area since this determines the dosage of washing ... The most populated hard water areas in Australia are around Adelaide and parts of Brisbane. Hard water areas in New Zealand ... It is important to know whether you live in a hard, medium or soft water area since this determines the dosage of washing ... It is important to know whether you live in a hard, medium or soft water area since this determines the dosage of washing ...
Proper Viscosity 180mm Grinding Cup Wheels With Soft / Medium / Hard Hardness - brightspottools
Hard Hardness to sell - provide Cheap Grinding Cup Wheels from brightspottools. ... Proper Viscosity 180mm Grinding Cup Wheels With Soft / Medium / Hard Hardness Images ... Wet Grinding 80mm Grinding Cup Wheels For Hard Granite And Engineered Stone ... 1) Application: cup wheels for grinding concrete, hard granite, marble, engineered stone, etc ...
Highest Voted 'np-hardness' Questions - Page 4 - Theoretical Computer Science Stack Exchange
Hardness of a subcase of Set Cover. How hard is the Set Cover problem if the number of elements is bounded by some function (e. ... Highest voted np-hardness questions feed Subscribe to RSS Highest voted np-hardness questions feed To subscribe to this RSS ... Is Almost-2-SAT NP-hard?. Is a CNF SAT problem NP hard when the total number (but not the width) of the 3-or-more-term clauses ... Does $NP$-hardness of $c$-approximation (for some $c,1$) imply $APX$-hardness?. Assume that for a given minimization problem ...
Hard water is a common quality of water which contains dissolved compounds of calcium and magnesium and, sometimes, other ... The term hardness was originally applied to waters that were hard to wash in, referring to the soap wasting properties of hard ... Scale deposits are a typical indicator of hard water.. Hard water (or water hardness) is a common quality of water which ... Hardness prevents soap from lathering by causing the development of an insoluble curdy precipitate in the water; hardness ...
Is there an optimum hardness for bone? | Physics Forums
But can bones be too hard? I thought that this may be possible because part of... ... Hard bones (...) is another way of saying bones which do not flex much when force is exerted on it. And another word of that ... But can bones be too hard? I thought that this may be possible because part of cushioning we get when we do everything from ... What happens in people with an abundance of osteoblasts but too few osteoclasts? Are their bones too hard, and do their joints ...
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How Hard Water Could be Hurting Your Skin - The Frisky
The question of hard water vs soft water for skin isnt one that we get to talk about often, but in reality, it makes a whole ... Without having to go too far out of way, one of the easiest ways to check hardness in water is using a clear empty bottle and ... The question of hard versus soft water for skin isnt one that we get to talk about often, but in reality, it makes a whole lot ... While hard water does not cause any scary dangers to your overall health, but it does affect your skin and hair. If you have ...
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... What is hard water?. Helpful Links. Water hardness and alkalinity (USGS)Cation Exchange Water Softener (Water Sense ... Very Hard. How should I treat hard water?. Softening water is the most common treatment for hard water. This can be done by ... How do I find out how hard my water is?. To test the hardness level of your water contact a certified testing lab near you. For ... Benefits of hard water:. *Calcium and magnesium are part of the dietary needs of humans. Hard water can be a valuable source ...
Water | Free Full-Text | Removal of Hardness from Water Samples by a Carbonation Process with a Closed Pressure Reactor
121-180 ppm as hard and more than 180 ppm as very hard water. Most water utilities consider a hardness level between 50 and 150 ... The hardness of the different water samples was reduced by 40-85% by a carbonation process with a closed pressure reactor for a ... Hard water can cause many problems around the world, including increased scaling on water pipes, boilers, atopic eczema and odd ... Hardness in natural water is caused by dissolved minerals, mainly calcium and magnesium compounds. According to the Water ...
Hardness. 1. Hard substances. To "harden" cement is to let it become "rock hard".. 35.10 Mohs scale of hardness (Geology). ... 2. Hardness of water. See: Water testing Hardness, (Commercial). 12.13.0 Hardness in water, water hardness, soft water. 18.7.46 ... Tests for hard water to form a lather: 12.13.5. Tests for hardness in water in different water samples: 12.13.4. Tests for ... Hardness. HARM: some health risk if absorbed. Harmaline, C13H14N2O. Harmful, Hazards: 15.1.0. Harmful substances: 15.2.3. ...
MagnesiumRelative hardnessMineralOrder of increasiModerately HardCaco3General HardnessMeasure the hardnessSoftestMohs ScaleJankaHighest hardnessHigh hardnessRebound hardnessSodiumWater softenerGrainsSoapIndentationSubstanceDiamondIonsCorundumDepositsConcentrationsTestMaterialLevelStiffnessTypeStainless SteelScratchHardwoodAffectsMetalsMalletLatherLevelsCrystalsCommonCoatingsSoft waterApatiteGraphiteTypicallyVariesDiamondsBamboo
- Seachem Replenish is a blend of salts designed to replenish physiologically relevant minerals Replenish restores General Hardness (GH) using a balanced blend of both 'soft' (sodium, potassium) and ' hard ' (calcium, magnesium) salts 500 ml (16.9 fl. (bizrate.com)
- 1.1.1 Detergent Contamination - phosphate is used in detergents as a builder to counteract the effects of Calcium and Magnesium hardness in the water which reduces the surfactant and cleaning effect of detergents. (peakinn.co.za)
- Calgary's water is considered hard because of the amount of calcium and magnesium in the water from the Bow and Elbow Rivers. (calgary.ca)
- Water hardness is caused by calcium and magnesium in the ground and surface water. (calgary.ca)
- The total mineral that contains in the pool water such as calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese and sodium are responsible for Total hardness. (hardsoftwater.com)
- Hard water (or water hardness) is a common quality of water which contains dissolved compounds of calcium and magnesium and, sometimes, other divalent and trivalent metallic elements. (wqa.org)
- Hard water is defined as highly alkaline water that has high levels of minerals such as calcium and magnesium. (thefrisky.com)
- Calcium and Magnesium present in hard water can form free radicals, which are known to break down collagen (which keeps the skin firm). (thefrisky.com)
- The study also reveals the mechanism by which calcium and magnesium ions in hard water, surfactants, and filaggrin interact to damage the skin barrier unlocking new information about how exposure to hard water could potentially contribute to the development of eczema. (thefrisky.com)
- Water is considered "hard" when it has relatively high levels of calcium (above, left) and magnesium (above, right) and other metals. (usu.edu)
- These systems exchange calcium and magnesium ions with other ions that do not cause hard water (like sodium or potassium). (usu.edu)
- Hardness in natural water is caused by dissolved minerals, mainly calcium and magnesium compounds. (mdpi.com)
- Water hardness refers to the amount of calcium and magnesium in your water supply. (wikihow.com)
- Again, where you live and where you get your water will dictate the hardness, or concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions. (petplace.com)
- As a result, it becomes hard after picking up calcium and magnesium carbonates from the soil. (sunrisespecialty.com)
- Temporary hardness - It occurs when the water contains too much calcium and magnesium bicarbonates. (sunrisespecialty.com)
- Water can be "hard" (full of minerals like magnesium) or "soft" (most distilled water falls into this category). (businessinsider.com)
- Water, meanwhile, has a complexity all its own - higher levels of ions like magnesium and calcium make it "harder. (businessinsider.com)
- That means that you'll get a much stronger flavor from the same beans if you use high-magnesium "hard water" in place of distilled or softened water. (businessinsider.com)
- General, total or permanent hardness is a measure of the overall concentration of calcium , magnesium and other ions. (theaquariumwiki.com)
- High GH means hard water with a lot of calcium and magnesium. (hubpages.com)
- Water having high mineral content (between 120-180 ppm) - mostly Calcium and Magnesium is considered as hard water. (onlymyhealth.com)
- In fact, the National Research Council (National Academy of Sciences) states that hard drinking water generally contributes a small amount toward total calcium and magnesium human dietary needs. (onlymyhealth.com)
- Rather, it is a method of gauging the relative hardness of a mineral. (peakinn.co.za)
- A relative hardness value of 6.5 means that the mineral could scratch orthoclase (feldspar) but not quartz. (peakinn.co.za)
- That started me wondering about the relative hardness of different woods. (woodmagazine.com)
- Apatite, Phosphorite and Phosphate Rock - Geology Apatite is the mineral used for the hardness of 5 in the Mohs Scale. (peakinn.co.za)
- If a mineral cannot be scratched by a knife blade but can be scratched by quartz then its hardness is between 5 and 7 (stated as 5-7) on Mohs scale. (peakinn.co.za)
- Hard water may also cause automatic dishwashers or washing machines to leave film on dishes or leave residue on clothing, and can also cause mineral build-up on mechanical parts. (calgary.ca)
- The scale is a relative one - the difference in absolute hardness between each mineral isn't consistent. (guernseydonkey.com)
- The high mineral content present in hard water reduces the solubility of soaps leaving a build-up of soap residue. (thefrisky.com)
- Stronger bonds between atoms or molecules in the mineral = harder mineral. (prezi.com)
- If you want to identify a mineral, a hardness test can give you valuable information. (wikihow.com)
- If your fingernail doesn't leave a mark on the mineral, try to scratch it with something harder. (wikihow.com)
- See if this harder material leaves a mark on your mineral. (wikihow.com)
- If you get a scratch with the copper but not with the fingernail, you know that the mineral has a hardness of at least 3 since that's the hardness of the copper. (wikihow.com)
- PREVENTS HARD WATER MINERAL BUILD-UP: If you have hard water, this Demineralization Replacement Cartridge is a must-have! (amazon.com)
- 10. Diamond is the hardest-known mineral. (geology.com)
Order of increasi1
Measure the hardness2
- The Janka test itself it the brainchild of one Gabriel Janka who came up with it after being asked by the Department of Agriculture to find an "objectively and scientifically" sound way to measure the hardness of a piece of wood. (gizmodo.com)
- Soap solution is used to measure the hardness of rain water, temporarily hard water and sea-water. (rsc.org)
- Janka hardness Rating wood with high defect rates can also create issues with installation. (lepont-traiteur.ch)
- But if you still want wood, go for these super-hard species as measured by the industry standard Janka hardness scale. (lepont-traiteur.ch)
- hard maple can hit a Janka rating of 1,450 or higher. (lepont-traiteur.ch)
- A procedure called the Janka hardness test provides the answers, Dale. (woodmagazine.com)
- ing the rebound hardness number of rock material using a spring-driven steel hammer, referred to variously as a rebound hammer, impact test hammer, or concrete test hammer. (peakinn.co.za)
- scratch hardness , indentation hardness , and rebound hardness . (wikipedia.org)
- Rebound hardness, also known as dynamic hardness , measures the height of the "bounce" of a diamond-tipped hammer dropped from a fixed height onto a material. (wikipedia.org)
- Two scales that measures rebound hardness are the Leeb rebound hardness test and Bennett hardness scale . (wikipedia.org)
- How often a water softener must regenerate depends on the hardness of your drinking water supply. (calgary.ca)
- Water softener manufacturers often classify hardness of the water supply using the unit grains per Imperial gallon. (calgary.ca)
- Another research aimed at mitigating the negative effects of hard water found that an ion-exchange water softener reduces the harmful effects of surfactants, potentially minimizing the risk of developing eczema . (thefrisky.com)
- If you're not in a position to get a water softener for your house, you may consider a water softening shower head that can filter out hardness causing minerals. (thefrisky.com)
- While it may not be as effective as a water softener, it does a pretty good job if you live in an area with a low to moderate level of hardness. (thefrisky.com)
- The table shows the monthly values for water hardness as expressed as Calcium carbonate CaCO 3 in both milligrams per litre (mg/L) and grains per imperial gallon. (calgary.ca)
- Hardness is usually expressed in grains per gallon (or ppm) as calcium carbonate equivalent. (wqa.org)
- For reference when purchasing a new washing machine, the hardness levels calculate from 5.44 to 7.84 grains per gallon. (cityofmesquite.com)
- The term hardness was originally applied to waters that were hard to wash in, referring to the soap wasting properties of hard water. (wqa.org)
- Without having to go too far out of way, one of the easiest ways to check hardness in water is using a clear empty bottle and liquid soap. (thefrisky.com)
- It is referred to as "hard" water because it requires more soap for a good lather, making it harder to clean with than soft water. (usu.edu)
- Hard water in your home can leave spots on your dishes, make you use more soap, and cause buildup in your pipes. (wikihow.com)
- The first sign that you have the hard water in your region is noticing the formation of limescale in kettles or water heaters and lack of foam while using soap. (sunrisespecialty.com)
- A simple way to test if water is hard is to see how much lather is generated with soap. (onlymyhealth.com)
- Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion. (wikipedia.org)
- Common indentation hardness scales are Rockwell , Vickers , Shore , and Brinell . (wikipedia.org)
- This response produces the observed properties of scratch and indentation hardness, as described and measured in materials science. (wikipedia.org)
- Diamonds are the hardest naturally occuring substance on earth. (physicsforums.com)
- Accurate but unobtrusive science may not define the subgenre, but neither does a rhetoric of hardness without scientific substance. (depauw.edu)
- It is the way that the carbon atoms are bonded that makes diamond the hardest substance. (prezi.com)
- The hardest known substance. (geology.com)
- Diamond is the hardest known natural substance. (geology.com)
- You should use a higher dosage of detergent in hard water areas to maintain cleaning performance and avoid the build-up of dirt and hard water deposits in your machine. (unilever.com.au)
- Scale deposits are a typical indicator of hard water. (wqa.org)
- Scale deposits from hardness buildup affects fixtures and appliances found throughout the entire home or business. (wqa.org)
- If either of these minerals are present in your drinking water in high concentrations, the water is considered hard. (calgary.ca)
- Due to high limestone concentrations in former sea beds, water is extremely hard in most states in the US. (sunrisespecialty.com)
- But while hard water is a bit of a gamble, depending on which minerals are present in higher concentrations, soft water seems to have no benefits at all. (businessinsider.com)
- 4.3 This test method is of limited use on very soft rock or very hard rock, which is defined as having uniaxial compressive strengths less than approximately 1 MPa or greater than 100 MPa. (peakinn.co.za)
- This laboratory test will check for Hardness in your water sample. (simplexhealth.co.uk)
- How to Test Your Water for Hardness? (thefrisky.com)
- While this basic assessment works for many, a more sophisticated test using hard water kits should be done. (thefrisky.com)
- To test the hardness level of your water contact a certified testing lab near you. (usu.edu)
- Be careful not to squeeze too hard or else you won't be able to read your test results. (wikihow.com)
- You'll probably need to do a scratch test to in order to find what minerals are harder than your sample. (wikihow.com)
- This scale was developed over 200 years ago and it's still the accepted way to test a mineral's hardness. (wikihow.com)
- Calcium Hardness Scaling and Staining It is important to be aware of the calcium hardness (CH) level of your water. (peakinn.co.za)
- Most water utilities consider a hardness level between 50 and 150 ppm of CaCO 3 as publicly acceptable. (mdpi.com)
- and the difficulty level of challenge is often higher than the hard mode itself. (armorgames.com)
- The concentration of these minerals will determine the level of hardness of the water. (sunrisespecialty.com)
- The term 'hard' implies the water contains a high level of minerals. (sunrisespecialty.com)
- What is the hardness level of the water in Mesquite? (cityofmesquite.com)
- The hardness level can vary from month to month, but averages between 93 and 134 milligrams per liter. (cityofmesquite.com)
- The penny has a hardness level of 3 compared to the 2.5 hardness of your fingernail. (wikihow.com)
- This involves measuring the average amount of force required to " embed a .444-inch steel ball to half its diameter " in some type of wood, with the average used so that the difference in hardness between heartwood and "live edge" wood doesn't skew things too much. (gizmodo.com)
- For reference, a commonly worked with type of wood that is generally considered very hard is Hickory, which rings in at 1820 lbf. (gizmodo.com)
- This type of hardness is related to elasticity . (wikipedia.org)
- Permanent hardness - It is the type of hardness you can't remove by boiling the water. (sunrisespecialty.com)
- Although the terms hardwood and softwood are in no way related to the relative toughness of a given piece of wood, it's noted that, for the most part, hardwoods are usually harder than softwoods. (gizmodo.com)
- Two times the hardness of regular hardwood floors. (lepont-traiteur.ch)
- Comparing the hardness of wood species can help you find the most durable hardwood flooring for your needs. (lepont-traiteur.ch)
- Glyphosate, Hard Water and Nephrotoxic Metals: Are They the Culprits Behind the Epidemic of Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology in Sri Lanka? (mdpi.com)
- Although glyphosate alone does not cause an epidemic of chronic kidney disease, it seems to have acquired the ability to destroy the renal tissues of thousands of farmers when it forms complexes with a localized geo environmental factor (hardness) and nephrotoxic metals. (mdpi.com)
- Some materials (e.g. metals) are harder than others (e.g. plastics). (wikipedia.org)
- Common examples of hard matter are ceramics , concrete , certain metals , and superhard materials , which can be contrasted with soft matter . (wikipedia.org)
- hard mallet shaft : plastic diameter of head : 20 mm length of mallet : 23,5 cm diameter of shaft : 6,2 mm weight : 20 gram unit : 1 pairs master . (bizrate.com)
- Xylophone mallets Bob Becker series, A two-tone xylophone mallet sounds as bright as a hard rubber mallet at low volume, but without the percussive stroke, As the volume increases, the tone becomes. (thomann.de)
- The Bow and Elbow Rivers each have different hardness levels and provide water to different parts of the city. (calgary.ca)
- Both high and low levels of calcium hardness create problems in swimming pool. (hardsoftwater.com)
- This study measured the hardness levels of 17 different water samples using the ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) method. (mdpi.com)
- Hard water can also have high levels of bicarbonate, which Hendon found could lead to more bitter flavors coming through. (businessinsider.com)
- Select from three levels of hardness - Soft, Regular, or Hard - without adjusting the water amount. (panasonic.com)
- For answers to common drinking water questions like water hardness, water taste, odour or appereance, or water pressure, visit Drinking Water in Calgary . (calgary.ca)
- Oak, maple, and cherry are among the most common species due to their hardness. (lepont-traiteur.ch)
- Softening water is the most common treatment for hard water. (usu.edu)
- Many solid carbide ballnose end mills feature coatings such as aluminum titanium nitride (AlTiN) that combat the high temperatures associated with hard-milling applications. (moldmakingtechnology.com)
- Characterization and hardness of Co-P coatings obtained from direct. (nal.res.in)
- XPS characterization and hardness of heat treated Co-W coatings. (nal.res.in)
- It is important to know whether you live in a hard, medium or soft water area since this determines the dosage of washing detergent you should use. (unilever.com.au)
- The question of hard versus soft water for skin isn't one that we get to talk about often, but in reality, it makes a whole lot of difference in how your skincare products would work. (thefrisky.com)
- Hard water is less likely than soft water to cause corrosion of pipes. (usu.edu)
- Hard Water vs. Soft Water: What's the Difference? (sunrisespecialty.com)
- Many people enjoy drinking hard water since it is rich in essential minerals and tasty, unlike soft water, which is a bit salty. (sunrisespecialty.com)
- Tap water brings out better flavor in coffee, though there are trade-offs between hard and soft water. (businessinsider.com)
- Some beans are better suited to being brewed in hard or soft water. (businessinsider.com)
- The taste of hard water will be less pleasant as compared to the taste of soft water. (onlymyhealth.com)
- When they then studied the polished surface they discovered carbon-loaded spots that were raised well above the rest of the surface - suggesting that these areas were harder than the diamonds used in the polishing paste. (slashdot.org)
- is why human-made diamonds, made the same way as that carbon-rich rock was discovered, are not harder than natural diamonds - at least, the summary seems to imply this. (slashdot.org)
- The very end of the article suggests that they are harder than regular naturally occurring diamonds. (slashdot.org)
- However, there is no way at the present to compare them to the artificial ultra-hard diamonds known as lonsdaleite and boron nitride, Ferroir said. (slashdot.org)