Hand Disinfection: The act of cleansing the hands with water or other liquid, with or without the inclusion of soap or other detergent, for the purpose of destroying infectious microorganisms.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Soaps: Sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. These detergent substances are obtained by boiling natural oils or fats with caustic alkali. Sodium soaps are harder and are used as topical anti-infectives and vehicles in pills and liniments; potassium soaps are soft, used as vehicles for ointments and also as topical antimicrobials.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Dental Disinfectants: Chemicals especially for use on instruments to destroy pathogenic organisms. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Trihalomethanes: Methanes substituted with three halogen atoms, which may be the same or different.Chlorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Sodium Hypochlorite: It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Chloramines2-Propanol: An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.Endoscopes: Instruments for the visual examination of interior structures of the body. There are rigid endoscopes and flexible fiberoptic endoscopes for various types of viewing in ENDOSCOPY.Iodophors: Complexes of iodine and non-ionic SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS acting as carrier and solubilizing agent for the iodine in water. Iodophors usually enhance bactericidal activity of iodine, reduce vapor pressure and odor, minimize staining, and allow wide dilution with water. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Peracetic Acid: A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.Hexachlorophene: A chlorinated bisphenol antiseptic with a bacteriostatic action against Gram-positive organisms, but much less effective against Gram-negative organisms. It is mainly used in soaps and creams and is an ingredient of various preparations used for skin disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p797)Povidone-Iodine: An iodinated polyvinyl polymer used as topical antiseptic in surgery and for skin and mucous membrane infections, also as aerosol. The iodine may be radiolabeled for research purposes.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Glutaral: One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.Equipment Reuse: Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.Halogenation: Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.Fumigation: The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.Steam: Water in its gaseous state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Decontamination: The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.Drinking Water: Water that is intended to be ingested.Swimming PoolsWater Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Hospital Design and Construction: The architecture, functional design, and construction of hospitals.Patient Isolation: The segregation of patients with communicable or other diseases for a specified time. Isolation may be strict, in which movement and social contacts are limited; modified, where an effort to control specified aspects of care is made in order to prevent cross infection; or reverse, where the patient is secluded in a controlled or germ-free environment in order to protect him or her from cross infection.Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from health professional or health care worker to patients. It includes transmission via direct or indirect exposure to bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral agents.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Child Day Care Centers: Facilities which provide care for pre-school and school-age children.Antisepsis: The destruction of germs causing disease.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Hepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.

Audit on the degree of application of universal precautions in a haemodialysis unit. (1/470)

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to investigate the degree of compliance with standard precautions (hand washing and wearing of gloves) by health workers in one haemodialysis unit. METHODS: During 4 months, two observers monitored the activities of the health care staff in the dialysis unit. Thirty five randomly distributed observation periods of 60 min duration covered one haemodialysis session. The observers evaluated (i) the total number of potential opportunities to implement standard precautions and (ii) the number of occasions when these were actually put into practice. RESULTS: A total of 364 opportunities to wear gloves and to wash hands thereafter and 273 opportunities to wash hands before a patient-oriented activity were observed. The proportion of occasions when gloves were actually used was 18.7%. Hand washing after a patient-oriented activity was performed only on 32.4% of occasions. Finally, only on 3% of such occasions was hand washing before the activity. CONCLUSIONS: The degree of compliance with standard precautions by health care personnel is unsatisfactory and this favours nosocomial transmission in haemodialysis units.  (+info)

Handwashing: simple, but effective. (2/470)

Using ward rounds in the department of surgery at a major teaching hospital, and with the help of the preregistration house officers (PRHO), we assessed whether the lesson taught to us by Semmelweis had been forgotten. We asked the PHROs to count the number of patients examined by their consultant or registrar on a ward round, together with the number of wounds examined, and the number of times they washed their hands between patients. Over a 2-week period, following seven consultants and four registrars, 26 ward rounds were followed. Of 239 patient events, which are defined as a clinician reviewing a patient in order to assess their treatment, a total of 88 involved an examination (37%) and, of these, 41 had postoperative wounds (47%). The number of times clinicians washed their hands between examinations was 36 (41%). Between the two groups of clinicians, the consultants washed their hands 30 times in 55 examinations (55%), while the registrars washed their hands six times in 23 examinations (26%). When Semmelweis died in 1865 his beliefs were still largely ignored by clinicians. It would seem from our results that in both senior and junior staff the simple exercise of handwashing is not practised de rigor. For the safety of the patient and the clinician we recommend a more fastidious adoption of the handwashing practice.  (+info)

Viral meningitis in child care center staff and parents: an outbreak of echovirus 30 infections. (3/470)

OBJECTIVE: A report of five cases of viral meningitis among adults with children enrolled in a child care center prompted an investigation of risk factors for viral transmission from children to adult household members. METHODS: To determine recent echovirus 30 (E30) infections, the authors conducted a serologic survey. To determine risk factors for infection among adult household members, they conducted a retrospective cohort study using written questionnaires. RESULTS: Recent E30 infections were found in 84% of children tested, 57% of adult household members tested, and 47% of staff members tested. Infected adults were more likely than infected children to have clinical meningitis. Among adult household members, changing diapers was a risk factor for recent infection. Women who changed > or = 90 diapers per month had a higher infection rate than women who changed fewer diapers; in contrast, men who changed > or = 90 diapers per month had a lower infection rate than men who changed fewer diapers. Handwashing was protective: there was a negative correlation between handwashing after diaper changes and E30 infection among adults with infected children in diapers. CONCLUSIONS: Because child care centers can be a source of enteroviral infections among adult household members, adults with viral meningitis should be questioned about their children's day care or preschool attendance. The importance of handwashing should be stressed to adults with children in day care.  (+info)

Analysis of different communication channels for promoting hygiene behaviour. (4/470)

A hygiene intervention study reduced diarrhoeal disease transmission in rural northeast Thailand by promoting hand-washing and dish-washing behaviour. Most of the target audience did not recognize a connection between these behaviours and diarrhoeal disease, and therefore a social marketing approach was used to develop a campaign promoting behaviours through a variety of communication channels keeping messages simple and in terms understood by the community. Overall, there was a strong correlation between the number of communication channels remembered by respondents and their knowledge score, with passive channels of printed media such as stickers, posters and leaflets associated with significantly higher scores than other channels. However, the same did not hold true for improvement in actual behaviour and only 'school children' were associated with significantly less fingertip contamination. In-depth interviews with conformers and non-conformers suggested that although most knew the intervention messages well enough, the importance they attached to them differed markedly. Thus dissemination of message knowledge was not consistent with the process of dissemination of actual practice. Where a strong sense of community spirit existed, friends, relatives and neighbours were more likely to discuss intervention activities with each other.  (+info)

Skin hygiene and infection prevention: more of the same or different approaches? (5/470)

The purpose of this article is to review research indicating a link between hand hygiene and nosocomial infections and the effects of hand care practices on skin integrity and to make recommendations for potential changes in clinical practice and for further research regarding hand hygiene practices. Despite some methodological flaws and data gaps, evidence for a causal relationship between hand hygiene and reduced transmission of infections is convincing, but frequent handwashing causes skin damage, with resultant changes in microbial flora, increased skin shedding, and risk of transmission of microorganisms, suggesting that some traditional hand hygiene practices warrant reexamination. Some recommended changes in practice include use of waterless alcohol-based products rather than detergent-based antiseptics, modifications in lengthy surgical scrub protocols, and incorporation of moisturizers into skin care regimens of health care professionals.  (+info)

Domestic hygiene and diarrhoea - pinpointing the problem. (6/470)

Improving domestic hygiene practices is potentially one of the most effective means of reducing the global burden of diarrhoeal diseases in children. However, encouraging behaviour change is a complex and uncertain business. If hygiene promotion is to succeed, it needs to identify and target only those few hygiene practices which are the major source of risk in any setting. Using biological reasoning, we hypothesize that any behaviours which prevent stools from getting into the domestic arena, the child's main habitat, are likely to have a greater impact on health than those practices which prevent pathogens in the environment from being ingested. Hence safe stool disposal, a primary barrier to transmission, may be more important than hand-washing before eating, which constitutes a secondary barrier, for example. We review the epidemiological evidence for the effect of primary and secondary barrier behaviours and suggest that it supports this conclusion. In the absence of local evidence to the contrary, hygiene promotion programmes should give priority to the safe disposal of faecal material and the adequate washing of hands after contact with adult and child stools.  (+info)

Lavate vestras manus. Handwashing Liaison Group. (7/470)

Hospital acquired infection has a direct effect on the quality of patient care and is therefore, a major issue in the context of clinical governance. The role of hand washing by health care workers in hospital acquired infection is discussed and recommendations made.  (+info)

Contamination of foods by food handlers: experiments on hepatitis A virus transfer to food and its interruption. (8/470)

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an important pathogen which has been responsible for many food-borne outbreaks. HAV-excreting food handlers, especially those with poor hygienic practices, can contaminate the foods which they handle. Consumption of such foods without further processing has been known to result in cases of infectious hepatitis. Since quantitative data on virus transfer during contact of hands with foods is not available, we investigated the transfer of HAV from artificially contaminated fingerpads of adult volunteers to pieces of fresh lettuce. Touching the lettuce with artificially contaminated fingerpads for 10 s at a pressure of 0.2 to 0.4 kg/cm(2) resulted in transfer of 9.2% +/- 0.9% of the infectious virus. The pretreatments tested to interrupt virus transfer from contaminated fingerpads included (i) hard-water rinsing and towel drying, (ii) application of a domestic or commercial topical agent followed by water rinsing and towel drying, and (iii) exposure to a hand gel containing 62% ethanol or 75% liquid ethanol without water rinsing or towel drying. When the fingerpads were treated with the topical agents or alcohol before the lettuce was touched, the amount of infectious virus transferred to lettuce was reduced from 9.2% to between 0.3 and 0.6% (depending on the topical agent used), which was a reduction in virus transfer of up to 30-fold. Surprisingly, no virus transfer to lettuce was detected when the fingerpads were rinsed with water alone before the lettuce was touched. However, additional experiments with water rinsing in which smaller volumes of water were used (1 ml instead of 15 ml) showed that the rate of virus transfer to lettuce was 0.3% +/- 0.1%. The variability in virus transfer rates following water rinsing may indicate that the volume of water at least in part influences virus removal from the fingerpads differently, a possibility which should be investigated further. This study provided novel information concerning the rate of virus transfer to foods and a model for investigating the transfer of viral and other food-borne pathogens from contaminated hands to foods, as well as techniques for interrupting such transfer to improve food safety.  (+info)

  • Improving hand cleanliness and hygiene may prevent the spread of viruses that can cause asthma exacerbations. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Persons experiencing homelessness in the United States experience significant barriers to self-care and personal hygiene, including limited access to clean showers, laundry and hand washing facilities. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Hand hygiene is considered the cornerstone of infection prevention and control. (europa.eu)
  • Hand hygiene targets the hand's transient microbial flora be they (primarily) bacteria, viruses or fungi. (europa.eu)
  • With the pathogen practically impervious to the hand hygiene approaches used by the vast majority of health care providers, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is considering the radical step of recommending 'universal gloving' for some situations. (reliasmedia.com)
  • This is an excellent project for kids as well as adults, since the project can be expanded to include a discussion about hygiene and disinfection. (thoughtco.com)
  • An epidemic of Clostridium difficile ( C. diff ) in the United States is killing some 12,000 patients annually, in part because neither alcohol hand rubs nor soap and water can effectively remove the spore-forming bacillus from hands, researchers are finding. (reliasmedia.com)
  • We evaluated the bactericidal activity of an ethanol-based hand gel (Sterillium ® Comfort Gel) within 15 s in a time-kill-test against 11 Gram-positive, 16 Gram-negative bacteria and 11 emerging bacterial pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ethanol-based hand gel was found to have a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity in only 15 s which includes the most common species causing nosocomial infections and the relevant emerging pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have therefore studied the bactericidal activity of an ethanol-based hand gel with an exposure time of only 15 s. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Finger tips were found to harbour more bacteria than the hand dorsum and the samples collected from them yielded more information on the bacteriological and dermatological effects of hand disinfectants in practice. (cambridge.org)
  • Hand disinfection with an alcohol-based hand rub can reduce transient bacteria by 2.6 to 6.8 log 10 units. (europa.eu)
  • The hand gel (85% ethanol, w/w) was found to reduce all 11 Gram-positive and all 16 Gram-negative bacteria by more than 5 log 10 steps within 15 s, not only against the ATCC test strains but also against corresponding clinical isolates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A hand gel based on 85% (w/w) ethanol was used for all experiments (Sterillium Comfort Gel, Bode Chemie GmbH & Co. KG, Hamburg, Germany). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hand santizer is a liquid, gel or foam that is a proven aid to preventing transmission of infectious agents and is widely accepted as one of the most important infection control measures to prevent infectious disease transmission. (wido-foto.nl)