Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Malignant Hyperthermia: Rapid and excessive rise of temperature accompanied by muscular rigidity following general anesthesia.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Enflurane: An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.Methyl Ethers: A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.Anesthetics: Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Trifluoroacetic Acid: A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.Thiopental: A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.EthersDogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Ether: A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.Methoxyflurane: An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)Ethyl EthersAnesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedAnesthetics, General: Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Sus scrofa: A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Melastomataceae: A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida composed of tropical plants with parallel-nerved leaves.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Receptors, Glycine: Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.Receptors, GABA: Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.Receptors, Histamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind histamine and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Histamine receptors are widespread in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues. Three types have been recognized and designated H1, H2, and H3. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mode of action.Rho Factor: A protein which effects termination of RNA synthesis during the genetic transcription process by dissociating the ternary transcription complex RNA;-RNA POLYMERASE DNA at the termination of a gene.Rhodopsin: A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.rhoB GTP-Binding Protein: A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Anesthesia, Conduction: Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Bombacaceae: A plant family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida of tropical trees.Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel: A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
  • The mammalian plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoforms are encoded by at least four separate genes and the diversity of these enzymes is further increased by alternative splicing of transcripts. (genecards.org)
  • This gene encodes the plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoform 1. (genecards.org)
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include nucleotide binding and calcium-transporting ATPase activity . (genecards.org)
  • It is a single point mutation in this gene that causes abnormal calcium channels within the muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a RYR-2 and 3, but those genes are responsible for calcium channels in other tissues. (mhaus.org)
  • Type A . Normal RYR-1 /DHPR gene in combination with two or more compounds that lead to increased release of calcium from storage sites in muscle. (mhaus.org)
  • 51 Familial periodic paralyses are a group of inherited neurological disorders caused by mutations in genes that regulate sodium and calcium channels in nerve cells. (malacards.org)
  • CACN1S, the gene for the skeletal muscle L-type, voltage dependent calcium channel in transverse tubules that is the voltage sensor in excitation-contraction coupling (~1% of families). (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Importantly, inhibition of N -Methyl-D-Aspartate receptors alone mimics the effects of tetrodotoxin, including the elevation in firing frequency and reduction of potassium channel gene expression and current driven by activity blockade, whereas inhibition of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels has no effect. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Collectively, our data suggest that homeostatic intrinsic plasticity induced by chronic activity blockade is accomplished in part by decreased calcium influx through N -Methyl-D-Aspartate receptors and subsequent transcriptional down-regulation of potassium channel genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ribozyme sequences were cloned into a plasmid expression vector containing EBV genomic elements that substantially prolong expression of genes delivered in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Hypo expression of genes of extrinsic pathway of apoptosis was observed: Fas receptor, c-Flip and caspase-8 in the ischemics areas. (conicyt.cl)
  • Since Ca 2+ influx through NMDARs or L-type VGCCs stimulates activity-dependent transcription in neurons [ 17 ], we hypothesized that homeostatic intrinsic plasticity is mediated in part by activity-dependent expression of genes whose protein products regulate intrinsic properties of neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neither enflurance nor halothane induced dominant lethal mutations in rodents in vivo , and halothane did not induce chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei or sister chromatid exchanges in rodents treated in vivo [ref: (inchem.org)
  • To define the mechanisms by which PDGF B gene expression induces intimal thickening in vivo, we examined its effects on smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, extracellular matrix synthesis, and inflammatory cell infiltration in intimal lesions of pig arteries after direct gene transfer of a recombinant PDGF B gene. (ahajournals.org)
  • These data suggest that PDGF B gene expression promotes intimal expansion by both proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells followed by synthesis of extracellular matrix and therefore acts through several mechanisms to play a role in the pathogenesis of intimal lesions in vivo. (ahajournals.org)
  • The delivery of recombinant genes into vascular cells at specific sites in the circulation permits the systematic analysis of gene function in the arterial wall in vivo. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3 In addition, a subset of Müller glia show some stem cell characteristics and upregulate stem cell-associated genes, although their inherent regenerative ability is extremely limited in vivo. (arvojournals.org)
  • These original components have been used in a variety of in vitro systems, in vivo for gene therapy applications, and in transgenic organisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Halothane was tested for carcinogenicity by inhalation in mice and rats. (inchem.org)
  • No carcinogenic effect was seen in rats exposed to a low level of halothane alone or in combination with nitrous oxide [ref: (inchem.org)
  • Basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor, factors known to stimulate production of the TGF-β 1 isoform in VSMCs, also induced a pattern of gene responses similar to those induced by the TGF-β isoforms in VSMCs from SHR and WKY rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • Together these data suggest that in VSMCs from SHR, a number of gene responses to TGF-β, in addition to cell proliferation, appear to be abnormal compared with WKY rats, and the lower than normal collagen levels observed in the vasculature of SHR may be in part due to abnormalities in TGF-β responsiveness. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the present study, we examined the effects of neurological improvement after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats by a novel therapeutic strategy with FGF-2 gene-transferred MSCs by the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) vector. (ahajournals.org)
  • REST suppresses GluR2 promoter activity and gene expression in neurons destined to die. (jneurosci.org)
  • In keeping with this concept, acute knockdown of the REST gene by antisense administration prevents GluR2 suppression and rescues post-ischemic neurons from ischemia-induced cell death in an in vitro model. (jneurosci.org)
  • To our knowledge, our study represents the first example of ischemia-induced induction of a master transcriptional regulator gene and its protein expression critical to neural differentiation and patterning in adult neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • ImM10 and C57M10 cells expressed genes characteristic of Müller glia but not genes characteristic of differentiated retinal neurons. (arvojournals.org)
  • To evaluate the potential of BM to generate mature neurons in adult C57BL/6 mice, we transferred the enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene into BM cells using a murine stem cell virus-based retroviral vector. (rupress.org)
  • Using whole-cell patch clamp recording and unbiased gene expression profiling in rat dissociated hippocampal neurons cultured at high density, we demonstrate here that chronic activity blockade induced by the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin leads to a homeostatic increase in action potential firing and down-regulation of potassium channel genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interestingly, inhibition of transcription blocks induction of homeostatic plasticity at excitatory synapses in cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons [ 11 , 14 ], suggesting a critical role for transcriptional regulation of gene expression in homeostatic plasticity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present study, we used unbiased gene expression profiling, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR), and electrophysiology to search for novel molecular players critical for modulating ionic currents during the induction of homeostatic intrinsic plasticity in high-density cultures of dissociated hippocampal neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Methods and Results - This study investigated the influence of sex on drug-induced polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (PVT) in Langendorff-perfused male and female mice hearts (n=54) by injecting a bolus of halothane (1.75 mmol/L) in the perfusate while recording ECGs or optical action potentials (APs). (ahajournals.org)
  • The objectives of this study were to analyse genotype distribution and sequence variations of candidate genes putatively associated with meat quality and disease resistance in exotic and indigenous Vietnamese pig breeds. (scielo.org.za)
  • Our results reveal the effect/influence of specific interactions, (perhaps epistastatic in nature), between schizophrenia risk genes on imaging endophenotypes representing attention/working memory and goal directed related brain function, thus establishing a useful methodology to probe multivariate genotype-phenotype relationships. (genes2cognition.org)
  • An abstract published by Maccani reported that MH susceptible swine (a species exquisitely more sensitive than human) did not trigger after exposure to 5 ppm halothane (8). (mhaus.org)
  • Abstract Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) B is a mitogen and chemoattractant for smooth muscle cells in vitro, and expression of a recombinant PDGF B gene in porcine arteries stimulates intimal thickening. (ahajournals.org)
  • Our previously constructed recombinant adenovirus expressing E3-E2-6K genes from VEEV serotype IA/B (RAd/VEEV#3) was able to confer 90-100% protection against 100LD 50 of strains IA/B, ID and IE of VEEV. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to to determine the penetrance of known and probable pathogenic variants in genes and the factors that contribute to penetrance in a population of children and adults in the United States exposed to Malignant Hyperthermia (MH) trigger agents. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 2016). The identification of several gene variants and mutations associated with increased ASD risk (de la Torre-Ubieta et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • Although three transcripts are detected in northern blots, there is currently no sequence available to confirm transcript variants for this gene. (jax.org)
  • However, for many CNS disorders, the identity of the targets directly mediating the disorder (e.g., defective gene products or disease-causing variants) or even the extended pathways that could be targeted for ameliorative effects are not known with any certainty. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recent studies have advanced our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of REST-dependent silencing of target genes, including GluR2. (jneurosci.org)
  • In the first case, researchers at the Robert Guthrie Molecular Genetics Research Laboratory in Buffalo NY, under the direction of Dr. Georgirene Vladutiu showed that some patients taking lipid lowering drugs (statins) who experience muscle pain, breakdown and weakness harbor mutations in the RYR-1 gene. (mhaus.org)
  • Phage Particle-Mediated Gene Transfer to Cultured Mammalian Cells" Molecular and cellular Biology 2(6): 607-616 (1982). (patentgenius.com)
  • Viral Vectors for Gene Transfer into Antigen Presenting Cells" Current Opinion in Molecular Therapeutics 1(5): 558-564 (1999). (patentgenius.com)
  • In spite of the identification of these genes, usual molecular diagnostic methods don't yield a molecular diagnosis in about half of cases. (bireme.br)
  • Cell culture is useful for studying basic cellular and molecular processes including cell-cell interactions, cell movements, and regulation of gene expression. (arvojournals.org)
  • The authors isolated a Drosophila mutant, ethas311, that was hypersensitive to diethylether and characterized the calreticulin (crc) gene as a candidate of altered anesthetic sensitivity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Among the indigenous pig breeds, the Tap Na breed possessed a higher frequency of the resistant allele G of BPI gene than the remaining breeds. (scielo.org.za)
  • In contrast, a relatively high allele frequency (15-20%) of the CYP2A6 gene deletion has been found in Asians, resulting in a generally reduced activity in these populations. (aspetjournals.org)
  • PSE is associated with the expression of recessive halothane (Hal) allele Hal ⁿ. (usda.gov)
  • But the ability of plasmid DNA to efficiently transfect skeletal muscle, originally reported by Wolff and colleagues [ 2 ], has enabled use of plasmid in gene therapy clinical trials [ 3 , 4 ] and in experimental models. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When combined with electroporation, the transfection efficiency of skeletal muscle is further enhanced by 100-fold [ 5 ], and reporter gene expression is demonstrated in excess of 250 days. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Within the swine industry, two separate genes have found to influence the incidence of PSE meat conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the Hal gene is only responsible for about 25-35% of the PSE meat processed at abattoirs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The LEP gene and its receptor ( LEPR ) are taken into consideration as candidate genes associated with meat quality and fatness traits in livestock . (media.pl)
  • Meat quality is a significant economic factor in pork production, and numerous publications have shown that it is strongly influenced by the interaction between genetic type (especially the halothane gene (Hal) and Napole yield gene (RN)), breeding conditions, and pre-slaughter and slaughter conditions of animals. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The results of this work have confirmed the effect of the halothane gene, as well as fasting, transport and lairage times on most of the analyzed parameters of technological pork meat quality. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Indeed, our meta-analysis confirmed the significant effect of the halothane gene on all the analyzed meat quality attributes. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The efficiency of prediction of PSE pork meat on the basis of halothane test and HAL-GPI-AIBG-PGD haplotyping and PCR/RFLP analysis [in: 40th International Conference on Meat Science and Technology]. (edu.pl)
  • In neural progenitor and non-neural cells, REST acts by repression of a subset of neural genes important to synaptic plasticity and synaptic remodeling, including the AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunit GluR2. (jneurosci.org)
  • An important gene associated with Periodic Paralyses is SCN4A (Sodium Voltage-Gated Channel Alpha Subunit 4), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Cardiac conduction and Dopamine-DARPP32 Feedback onto cAMP Pathway . (malacards.org)
  • In the recent Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium genome-wide association analysis of bipolar disorder (1868 cases, 2938 controls) one of the most strongly associated polymorphisms lay within the gene encoding the GABA(A) receptor beta1 subunit, GABRB1. (genes2cognition.org)
  • They found that four genes involved in natural sleep, Sh (Shaker), sss ( sleepless ), na , and unc79 , also control neural inertia and thus the effects of induction and emergence of anesthetic unconsciousness. (healthcanal.com)
  • For example, says Kelz, "Mutations in the sleepless gene can cause some resistance to entering an anesthetic state, and an even larger impact on the exit from the anesthetic state. (healthcanal.com)
  • When we moved sleepless around to different parts of the fly brain to figure out the circuits in which the gene works to alter wakefulness or the propensity to enter an anesthetic state, we found that we could completely dissociate the forward process of entering an anesthetic state from the reverse process of exiting. (healthcanal.com)
  • The present study was largely conducted using isofluorane, a common general anesthetic, but there seem to be many neurological roads to anesthetically-induced unconsciousness, not all of which involve the same genes. (healthcanal.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is found in rod cells in the back of the eye and is essential for vision in low-light conditions. (genecards.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type primary ion transport ATPases characterized by the formation of an aspartyl phosphate intermediate during the reaction cycle. (genecards.org)
  • We utilized task-related imaging findings from an fMRI auditory oddball task known to be robustly associated with abnormal activation in schizophrenia, to investigate genomic factors derived from multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes previously shown to be associated with schizophrenia. (genes2cognition.org)
  • it is suspected that amc is related to decreased fetal movement during development which can have a variety of different causes, including environmental factors (i.e. maternal illness, limited space), single gene changes (autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, x-linked), chromosomal abnormalities and various syndromes. (malacards.org)
  • Following administration of this vaccine to Balb/c mice, an approximately ten-fold increase in antibody response was elicited and increased protective efficacy compared to an ad-based vaccine containing non-optimised genes was observed after challenge. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 16 TGF-β 1 also fails to autoactivate its own gene in these cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipose cells (adipocytes) and is being known as a product of the obesity gene. (media.pl)
  • Gene Transfer to Human Cells: Transducing Phage .lamda.plac Gene Expression in GM.sub.l-gangliosidosis fibroblasts" PNAS 72(9): 3531-3535 (1975). (patentgenius.com)
  • Plasmid, phage, and genomic DNA-mediated transfer and expression of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes in cultured human cells", Cytogenet Cell Genet 38:227-234 (1984). (patentgenius.com)
  • ImM10 cells also expressed retinal stem cell genes. (arvojournals.org)
  • The ImM10 cell line is a novel, conditionally immortalized Müller glial cell line isolated from the P10 mouse retina that expresses genes characteristic of Müller glial and retinal stem cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • In this study, engraftment of gene-marked BM cells was investigated in the brain up to 15 mo posttransplantation. (rupress.org)
  • BM cells were transduced with a retroviral vector encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) and an antifolate-resistant dihydrofolate reductase gene. (rupress.org)
  • Analysis of virus transcription during the establishment of latency revealed that virus gene expression in B cells was restricted and dependent on the differentiation stage of the B cell. (asm.org)
  • Thus, the identification of viral genes expressed during the establishment of infection in GC B cells is central for an understanding of MHV-68 pathogenesis. (asm.org)
  • However, the absence of an innate mechanism to enter cells has also limited the widespread application of plasmid DNA in gene therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most of your body cells adapt to USING ketones, by up regulating the associated genes, and down regulating the genes associated with glucose and fat metabolism. (abc.net.au)
  • A couple of days after surgery she goes into some sort of post operative shock, stops eating, starts losing weight and that halothane in her fat cells hits her liver, itself DAMAGED BY THE HALOTHANE and she dies. (abc.net.au)
  • Here, M49 cells were derived from baby hamster kidney cells and are complimenting for the above deleted genes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Examination of the induction of c -myc mRNA and immunoreactive oncoprotein content indicated that c- myc is a likely contributor to the downregulation of the collagen gene activity in both SHR and WKY VSMCs despite the differential regulation of its mRNA by TGF-β 1 in the two VSMC lines. (ahajournals.org)
  • For H-FABP, 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in indigenous pig breeds by direct sequencing of a fragment at intron 2 of the H-FABP gene. (scielo.org.za)
  • In addition to QTL studies, many candidate gene polymorphisms have been analysed in terms of their associations with pig fatness. (scielo.org.za)
  • There is a pronounced interindividual and interethnic variability in CYP2A6 levels and activity, and much of this can be attributed to polymorphisms in the CYP2A6 gene, where a few inactivating mutations as well as gene deletions have been described. (aspetjournals.org)
  • As discussed below, a lot of the CYP2A6 variability can be attributed to polymorphisms in the CYP2A6 gene, but CYP2A6 activity is also modified by certain drugs and environmental factors. (aspetjournals.org)