Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug-Induced Liver Injury
Mutation screening of the RYR1 gene and identification of two novel mutations in Italian malignant hyperthermia families. (1/1763)Point mutations in the ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene are associated with malignant hyperthermia, an autosomal dominant disorder triggered in susceptible people (MHS) by volatile anaesthetics and depolarising skeletal muscle relaxants. To date, 17 missense point mutations have been identified in the human RYR1 gene by screening of the cDNA obtained from muscle biopsies. Here we report single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) screening for nine of the most frequent RYR1 mutations using genomic DNA isolated from MHS patients. In addition, the Argl63Cys mutation was analysed by restriction enzyme digestion. We analysed 57 unrelated patients and detected seven of the known RYR1 point mutations. Furthermore, we found a new mutation, Arg2454His, segregating with the MHS phenotype in a large pedigree and a novel amino acid substitution at position 2436 in another patient, indicating a 15.8% frequency of these mutations in Italian patients. A new polymorphic site in intron 16 that causes the substitution of a G at position -7 with a C residue was identified. (+info)
A neomorphic syntaxin mutation blocks volatile-anesthetic action in Caenorhabditis elegans. (2/1763)The molecular mechanisms underlying general anesthesia are unknown. For volatile general anesthetics (VAs), indirect evidence for both lipid and protein targets has been found. However, no in vivo data have implicated clearly any particular lipid or protein in the control of sensitivity to clinical concentrations of VAs. Genetics provides one approach toward identifying these mechanisms, but genes strongly regulating sensitivity to clinical concentrations of VAs have not been identified. By screening existing mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that a mutation in the neuronal syntaxin gene dominantly conferred resistance to the VAs isoflurane and halothane. By contrast, other mutations in syntaxin and in the syntaxin-binding proteins synaptobrevin and SNAP-25 produced VA hypersensitivity. The syntaxin allelic variation was striking, particularly for isoflurane, where a 33-fold range of sensitivities was seen. Both the resistant and hypersensitive mutations decrease synaptic transmission; thus, the indirect effect of reducing neurotransmission does not explain the VA resistance. As assessed by pharmacological criteria, halothane and isoflurane themselves reduced cholinergic transmission, and the presynaptic anesthetic effect was blocked by the resistant syntaxin mutation. A single gene mutation conferring high-level resistance to VAs is inconsistent with nonspecific membrane-perturbation theories of anesthesia. The genetic and pharmacological data suggest that the resistant syntaxin mutant directly blocks VA binding to or efficacy against presynaptic targets that mediate anesthetic behavioral effects. Syntaxin and syntaxin-binding proteins are candidate anesthetic targets. (+info)
Functional brain imaging during anesthesia in humans: effects of halothane on global and regional cerebral glucose metabolism. (3/1763)BACKGROUND: Propofol and isoflurane anesthesia were studied previously with functional brain imaging in humans to begin identifying key brain areas involved with mediating anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. The authors describe an additional positron emission tomography study of halothane's in vivo cerebral metabolic effects. METHODS: Five male volunteers each underwent two positron emission tomography scans. One scan assessed awake-baseline metabolism, and the other scan assessed metabolism during halothane anesthesia titrated to the point of unresponsiveness (mean +/- SD, expired = 0.7+/-0.2%). Scans were obtained using a GE2048 scanner and the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose technique. Regions of interest were analyzed for changes in both absolute and relative glucose metabolism. In addition, relative changes in metabolism were evaluated using statistical parametric mapping. RESULTS: Awake whole-brain metabolism averaged 6.3+/-1.2 mg x 100 g(-1) x min(-1) (mean +/- SD). Halothane reduced metabolism 40+/-9% to 3.7+/-0.6 mg x 100 g(-1) x min(-1) (P< or =0.005). Regional metabolism did not increase in any brain areas for any volunteer. The statistical parametric mapping analysis revealed significantly less relative metabolism in the basal forebrain, thalamus, limbic system, cerebellum, and occiput during halothane anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: Halothane caused a global whole-brain metabolic reduction with significant shifts in regional metabolism. Comparisons with previous studies reveal similar absolute and relative metabolic effects for halothane and isoflurane. Propofol, however, was associated with larger absolute metabolic reductions, suppression of relative cortical metabolism more than either inhalational agent, and significantly less suppression of relative basal ganglia and midbrain metabolism. (+info)
Primary and secondary hyperalgesia in a rat model for human postoperative pain. (4/1763)BACKGROUND: Previously, the authors developed and characterized a rat model for postoperative pain to learn more about pain produced by incisions. In this study, the responses to heat and mechanical stimuli were evaluated directly on or adjacent to the incision and at varying distances from the incision. METHODS: Rats were anesthetized with halothane and incisions were made at different locations in the plantar aspect of the foot. The response frequency to a blunt mechanical stimulus, the withdrawal threshold to von Frey filaments (15-522 mN), and the withdrawal latency to radiant heat were measured. Rats were tested before surgery, 2 h later, and then daily through postoperative day 9. RESULTS: After plantar incision, persistent hyperalgesia was observed immediately adjacent to or directly on the incision to punctate and blunt mechanical stimuli, respectively. The withdrawal threshold to punctate stimuli applied 1 cm from the incision was decreased through postoperative day 1. In a transitional area, between the distant and adjacent sites, the withdrawal threshold was intermediate and the duration of hyperalgesia was transient. Heat hyperalgesia was persistent but present when the stimulus was applied to the site of injury but not to a distant site. CONCLUSION: Robust primary hyperalgesia to punctate and blunt mechanical stimuli was present. Hyperalgesia distant to the wound, or secondary hyperalgesia, occurred in response to punctate mechanical stimuli, was short-lived, and required greater forces. These results suggest that the most persistent pain behaviors in this model are largely primary hyperalgesia. (+info)
Halothane, an inhalational anesthetic agent, increases folding stability of serum albumin. (5/1763)Inhalational anesthetic agents are known to alter protein function, but the nature of the interactions underlying these effects remains poorly understood. We have used differential scanning calorimetry to study the effects of the anesthetic agent halothane on the thermally induced unfolding transition of bovine serum albumin. We find that halothane (0.6-10 mM) stabilizes the folded state of this protein, increasing its transition midpoint temperature from 62 to 71 degrees C. Binding of halothane to the native state of serum albumin thus outweighs any non-specific interactions between the thermally unfolded state of serum albumin and halothane in this concentration range. Based on the average enthalpy change DeltaH for unfolding of 170 kcal/mol, the increase from 62 to 71 degrees C corresponds to an additional Gibbs energy of stabilization (DeltaDeltaG) due to halothane of more than 4 kcal/mol. Analysis of the dependence of DeltaDeltaG on halothane concentration shows that thermal unfolding of a bovine serum albumin molecule is linked to the dissociation of about one halothane molecule at lower halothane concentrations and about six at higher halothane concentrations. Serum albumin is the first protein that has been shown to be stabilized by an inhalational anesthetic. (+info)
A mutation in the transmembrane/luminal domain of the ryanodine receptor is associated with abnormal Ca2+ release channel function and severe central core disease. (6/1763)Central core disease is a rare, nonprogressive myopathy that is characterized by hypotonia and proximal muscle weakness. In a large Mexican kindred with an unusually severe and highly penetrant form of the disorder, DNA sequencing identified an I4898T mutation in the C-terminal transmembrane/luminal region of the RyR1 protein that constitutes the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor. All previously reported RYR1 mutations are located either in the cytoplasmic N terminus or in a central cytoplasmic region of the 5,038-aa protein. The I4898T mutation was introduced into a rabbit RYR1 cDNA and expressed in HEK-293 cells. The response of the mutant RyR1 Ca2+ channel to the agonists halothane and caffeine in a Ca2+ photometry assay was completely abolished. Coexpression of normal and mutant RYR1 cDNAs in a 1:1 ratio, however, produced RyR1 channels with normal halothane and caffeine sensitivities, but maximal levels of Ca2+ release were reduced by 67%. [3H]Ryanodine binding indicated that the heterozygous channel is activated by Ca2+ concentrations 4-fold lower than normal. Single-cell analysis of cotransfected cells showed a significantly increased resting cytoplasmic Ca2+ level and a significantly reduced luminal Ca2+ level. These data are indicative of a leaky channel, possibly caused by a reduction in the Ca2+ concentration required for channel activation. Comparison with two other coexpressed mutant/normal channels suggests that the I4898T mutation produces one of the most abnormal RyR1 channels yet investigated, and this level of abnormality is reflected in the severe and penetrant phenotype of affected central core disease individuals. (+info)
Effects of the halothane genotype and slaughter weight on texture of pork. (7/1763)The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the halothane (HAL) genotype, slaughter weight (SW), and the HAL x SW interaction on compositional and textural traits of raw and cooked pork. Pigs were bred to exhibit one of the three HAL genotypes (NN, Nn, and nn) with otherwise equivalent genomes. The nn halothane reactors are known to typically produce PSE pork, whereas NN pigs do not typically produce PSE pork. Pietrain x Large White gilts and boars, all with verified Nn genotype (by DNA test), were mated to obtain F2 littermates of the three HAL genotypes. These pigs were slaughtered at either 101 +/- 3 ("light") or 127 +/- 3 ("heavy") kg BW and were evaluated for longissimus muscle traits. The pH at .5 h after death (pH1) was 6.35, 6.13, and 5.68 in NN, Nn, and nn pigs, respectively. Sarcomere length was greater in nn than in NN and Nn pigs (1.94 vs 1.83 and 1.85 microm, respectively). Mechanical resistance was higher in nn than in NN pigs for both raw and cooked meat. Meat from nn pigs was judged by a trained panel to be less rough, more cohesive, harder, more fibrous, less granular, more elastic, and less easy to swallow than meat from NN pigs. For most traits under study, the heterozygotes were intermediate between the homozygotes but closer to NN than to nn pigs. Muscle from heavy pigs had longer sarcomeres and less moisture than muscle from light pigs. The n allele of the HAL gene unfavorably affects pork texture, and this effect is maintained throughout the range of 101 to 127 kg BW. (+info)
Halothane effect on formalin-induced paw edema and flinching in rat. (8/1763)The formalin test is a model of injury-produced inflammatory pain. Anesthetics, in clinically relevant concentrations, affect neutrophils and immune suppression. This study was to determine whether halothane reliably inhibits inflammatory reaction and formalin induced pain behavior or does not. Rats were exposed to 100% oxygen (control) or halothane, respectively for 30 min and then 24 hr later five percent formalin test was assessed. The base values of the paw's diameter were obtained earlier, and then formalin induced edema was assessed by measuring diameters of the injected paws at 5 min, 1 hr, 4 hr and 24 hr after the injection. Nociceptive behavior was quantified by counting the number of times with the paw flinched at 5 min intervals for 60 min. The diameters of edema in the halothane group lessened more than those in the oxygen group at 1 and 24 hr in each following of the injection (p<0.05). The rats pre-administered with oxygen or halothane were similar appearances in nociceptive behaviors. It suggests that halothane anesthesia might inhibit slightly the inflammatory reaction with the formalin-induced edema but might not inhibit the formalin-induced pain behavior in the event of pre-administration halothane 24 hr earlier before the formalin test of rat. (+info)
Halothane is a general anesthetic that was widely used in the past for surgical procedures. It is a colorless, volatile liquid that is inhaled to produce unconsciousness and a lack of sensation during surgery. Halothane works by blocking the transmission of nerve impulses in the brain, which leads to a loss of consciousness and muscle relaxation. Halothane was first introduced in the 1950s and was widely used for many years due to its effectiveness and relatively low cost. However, it has since been largely replaced by other anesthetics due to concerns about its potential side effects, including liver damage, respiratory depression, and cardiac arrhythmias. Despite these concerns, halothane is still used in some parts of the world, particularly in developing countries where access to other anesthetics may be limited. It is also used in veterinary medicine for certain procedures.
Isoflurane is a volatile anesthetic gas that is commonly used in medical procedures to induce and maintain general anesthesia. It is a colorless, odorless gas that is similar in structure to halothane, another anesthetic gas. When inhaled, isoflurane produces a state of unconsciousness and a lack of response to pain, allowing medical procedures to be performed without the patient feeling any discomfort. It also has a relatively low risk of causing side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, or respiratory depression. Isoflurane is often used in combination with other anesthetics, such as opioids or muscle relaxants, to provide a more complete anesthetic effect. It is also used in veterinary medicine and in research settings to induce anesthesia in animals.
Enflurane is a volatile anesthetic gas that is commonly used in medical procedures to induce anesthesia in patients. It is a colorless, odorless gas that is administered through an inhalation mask or a breathing tube. Enflurane works by disrupting the transmission of nerve impulses in the brain, which results in a loss of consciousness and a lack of response to pain. Enflurane is a potent anesthetic and is typically used in combination with other medications to provide a complete anesthetic effect. It is also used to maintain anesthesia during surgery or other medical procedures. Enflurane has a relatively short duration of action, which means that it can be quickly reversed if necessary. Enflurane can cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and confusion. It can also cause changes in heart rate and blood pressure, and it may increase the risk of developing certain complications during surgery. As with all anesthetic medications, enflurane should only be administered by trained medical professionals in a controlled medical setting.
Methyl ethers are organic compounds that contain a methyl group (CH3) attached to an oxygen atom. They are a type of ether, which is a functional group consisting of an oxygen atom bonded to two alkyl or aryl groups. In the medical field, methyl ethers are used as anesthetic agents, particularly for induction of anesthesia. They are also used as solvents and as intermediates in the synthesis of other compounds. Some methyl ethers have been found to have potential medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. One example of a methyl ether used in medicine is methoxyflurane, which was once a common anesthetic but has been largely replaced by other agents due to its potential for toxicity and side effects. Other methyl ethers that have been studied for their potential medicinal properties include diisopropyl ether and tert-butyl methyl ether.
Nitrous oxide, also known as laughing gas, is a colorless, odorless gas that is commonly used in the medical field as an anesthetic and analgesic. It is a potent analgesic, meaning it can help to reduce pain and discomfort during medical procedures, and it is also a sedative, meaning it can help to calm and relax patients. In medical settings, nitrous oxide is typically administered through a mask that covers the patient's nose and mouth. The gas is mixed with oxygen and inhaled by the patient, which helps to produce a feeling of relaxation and euphoria. Nitrous oxide is often used in combination with other anesthetics, such as local anesthetics or general anesthesia, to provide a more complete and effective anesthetic. Nitrous oxide is considered to be a relatively safe anesthetic, with few side effects. However, it can cause dizziness, lightheadedness, and nausea in some patients, and it can also cause a temporary decrease in blood pressure. As with any anesthetic, it is important for patients to follow their doctor's instructions carefully and to report any side effects or concerns to their healthcare provider.
Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare but potentially life-threatening genetic disorder that affects skeletal muscle. It is triggered by certain medications and anesthetic agents used during surgery, and can cause a rapid and severe increase in body temperature, muscle rigidity, and metabolic acidosis. MH is caused by a genetic mutation that affects the function of the ryanodine receptor protein in muscle cells. This protein is responsible for regulating the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which is necessary for muscle contraction. In individuals with MH, the ryanodine receptor is hypersensitive to certain triggers, leading to excessive calcium release and muscle contractions that cannot be controlled. The symptoms of MH typically occur within minutes to hours of exposure to triggering agents, such as certain anesthetics (such as succinylcholine) and muscle relaxants (such as dantrolene). Treatment for MH involves immediate discontinuation of the triggering agents, administration of dantrolene to reduce calcium release, and cooling the body to prevent further temperature elevation.，MH，。
Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is a colorless, highly corrosive liquid that is commonly used in the chemical industry as a solvent, reagent, and preservative. In the medical field, TFA is used as a chemical peel agent to remove dead skin cells and improve the appearance of the skin. It is also used in the production of certain medications and as a component in some laboratory reagents. However, TFA is highly toxic and can cause serious burns and other injuries if not handled properly. It is important to follow proper safety protocols when working with TFA in a medical or laboratory setting.
Thiopental is a barbiturate medication that is used in the medical field as an anesthetic and a sedative. It is typically administered intravenously to induce anesthesia and to maintain anesthesia during surgical procedures. Thiopental works by depressing the central nervous system, which results in a loss of consciousness and a lack of response to pain. It is also used to treat certain types of seizures and to control agitation and anxiety in patients with certain neurological disorders. However, thiopental has been largely replaced by newer anesthetic agents due to concerns about its side effects and potential for addiction.
In the medical field, ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an oxygen atom bonded to two carbon atoms. They are commonly used as anesthetic agents, meaning they are used to induce a state of unconsciousness and analgesia (pain relief) during medical procedures. There are several different types of ethers, including diethyl ether, chloroform, and halothane. These compounds work by disrupting the normal functioning of the brain, leading to a loss of consciousness and pain relief. Ethers have been used as anesthetics for many years, but their use has declined in recent decades due to concerns about their potential side effects, including respiratory depression, nausea, and vomiting. However, they are still used in certain medical situations, such as in the treatment of certain types of cancer.
In the medical field, "ether" typically refers to diethyl ether, which is a type of inhalation anesthetic that was widely used in the past for general anesthesia. Diethyl ether is a colorless, flammable liquid with a sweet odor that evaporates easily. When inhaled, it causes unconsciousness and a loss of pain sensation, making it useful for surgical procedures. However, diethyl ether has been largely replaced by other anesthetics that are safer and more effective. It is still used in some medical settings, such as veterinary medicine and dentistry, but its use is limited due to its potential for serious side effects, including respiratory depression, cardiac arrhythmias, and central nervous system damage.
Methoxyflurane is a volatile anesthetic that was once commonly used in surgery and other medical procedures. It is a colorless gas that is similar in structure to halothane, another anesthetic that is no longer used due to concerns about liver toxicity. Methoxyflurane is administered by inhalation and works by depressing the central nervous system, leading to a loss of consciousness and a lack of response to pain. It is also a potent bronchodilator, which means that it can help to open up the airways and make it easier to breathe. Despite its effectiveness as an anesthetic, methoxyflurane has been largely replaced by newer, safer drugs. It is still used in some specialized medical settings, such as for certain types of eye surgery, but its use is generally limited due to concerns about its potential side effects, including nausea, vomiting, and respiratory depression.
Ethyl ethers are a type of organic compound that are commonly used in the medical field as anesthetic agents. They work by depressing the central nervous system, leading to a loss of consciousness and a lack of sensation or pain. Ethyl ethers are typically administered through inhalation, and they are often used in combination with other anesthetic agents to provide a more complete and effective anesthetic. Ethyl ethers are also used in some medical procedures as a surgical anesthetic, and they are sometimes used in veterinary medicine as well. They are generally considered to be safe and effective when used properly, but they can have some side effects, including nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. In addition, they can be flammable and should be handled with care to avoid fire or explosion.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are a class of organic compounds that contain carbon, chlorine, and fluorine atoms. They were widely used in the past as refrigerants, propellants, and solvents, but their production and use have been phased out due to their harmful effects on the ozone layer. In the medical field, CFCs were used as anesthetics and inhalation agents for patients undergoing surgery or other medical procedures. However, due to their potential to deplete the ozone layer, the use of CFCs in medical applications was phased out in the 1990s and replaced with safer alternatives such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs). Today, CFCs are no longer used in medical applications, and their production and use are strictly regulated by international agreements such as the Montreal Protocol.
In the medical field, "Hydrocarbons, Halogenated" refers to a group of organic compounds that contain both hydrogen and carbon atoms, with one or more halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine) replacing one or more hydrogen atoms. These compounds are often used as solvents, propellants, and refrigerants, and some are also used as medical gases for anesthesia and respiratory support. Some examples of halogenated hydrocarbons include chloroform, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, which have been used in various medical applications such as as anesthetic agents, sterilizing agents, and solvents for medical equipment. However, many of these compounds have been found to be toxic and carcinogenic, and their use has been restricted or banned in many countries.
Pentobarbital is a barbiturate medication that is primarily used as a sedative, hypnotic, and anesthetic. It is a short-acting drug that is often used for the treatment of insomnia, anxiety, and seizures. Pentobarbital is also used as an anesthetic for minor surgical procedures and for the induction of general anesthesia in combination with other anesthetic agents. It is available in both oral and injectable forms and is typically administered by a healthcare professional. Pentobarbital can cause drowsiness, dizziness, and other side effects, and it may interact with other medications. It is a controlled substance and is regulated by the government to prevent abuse and misuse.
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a type of liver damage that occurs as a result of taking medications or other substances. It can range from mild to severe and can be caused by a variety of drugs, including antibiotics, painkillers, and certain herbal supplements. DILI can present with a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), and dark urine. In severe cases, DILI can lead to liver failure, which can be life-threatening. Diagnosis of DILI typically involves a combination of clinical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment may involve discontinuing the suspected drug, administering supportive care, and in severe cases, liver transplantation. Preventing DILI involves careful monitoring of patients who are taking medications that have the potential to cause liver damage, as well as educating patients about the potential risks and symptoms of DILI.
Succinylcholine is a muscle relaxant medication that is commonly used during general anesthesia to facilitate tracheal intubation and to maintain muscle relaxation during surgery. It works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that triggers muscle contractions. Succinylcholine is a depolarizing muscle relaxant, which means that it directly affects the muscle fibers themselves, rather than acting on the nervous system. It is a short-acting drug, with a duration of action of approximately 5-10 minutes, and is typically given intravenously. However, it can cause side effects such as muscle fasciculations, hyperkalemia, and postoperative myalgias.
Fluoroacetates are a group of organic compounds that contain a fluoroacetate functional group. They are commonly found in plants, particularly in the leaves and stems of certain species, and can be toxic to animals, including humans, if ingested. In the medical field, fluoroacetates are primarily used as research tools to study the metabolism and biochemistry of the body. They are also used as antifungal agents and as a treatment for certain types of cancer. However, exposure to fluoroacetates can be dangerous and can cause a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, muscle weakness, and in severe cases, seizures, coma, and death. Therefore, it is important to handle fluoroacetates with caution and to seek medical attention immediately if exposure occurs.
Thiamylal is a general anesthetic that was once commonly used in surgery, but is no longer used due to its potential for serious side effects and toxicity. It is a thiocarbamate derivative that works by blocking the transmission of nerve impulses to the brain, leading to loss of consciousness and analgesia (pain relief). Thiamylal is administered intravenously and is rapidly metabolized in the liver, with a short duration of action. However, it can cause respiratory depression, cardiac arrhythmias, and other serious side effects, and can be toxic if administered in high doses or for prolonged periods of time. As a result, it is no longer recommended for use in modern anesthesia practice.
NMDA receptor antagonist
Orchestrated objective reduction
Theories of general anaesthetic action
History of general anesthesia
Minimum alveolar concentration
North West England
IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry
Halothane Hepatotoxicity: Practice Essentials, Pathophysiology, Etiology
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- Inhalational agents with irritant physicochemical characteristics like desflurane and high concentrations of isoflurane are more likely to cause laryngospasm than non-irritant agents like sevoflurane and halothane. (ahrq.gov)
- Sevoflurane or Halothane. (anesthesiageneral.com)
- Halothane vaporizer. (theodoregray.com)
- Worker exposures to nitrous - oxide (10024972), halothane (151677), and ethrane (13838169) were surveyed on August 6 to 8, 1980 and February 9 to 12, 1981 at the Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center (SIC-8062) in the Bronx, New York. (cdc.gov)
- ABSTRACT The anaesthetic agent halothane is still widely used in developing countries including the Islamic Republic of Iran because of its low price. (who.int)
- Halothane and eucalyptol as alternatives to chloroform for softening gutta-percha. (bvsalud.org)
- My bottle of calcium borogluconate was stripping phosphates off of complex IV to allow more ATP production in a myocardium poisoned with an inhalation anaesthetic agent, halothane back in the day. (blogspot.com)
- Exposures to nitrous - oxide , halothane, and ethrane ranged from 16 to 850, up to 14.4, and up to 2.4 parts per million (ppm), respectively. (cdc.gov)
- Although these investigations disclosed no evidence of adverse effects, reports of liver dysfunction after halothane administration have appeared constantly in the literature. (vcu.edu)
- The aims of our study were to determine concentrations of wasted halothane in operating rooms and to investigate the effect of halothane pollution on liver functions of exposed personnel. (pjoes.com)
- The results indicate that the incidence of halothane hepatitis in the Islamic Republic of Iran is very low and could mostly be avoided by strict adherence to guidelines. (who.int)
- The results suggest that exposure to wasted halothane may be harmful to the livers of operating room personnel. (pjoes.com)
- The patient and the family members will need to be educated about MH and should be referred to a testing center for a caffeine halothane contracture test (CHCT). (medscape.com)
- We evaluated various dimensions of this replacement through a literature review to assess the incidence of halothane-induced hepatitis and costs of anaesthetics in the country. (who.int)
- Although widely replaced by isoflurane or sevoflurane, halothane is the last common non-ether anesthetic used in the operating room. (nih.gov)
- In October, 1986 breathing zone and general room air samples were collected on nurses in all operating rooms and in the recovery room for nitrous oxide, ethrane, halothane and isoflurane. (cdc.gov)
- On the basis of the environmental data, it was concluded that a health hazard did not normally exist in the operating rooms at Memorial Hospital from exposures to ethrane, halothane, isoflurane, and nitrous oxide. (cdc.gov)
- A request was received from the Department of Surgery at Primary Childrens Hospital (SIC-8070) to investigate exposures in operating rooms and recovery room for nitrous-oxide (10024972), ethrane (13838169), halothane (151677), and isoflurane. (cdc.gov)
- All operating rooms exhibited excessive exposures to ethrane, halothane, isoflurane and nitrous-oxide due to a lack of sufficient air changes per hour. (cdc.gov)
- The authors conclude that a health hazard existed for overexposure to ethrane, halothane, isoflurane and nitrous-oxide in the operating rooms. (cdc.gov)
- Halothane-induced hepatitis: A forgotten issue in developing countries: Halothane-induced hepatitis. (medscape.com)
- We evaluated various dimensions of this replacement through a literature review to assess the incidence of halothane-induced hepatitis and costs of anaesthetics in the country. (who.int)
- The results indicate that the incidence of halothane hepatitis in the Islamic Republic of Iran is very low and could mostly be avoided by strict adherence to guidelines. (who.int)
- Subcommitee on the National Halothane Study of the Committee on Anesthesia, N. Summary of the national Halothane Study. (medscape.com)
- Possible association between halothane anesthesia and postoperative hepatic necrosis. (medscape.com)
- Halothane anesthesia progressively depresses respiration. (nih.gov)
- Halothane anesthesia reduces the blood pressure, and frequently decreases the pulse rate. (nih.gov)
- Halothane anesthesia also causes dilation of the vessels of the skin and skeletal muscles. (nih.gov)
- Cardiac arrhythmias may occur during Halothane anesthesia. (nih.gov)
- Halothane anesthesia increases cerebral spinal fluid pressure and produces moderate muscular relaxation. (nih.gov)
- Halothane anesthesia augments the action of nondepolarizing skeletal muscle relaxants and ganglionic blocking agents. (nih.gov)
- Halothane is indicated for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. (nih.gov)
- Halothane is not recommended for obstetrical anesthesia except when uterine relaxation is required. (nih.gov)
- Unsal C, Celik JB, Toy H, Esen H, Otelcioglu S. Protective role of zinc pretreatment in hepatotoxicity induced by halothane. (medscape.com)
- The potential of halothane to cause hepatotoxicity and the greater safety of newer anesthetics has led to a decrease in its use, currently limited to special situations, particularly in children. (nih.gov)
- Aneshthetics such as Halothane and Succinylcholine increase the risk for rhabdomyolysis and should thus be avoided. (midwestsinus.com)
- Mutations ofRyR basis accelerated calcium unfetter from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during generalanesthesia with compounds such as halothane, ether, and succinylcholine. (abiomed-formacion.com)
- Halothane also is a potent uterine relaxant. (nih.gov)
- Halothane is a potent volatile halogenated anesthetic gas that has been linked to many cases of idiosyncratic acute liver injury that are frequently severe. (nih.gov)
- Although this property would seem to improve the safety profile of halothane, halothane is also the most potent of inhalational anesthetics. (nih.gov)
- Halothane is the most soluble of the currently used anesthetic agents, indicating that the equilibration of inspired/brain partial pressures is the greatest. (nih.gov)
- When previous exposure to Halothane was followed by unexplained jaundice, consideration should be given to the use of other agents. (nih.gov)
- Halothane sensitizes the myocardial conduction system to the action of epinephrine and levarterenol (norepinephrine), and the combination may cause serious cardiac arrhythmias. (nih.gov)
- Blood from halothane anesthetized C57Bl/6 mice was collected aseptically by cardiac puncture into heparinized tubes. (srcsignaling.com)
- On d 7 after OVX pets had been anesthetized with halothane and a 25-measure needle was utilized to withdraw 100 μl bloodstream after cardiac puncture. (healthy-nutrition-plan.com)
- such materials will deteriorate rapidly in contact with Halothane vapor or liquid. (nih.gov)
- The anaesthetic agent halothane is still widely used in developing countries including the Islamic Republic of Iran because of its low price. (who.int)
- Safe use of Halothane has not been established with respect to possible adverse effects upon fetal development. (nih.gov)
- Components of electroencephalographic responses to slaughter in halothane - anaesthetised calves : effects of cutting neck tissues compared with major blood vessels. (leafycreekfarm.com)
- Due to its favorable side effect profile, halothane became the standard of practice, used in almost every operating room and for the comparison of other inhalational anesthetics as they came to the market. (nih.gov)
- Halothane is nonflammable, and its vapors mixed with oxygen in proportions from 0.5 to 50% (v/v) are not explosive. (nih.gov)
- An overview of Genetic Toxicology Mammalian Cell Cytogenetics study conclusions related to Halothane (151-67-7). (nih.gov)
- Halothane: How should it be used in a developing country? (who.int)