A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
Rapid and excessive rise of temperature accompanied by muscular rigidity following general anesthesia.
A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.
Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Procedure in which arterial blood pressure is intentionally reduced in order to control blood loss during surgery. This procedure is performed either pharmacologically or by pre-surgical removal of blood.
Derivatives of acetic acid with one or more fluorines attached. They are almost odorless, difficult to detect chemically, and very stable. The acid itself, as well as the derivatives that are broken down in the body to the acid, are highly toxic substances, behaving as convulsant poisons with a delayed action. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anesthesia, or for inducing a hypnotic state. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p919)
Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.
Mechanical food dispensing machines.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.
A group of ethane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.
A gas that condenses under slight pressure. Because of its low boiling point ethyl chloride sprayed on skin produces an intense cold by evaporation. Cold blocks nerve conduction. Ethyl chloride has been used in surgery but is primarily used to relieve local pain in sports medicine.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Conditions in which the LIVER functions fall below the normal ranges. Severe hepatic insufficiency may cause LIVER FAILURE or DEATH. Treatment may include LIVER TRANSPLANTATION.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.
Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.
A component of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that provides leadership related to the delivery of health services and the requirements for and distribution of health resources, including manpower training.

Mutation screening of the RYR1 gene and identification of two novel mutations in Italian malignant hyperthermia families. (1/1763)

Point mutations in the ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene are associated with malignant hyperthermia, an autosomal dominant disorder triggered in susceptible people (MHS) by volatile anaesthetics and depolarising skeletal muscle relaxants. To date, 17 missense point mutations have been identified in the human RYR1 gene by screening of the cDNA obtained from muscle biopsies. Here we report single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) screening for nine of the most frequent RYR1 mutations using genomic DNA isolated from MHS patients. In addition, the Argl63Cys mutation was analysed by restriction enzyme digestion. We analysed 57 unrelated patients and detected seven of the known RYR1 point mutations. Furthermore, we found a new mutation, Arg2454His, segregating with the MHS phenotype in a large pedigree and a novel amino acid substitution at position 2436 in another patient, indicating a 15.8% frequency of these mutations in Italian patients. A new polymorphic site in intron 16 that causes the substitution of a G at position -7 with a C residue was identified.  (+info)

A neomorphic syntaxin mutation blocks volatile-anesthetic action in Caenorhabditis elegans. (2/1763)

The molecular mechanisms underlying general anesthesia are unknown. For volatile general anesthetics (VAs), indirect evidence for both lipid and protein targets has been found. However, no in vivo data have implicated clearly any particular lipid or protein in the control of sensitivity to clinical concentrations of VAs. Genetics provides one approach toward identifying these mechanisms, but genes strongly regulating sensitivity to clinical concentrations of VAs have not been identified. By screening existing mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that a mutation in the neuronal syntaxin gene dominantly conferred resistance to the VAs isoflurane and halothane. By contrast, other mutations in syntaxin and in the syntaxin-binding proteins synaptobrevin and SNAP-25 produced VA hypersensitivity. The syntaxin allelic variation was striking, particularly for isoflurane, where a 33-fold range of sensitivities was seen. Both the resistant and hypersensitive mutations decrease synaptic transmission; thus, the indirect effect of reducing neurotransmission does not explain the VA resistance. As assessed by pharmacological criteria, halothane and isoflurane themselves reduced cholinergic transmission, and the presynaptic anesthetic effect was blocked by the resistant syntaxin mutation. A single gene mutation conferring high-level resistance to VAs is inconsistent with nonspecific membrane-perturbation theories of anesthesia. The genetic and pharmacological data suggest that the resistant syntaxin mutant directly blocks VA binding to or efficacy against presynaptic targets that mediate anesthetic behavioral effects. Syntaxin and syntaxin-binding proteins are candidate anesthetic targets.  (+info)

Functional brain imaging during anesthesia in humans: effects of halothane on global and regional cerebral glucose metabolism. (3/1763)

BACKGROUND: Propofol and isoflurane anesthesia were studied previously with functional brain imaging in humans to begin identifying key brain areas involved with mediating anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. The authors describe an additional positron emission tomography study of halothane's in vivo cerebral metabolic effects. METHODS: Five male volunteers each underwent two positron emission tomography scans. One scan assessed awake-baseline metabolism, and the other scan assessed metabolism during halothane anesthesia titrated to the point of unresponsiveness (mean +/- SD, expired = 0.7+/-0.2%). Scans were obtained using a GE2048 scanner and the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose technique. Regions of interest were analyzed for changes in both absolute and relative glucose metabolism. In addition, relative changes in metabolism were evaluated using statistical parametric mapping. RESULTS: Awake whole-brain metabolism averaged 6.3+/-1.2 mg x 100 g(-1) x min(-1) (mean +/- SD). Halothane reduced metabolism 40+/-9% to 3.7+/-0.6 mg x 100 g(-1) x min(-1) (P< or =0.005). Regional metabolism did not increase in any brain areas for any volunteer. The statistical parametric mapping analysis revealed significantly less relative metabolism in the basal forebrain, thalamus, limbic system, cerebellum, and occiput during halothane anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: Halothane caused a global whole-brain metabolic reduction with significant shifts in regional metabolism. Comparisons with previous studies reveal similar absolute and relative metabolic effects for halothane and isoflurane. Propofol, however, was associated with larger absolute metabolic reductions, suppression of relative cortical metabolism more than either inhalational agent, and significantly less suppression of relative basal ganglia and midbrain metabolism.  (+info)

Primary and secondary hyperalgesia in a rat model for human postoperative pain. (4/1763)

BACKGROUND: Previously, the authors developed and characterized a rat model for postoperative pain to learn more about pain produced by incisions. In this study, the responses to heat and mechanical stimuli were evaluated directly on or adjacent to the incision and at varying distances from the incision. METHODS: Rats were anesthetized with halothane and incisions were made at different locations in the plantar aspect of the foot. The response frequency to a blunt mechanical stimulus, the withdrawal threshold to von Frey filaments (15-522 mN), and the withdrawal latency to radiant heat were measured. Rats were tested before surgery, 2 h later, and then daily through postoperative day 9. RESULTS: After plantar incision, persistent hyperalgesia was observed immediately adjacent to or directly on the incision to punctate and blunt mechanical stimuli, respectively. The withdrawal threshold to punctate stimuli applied 1 cm from the incision was decreased through postoperative day 1. In a transitional area, between the distant and adjacent sites, the withdrawal threshold was intermediate and the duration of hyperalgesia was transient. Heat hyperalgesia was persistent but present when the stimulus was applied to the site of injury but not to a distant site. CONCLUSION: Robust primary hyperalgesia to punctate and blunt mechanical stimuli was present. Hyperalgesia distant to the wound, or secondary hyperalgesia, occurred in response to punctate mechanical stimuli, was short-lived, and required greater forces. These results suggest that the most persistent pain behaviors in this model are largely primary hyperalgesia.  (+info)

Halothane, an inhalational anesthetic agent, increases folding stability of serum albumin. (5/1763)

Inhalational anesthetic agents are known to alter protein function, but the nature of the interactions underlying these effects remains poorly understood. We have used differential scanning calorimetry to study the effects of the anesthetic agent halothane on the thermally induced unfolding transition of bovine serum albumin. We find that halothane (0.6-10 mM) stabilizes the folded state of this protein, increasing its transition midpoint temperature from 62 to 71 degrees C. Binding of halothane to the native state of serum albumin thus outweighs any non-specific interactions between the thermally unfolded state of serum albumin and halothane in this concentration range. Based on the average enthalpy change DeltaH for unfolding of 170 kcal/mol, the increase from 62 to 71 degrees C corresponds to an additional Gibbs energy of stabilization (DeltaDeltaG) due to halothane of more than 4 kcal/mol. Analysis of the dependence of DeltaDeltaG on halothane concentration shows that thermal unfolding of a bovine serum albumin molecule is linked to the dissociation of about one halothane molecule at lower halothane concentrations and about six at higher halothane concentrations. Serum albumin is the first protein that has been shown to be stabilized by an inhalational anesthetic.  (+info)

A mutation in the transmembrane/luminal domain of the ryanodine receptor is associated with abnormal Ca2+ release channel function and severe central core disease. (6/1763)

Central core disease is a rare, nonprogressive myopathy that is characterized by hypotonia and proximal muscle weakness. In a large Mexican kindred with an unusually severe and highly penetrant form of the disorder, DNA sequencing identified an I4898T mutation in the C-terminal transmembrane/luminal region of the RyR1 protein that constitutes the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor. All previously reported RYR1 mutations are located either in the cytoplasmic N terminus or in a central cytoplasmic region of the 5,038-aa protein. The I4898T mutation was introduced into a rabbit RYR1 cDNA and expressed in HEK-293 cells. The response of the mutant RyR1 Ca2+ channel to the agonists halothane and caffeine in a Ca2+ photometry assay was completely abolished. Coexpression of normal and mutant RYR1 cDNAs in a 1:1 ratio, however, produced RyR1 channels with normal halothane and caffeine sensitivities, but maximal levels of Ca2+ release were reduced by 67%. [3H]Ryanodine binding indicated that the heterozygous channel is activated by Ca2+ concentrations 4-fold lower than normal. Single-cell analysis of cotransfected cells showed a significantly increased resting cytoplasmic Ca2+ level and a significantly reduced luminal Ca2+ level. These data are indicative of a leaky channel, possibly caused by a reduction in the Ca2+ concentration required for channel activation. Comparison with two other coexpressed mutant/normal channels suggests that the I4898T mutation produces one of the most abnormal RyR1 channels yet investigated, and this level of abnormality is reflected in the severe and penetrant phenotype of affected central core disease individuals.  (+info)

Effects of the halothane genotype and slaughter weight on texture of pork. (7/1763)

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the halothane (HAL) genotype, slaughter weight (SW), and the HAL x SW interaction on compositional and textural traits of raw and cooked pork. Pigs were bred to exhibit one of the three HAL genotypes (NN, Nn, and nn) with otherwise equivalent genomes. The nn halothane reactors are known to typically produce PSE pork, whereas NN pigs do not typically produce PSE pork. Pietrain x Large White gilts and boars, all with verified Nn genotype (by DNA test), were mated to obtain F2 littermates of the three HAL genotypes. These pigs were slaughtered at either 101 +/- 3 ("light") or 127 +/- 3 ("heavy") kg BW and were evaluated for longissimus muscle traits. The pH at .5 h after death (pH1) was 6.35, 6.13, and 5.68 in NN, Nn, and nn pigs, respectively. Sarcomere length was greater in nn than in NN and Nn pigs (1.94 vs 1.83 and 1.85 microm, respectively). Mechanical resistance was higher in nn than in NN pigs for both raw and cooked meat. Meat from nn pigs was judged by a trained panel to be less rough, more cohesive, harder, more fibrous, less granular, more elastic, and less easy to swallow than meat from NN pigs. For most traits under study, the heterozygotes were intermediate between the homozygotes but closer to NN than to nn pigs. Muscle from heavy pigs had longer sarcomeres and less moisture than muscle from light pigs. The n allele of the HAL gene unfavorably affects pork texture, and this effect is maintained throughout the range of 101 to 127 kg BW.  (+info)

Halothane effect on formalin-induced paw edema and flinching in rat. (8/1763)

The formalin test is a model of injury-produced inflammatory pain. Anesthetics, in clinically relevant concentrations, affect neutrophils and immune suppression. This study was to determine whether halothane reliably inhibits inflammatory reaction and formalin induced pain behavior or does not. Rats were exposed to 100% oxygen (control) or halothane, respectively for 30 min and then 24 hr later five percent formalin test was assessed. The base values of the paw's diameter were obtained earlier, and then formalin induced edema was assessed by measuring diameters of the injected paws at 5 min, 1 hr, 4 hr and 24 hr after the injection. Nociceptive behavior was quantified by counting the number of times with the paw flinched at 5 min intervals for 60 min. The diameters of edema in the halothane group lessened more than those in the oxygen group at 1 and 24 hr in each following of the injection (p<0.05). The rats pre-administered with oxygen or halothane were similar appearances in nociceptive behaviors. It suggests that halothane anesthesia might inhibit slightly the inflammatory reaction with the formalin-induced edema but might not inhibit the formalin-induced pain behavior in the event of pre-administration halothane 24 hr earlier before the formalin test of rat.  (+info)

To compare the effects of sub-anaesthetic concentrations of propofol and halothane on the respiratory control system, we have studied the acute ventilatory response to isocapnic hypoxia (AHVR) in 12 adults with and without three different concentrations of propofol and halothane. Target doses for propofol were 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 of the effective plasma concentration (EC50 = 8.1 micrograms ml-1). Target doses for halothane were 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC = 0.77%). The doses achieved experimentally were 0.01, 0.06, 0.13 and 0.26 of the EC50 for propofol and 0, 0.05, 0.11 and 0.20 MAC for halothane. During the experiment subjects breathed via a mouthpiece from an end-tidal forcing system. End-tidal PO2 (PEO2) was held at 13.3 kPa for 5 min, and then at 6.7 kPa for 5 min. End-tidal PCO2 (PECO2) was held constant at 0.13-0.27 kPa greater than the subjects natural level throughout. The mean values for AHVR with propofol were: 12.8 (SEM 2.4) litre min-1 (0.01 EC50), 10.0 (1.9
To compare the effects of sub-anaesthetic concentrations of propofol and halothane on the respiratory control system, we have studied the acute ventilatory response to isocapnic hypoxia (AHVR) in 12 adults with and without three different concentrations of propofol and halothane. Target doses for propofol were 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 of the effective plasma concentration (EC50 = 8.1 micrograms ml-1). Target doses for halothane were 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC = 0.77%). The doses achieved experimentally were 0.01, 0.06, 0.13 and 0.26 of the EC50 for propofol and 0, 0.05, 0.11 and 0.20 MAC for halothane. During the experiment subjects breathed via a mouthpiece from an end-tidal forcing system. End-tidal PO2 (PEO2) was held at 13.3 kPa for 5 min, and then at 6.7 kPa for 5 min. End-tidal PCO2 (PECO2) was held constant at 0.13-0.27 kPa greater than the subjects natural level throughout. The mean values for AHVR with propofol were: 12.8 (SEM 2.4) litre min-1 (0.01 EC50), 10.0 (1.9
1. With reference to the post-operative dysfunction of the liver observed after halothane anaesthesia, the effects of the anaesthetic on some metabolic functions were studied in the isolated perfused rat liver. Oxygen uptake, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and urea synthesis were affected by halothane at a concentration (2.5% of the gas phase) within the range used in clinical anaesthesia. 2. At this concentration of halothane uptake of oxygen was inhibited in livers from both fed and starved rats. 3. In livers from fed rats there was a 16-fold increase in lactate production. This was accompanied by a fivefold decrease in the tissue content of 2-oxoglutarate and a more than twofold decrease in citrate. The calculated [free NAD+]/[free NADH] ratio in both cytoplasm and mitochondria was lower in the halothane-exposed livers than in controls. 4. In livers of starved rats the rate of gluconeogenesis from lactate was decreased by halothane to 30% of the control rate. 5. Halothane inhibited ...
J. J. Franks, J. B. Kruskal, R. E. Kirsch, A. P. G. Beechey, D. F. Morrell, G. G. Harrison; Halothane Decreases Albumin and Transferrin Synthesis: Studies in the Isolated, Perfused Rat Liver and in the Intact Rat. Anesthesiology 1988;68(4):529-533. Download citation file:. ...
Halothane and other halogenated inhalational anesthetic agents, such as enflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane, are known to cause severe liver dysfunction. The National Halothane Study, a retrospective analysis, reviewed the incidence and mortality rates of postoperative hepatic necrosis from 1959-1962.
Fig. 6. Halothane increases [Ca2+]iand hyperpolarizes motoneuron RP2. (A ) Halothane treatment increases [Ca2+]iin larval motoneuron RP2. Changes in [Ca2+]iin RP2 cell bodies are visualized using the genetically encoded Ca2+indicator UAS-GCaMP3 driven by ShakB-GAL4 . As shown in this false color image of four cells in two abdominal segments, [Ca2+]iincreases with the addition of halothane (2.5 mM). Scale bar = 10 &mgr;m. (B ) Representative traces of calcium transients observed in the somata of RP2 neurons with halothane treatment. The entire soma was defined as the region of interest, and fluorescence intensity was converted into a percentage change (&dgr;F/F) as described earlier under Experimental Procedures. (B1 ) All cells produced an immediate response, with a sharp rise that occurred within a short period of halothane entering the chamber. [Ca2+]ibegan to decay before halothane was removed. (B2 ) At higher ...
We have previously examined the substitution profiles of representative inhalants in animals trained to discriminate TCE from air (Shelton, 2009). My laboratory and others have also assessed cross-substitution of TCE in animals trained to discriminate other drugs from vehicle (Bowen et al., 1999; Shelton and Balster, 2004). The present results expand on these published findings by examining the substitution of the vapor anesthetic halothane and representative members of several pharmacological classes for TCE. The halogenated hydrocarbon vapor anesthetic halothane has been demonstrated to affect a number of ion channel receptors in a manner similar to that reported for TCE (Beckstead et al., 2000; Cruz et al., 2000). Halothane enhances both GABAA and glycine receptors and negatively modulating NMDA receptors in vitro (Perouansky et al., 1998; Westphalen and Hemmings, 2006). Halothane also suppresses nicotine-evoked dopamine release from rat striatal synaptosomes (Salord et al., 1997). In the ...
The extracellular patch-clamp technique was used to examine how halothane, a general anesthetic, affects the properties of single nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channels of embryonic Xenopus skeletal muscle cells grown in culture. Under control conditions, single-channel events showed a bimodal distribution on the basis of current amplitudes. This distribution was maintained during exposure to halothane and its washout. In addition, the mean current value of the low-and high-amplitude channels was unaffected by the presence of the anesthetic at clinically relevant concentrations. In contrast, halothane shortened the burst durations of both channel types in a concentration-dependent manner. This shortening of burst durations may be an expression of the more rapid relaxation of the channel protein to the nonconducting state, possibly due to the disordering effect of the anesthetic on membrane lipids in which the receptor protein is embedded. This functional change, in the behavior of the ...
Previous work showed widespread saturable binding of halothane in rat brain. To determine whether this represents selective binding to a few widespread proteins or less selective binding to many different proteins, we used [14C]halothane photolabeling and quantitative electrophoresis/autoradiography in rat cerebellar homogenates. Many proteins incorporate label. Stoichiometry values ranged from 0 to 4 at 0.2 mM [14C]halothane in a group of 24 randomly selected protein bands. Apparent IC50 values from unlabeled halothane competition experiments ranged from 0.2 to 2.0 mM, with soluble protein having significantly lower values (higher affinity) than membrane protein. Chloroform inhibited halothane labeling similar to unlabeled halothane but with higher apparent IC50 values, whereas isoflurane and an anesthetic, cyclobutane (1-chloro-1,2,2-trifluorocyclobutane), inhibited halothane labeling to a smaller degree. A nonanesthetic, cyclobutane (1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane), inhibited halothane ...
The chronic toxicity of a combination of nitrous-oxide (10024972) (N2O) and halothane (151677) was investigated in rats. Male and female Fischer-344 rats were exposed to N2O and halothane mixtures in inhalation chambers, 7 hours/day, 5 days/week for 104 weeks. Group 1 was control group exposed only to room air, group 2 was exposed to 50 parts per million (ppm) N2O and 1ppm halothane, and group 3 w
TY - JOUR. T1 - Computational Studies on the Interactions of Inhalational Anesthetics with Proteins. AU - Vemparala, Satyavani. AU - Domene Nunez, Carmen. AU - Klein, Michael L.. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - Despite the widespread clinical use of anesthetics since the 19th century, a clear understanding of the mechanism of anesthetic action has yet to emerge. On the basis of early experiments by Meyer, Overton, and subsequent researchers, the cells lipid membrane was generally concluded to be the primary site of action of anesthetics. However, later experiments with lipid-free globular proteins, such as luciferase and apoferritin, shifted the focus of anesthetic action to proteins. Recent experimental studies, such as photoaffinity labeling and mutagenesis on membrane proteins, have suggested specific binding sites for anesthetic molecules, further strengthening the proteocentric view of anesthetic mechanism. With the increased availability of high-resolution crystal structures of ion ...
The Brand Name HYPNOTHANE Has Generic Salt :: Halothane HYPNOTHANE Is From Company Neon Priced :: Rs. 380/256.00 HYPNOTHANE have Halothane is comes under Sub class General Anesthetics of Main Class Anesthetics Main Medicine Class:: Anesthetics Sub Medicine Class ...
Anaerobic metabolism of halothane (151677) was studied in vesicles composed of cytochrome-P-450, NADPH cytochrome-P-450-reductase, and cytochrome-b5 reconstituted in a mixture of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine and egg phosphatidylethanolamine. It was anticipated that free radicals of carbene metabolites formed from halothane would add to the single 9,10 double bond of the identical oleic-acid chains
Fluothane (Halothane) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications including drug comparison and health resources.
The accuracy and stability of caffeine and halothane concentrations in liquid Krebs medium were examined. Caffeine-Krebs Ringers solution in incremental concentrations from 0.25 to 10 mM (N = 8 for each concentration) was serially assayed over a thr
DYNAMIC RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING AND DETERMINATION OF MDA IN THE OBSERVATION OF THE EFFECTS OF HALOTHANE AND ISOFLURANE - AN EXPERIMENTAL-STUDY ...
Johns notes that there has been a great deal of concern in recent years that anesthesia in infants and newborns may cause neurotoxicity leading to long-term cognitive problems and impaired learning. The data in rodents, primates and humans all point in this direction, and the Food and Drug Administration has just elevated its level of concern about this issue, he says. His research team is currently studying whether anesthetic interactions with PSD95 and other scaffolding proteins play a role. We hypothesized that because PSD95 is also involved in neuronal synapse formation - or making the proper connections between neurons as the brain is forming - during fetal and infant brain development, the ability of anesthetics to block the action of PSD scaffolding proteins, as shown in our new study, could also be preventing correct neuronal synapse development, leading to the long-term learning and memory deficits observed ...
Revision date indicates the date the MSDS or SDS was last revised. MSDS / SDS are dated when they are originally issued AND when any significant change has been made to the chemical compound or research has revealed a health or physical hazard different from what was originally stated. Additional information regarding MSDS / SDS is available at https://www.osha.gov ...
消耗:16 點秘能. 射出一道冰凍光束,對第一個命中的敵人和其周圍 5 碼內的敵人造成 430% 武器傷害值的冰寒傷害,並使其移動速度降低 60%,持續 3 秒。. 冰霜射線每秒會提高相當於 405% 的武器傷害,最多可提高至 1240% 武器傷害值的冰寒傷害。. 次要技能. 於2級解鎖. ...
Piramal Critical Care (PCC), dio Piramal Enterprises grupe, jedna je od vodećih tvrtki na globalnom tržištu inhalacijskih anestetika.. PCC je prisutan diljem SAD-a, Europe i u više od 100 zemalja širom svijeta. Piramalov bogat portfelj proizvoda uključuje inhalacijske anestetike kao što su Sevoflurane, Isoflurane i Halothane.. ...
Affiliation:岩手医科大学,歯学部,准教授, Research Field:病態科学系歯学(含放射線系歯学),外科・放射線系歯学,Surgical dentistry, Keywords:fura-2,SHR,contraction,血管収縮,細胞内カルシウムイオン,Halothane,propranorol,細胞内Ca^|2+|,epinephrine,ヒスタミン, # of Research Projects:5, # of Research Products:0
There are 10 ten-letter words containing 2A, 2H and O: ASTROHATCH HALOTHANES HAPHTAROTH ... PARASHIOTH TACHOGRAPH THROATLASH. Every word on this site can be played in scrabble. See other lists, that start with or end with letters of your choice.
KRUGER, K y STEGMANN, G F. Partial intravenous anaesthesia in 5 horses using ketamine, lidocaine, medetomidine and halothane. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. [online]. 2009, vol.80, n.4, pp.233-236. ISSN 2224-9435.. A partial intravenous protocol was used successfully to maintain anaesthesia in 5 healthy horses. Horses were premedicated with acepromazine, romifidine and butorphanol, induced with guaifenesin and ketamine and maintained on a constant rate infusion of lidocaine, ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane inhalation anaesthesia. Mean end-tidal halothane concentration to maintain a surgical plane of anaesthesia was 0.8 ± 0.2 %. Mean dobutamine requirement to maintain mean arterial pressure above 9.31 kPa was 0.42 ± 0.3 µg/kg/min The administration of relatively low doses of lidocaine, ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane resulted in haemodynamically stable anaesthesia, followed by smooth recovery.. Palabras clave : anaesthesia; halothane; horse; ketamine; lidocaine; ...
The target of the present study is to estimate the in vitro genotoxic potential of the volatile-anaesthetic halothane (Narcotan7) as well as the protective effect of vitamin A, as an antioxidant. To achieve this task, the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was applied as the extent of DNA fragmentation in rabbit lymphocytes that were exposed in vitro to halothane at concentrations of 0.1 or 1.0 mM for 10 and 30 min, respectively. The obtained results elucidated that anaesthetic halothane induced a significant increase in DNA damage that shown by comet DNA concentration and its tail length. The recorded elevation of DNA damage was clearly correlated with halothane concentration as well as the period of exposure. To mend the deleterious effect of halothane on DNA, 25 rabbits were orally received vitamin A (8000 IU kg-1 body weight) for 15 days prior to in vitro halothane exposure. Vitamin A administration induced a significant repairing effect in lymphocytes-damaged DNA due to ...
Symptoms of Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility type 2 including 7 medical symptoms and signs of Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility type 2, alternative diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and correct diagnosis for Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility type 2 signs or Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility type 2 symptoms.
Table 1. Caffeine Halothane Contracture Test Data and Clinical Profile of Susceptible Individuals with Malignant Hyperthermia in the Study. Values indicate mean tension (g) of three strips. Diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia was made using three muscle strips for halothane and three for caffeine contracture.. *This patient is III-3 shown in figure 3A.. CHCT = caffeine halothane contracture test; CE = patient had either suspected or confirmed clinical episode; FH = patient had a family history of either suspected or confirmed clinical episode; Not detected = not detected after screening 21 known mutations. ...
Human serum albumin (HSA) is one of the most abundant proteins in the circulatory system and plays a key role in the transport of fatty acids, metabolites, and drugs. For many drugs, binding to serum albumin is a critical determinant of their distribution and pharmacokinetics; however, there have as yet been no high resolution crystal structures published of drug-albumin complexes. Here we describe high resolution crystal structures of HSA with two of the most widely used general anesthetics, propofol and halothane. In addition, we describe a crystal structure of HSA complexed with both halothane and the fatty acid, myristate. We show that the intravenous anesthetic propofol binds at two discrete sites on HSA in preformed pockets that have been shown to accommodate fatty acids. Similarly we show that the inhalational agent halothane binds (at concentrations in the pharmacologically relevant range) at three sites that are also fatty acid binding loci. At much higher halothane concentrations, we ...
The effect of anesthetics on the membrane potential of spinal alpha-motoneurons was studied in awake-intact cats that were sequentially anesthetized with either halothane or pentobarbital. Pentobarbital (35 mg/kg) and halothane (5%) both induced a 5 mV hyperpolarization and a reduction in spontaneous synaptic activity of motoneurons. We suggest that a reduction in the urinary EPSP frequencies contributes to the hyperpolarization and the membrane potential criterion of acceptable impalements of motoneurons in awake-intact preparations should be 5 mV more depolarized than that in anesthetized preparations.
We have found that anesthetic technique modifies the neurological and pathological sequelae of unilateral middle cerebral artery and internal carotid artery occlusion in dogs. Occlusion was performed in seven groups of six dogs during each of the following anesthetic regimens: light (0.8%) halothane, awake, deep (1.9%) halothane, deep halothane with mean arterial pressure reduced to 55 torr, pentobarbital (56 mg per kilogram), light halothane plus 40 mg per kilogram thiopental begun just before cerebral artery occlusion, and light halothane plus 40 mg per kilogram thiopental begun 15 minutes after occlusion. Body temperature, arterial Pcoco2 Poo2 pH, and blood pressure (except as noted above) were maintained normal. Neurological examinations were performed daily. On the seventh day the dogs were killed and their brains removed for pathological study. Hemiparesis occurred in five of six dogs under light halothane and five of six awake dogs; a mean of 10.8% and 9.6%, respectively, of their right ...
Halothane Halocarbon is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Halothane Halocarbon is available on the Drugs.com website.
Relief is when you and the right researcher find each other Finding the right clinical trial for Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility type 3 can be challenging. However, with TrialsFinder (which uses the Reg4ALL database and privacy controls by Private Access), you can permit researchers to let you know opportunities to consider - all without revealing your identity. ...
Relief is when you and the right researcher find each other Finding the right clinical trial for Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility type 1 can be challenging. However, with TrialsFinder (which uses the Reg4ALL database and privacy controls by Private Access), you can permit researchers to let you know opportunities to consider - all without revealing your identity. ...
Inhalational anesthetics are used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia as well as sedation. The exact mechanisms by which they act are still unknown. The most common inhalational...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Hormonal and hemodynamic responses to halothane and enflurane in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Dupaco Veterinary Anesthesia Machine with Empty Fluotech Mk3 Halothane Canister Item Details: Brand: Dupaco Model: Unknown Oxygen/Nitrous Oxide Flow Meter Filter Canister Anesthesia Absorbing Canister Condition: Item is used, in fair condition Device has not been tested Shows signs of use/age such as scuffs, scratches,
The purpose of this study is to conduct experiments to examine subjective and reinforcing effects of nitrous oxide. Mood altering and psychomotor effects will be tested on non-drug abusers and preference procedures will be used to assess reinforcing effects. To examine effects of subanesthetic concentrations of nitrous oxide on cold-pressor pain in humans ...
Recovery time. The median ± SD of recovery time recorded in groups H1 and H2 were 5 ± 1.86 min and 9.5 ± 7.00 min, respectively. Group H1 recovered earlier than group H2, The recovery times did, however, not differ significantly (P , 0.05) (Fig. 1).. Sternal recumbency time. The median ± SD of sternal recumbency time recorded in groups H1 and H2 were 16 ± 6.83 min and 46.5 ± 23.86 min, respectively. Group H2 took significantly (P , 0.05) longer to resume sternal recumbency than group H1 (Fig. 1).. Standing time. The median ± SD of standing time recorded in groups H1 and H2 were 18.50 ± 9.43 min and 70 ± 39.82 min, respectively. Standing time in group H2 was significantly (P , 0.05) longer than in group H1 (Fig. 1 ).. Heart rate (HR). Medetomidine and butorphanol combination produced significant (P , 0.01) bradycardia immediately after premedication in group H1, which persisted up to 40 min. After 50 min HR improved slightly but remained significantly (P , 0.05) decreased until the end ...
We modified a wireless system to measure hippocampal neural activity in pigs, and tested a handmade microdrive for adjusting the tip of the electrode. Under general anesthesia with halothane inhalation we stereotaxically placed tungsten electrodes (5 MΩ) fitted with handmade microdrives in the temporal hippocampus of male Landrace piglets, and fixed a high-input-resistance transmitter (10 MΩ; 1000-fold amplification) to the skull. Oscillation and saturation were evident in the recording system for several days after surgery. When these phenomena ceased, we successfully recorded the hippocampal electrical activity in four of eight piglets. At 5 or 6 days following surgery, hippocampal electrical activity ‹0.15 mV in amplitude was observed in resting piglets during the daytime. In this recording, delta (1.0-3.9 Hz) and theta (4.0-7.9 Hz) waves with large amplitude were frequently predominant. However, these activities often alternated with high-frequency and low-amplitude activity, even while ...
halothane. The inspired concentration must be estimated clinically because the halothane expired 8 months ago and the clinical effect is unpredictable. The EMO [Epstein-Macintosh-Oxford] vaporiser and a bottle of ether are on stand-by behind the anaesthetic machine, as we are down to our last bottle of halothane…. The modern anaesthesia monitor, looking out of place in these surroundings, was purchased, along with eight others, by the European project. The screen has a psychedelic tinge to it and I suspect it is on its last legs. The capnograph trace is flat, as the last remaining moisture trap has been borrowed for use in ICU, where it will be circulated around the four beds. The ECG trace is true, but periodically interrupted as the long out-of-date electrodes require a small drop of ...
R. C. Levitt, N. Nouri, A. E. Jedlicka, V. A. McKusick, A. R. Marks, J. G. Shutack, J. E. Fletcher, H. Rosenberg, D. A. Meyers ...
This review summarizes the latest evidence on the genetics of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility, guidelines for genetic diagnosis, and the limitations of current genetic screening.
Dexa Medica is one of Indonesias largest ethical pharmaceutical companies and has become a prominent, well-respected player in the domestic pharmaceutical market.
All experiments were performed in accordance with the guidelines established by the Canadian Council on Animal Care and were approved by the University of Calgary Animal Care Committee. Attention was paid to use only the number of animals necessary to produce reliable results.. Slice preparation. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (150-250 gm) were decapitated under halothane anesthesia, the brain was removed, and coronal slices 300-400 μm thick containing the SON were generated at 0-2°C in a low-Ca2+, low-Na+-containing buffer solution of composition (in mm): 87 NaCl, 2.5 KCl, 1.25 NaH2PO4, 7 MgCl2, 0.5 CaCl2, 25 NaHCO3, 25 glucose, and 20 sucrose. Slices were then incubated at room temperature (22°C) for at least 1 hr in artificial CSF (ACSF) of the following composition (in mm): 126 NaCl, 2.5 KCl, 1.2 NaH2PO4, 1.2 MgCl2, 2.4 CaCl2, 18 NaHCO3, and 11 glucose. Both solutions were bubbled continuously with a mixture of 95% O2, 5% CO2.. Electrophysiological recording. A hemisected slice was ...
Complete information for MHS4 gene (Genetic Locus), Malignant Hyperthermia Susceptibility 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The main target of the committee in fulfilling its institutionalize was to define a draft for accomplish that includes recommendations for changes in public and organization policies at the national, state, and topical anesthetic levels. This terminal chapter presents the results of that effort. The committees recommendations are focussed on maximizing the total potentiality and critical persona of nurses in designing and implementing a More effectual and efficient health aid system, as visualised by the commission in Chapter 1. The changes recommended by the citizens committee are intended to bring forward the nursing community in slipway that testament see to it that nurses are enlightened and disposed to encounter the stream and later demands of the wellness fear organisation and those it serves. Health tutelage work force effectuality research-Researchers should educate information and bear out search to judge the impact of recently models of forethought saving on the health deal work force ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cerebral blood flow in a rat glioma model during halothane anesthesia. AU - Hansen, T. D.. AU - Warner, D. S.. AU - Traynelis, V. C.. AU - Roach, R. M.. AU - Todd, M. M.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - Little is known about the influence of infiltrating gliomas on the responsivity of the cerebral circulation to anesthetic agents. Therefore we designed a study to address this issue. Male Fischer 344 rats were assigned to two tumor groups and one sham group. In the two tumor groups, glioma cells were stereotactically injected into the right striatum; animals in the sham group were injected with sterile culture medium only. Either 12 or 16 days after injection, the rats were anesthetized with 1 MAC halothane in 40% O2/balance N2. Local and remote regional cerebral blood flow was then determined using 14C-iodoantipyrine autoradiography. Physiologic values (PaCO2, PaO2, pHa, mean arterial pressure, and rectal temperature) ...
Does Noonan Syndrome Increase Malignant Hyperthermia Susceptibility : Topic Does Noonan Syndrome Increase Malignant Hyperthermia Susceptibility Robert Shaw (medical student), Ari Weintraub, MD, Ronald Litman, DO
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of inhaled anesthetics on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of morphine. AU - Steffey, Eugene. AU - Eisele, J. H.. AU - Baggot, J. D.. AU - Woliner, M. J.. AU - Jarvis, K. A.. AU - Elliott, A. R.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - We determined the magnitude and duration of the effect of morphine (1.0 mg/kg intravenous bolus) on isoflurane and halothane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) in six dogs anesthetized on two occasions in cross-over fashion. Plasma morphine concentration-time profiles and changes in PaCO2 were determined after morphine injection. After morphine injection, the end- tidal anesthetic dose was manipulated over the course of a 4-h observation period to account for the decline in plasma morphine concentration and to maintain an anesthetic level equivalent to 1.0 MAC isoflurane or halothane alone. Morphine decreased the MAC of halothane and isoflurane. The magnitude of MAC decrease was related to time after morphine injection and was ...
Rivenes SM, Lewin MB, Stayer SA, Bent ST, Schoenig HM, McKenzie ED, et al. Cardiovascular effects of sevoflurane, isoflurane, halothane, and fentanyl-midazolam in children with congenital heart disease: an echocardiographic study of myocardial contractility and hemodynamics. Anesthesiology. 2001; 94(2):223-9. Pagel PS. Cardioprotection by volatile anesthetics: Established scientific principle or lingering clinical uncertainty? J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2009; 23(5):589-93. Regueiro-Purriños M, Fernández-Vázquez F, de Prado AP, Altónaga JR, Cuellas-Ramón C, Ajenjo-Silverio JM, et al. Ventricular arrhythmias and mortality associated with isoflurane and sevoflurane in a porcine model of myocardial infarction. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2011; 50(1):73-8. Eger EI. Isoflurane (Forane): a compendium and reference: Anaquest; 1985. Hornbein TF, Eger EI, Winter PM, Smith G, Wetstone D, Smith KH. The minimum alveolar concentration of nitrous oxide in man. Anesth Analg. 1982; 61(7):553-6. Cahalan MK, ...
Examination of volatile anesthetic actions at single synapses provides more direct information by reducing interference by surrounding tissue and extrasynaptic modulation. We examined how volatile anesthetics modulate GABA release by measuring spontaneous or miniature GABA-induced inhibitory postsyn …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxygen concentrations required for reductive defluorination of halothane by rat hepatic microsomes. AU - Lind, R. C.. AU - Gandolfi, A. J.. AU - Sipes, I. G.. AU - Brown, B. R.. AU - Waters, S. J.. PY - 1986/10/22. Y1 - 1986/10/22. N2 - The free oxygen concentrations required for reductive defluorination of halothane by rat hepatic microsomes from control and phenobarbital- (PB) and polychlorinated biphenyl- (PCB) treated animals were determined. Halothane-exposed microsomes from treated rats generated measurable levels of fluoride ion after 30 min incubations with oxygen concentrations of 5% or less. Microsomes from control animals produced fluoride only if the free oxygen concentration was 2% or less. During anoxic (0% oxygen) incubations, defluorination rates of 2.10 ± 0.17, 5.55 ± 0.38, and 5.46 ± 0.30 nmol fluoride·mg protein-1·30 min-1 were observed for microsomes from control, PB, and PCB rats, respectively. Normalizing the maximal rates of defluorination to the ...
Other names: Ethane, 2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoro-; Anestan; Fluktan; Fluorotane; Fluorothane; Fluothane; Ftorotan; Ftuorotan; Halan; Halotan; Halotano; Halothan; Halsan; Narcotan; Narcotane; Narkotan; CF3CHClBr; 1,1,1-Trifluoro-2-bromo-2-chloroethane; 2-Bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane; 1,1,1-Trifluoro-2-chloro-2-bromoethane; FREON 123B1; 1-Bromo-1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane; Bromochlorotrifluoroethane; 2,2,2-Trifluoro-1-chloro-1-bromoethane; Chalothane; Ethane, 1-bromo-1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoro-; Narcotann ne-spofa; Rhodialothan; (.+/-.))-Halothane; Alotano; NSC 143490 ...
Hello, and thank you very much for your comments at the DYK nomination page. All of the currently used volatile anesthetic agents, including methoxyflurane, are fluorinated haloalkanes. With the exception of halothane, all of them are also halogenated ethers. All of them, including halothane, were first synthesized as a direct result of research that was conducted in support of the Manhattan Project. The first of these to appear in clinical use was halothane, in 1956.. The field of halogen and organofluorine chemistry was poorly understood until around 1942, when the chemists, chemical engineers and physicists of the Manhattan Project turned their attention to the problem of separating uranium-235 from uranium-238. These two isotopes are nearly identical in all respects, including their molecular weights. The problem was ultimately solved by Francis Simon and Nicholas Kurti, when they figured out that the two isotopes could be separated by gaseous diffusion.. First however the uranium had to be ...
This video shows a live Muslce Biopsy and Caffeine Halothane Contracture test (CHCT) performed at CepEsperu Baptist Medical Center in , NC.
Suppression of natural killer cell activity and promotion of tumor metastasis by ketamine, thiopental, and halothane, but not by propofol: mediating mechanisms and prophylactic measures.
R Dwyer, H L Bennett, E I Eger, D Heilbron; Effects of Isoflurane and Nitrous Oxide in Subanesthetic Concentrations on Memory and Responsiveness in Volunteers. Anesthesiology 1992; 77:888-898 doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/00000542-199211000-00009. Download citation file:. ...
malignant hyperthermia: hereditary condition in which certain anesthetics (e.g., halothane) cause high body temperatures and muscle rigidity
Volatile anesthetics protect myocardium against reversible and irreversible ischemic injury. Experimental evidence from several in vitro and in vivo animal models demonstrates that volatile agents enhance the recovery of stunned myocardium and reduce the size of myocardial infarction after brief or prolonged coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion, respectively. This protective effect persists after the anesthetic has been discontinued, a phenomenon known as anesthetic-induced preconditioning (APC). Recent clinical data also demonstrates evidence of APC in patients during cardiac surgery. Thus, administration of volatile anesthetics may represent a novel therapeutic approach that reduces morbidity and mortality associated with perioperative myocardial ischemia and infarction. The mechanisms responsible for APC appear to be similar to those implicated in ischemic preconditioning, but nonetheless have subtle differences. Accumulating evidence indicates that APC is characterized by complex signal
Causes of hyperpyrexia - What is malignant hyperpyrexia? Anesthesia related. Malignant hyperpyrexia is another term for malignant hyperthermia. This disorder is caused mainly by gas anesthetics and depolarizing paralytics (eg succinylcholine) in patients with a genetic mutation (runs in families). When these patients are exposed, they may experience a sudden increase in cellular metabolism, potentially resulting in death if not caught early and treated aggressively.
Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a hypermetabolic disorder of skeletal muscle that is triggered in susceptible individuals by several inhalation anesthetic ag
Basic surgery and placement of electrodes. Male Wistar rats (n = 18; ∼200 gm) were initially anesthetized in a chamber (3% halothane in O2 and N2O) after which the trachea was intubated. Thereafter, the rats were artificially respirated with a mixture of 0.9% halothane in O2 and N2O and mounted in a stereotaxic frame. The skull was exposed, and burr holes were made according to the coordinates of the atlas of Pellegrino et al. (1981). All electrodes were zeroed on the interaural line, midline, and cortical surface. Stimulation electrodes (Trimel-coated stainless steel, 60 μm) were placed in the BLA [anterior (A), 5.0 mm; lateral (L), 5.0 mm; ventral (V), 7.5 mm) and the Fo/Fi (A, 5.5 mm; L, 1.5 mm; V, 3.5 mm). Single unit activity and field potentials, evoked by Fo/Fi and/or BLA stimulation, were recorded in the Nacb (A, 8.5-9.5 mm; L, 1.0-2.5 mm; V, 5.5-8.0 mm), using glass microelectrodes (10-30 MΩ, filled with 2% pontamine sky blue in acetate buffer, 2 m, pH 8.2). In every experiment, ...
Surgery and Induction of SE. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with a stimulating/recording electrode into the right ventral hippocampus [coordinates: 4.8 mm caudal and 5.2 mm lateral to bregma, 6.3 mm ventral to dura, and toothbar at -3.3 mm (21)] under pentobarbital or halothane anesthesia. In 37 animals, a brain infusion cannula (Alzet, Palo Alto, CA) was also placed intracortically on the right side of the brain (2 mm caudal and 1.2 mm lateral to bregma and 2.6 mm ventral to dura). Twenty-five rats were implanted only with the infusion cannula. Ten days after surgery, all rats with implanted electrodes, except nonstimulated controls, were subjected to electrically induced SE with 60-90 min of suprathreshold stimulation followed by 2 h of self-sustained continuous ictal electroencephalographic (EEG) activity (22). Seizures were interrupted with i.p. injections of pentobarbital. Forty SE animals were subjected only to SE and perfused 2, 6-8 (pooled), or 35 days later.. BrdUrd Labeling. ...
Vlutations in either type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) or the dihydropyridine receptor subunit Cav1.1 cause malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) in humans...
Khan, OA, Taylor, SRJ, Swart, M and Jones, JG (1997) The effects of low dose isoflurane on inhibition of saccadic generation In: Anaesthetics Research Society Annual Meeting, 1997-04 - ?. Full text not available from this repository ...
Dong Y, Zhang G, Zhang B, Moir RD, Xia W, Marcantonio ER, Culley DJ, Crosby G, Tanzi RE, Xie Z. The common inhalational anesthetic sevoflurane induces apoptosis and increases beta-amyloid protein levels. Arch Neurol. 2009 May; 66(5):620-31 ...
Anästhesie, Atmung, Fluothane, Halothan, Inhalation, intratracheale, Intubation, künstliche, Lachgas, neuromuskuläre Sperrwirkstoffe, postoperative Pflege, präanästhetische Medikation, Prämedikation, anesthesia, artificial, halothane, inhalation, intratracheal, intubation, neuromuscular blocking agents, postoperative care, preanestetic medication, ...
Cardiopulmonary effects of halothane in emus and ostrichesRobert K. Baker, DVM; Althea L. Martin, DVM, DACVA; Jennifer M. Tessier, PhDFrom the Departments of
Isoflurane 100% Piramal is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Isoflurane 100% Piramal is available on the Drugs.com website.
Associated Conditions: MH Susceptibility and Associated Conditions MH itself is not usually associated with other serious medical problems, such as hypertension, diabetes or similar diseases. MH
Abstract:. Up until now, poor menstrual hygiene in developing countries has been an insufficiently acknowledged problem. Approximately 50% of the worlds population knows from their own experience how important good menstrual hygiene is to be able to function optimally during the menstruation period. This study seeks to determine the status of menstrual hygiene among adolescent tribal girls of Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 602 younger women belonging to Savara and Jatapu tribal communities through random sampling method. Demographic and menstrual history and hygiene questionnaires were used for obtaining required information. Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows version 11.0 was used. Majority of the tribal women are getting the menstrual periods regularly, but some of them are experiencing irregular periods. The present study populations are not aware about commercially available sanitary napkins and are using mostly ...
The oxidation of these molecules by CYP2E1 can produce harmful substances such as trifluoroacetic acid chloride from halothane ... Ray DC, Drummond GB (Jul 1991). "Halothane hepatitis". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 67 (1): 84-99. doi:10.1093/bja/67.1.84. ... In doing so, CYP2E1 bioactivates a variety of common anesthetics, including acetaminophen, halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane ...
Jaundice after halothane. British Medical Journal, 1:220-221, 27 April 1974 Inman WHW. Monitoring for Drug Safety. J B ... halothane and jaundice, and phenylbutazone and blood dyscrasias. In total Inman published around 100 papers on drug monitoring ...
Kimless-Garber, D.B.; Wolfson, M.R.; Carlsson, C.; Shaffer, T.H. (May 1997). "Halothane administration during liquid ...
... s consisting of two constituents are called binary azeotropes such as diethyl ether (33%) / halothane (66%) a mixture ... Dr G. A. Busato; Professor G. Bashein (2004). "The halothane/ether azeotrope - A reconsideration". Update in Anaesthesia. 18. ...
At ~1 MAC halothane, genomic, proteomic, optogenetic and clinical studies point to tubulin/microtubules as the functional site ... Part II: Halothane Effects on Structure and Dynamics". Biophys. J. 94 (11): 4464-72. Bibcode:2008BpJ....94.4464C. doi:10.1529/ ... Hemmings HC Jr; Adamo AI (1994). "Effects of halothane and propofol on purified brain protein kinase C activation". ... Pan, Jonathan Z.; Xi, Jin; Tobias, John W.; Eckenhoff, Maryellen F.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G. (February 2007). "Halothane Binding ...
Under halothane anaesthesia, pigs will suddenly become rigid and pyrexic. The halothane challenge was the historical method of ... It is characterised by hyperthermia triggered by stress, anaesthesia with halothane or intense exercise. PSS may appear as ...
TFA is a metabolic breakdown product of the volatile anaesthetic agent halothane. It is thought to be responsible for halothane ...
Pig farmers use halothane cones in swine yards to expose piglets to halothane. Those that die were MH-susceptible, thus saving ... Intramuscular injection of halothane 6 vol% has been shown to result in higher than normal increases in local pCO 2 among ... Caffeine, halothane, and other triggering agents act by drastically increasing the affinity of the A-site for Ca2+ and ... The standard procedure is the "caffeine-halothane contracture test", CHCT. A muscle biopsy is carried out at an approved ...
This channel has also been found to be involved in the action of anaesthetics such as chloroform, halothane and propofol. TRPC5 ... "Modulation of TRPC5 cation channels by halothane, chloroform and propofol". Br. J. Pharmacol. 153 (7): 1505-12. doi:10.1038/sj. ...
Halothane gas was the most common anaesthetic for many years. There had been deaths with halothane and liver damage, and was ... Work was carried out at Widnes Laboratory from 1951 to 1956 which led to the discovery of halothane in 1955. ...
In particular, the Halothane gene, HAL, induces PSS in swine. It is a single point mutation in this gene that causes abnormal ... The first gene discovered was named the Halothane gene, Hal, because researchers noticed that pigs with this specific genotype ... developed PSE meat after being anesthetized with the halothane drug. However, the Hal gene is only responsible for about 25-35 ...
The introduction of halothane into clinical practice: the Oxford experience. Anaesth. Intensive Care. 2006 Jun;34 Suppl 1:27-32 ... Suckling first investigated halothane's anaesthetic action by experimenting on mealworms and houseflies, and then forwarded it ... Charles Walter Suckling CBE FRS (24 July 1920 - 31 October 2013) was a British chemist who first synthesised halothane, a ...
Older, less popular, volatile anaesthetics, include halothane, enflurane, and methoxyflurane. Researchers are also actively ...
In 1956 halothane was introduced which had the significant advantage of not being flammable. This reduced the risk of operating ... Halothane remains in common place throughout much of the developing world. Many new intravenous and inhalational anesthetics ... In the sixties the halogenated ethers superseded Halothane due to the rare, but significant side effects of cardiac arrhythmias ...
These findings compared favorably with those reported for cyclopropane (42%), trichloroethylene (28%), and halothane (4.6%). In ... Compared with halothane, methoxyflurane produces dose-dependent abnormalities in kidney function. The authors showed that ...
Lanier WL, Milde JH, Michenfelder JD (Dec 1985). "The cerebral effects of pancuronium and atracurium in halothane-anesthetized ... increases the minimum alveolar concentration of halothane in rabbits". Anesthesiology. 63 (6): 584-589. doi:10.1097/00000542- ...
It is an anesthetic with effects related to isoflurane and halothane. W. N. McFarland & G. W. Klontz (1969). "Anesthesia in ...
There were rare reports involving adults with symptoms similar to halothane hepatotoxicity. Sevoflurane is the preferred agent ... Together with desflurane, sevoflurane is replacing isoflurane and halothane in modern anesthesia practice. It is often ...
Merkel, Giles; Eger, Edmond I. (1963-05-01). "A Comparative Study of Halothane and Halopropane AnesthesiaIncluding Method for ... 1.17 Halothane - 0.75 Chloroform - 0.5 Methoxyflurane - 0.16 "Policy: Ban on Use of Ether". Laboratory Animal Science Center. ...
The compound can also be produced if halothane is oxidized using CYP2E1. This is also done with CYP2A6 instead of CPY2E1, but ...
The majority of inhaled anesthetics are heavily fluorinated; the prototype halothane is much more inert and potent than its ... Later compounds such as the fluorinated ethers sevoflurane and desflurane are better than halothane and are almost insoluble in ...
Halothane, the world's first synthetic inhalation general anaesthetic gas, was discovered in 1951 at ICI's Widnes Laboratory by ... for metered-dose inhalers and the anaesthetic halothane. There is Ineos Chlor and Ineos Vinyls. BNFL and its subsidiary ...
"Influence of morphine sulfate on the halothane sparing effect of xylazine hydrochloride in horses". American Journal of ... "The pharmacokinetics of ketamine after a continuous infusion under halothane anaesthesia in horses". Journal of Veterinary ... the half-life of xylazine is approximately 66 minutes and the clearance is around 31 mL/kg/min when patients are halothane- ...
... in children during halothane anaesthesia". Br J Anaesth. 74 (1): 6-11. doi:10.1093/bja/74.1.6. PMID 7880708. Stenlake JB, Waigh ...
When used with halothane d-tubocurarine can cause a profound fall in blood pressure in some patients as both the drugs are ... Mashraqui, S. (October 1994). "Hypotension induced with d-tubocurarine and halothane for surgery of patent ductus arteriosus". ...
The anesthetic Halothane (CF3CHBrCl) is 2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane. Alcohols (R-OH) take the suffix "-ol" with an ...
Bergadano, A; Lauber, R; Zbinden, A; Schatzmann, U; Moens, Y (Aug 2003). "Blood/gas partition coefficients of halothane, ...
Li X, Pearce RA; Pearce (2000). "Effects of halothane on GABA(A) receptor kinetics: evidence for slowed agonist unbinding". The ...
Halothane, an agent introduced in the 1950s, has been almost completely replaced in modern anesthesia practice by newer agents ... Desflurane Enflurane Halothane Isoflurane Methoxyflurane Nitrous oxide Sevoflurane Xenon (rarely used) Volatile agents are ... A comparison of psychologic responses to ketamine and thiopental-nitrous oxide-halothane anesthesia". Anesthesiology. 36 (4): ...
Jaundice after Halothane. Br Med J 1974; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5906.526 (Published 16 March 1974) Cite this as: ...
Bottomley, G.A.; Seiflow, G.H.P., Vapour pressure and vapour density of halothane (2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane), J. ... Bottomley, G.A.; Seiflow, G.H.F., Vapour Pressure and Vapour Density of Halothane (2-Bromo-2-Chloro-1,1,1-Trifluoroethane), J. ... Francesconi, R.; Comelli, F.; Giacomo, D., Excess Enthalpy for the Binary System 1,3-Dioxolane + Halothane, J. Chem. Eng. Data ...
Halothane is a chiral molecule that is used as a racemic mixture. Halothane was discovered in 1955. It is on the World Health ... Halothane is a chiral molecule that is used as a racemic mixture. In rare cases, repeated exposure to halothane in adults was ... Since the risk of halothane hepatitis in children was substantially lower than in adults, halothane continued to be used in ... "Halothane". NCBI Bookshelf. PMID 31643481. Retrieved 2021-01-27. "CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Halothane". ...
Halothane and the liver Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986; 293 :335 ... Halothane and the liver. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986; 293 doi: ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Halothane Halocarbon is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Halothane Halocarbon is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Ingredient matches for Halothane Halocarbon. Halothane. Halothane is reported as an ingredient of Halothane Halocarbon in the ... Halothane Halocarbon. In some countries, this medicine may only be approved for veterinary use. ...
A meta description is an HTML tag in the HTML code of your website, which allows you to customize a section of text that describes the page itself. It plays a role in how your page is seen by search engine crawlers, and how it appears in SERPs
Testing Status of Halothane 11151-T. CASRN: 151-67-7. Formula: C2-H-Br-Cl-F3. Synonyms/Common Names. *2-Bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1- ...
Halothane shortens acetylcholine receptor channel kinetics without affecting conductance Message Subject (Your Name) has sent ... Halothane shortens acetylcholine receptor channel kinetics without affecting conductance. J Lechleiter and R Gruener ... In contrast, halothane shortened the burst durations of both channel types in a concentration-dependent manner. This shortening ... This distribution was maintained during exposure to halothane and its washout. In addition, the mean current value of the low- ...
The National Halothane Study, a retrospective analysis, reviewed the incidence and mortality rates of postoperative hepatic ... Halothane and other halogenated inhalational anesthetic agents, such as enflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane, are ... encoded search term (Halothane%20Hepatotoxicity) and Halothane Hepatotoxicity What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions ... Type I (mild) halothane hepatotoxicity occurs within hours of halothane exposure. It does not occur after other agents. Type I ...
Halothane) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications ... Fluothane (halothane) is a potent uterine relaxant. The mechanism(s) whereby Fluothane (halothane) and other substances induce ... Fluothane (halothane) does not cause the release of catecholamines from adrenergic stores. Fluothane (halothane) also causes ... This concentration is equivalent to 24 hours of 1% halothane. Mutagenesis testing of halothane revealed both positive and ...
... ; find -H0150000 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical ...
Most people chose this as the best definition of halothane: A colorless nonflammable... See the dictionary meaning, ... The charming lady anesthetist in Tartu was the only person who I met who used halothane during general anesthesia for Caesarean ... anaesthesia In children the ED 90 dose of vecuronium bromide under halothane anesthesia was found to be somewhat higher (approx ... A common arrangement is to have two draw-over vaporizers in series containing halothane and trichloroethylene, with the ...
Harmonised classification and labelling is a legally binding classification and labelling for a substance, agreed at European Community level. Harmonisation is based on the substances physical, toxicological and eco-toxicological hazard assessment. The Hazard classification and labelling section uses the signal word, pictogram(s) and hazard statements of the substance under the harmonised classification and labelling (CLH) as its primary source of information.. If the substance is covered by more than one CLH entry (e.g. disodium tetraborate EC no. 215-540-4, is covered by three harmonisations: 005-011-00-4; 005-011-01-1 and 005-011-02-9), CLH information cannot be displayed in the InfoCard as the difference between the CLH classifications requires manual interpretation or verification. If a substance is classified under multiple CLH entries, a link to the C&L Inventory is provided to allow users to view CLH information associated with the substance and no text is automatically ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between halothane and Pepto Diarrhea Control. View detailed information regarding this drug ... Drug Interactions between halothane and Pepto Diarrhea Control. This report displays the potential drug interactions for the ... and the risk may be increased when combined with other medications that can also cause cardiac problems such as halothane. You ...
During the past 40 to 50 years, a great deal has been written about halothanes use in anesthesia. Halothane, our "gold ... halothane is not always well tolerated in infants, and halothane is often poorly tolerated in dehydrated infants. ... Halothane: The End of an Era?. Splinter, William, MD, FRCP. Anesthesia & Analgesia: December 2002 - Volume 95 - Issue 6 - p ... Is halothane of historical interest? No! For most of us, it is still easily exchanged for sevoflurane. But for new trainees, ...
The accuracy and stability of caffeine and halothane concentrations in liquid Krebs medium were examined. Caffeine-Krebs ... Storage was at 4 degrees C. For serial testing of halothane during a five month period, halothane 1% or 3% in carbogen was ... When compared to the halothane concentration in gas entering the muscle baths, halothane concentration in Krebs was predictable ... The accuracy and stability of caffeine and halothane concentrations in liquid Krebs medium were examined. Caffeine-Krebs ...
Group 1 was control group exposed only to room air, group 2 was exposed to 50 parts per million (ppm) N2O and 1ppm halothane, ... Male and female Fischer-344 rats were exposed to N2O and halothane mixtures in inhalation chambers, 7 hours/day, 5 days/week ... An increase in the occurrence of neoplasia in general was not seen as a result of the combined exposures to N2O and halothane. ... Group 1 was control group exposed only to room air, group 2 was exposed to 50 parts per million (ppm) N2O and 1ppm halothane, ...
1. halothane (n.). a nonflammable inhalation anesthetic that produces general anesthesia; used along with analgesics and muscle ...
Halothane / pharmacology*. Homeostasis / drug effects*. Kidney / blood supply*. Perfusion. Regional Blood Flow / drug effects. ... The present study showed that 0.9 per cent halothane had no effect on autoregulation in an isolated, perfused dog kidney as ...
Halothane Challenge to the Isolated Heart. A Tyrode solution containing 1.75 mmol/L halothane was prepared by diluting Tyrode ... The duration of halothane-induced PVTs in male hearts (≈1 minute, maximum 3 minutes) roughly equals the time that halothane ... Effects of Halothane. Halothane produced within 1 minute (39±2 seconds) a statistically significant prolongation of RR, PR, and ... Sex Differences Exposed by Halothane. Halothane has long been known to exert variable effects on cardiac rhythm19 and was shown ...
Halothane; Linear Formula: C2HBrClF3; find USP-1303501 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar ... Halothane United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard; CAS Number: 151-67-7; Synonym: 2-Bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1- ... Halothane United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard Synonym: 2-. Bromo-. 2-. chloro-. 1,1,1-. trifluoroethane, ... In an effect believed to be independent of anesthesia, halothane inhibits synthesis of 5-hydroxytryptamine in brain tissue, ...
To the editor: In their article entitled "Hepatitis After Exposure to Halothane" (Ann Intern Med 71:467-477, 1969) Drs. Klion, ... ROTHBERG M. Steroids for Halothane Hepatitis?. Ann Intern Med. 1970;72:288. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-72-2-288_1 ...
Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. ( ... Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no ... Halothane (Fluothane). Subscribe to New Research on Halothane A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides ... halothane. ". 12/01/1983 - "The results of these studies do not support a use of halothane-induced aggregation of platelets to ...
Halothane) drug information. Find its price or cost, dose, when to use, how to use, side effects, adverse effects, substitutes ... Drug Name : Halothane. Halothane(Fluothane) generic Fluothane is an inhalational general anesthetic, prescribed for the ... Other Trade Names for Halothane. India : Fluothane (100%) , Fluothane (100%) , Fluothane (100%) , Fluothane (100%) , Fluothane ... Fluothane (Halothane) Drug Price and Information. Fluothane is an inhalational general anesthetic, prescribed for the induction ...
... halothane explanation free. What is halothane? Meaning of halothane medical term. What does halothane mean? ... Looking for online definition of halothane in the Medical Dictionary? ... halothane. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to halothane: halothane hepatitis ... halothane. A pungent, volatile, non-inflammable liquid anaesthetic agent. Halothane is a powerful drug that induces anaesthesia ...
Halothane: TLV(R) Chemical Substances 7th Edition Documentation. ACGIH(R) Format:. Electronic (digital download/no shipping) ...
... N ... 4 of 15 given halothane plus morphine, (P less than 0.01). Conclusions: In neonates undergoing cardiac surgery, the physiologic ... The neonates who received lighter anesthesia (with halothane plus morphine) had more severe hyperglycemia and lactic acidemia ... 15 neonates were assigned to receive lighter anesthesia with halothane and morphine followed postoperatively by intermittent ...
Keyword(s) : Anaesthesiology, Cardiology, Halothane and Hypothermic ventricular fibrillation * Accreditation : Department of ... oa South African Medical Journal - Hypothermic ventricular fibrillation and halothane * Navigate this Journal ...
IMPURITY IN HALOTHANE You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or cited in the literature. You ...
  • Concern for hepatitis resulted in a dramatic reduction in the use of halothane for adults and it was replaced in the 1980s by enflurane and isoflurane. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process stimulates the formation of antibodies, which, upon reexposure to halothane (or enflurane, isoflurane, or desflurane), initiates an immune-mediated necrosis. (medscape.com)
  • The structures and intermolecular interactions in the halogen bonded complexes of anaesthetics ( chloroform , halothane , enflurane and isoflurane ) with formaldehyde were studied by ab initio MP2 and CCSD(T) methods. (rsc.org)
  • Eintrei C, Leszniewski W, Carlsson C (1985) Local application of 133xenon for measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during halothane, enflurane and isoflurane anesthesia in humans. (springer.com)
  • 1974) The effects of enflurane, isoflurane, and halothane on cerebral blood flow and metabolism in man. (springer.com)
  • It has the function of automatic compensation based on pressure,temperature,and flow rate.The regulation range of evaporator concentration is 0~5 vol%.Among Halothane,Enflurane,Isoflurane and Sevoflurane,one can be chosen for application as required by the customer. (medicalequipment-msl.com)
  • The resulting syndrome was referred to as halothane hepatitis, immunoallergic in origin, and is thought to result from the metabolism of halothane to trifluoroacetic acid via oxidative reactions in the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the risk of halothane hepatitis in children was substantially lower than in adults, halothane continued to be used in pediatrics in the 1990s as it was especially useful for inhalation induction of anaesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rare cases, cirrhosis may develop following halothane hepatitis. (medscape.com)
  • Steroids for Halothane Hepatitis? (annals.org)
  • To the editor: In their article entitled "Hepatitis After Exposure to Halothane" ( Ann Intern Med 71:467-477, 1969) Drs. Klion, Schaffner, and Popper make no mention of any therapeutic measures undertaken in their patients. (annals.org)
  • ROTHBERG M. Steroids for Halothane Hepatitis? (annals.org)
  • We evaluated various dimensions of this replacement through a literature review to assess the incidence of halothane-induced hepatitis and costs of anaesthetics in the country. (who.int)
  • The results indicate that the incidence of halothane hepatitis in the Islamic Republic of Iran is very low and could mostly be avoided by strict adherence to guidelines. (who.int)
  • Chills and fever are often associated with the hepatitis reaction seen with halothane. (brainkart.com)
  • Predisposing factors to halothane hepatitis include multiple exposures, obesity, female sex, and old age. (brainkart.com)
  • Recent case reports have incriminated overflow halothane vapor originating from the pop-off valve of anesthesia machines as the etiological agent causing recurrent hepatitis in two anesthesiologists. (jamanetwork.com)
  • It neither proved nor disproved a relation between hepatic necrosis and halothane hepatitis, but did support its safety as an inhalational anaesthetic agent. (lww.com)
  • It tooks some years before halothane hepatitis (HH) was generally accepted as an entity-that acceptance being assisted by the development of animal models and the demonstration of mechanisms by which it may come about. (lww.com)
  • Halothane, sold under the brand name Fluothane among others, is a general anaesthetic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluothane (halothane, USP) is supplied as a liquid and is vaporized for use as an inhalation anesthetic . (rxlist.com)
  • Fluothane (halothane) is nonflammable, and its vapors mixed with oxygen in proportions from 0.5 to 50% (v/v) are not explosive. (rxlist.com)
  • Fluothane (halothane) does not decompose in contact with warm soda lime. (rxlist.com)
  • such materials will deteriorate rapidly in contact with Fluothane (halothane) vapor or liquid. (rxlist.com)
  • Stability of Fluothane (halothane) is maintained by the addition of 0.01% thymol (w/w), up to 0.00025% ammonia (w/w). (rxlist.com)
  • Fluothane (halothane, USP) is indicated for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia . (rxlist.com)
  • Fluothane (halothane) may be administered by the nonrebreathing technique, partial rebreathing, or closed technique. (rxlist.com)
  • Fluothane (halothane) may be administered with either oxygen or a mixture of oxygen and nitrous oxide . (rxlist.com)
  • Fluothane (halothane) should not be kept indefinitely in vaporizer bottles not specifically designed for its use. (rxlist.com)
  • Thymol does not volatilize along with Fluothane (halothane) and, therefore, accumulates in the vaporizer and may, in time, impart a yellow color to the remaining liquid or to wicks in vaporizers. (rxlist.com)
  • The development of such discoloration may be used as an indicator that the vaporizer should be drained and cleaned, and the discolored Fluothane (halothane, USP) discarded. (rxlist.com)
  • Fluothane® (halothane, USP) is available in unit packages of 125 mL (NDC 0046-3125-81) and 250 mL (NDC 0046-3125-82) of halothane, USP, stabilized with 0.01% thymol (w/w) and up to 0.00025% ammonia (w/w). (rxlist.com)
  • Cardiac arrhythmias, in particular ventricular arrthymias, have been reported as being very common during FLUOTHANE (halothane) use. (rxlist.com)
  • Bradycardia and/or hypotension may occur during FLUOTHANE (halothane) anaesthesia. (rxlist.com)
  • Drug information on Fluothane (Halothane) from Nicholas Piramal India Ltd. (medindia.net)
  • Halothane(Fluothane) generic Fluothane is an inhalational general anesthetic, prescribed for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. (medindia.net)
  • Fluothane (halothane) is a small molecule pharmaceutical. (biometadata.com)
  • Halothane was first approved as Fluothane on 1982-01-01. (biometadata.com)
  • Inhalation toxicity study of nitrous oxide and halothane in rats. (cdc.gov)
  • The chronic toxicity of a combination of nitrous-oxide (10024972) (N2O) and halothane (151677) was investigated in rats. (cdc.gov)
  • Male and female Fischer-344 rats were exposed to N2O and halothane mixtures in inhalation chambers, 7 hours/day, 5 days/week for 104 weeks. (cdc.gov)
  • No evidence of an exposure related change in physical appearance or behavior of the rats exposed to N2O and halothane was noted. (cdc.gov)
  • Time course of 72-kilodalton heat shock protein induction and appearance of trifluoroacetyl adducts in livers of halothane-exposed rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that exposure of phenobarbital-pretreated rats to halothane in 10% O2 causes centrilobular necrosis, induces expression of the 72-kDa heat shock protein (HSP72), and produces several trifluoroacetylated adducts. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Ten phenobarbital-pretreated rats were exposed for 2 hr to 1% halothane in 10% O2 and 10 were exposed to 1% halothane in 20% O2. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thin sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin demonstrated that centrilobular lesions occurred at 6 hr and became extensive at 24 hr in rats pretreated with phenobarbital and exposed to 1% halothane in 10% O2. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Trifluoroacetylated adducts appeared in all rats exposed to halothane by 2 hr, lasted until 6 hr, and then diminished by 24 hr. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In contrast, HSP72 was induced only in the rats pretreated with phenobarbital and exposed to 1% halothane in 10% O2. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 2. At this concentration of halothane uptake of oxygen was inhibited in livers from both fed and starved rats. (biochemj.org)
  • 4. In livers of starved rats the rate of gluconeogenesis from lactate was decreased by halothane to 30% of the control rate. (biochemj.org)
  • Objective - To characterize halothane and sevoflurane anesthesia in spontaneously breathing rats. (elsevier.com)
  • Procedure - 8 rats were anesthetized with halothane and 8 with sevoflurane. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - An increase in PaCO 2 and a decrease in MAP are clinical indicators of an increasing halothane and sevoflurane dose in unstimulated spontaneously breathing rats. (elsevier.com)
  • Steffey, MA , Brosnan, RJ & Steffey, E 2003, ' Assessment of halothane and sevoflurane anesthesia in spontaneously breathing rats ', American Journal of Veterinary Research , vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 470-474. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions and Clinical Relevance - An increase in PaCO2 and a decrease in MAP are clinical indicators of an increasing halothane and sevoflurane dose in unstimulated spontaneously breathing rats. (elsevier.com)
  • The effects of anesthesia with either halothane or isoflurane were also compared on stress-induced learned helplessness behavior in rats and mice. (umaryland.edu)
  • Results: Isoflurane, but not halothane, anesthesia elicited a dose-dependent cortical burst suppression EEG in rats and mice. (umaryland.edu)
  • Two hours of isoflurane, but not halothane, anesthesia reduced the incidence of learned helplessness in rats evaluated 2 weeks following exposure. (umaryland.edu)
  • Methods: Rats were anesthetized with isoflurane (n = 8) or halothane (n = 8) and a laminectomy performed. (elsevier.com)
  • To determine whether this was true with other anesthetics, the authors determined the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) for halothane in normothermic, normocarbic ventilated Sprague-Dawley rats previously subjected to a freezing injury of the parietal cortex. (umn.edu)
  • Methods: Injury was produced in halothane-anesthetized rats by applying a cold (-70° C), 4-mm-diameter brass rod to the exposed dura for 5 or 15 s. (umn.edu)
  • Todd, MM , Weeks, JB & Warner, DS 1993, ' A focal cryogenic brain lesion does not reduce the minimum alveolar concentration for halothane in rats ', Anesthesiology , vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 139-143. (umn.edu)
  • In contrast, no differences were seen in rats when cortical depolarization (instead of the electroencephalogram) was used as the ischemic marker during equi-MAC isoflurane-N2O and halothane-N2O anesthesia. (duke.edu)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The CBF threshold for cortical depolarization as measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry did not differ significantly between halothane-N2O- and isoflurane-N2O-anesthetized rats. (duke.edu)
  • Since endotoxin, lipopolysaccharides (LPS), have been implicated as a causative factor in the development of hepatic necrosis in rats exposed to hepatotoxic levels of several chemical agents, the role of LPS in the halothane-hypoxia (HH) model of hepatic damage in male Sprague-Dawley rats was investigated. (elsevier.com)
  • Either 12 or 16 days after injection, the rats were anesthetized with 1 MAC halothane in 40% O 2 /balance N 2 . (elsevier.com)
  • In rare cases, repeated exposure to halothane in adults was noted to result in severe liver injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • This distribution was maintained during exposure to halothane and its washout. (pnas.org)
  • Type I (mild) halothane hepatotoxicity occurs within hours of halothane exposure. (medscape.com)
  • Type II (fulminant) halothane hepatotoxicity usually occurs 5-7 days following exposure, although it can be delayed by up to 4 weeks. (medscape.com)
  • The center followed the diagnostic protocols of the North America MH Group, in which the contractures of biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle are analyzed after exposure to caffeine and halothane (CHCT). (scielo.br)
  • In mice exhibiting a learned helplessness phenotype, a 1-hour exposure to isoflurane, but not halothane, reversed escape failures 24 hours following burst suppression anesthesia. (umaryland.edu)
  • 4-6 A higher rate of halothane biotransformation has been reported in anesthesiologists than in pharmacists who had no personal exposure to this drug. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Name of one or more exposure source(s)] in this establishment can expose you to Halothane which is known to the State of California to cause birth defects or other reproductive harm. (compliancesigns.com)
  • Name of one or more exposure source(s)] en este establecimiento puede estar expuesto a sustancias químicas incluyendo Halothane la cual es conocida por el Estado de California como causante de defectos del nacimiento u otros daños reproductivos. (compliancesigns.com)
  • Significant psychological impairment demonstrated 2 days following anesthesia in these subjects was absent 2 weeks following exposure to halothane. (elsevier.com)
  • Pretreatment of the animals with the antiendotoxin agent, lactulose, prior to exposure to halothane reduced the hepatic damage normally seen from HH. (elsevier.com)
  • administered by intraperitoneal injection), before exposure to halothane (2%, 1 h) or heat (41°C, 1 h). (unich.it)
  • RESULTS: NAC and Trolox significantly protected CASQ1-null mice from lethal episodes, with mortality being 79% (n = 14), 25% (n = 16), and 20% (n = 5) during halothane exposure and 86% (n = 21), 29% (n = 21), and 33% (n = 6) during heat stress in untreated, NAC-treated, and Trolox-treated mice, respectively. (unich.it)
  • Tao, F & Johns, RA 2008, ' Effect of disrupting N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-postsynaptic density protein-95 interactions on the threshold for halothane anesthesia in mice ', Anesthesiology , vol. 108, no. 5, pp. 882-887. (elsevier.com)
  • Subcommitee on the National Halothane Study of the Committee on Anesthesia, N. Summary of the national Halothane Study. (medscape.com)
  • The National Halothane Study (US) describes halothane complications as a rare disease occurring in 1 in 35,000 administrations. (anesthesiageneral.com)
  • Increasing concern led to the National halothane study in 1966. (lww.com)
  • The extracellular patch-clamp technique was used to examine how halothane, a general anesthetic, affects the properties of single nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channels of embryonic Xenopus skeletal muscle cells grown in culture. (pnas.org)
  • Halothane given with succinylcholine for induction anesthetic is associated with masseter spasm. (medscape.com)
  • Halothane, our "gold standard" inhaled anesthetic, has been a vital component in pediatric anesthesia. (lww.com)
  • Most children in studies involving assessment of drugs incorporated in anesthetic practice, such as antiemetics, received halothane. (lww.com)
  • 5-27 A sample of the inhalation anesthetic gas Halothane, C 2 HBrCIF 3 , in a 500-mL cylinder has a pressure of 2.3 atm at 0°C. What will be the pressure of the gas if its temperature is warmed to 37 °C (body temperature)? (bartleby.com)
  • Thus, the administration of the most commonly employed potent inhalation anesthetic, halothane, substantially alters myocardial contractility and regional blood flows and resistances. (ahajournals.org)
  • Variables were recorded at anesthetic concentrations of 0.8, 1.0, 1.25, and 1.5 times the MAC of halothane and 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75 times the MAC of sevoflurane. (elsevier.com)
  • This activity describes the indications, action, and contraindications for halothane as a general anesthetic. (statpearls.com)
  • RESULTS: Systemically injected fusion peptide Tat-PSD-95 PDZ2 was delivered into the central nervous system, disrupted the protein-protein interactions between N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor NR2 subunits and PSD-95, and significantly reduced the minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration and righting reflex EC50 for halothane. (elsevier.com)
  • They speculated that such biodegradation could explain the finding that the alveolar concentration of halothane decays more rapidly on recovery from anesthesia than does the alveolar concentration of isoflurane, an anesthetic that is significantly less soluble in blood. (anesthesiageneral.com)
  • Two reasons suggest that agents such as isoflurane and desflurane are less likely to be affected: first, they are not metabolized as readily as halothane or methoxyflurane, and second, anesthetizing concentrations appear to saturate the enzymes responsible for metabolism of the anesthetic. (anesthesiageneral.com)
  • 1,2 Although the anesthesiologists may inhale the greatest amounts of vapor, measurable concentrations of halothane have been detected at a distance of four feet from the anesthetic machine even in well ventilated operating rooms. (jamanetwork.com)
  • These cells respond to the general anesthetic 2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluorethane (halothane), with a loss of beating intensity and a lessening of beating rate. (mysciencework.com)
  • The anesthetic halothane appears to affect myocardial beating intensity through its ability to disrupt fast calcium uptake. (mysciencework.com)
  • In this study, the biochemical effects of halothane on Na+ channel function were determined using rat brain synaptosomes (pinched-off nerve terminals) to assess the role of presynaptic Na+ channels in anesthetic effects. (cornell.edu)
  • As with other agents of this type, halothane anaesthesia has been shown to trigger a skeletal muscle hypermetabolic state leading to high oxygen demand and the clinical syndrome known as malignant hyperthermia (MH). (rxlist.com)
  • Malignant hyperthermia has been reported in patients given halothane with and without suxam-ethonium (succinylcholine). (brainkart.com)
  • The literature is briefly reviewed and an account of the present status of malignant hyperthermia (porcine stress syndrome) in Ontario boars using the halothane or halothane/succinylcholine screening tests is presented. (islandscholar.ca)
  • It is suggested that the prevalence of malignant hyperthermia in Ontario breeding herds is much higher than was originally thought and that the halothane challenge is an inadequate screening test for this trait if the intention is to remove the genetic trait from the breeding herd. (islandscholar.ca)
  • BACKGROUND: Mice lacking calsequestrin-1 (CASQ1-null), a Ca-binding protein that modulates the activity of Ca release in the skeletal muscle, exhibit lethal hypermetabolic episodes that resemble malignant hyperthermia in humans when exposed to halothane or heat stress. (unich.it)
  • anaesthesia In children the ED 90 dose of vecuronium bromide under halothane anesthesia was found to be somewhat higher (approx. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Sevoflurane is an alternative to halothane in pediatric inhalational anaesthesia, with a comparable, low incidence of airway irritation and smoothness of induction. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Horses were premedicated with acepromazine, romifidine and butorphanol, induced with guaifenesin and ketamine and maintained on a constant rate infusion of lidocaine, ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane inhalation anaesthesia. (scielo.org.za)
  • Mean dobutamine requirement to maintain mean arterial pressure above 9.31 kPa was 0.42 ± 0.3 µg/kg/min The administration of relatively low doses of lidocaine, ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane resulted in haemodynamically stable anaesthesia, followed by smooth recovery. (scielo.org.za)
  • 1984). Mean hemispheric blood flow and cerebral oxygen consumption were therefore studied in humans during isoflurane and halothane anaesthesia. (springer.com)
  • 1. With reference to the post-operative dysfunction of the liver observed after halothane anaesthesia, the effects of the anaesthetic on some metabolic functions were studied in the isolated perfused rat liver. (biochemj.org)
  • Oxygen uptake, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and urea synthesis were affected by halothane at a concentration (2.5% of the gas phase) within the range used in clinical anaesthesia. (biochemj.org)
  • Halothane is a volatile anaesthetic which causes rapid anaesthesia, but requires use of additional nitrous oxide and/or neuromuscular blocking agents to be fully effective. (guidetopharmacology.org)
  • To evaluate the effect of oral atropine premedication in infants attenuates cardiovascular depression during halothane anaesthesia. (ijbms.com)
  • Oral atropine given one hour before the induction of anaesthesia in the doses of 0.02mg/kg and 0.04mg/kg is effective in attenuating cardiovascular depression caused by halothane which is the most commonly used inhalational anaesthetic agent in paediatric patients. (ijbms.com)
  • (1) present the clinically useful results of their research of the effect of halothane on hemodynamic variables during induction of anesthesia in infants after a variable preoperative fast. (lww.com)
  • The effect of halothane on the action of alcuronium on neuromuscular transmission was studied in the intact dog. (uzh.ch)
  • Methods The authors evaluated the effect of halothane on synaptic transmission at the larval neuromuscular junction in wild-type (Ore-R) and halothane-resistant (har) mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. (ovid.com)
  • Currents induced by bath-applied glutamatergic agonists were not affected even by the high concentrations of halothane. (nih.gov)
  • Cells were exposed to a range of concentrations of halothane, isoflurane or sevoflurane for a period of 1 min to determine the concentration-dependency of their inotropic actions. (ovid.com)
  • When dose was low, sensitivity increased mainly because of increased Ca 2+ content in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which might explain why some individuals with statin-induced myotoxic symptoms may show positive caffeine-halothane contracture test results. (cams.cn)
  • Possible association between halothane anesthesia and postoperative hepatic necrosis. (medscape.com)
  • Hepatic blood flow in humans during isoflurane-N2O and halothane-N2O anesthesia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Hepatic blood flow (HBF) (assessed by plasma clearance and hepatic extraction of indocyanine green), cardiac index, and hepatic venous oxygen saturation were measured in patients before and after induction of anesthesia with thiopental, fentanyl, and N2O, and again during halothane (1 MAC)-N2O (n = 5) or isoflurane (1 MAC)-N2O (n = 6) anesthesia before the start of surgery. (semanticscholar.org)
  • One of the most dreaded Halothane Complications is hepatic injury. (anesthesiageneral.com)
  • Halothane Complications may occur due to decreased hepatic blood flow and reductive biotransformation. (anesthesiageneral.com)
  • Hepatic injury from halogenated inhalational agents was first recognized with chloroform, with more hesitation with halothane, and more hesitantly still with the newer agents as they have been introduced in succession. (lww.com)
  • With type II halothane hepatotoxicity, fulminant necrosis is now believed to be an immune phenomenon occurring in genetically susceptible individuals. (medscape.com)
  • Necrosis is initiated by oxidative halothane metabolism to an intermediate. (medscape.com)
  • Conclusions Halothane depresses synaptic transmission at the wild-type Drosophila neuromuscular junction, most likely by affecting presynaptic properties. (ovid.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: By disrupting PSD-95 PDZ2 domain-mediated protein interactions, intraperitoneal injection of cell-permeant fusion peptide Tat-PSD-95 PDZ2 dose-dependently reduces the threshold for halothane anesthesia. (elsevier.com)
  • Glycopyrrolate administration was associated with impaction of the large colon in I horse and low intestinal auscultation scores lasting 24 hours in 3 horses.Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-The positive chronotropic effects of glycopyrrolate resulted in improvement of hemodynamic function in horses anesthetized with halothane and xylazine. (unesp.br)
  • Conclusions: These results indicate that a focal cortical brain injury that has no obvious neurologic or behavioral effects in the awake rat does not alter halothane requirements. (umn.edu)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Halothane significantly inhibited Na+ channel-mediated Na influx, increases in intrasynaptosomal [Na+] and glutamate release, and competed with neurotoxin binding to site two of the Na+ channel in synaptosomes at concentrations within its clinical range (minimum alveolar concentration, 1-2). (cornell.edu)
  • The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ storage peaked in the myotubes treated with 0.01 μmol/L simvastatin, but it decreased when cells were treated with higher doses of simvastatin (0.1-5.0 μmol/L).Conclusions The myotoxic side effect of simvastatin was found to change the sensitivity of myotubes in response to high-dose caffeine and halothane. (cams.cn)
  • Several inhalant anesthetics, including nitrous oxide and halothane, are known to be antimitotic in a variety of developing tissues, but none has been tested for antimitotic activity in developing brain. (elsevier.com)
  • Both nitrous oxide and halothane significantly reduced body weight of fetuses in utero, but did not reduce body weight of neonates. (elsevier.com)
  • The results indicate that nitrous oxide and halothane disrupt development in several ways, but are not antimitotic in all tissues at all times. (elsevier.com)
  • We recently reported that volatile anaesthetics directly depress the isolated glomus cell response to hypoxia, halothane more so than sevoflurane, in a manner mimicking the action of these agents on the human hypoxic ventilatory response. (springer.com)
  • Physical Appearance · Halothane is a non-flammable, volatile liquid. (brainkart.com)
  • Methods: In vivo electrophysiological techniques were used to determine the effects of isoflurane and halothane, 2 structurally unrelated volatile anesthetics, on cortical EEG. (umaryland.edu)
  • Halothane is miscible with alcohol , chloroform , ether, and other fat solvents. (rxlist.com)
  • 10. Effects on gluconeogenesis similar to those of halothane occurred in livers exposed to the anaesthetic methoxyflurane, although normal rates were not restored on withdrawal of the drug. (biochemj.org)
  • Carpenter and coworkers found that as much as half of the halothane and three quarters of the methoxyflurane that are taken up undergo biodegradation. (anesthesiageneral.com)
  • The effects of halothane on EPSC amplitude and kinetics were analyzed at various membrane potentials and were compared with its effects on currents evoked by exogenously applied glutamatergic agonists. (nih.gov)
  • Because of the significantly faster induction and recovery it seems superior to halothane. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Vagotomy did not affect the basal vulnerability to halothane/epinephrine dysrhythmias significantly. (nih.gov)
  • Halothane is not significantly defluorinated under normal clinical conditions and is not nephrotoxic. (anesthesiageneral.com)
  • Halothane Pharmacokinetics undergoes oxidative metabolism catalysed by cytochrome P450 to chlorine, bromine and trifluoroacetic acid. (anesthesiageneral.com)
  • The introduction of isoflurane has caused a great deal of interest, since it has been suggested that the cerebral vasodilatory properties in humans are less pronounced than those of halothane (Murphy et al. (springer.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Isoflurane-N2O anesthesia (as compared with halothane-N2O) reduces the cerebral blood flow (CBF) at which electroencephalographic changes occur in humans subjected to carotid occlusion. (duke.edu)
  • The time course and frequency of miniature excitatory junctional currents also were analyzed in the presence of halothane. (ovid.com)
  • The replacement of halothane by sevoflurane has been a gradual, evidence-based swing in practice patterns. (lww.com)
  • Comprehensive cost-effectiveness studies are needed before a decision is made on complete replacement of halothane with other anaesthetics. (who.int)
  • Ashman MN, Blesser WB, Epstein RM (1970) A nonlinear model for the uptake and distribution of halothane in man. (springer.com)
  • The distribution of halothane is to lungs, VRG organs, muscle, fat around VRG organs and finally peripheral fat. (anesthesiageneral.com)
  • Beneken Kolmer HH, Burm AG, Cramers CA, Ramakers JM, Vader HL (1975) The uptake and elimination of halothane in dogs: a two or multicompartment-system? (springer.com)
  • 9. The stimulation of uptake of oxygen brought about by the addition of lactate or precursors of urea was abolished by halothane. (biochemj.org)
  • Only the fast calcium uptake was affected by halothane. (mysciencework.com)
  • Like halothane-depressed beating intensity, the halothane-depressed fast calcium uptake also can be reversed by increased calcium in the growth medium of beating heart cells in culture. (mysciencework.com)
  • Halothane depresses glutamatergic EPSCs irrespective of receptor subtype, most likely by inhibition of glutamate release. (nih.gov)
  • Halothane also depresses the cardiac beating rate, but the data collected do not relate beating rate with calcium metabolism. (mysciencework.com)
  • Small amounts of trifluoroacetic acid can be formed from both halothane and isoflurane metabolism and possibly accounts for cross sensitization of patients between these agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type I halothane hepatotoxicity is attributed to reductive (anaerobic) halothane metabolism, with reactive metabolites causing lipid peroxidation and binding to cytochrome P-450. (medscape.com)
  • Fluoride ions are produced in the minimal reductive pathway of halothane metabolism, clinically this is not nephrotoxic. (anesthesiageneral.com)
  • Sevoflurane or halothane in inhalational anesthesia induction in childhood. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The group that received deep anesthesia had a decreased incidence of sepsis (P = 0.03), metabolic acidosis (P less than 0.01), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (P = 0.03) and fewer postoperative deaths (none of 30 given sufentanil vs. 4 of 15 given halothane plus morphine, (P less than 0.01). (nih.gov)
  • Halothane hepatotoxicity is a diagnosis of exclusion. (medscape.com)
  • Physical findings in type II halothane hepatotoxicity include delayed pyrexia (up to 75% of patients). (medscape.com)
  • The two forms are most likely unrelated, and patients who develop type I halothane hepatotoxicity are not at risk for type II. (medscape.com)
  • Unsal C, Celik JB, Toy H, Esen H, Otelcioglu S. Protective role of zinc pretreatment in hepatotoxicity induced by halothane. (medscape.com)
  • N-acetylcysteine has been an effective pre-treatment in protecting against halothane-induced hepatotoxicity in animals. (brainkart.com)
  • Halothane is a medication previously used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. (statpearls.com)
  • Chemically, halothane is an alkyl halide (not an ether like many other anesthetics). (wikipedia.org)
  • By intraperitoneal injection of this fusion peptide into mice, the authors investigated the effect of disrupting the PSD-95 PDZ2-mediated protein interactions on the threshold for halothane anesthesia. (elsevier.com)
  • These results suggest that PDZ domain-mediated protein interactions at synapses in the central nervous system might play an important role in the molecular mechanisms of halothane anesthesia. (elsevier.com)
  • METHODS: Synaptosomes from adult rat cerebral cortex were used to determine the effects of halothane on veratridine-evoked Na+ channel-dependent Na+ influx (using 22Na+), changes in intrasynaptosomal [Na+] (using ion-specific spectrofluorometry), and neurotoxin interactions with specific receptor sites of the Na+ channel (by radioligand binding). (cornell.edu)
  • Solute-solvent interactions in cryosolutions: a study of halothane-ammonia complexes. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • Dominguez, CL , Barter, LS & Antognini, JF 2005, ' Intrathecal picrotoxin minimally alters electroencephalographic responses to noxious stimulation during halothane and isoflurane anesthesia ', Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica , vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 763-770. (elsevier.com)
  • The effects of halothane on excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system of mammals have been studied in vivo and in vitro in several investigations with partially contradicting results. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, an 18.0% prevalence rate was determined using halothane/succinylcholine challenge on 123 boars. (islandscholar.ca)
  • About 20% of inhaled halothane is metabolized by the liver and these products are excreted in the urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feng D, Wang Y, Xu Y, Luo Q, Lan B, Xu L. Interleukin 10 deficiency exacerbates halothane induced liver injury by increasing interleukin 8 expression and neutrophil infiltration. (medscape.com)
  • Kobayashi E, Kobayashi M, Tsuneyama K, Fukami T, Nakajima M, Yokoi T. Halothane-induced liver injury is mediated by interleukin-17 in mice. (medscape.com)
  • We wished to extend these investigations to action of another agent (isoflurane), and we planned to examine the effects of this agent and halothane on background K + channels. (springer.com)
  • In the presence of hypoxia halothane also increased channel activity (3 fold) while isoflurane again only had weak effects ( p = 0.004). (springer.com)
  • Pandit J.J., Winter V., Bayliss R., Buckler K.J. (2010) Differential Effects of Halothane and Isoflurane on Carotid Body Glomus Cell Intracellular Ca 2+ and Background K + Channel Responses to Hypoxia. (springer.com)
  • Effects of halothane on glutamate receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents. (nih.gov)
  • Direct measurements of the effects of halothane on isolated glutamate receptor-mediated (glutamatergic) excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs), however, have not been reported to date. (nih.gov)
  • The effects of halothane on glutamatergic EPSCs were studied in vitro by using tight-seal, whole-cell recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells in thin slices from the adult mouse hippocampus. (nih.gov)
  • Concentration-dependent inotropic effects of halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane on rat ventricular myocytes. (ovid.com)
  • We have described the concentration-dependent inotropic effects of halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane on rat ventricular cells and investigated the role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in these inotropic actions. (ovid.com)
  • 1985). Reports suggesting that cerebral metabolic effects of isoflurane differ from halothane are based on observations in animals (Cucchiara et al. (springer.com)
  • Messeter K., Algotsson L., Nordström CH., Ryding E. (1986) Cerebrovascular and Metabolic Effects of Isoflurane and Halothane: A Preliminary Report. (springer.com)
  • 11. The inhibitory effects of halothane are consistent with an interference at the stage of the NADH dehydrogenase of the electron-transport chain. (biochemj.org)
  • The effects of halothane on the amplitude of these currents were compared in Ore-R and two har mutants derived from the Ore-R strain. (ovid.com)
  • Comparison of the effects of sevoflurane, isoflurane and halothane on indocyanine green clearance. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Lack of beta-adrenergic activity of isoflurane in the dog: a comparison of circulatory effects of halothane and isoflurane after propranolol administration. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Halothane is known for its abuse potential among hospital personnel since inhalation of small amounts produces pleasur-able effects. (brainkart.com)
  • Pulmonary oedema and seizures occur if halothane is administered intravenously, while inhalation is not associ-ated with such effects. (brainkart.com)
  • Objective-To evaluate cardiopulmonary effects of glycopyrrolate in horses anesthetized with halothane and xylazine.Animals-6 horses.Procedure-Horses were allocated to 2 treatment groups in a randomized complete block design. (unesp.br)
  • Su, JY & Kerrick, WGL 1978, ' Effects of halothane on caffeine-induced tension transients in mechanically disrupted myocardial cells ', Biophysical journal , vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 87a. (elsevier.com)
  • The potential physiologic and functional significance of these effects was determined by measuring the effects of halothane on veratridine-evoked Na+ channel-dependent glutamate release (using enzyme-coupled spectrofluorometry). (cornell.edu)
  • Objective To determine whether the myotoxic side effects of statin simvastatin affect skeletal muscle's sensitivity to caffeine and halothane.Methods Primary cultured neonate rat skeletal myotubes were treated with 0.01-5.0 μmol/L simvastatin for 48 hours. (cams.cn)
  • Comparison of the effects of sub-hypnotic concentrations of propofol and halothane on the acute ventilatory response to hypoxia. (ox.ac.uk)
  • To compare the effects of sub-anaesthetic concentrations of propofol and halothane on the respiratory control system, we have studied the acute ventilatory response to isocapnic hypoxia (AHVR) in 12 adults with and without three different concentrations of propofol and halothane. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In patients who received about 19 MAC-hours of halothane, peak plasma fluoride levels were much higher in the isoflurane group than in the halothane group. (anesthesiageneral.com)
  • Halothane inhibited veratridine-evoked glutamate release from synaptosomes with comparable potency (IC50 = 0.67 mM). (cornell.edu)
  • ABSTRACT The anaesthetic agent halothane is still widely used in developing countries including the Islamic Republic of Iran because of its low price. (who.int)
  • abstract = "Background: Isoflurane and halothane act in the spinal cord to blunt ascending transmission of impulses to the brain resulting from noxious stimulation. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "In 7 subjects, serial EEGs, serum bromide determinations, and psychological tests were done prior to and following 13.83 ± 0.74 (SEM) MAC-hours of halothane anesthesia. (elsevier.com)
  • The absence of an effect by halothane in the har mutants provides evidence that the depression of presynaptic function at the glutamate-mediated synapses is an important contributor to the way halothane alters the responsiveness of the whole animal. (ovid.com)
  • 6. During gluconeogenesis from 10m m -lactate the tissue content of ATP was decreased by 50%, glutamate by 50% and 2-oxoglutarate was decreased eightfold in the halothane-exposed livers. (biochemj.org)
  • The miniature excitatory junctional current decay time constant, thought to reflect the kinetic properties of junctional glutamate receptor channels, was not changed by halothane in either the Ore-R strain or the har mutants. (ovid.com)
  • Halothane caused a concentration-dependent depression of myocardial contractility: (dP/dt)/P fell 68 ± 5% during 2% halothane anesthesia and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter rose. (ahajournals.org)
  • Interaction between halothane and propranolol on oxytocin-induced uterine contractions. (aspetjournals.org)
  • An increase in the occurrence of neoplasia in general was not seen as a result of the combined exposures to N2O and halothane. (cdc.gov)
  • 4 This is assumed to be a hypersensitivity phenomenon probably due to biotransformed metabolites of halothane and is more common after multiple exposures. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (curehunter.com)
  • Halothane potentiates the effect of neuromuscular blocking agents. (brainkart.com)
  • halothane in 100% oxygen. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Halothane can be use d in combination with oxygen, or other gas mixtures such as nitrous oxide and oxygen for general anaes-thesia. (brainkart.com)
  • The charming lady anesthetist in Tartu was the only person who I met who used halothane during general anesthesia for Caesarean Section. (yourdictionary.com)
  • Respiratory rate decreased in a dose-dependent fashion from 88.5 ± 4.5 to 58.5 ± 2.7 breaths/min during halothane anesthesia and from 42.3 ± 1.8 to 30.5 ± 4.5 breaths/min during sevoflurane anesthesia. (elsevier.com)
  • Increases in eyelid aperture and pupil diameter are reliable signs of increasing depth of halothane and sevoflurane anesthesia. (elsevier.com)
  • Halothane is a chiral molecule that is used as a racemic mixture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Decreasing respiratory rate is a clinical indicator of an increasing dose of halothane. (elsevier.com)