A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.
Light sources used to activate polymerization of light-cured DENTAL CEMENTS and DENTAL RESINS. Degree of cure and bond strength depends on exposure time, wavelength, and intensity of the curing light.
A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.
Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.
The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via exposure to light.
The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.
A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.
Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Any chemical species which acts as an electron-pair donor in a chemical bonding reaction with a LEWIS ACID.
Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Laminariaceae. Dried pencil-like pieces may be inserted in the cervix where they swell as they absorb moisture, serving as osmotic dilators.
Small metal or ceramic attachments used to fasten an arch wire. These attachments are soldered or welded to an orthodontic band or cemented directly onto the teeth. Bowles brackets, edgewise brackets, multiphase brackets, ribbon arch brackets, twin-wire brackets, and universal brackets are all types of orthodontic brackets.
The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.
Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).
The use of a chemical oxidizing agent to whiten TEETH. In some procedures the oxidation process is activated by the use of heat or light.
Relatively bright light, or the dazzling sensation of relatively bright light, which produces unpleasantness or discomfort, or which interferes with optimal VISION, OCULAR. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Negative ions or salts derived from bromic acid, HBrO3.
Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Note that organic derivatives of phosphoric acids are listed under ORGANOPHOSPHATES.
Techniques used for removal of bonded orthodontic appliances, restorations, or fixed dentures from teeth.
The pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes. It is differentiated from TOOTH ATTRITION in that this type of wearing away is the result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It differs also from TOOTH EROSION, the progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes not involving bacterial action. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p2)
The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.
A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.
An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.
Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.
The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.
Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
An organizational enterprise between a public sector agency, federal, state or local, and a private sector entity. Skills and assets of each sector are shared to deliver a service or facility for the benefit or use of the general public.
A voluntary contract between two or more doctors who may or may not share responsibility for the care of patients, with proportional sharing of profits and losses.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.
A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
Housing subsidized by tax funds, usually intended for low income persons or families.
The surface of a structure upon which one stands or walks.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
Persons who have no permanent residence. The concept excludes nomadic peoples.
Living facilities for humans.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Metal devices for fastening together two or more parts of dental prostheses for stabilizing or retaining them by attachment to abutment teeth. For a precision attachment for a partial denture DENTURE PRECISION ATTACHMENT is available.
Chemicals especially for use on instruments to destroy pathogenic organisms. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.

Evidence that halogenated furanones from Delisea pulchra inhibit acylated homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated gene expression by displacing the AHL signal from its receptor protein. (1/259)

Acylated homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated gene expression controls phenotypes involved in colonization, often specifically of higher organisms, in both marine and terrestrial environments. The marine red alga Delisea pulchra produces halogenated furanones which resemble AHLs structurally and show inhibitory activity at ecologically realistic concentrations in AHL bioassays. Evidence is presented that halogenated furanones displace tritiated OHHL [N-3-(oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone] from Escherichia coli cells overproducing LuxR with potencies corresponding to their respective inhibitory activities in an AHL-regulated bioluminescence assay, indicating that this is the mechanism by which furanones inhibit AHL-dependent phenotypes. Alternative mechanisms for this phenomenon are also addressed. General metabolic disruption was assessed with two-dimensional PAGE, revealing limited non-AHL-related effects. A direct chemical interaction between the algal compounds and AHLs, as monitored by 1H NMR spectroscopy, was shown not to occur in vitro. These results support the contention that furanones, at the concentrations produced by the alga, can control bacterial colonization of surfaces by specifically interfering with AHL-mediated gene expression at the level of the LuxR protein.  (+info)

Degradation of 1,2-dibromoethane by Mycobacterium sp. strain GP1. (2/259)

The newly isolated bacterial strain GP1 can utilize 1, 2-dibromoethane as the sole carbon and energy source. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the organism was identified as a member of the subgroup which contains the fast-growing mycobacteria. The first step in 1,2-dibromoethane metabolism is catalyzed by a hydrolytic haloalkane dehalogenase. The resulting 2-bromoethanol is rapidly converted to ethylene oxide by a haloalcohol dehalogenase, in this way preventing the accumulation of 2-bromoethanol and 2-bromoacetaldehyde as toxic intermediates. Ethylene oxide can serve as a growth substrate for strain GP1, but the pathway(s) by which it is further metabolized is still unclear. Strain GP1 can also utilize 1-chloropropane, 1-bromopropane, 2-bromoethanol, and 2-chloroethanol as growth substrates. 2-Chloroethanol and 2-bromoethanol are metabolized via ethylene oxide, which for both haloalcohols is a novel way to remove the halide without going through the corresponding acetaldehyde intermediate. The haloalkane dehalogenase gene was cloned and sequenced. The dehalogenase (DhaAf) encoded by this gene is identical to the haloalkane dehalogenase (DhaA) of Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 13064, except for three amino acid substitutions and a 14-amino-acid extension at the C terminus. Alignments of the complete dehalogenase gene region of strain GP1 with DNA sequences in different databases showed that a large part of a dhaA gene region, which is also present in R. rhodochrous NCIMB 13064, was fused to a fragment of a haloalcohol dehalogenase gene that was identical to the last 42 nucleotides of the hheB gene found in Corynebacterium sp. strain N-1074.  (+info)

Renal angiotensin I-converting enzyme as a mixture of sialo- and asialo-enzyme, and a rapid purification method. (3/259)

Angiotensin I-converting enzyme [EC 3.4.15.1] was rapidly and highly purified from a particulate fraction of hog kidney cortex with 13% yield. The procedure, which was rapid, included fractionation on DEAE-cellulose and calcium phosphate gel, chromatographies on DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and hydroxylapatite columns, and gel filtration on a Sephadex G-200 column. The purified enzyme preparation gave two protein bands on standard disc gel electrophoresis, but showed a single protein component on the gel after treatment with neuraminidase [EC 3.2.1.18]. The data strongly suggest that the purified enzyme preparation was a mixture of sialo- and asialo-enzyme. Sialic acid residues apparently do not contribute to the catalytic activity of the enzyme. The enzyme was activated more by chloride ions than by other halide ions tested, using Bz-Gly-Gly-Gly as a substrate. The dissociation constant for chloride ions was determined to be 2.2 mM. Chloride did not protect the enzyme against heat or low pH. The enzyme was resistant to inactivation by trypsin [EC 3.4.21.4] and chymotrypsin [EC 3.4.21.1].  (+info)

A possible effect of different light sources on pregnancy rates following gamete intra-fallopian transfer. (4/259)

A retrospective study of 34 sequential gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT) procedures suggested a significant effect on pregnancy rates associated with the different laparoscopic light sources, with a pregnancy rate of 50% in 22 cycles using a halogen light source and 9% in 12 cycles using a xenon light source. Other explanatory variables were explored, but none was to have a significant effect on the pregnancy rate. Further investigation revealed that the xenon light source emitted more ultraviolet light than the conventional halogen light source--suggesting a possible detrimental effect of ultraviolet light on the gametes in the GIFT procedure.  (+info)

Induction and prevention of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in cultured human lymphocytes exposed to the light of halogen tungsten lamps. (5/259)

Previous studies have shown that the light emitted by halogen tungsten lamps contains UV radiation in the UV-A, UV-B and UV-C regions, induces mutations and irreparable DNA damage in bacteria, enhances the frequency of micronuclei in cultured human lymphocytes and is potently carcinogenic to the skin of hairless mice. The present study showed that the light emitted by an uncovered, traditional halogen lamp induces a significant, dose-related and time-related increase not only in micronuclei but also in chromosome-type aberrations, such as breaks, and even more in chromatid-type aberrations, such as isochromatid breaks, exchanges and isochromatid/chromatid interchanges, all including gaps or not, in cultured human lymphocytes. All these genotoxic effects were completely prevented by shielding the same lamp with a silica glass cover, blocking UV radiation. A new model of halogen lamp, having the quartz bulb treated in order to reduce the output of UV radiation, was considerably less genotoxic than the uncovered halogen lamp, yet induction of chromosomal alterations was observed at high illuminance levels.  (+info)

DL-2-Haloacid dehalogenase from Pseudomonas sp. 113 is a new class of dehalogenase catalyzing hydrolytic dehalogenation not involving enzyme-substrate ester intermediate. (6/259)

DL-2-Haloacid dehalogenase from Pseudomonas sp. 113 (DL-DEX 113) catalyzes the hydrolytic dehalogenation of D- and L-2-haloalkanoic acids, producing the corresponding L- and D-2-hydroxyalkanoic acids, respectively. Every halidohydrolase studied so far (L-2-haloacid dehalogenase, haloalkane dehalogenase, and 4-chlorobenzoyl-CoA dehalogenase) has an active site carboxylate group that attacks the substrate carbon atom bound to the halogen atom, leading to the formation of an ester intermediate. This is subsequently hydrolyzed, resulting in the incorporation of an oxygen atom of the solvent water molecule into the carboxylate group of the enzyme. In the present study, we analyzed the reaction mechanism of DL-DEX 113. When a single turnover reaction of DL-DEX 113 was carried out with a large excess of the enzyme in H(2)(18)O with a 10 times smaller amount of the substrate, either D- or L-2-chloropropionate, the major product was found to be (18)O-labeled lactate by ionspray mass spectrometry. After a multiple turnover reaction in H(2)(18)O, the enzyme was digested with trypsin or lysyl endopeptidase, and the molecular masses of the peptide fragments were measured with an ionspray mass spectrometer. No peptide fragments contained (18)O. These results indicate that the H(2)(18)O of the solvent directly attacks the alpha-carbon of 2-haloalkanoic acid to displace the halogen atom. This is the first example of an enzymatic hydrolytic dehalogenation that proceeds without producing an ester intermediate.  (+info)

Mcm2, but not RPA, is a component of the mammalian early G1-phase prereplication complex. (7/259)

Previous experiments in Xenopus egg extracts identified what appeared to be two independently assembled prereplication complexes (pre-RCs) for DNA replication: the stepwise assembly of ORC, Cdc6, and Mcm onto chromatin, and the FFA-1-mediated recruitment of RPA into foci on chromatin. We have investigated whether both of these pre-RCs can be detected in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Early- and late-replicating chromosomal domains were pulse-labeled with halogenated nucleotides and prelabeled cells were synchronized at various times during the following G1-phase. The recruitment of Mcm2 and RPA to these domains was examined in relation to the formation of a nuclear envelope, specification of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) replication origin and entry into S-phase. Mcm2 was loaded gradually and cumulatively onto both early- and late-replicating chromatin from late telophase throughout G1-phase. During S-phase, detectable Mcm2 was rapidly excluded from PCNA-containing active replication forks. By contrast, detergent-resistant RPA foci were undetectable until the onset of S-phase, when RPA joined only the earliest-firing replicons. During S-phase, RPA was present with PCNA specifically at active replication forks. Together, our data are consistent with a role for Mcm proteins, but not RPA, in the formation of mammalian pre-RCs during early G1-phase.  (+info)

Effect of Tn10/Tn5 transposons on the survival and mutation frequency of halogen light-irradiated AB1157 Escherichia coli K-12. (8/259)

We show here that the Tn10/Tn5 transposon when inserted into the chromosome of strain AB1157 makes the bacteria more sensitive to and less mutable by halogen light irradiation. These effects are most probably caused by depletion of UmuD and UmuC proteins since: (i) transformation of the transposon-bearing bacteria with plasmids harbouring umuD'C (or umuDC) leads to recovery of the original survival and mutation frequencies; (ii) insertion of Tn10/Tn5 into chromosomal DNA has no effect on the level of mutation induced by ethyl methane-sulphonate treatment, a mutagen whose activity is umuDC-independent; (iii) the decline in survival is in about the same range for Tn10-bearing bacteria as for bacteria with deleted umuDC. However, whereas transformation of bacteria deleted in umuDC with plasmids carrying umuD'C/umuDC leads to full recovery of halogen light-induced mutability, recovery of survival is poor. This suggests that the mechanisms leading to umuDC-dependent mutagenesis and umuDC-dependent protection of cell survival are different. None of these effects occurs in bacteria bearing the Tn9 transposon in their DNA.  (+info)

Halogen lamp is an incandescent lamp with an advanced design and is also called a tungsten or quartz halogen lamp. The filament of the light bulb consists of ductile tungsten, while the light bulb itself consists of quartz, aluminum silicate or silica. The gas contained in the light bulb has a higher pressure than an ordinary light bulb.. WORK OF THE HALOGEN LAMP The halogen lamp contains halogen gas in the lamp. This gas prevents the bulb from turning black, unlike conventional ones, and also lowers the thinning of the tungsten filament. As a result, the filament can be heated to a much higher temperature while the life of the light bulb is also significantly improved. There are many elements called halogen but not all are used in the design of such lamps. Iodine and bromine are used in the halogen lamps.. Chemistry involved in a halogen lamp includeis the chemical combination of the vaporized tungsten atoms with the halogen gas which is then re-deposited on the tungsten filament. This prevents ...
Global Halogen Surgical Lamps Market Professional Survey Report 2017 1 Industry Overview of Halogen Surgical Lamps 1.1 Definition and Specifications of Halogen Surgical Lamps 1.1.1 Definition of Halogen Surgical Lamps 1.1.2 Specifications of Halogen Surgical Lamps 1.2 Classification of Halogen Surgical Lamps 1.2.1 Colour Rendition Light 1.2.2 Homogenous Light 1.2.3 Vein Light 1.2.4 Other 1.3 Applications of Halogen Surgical Lamps 1.3.1 Hospitals 1.3.2 Clinics 1.3.3 Ambulatory Surgical Centers 1.3.4 Other 1.4 Market Segment by Regions 1.4.1 North America 1.4.2 China 1.4.3 Europe 1.4.4 Southeast Asia 1.4.5 Japan 1.4.6 India 2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Halogen Surgical Lamps 2.1 Raw Material and Suppliers 2.2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Halogen Surgical Lamps 2.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Halogen Surgical Lamps 2.4 Industry Chain Structure of Halogen Surgical Lamps 3 Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Halogen Surgical Lamps 3.1 Capacity and ...
How to Replace a Lightbulb in an Outdoor Halogen Light Fixture. Outdoor halogen light fixtures offer a brilliant light radius which can often illuminate your entire yard. The light is so powerful, that it often only requires one well-placed light fixture to do it.. When you have a halogen light fixture outside and the bulb happens to go out, the difference is like, well, it is like night and day! A great source for home security or for simply being able to keep an eye on your dog as he does his business, halogen light fixtures are a wonderful addition to any backyard.. But, these powerful lights do not use a conventional light bulb. Halogen light bulbs are long and thin, and they do not get screwed in, which can confuse some people. So to help keep your yard illuminated, heres how to change a lightbulb in an outdoor halogen light fixture.. ...
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Introduction. Victor Leung 7C (10) Experiment Date: 28TH September, 2006. EXP1 - Hydrolysing Organic Halogen Compounds Aim: The purpose of this experiment is to find out how the rate of the hydrolysis of an organic halogen compound depends on (1) the identity of the halogen atom (2) the nature of the CH skeleton. Principle: The hydrolysis of haloalkanes is an example of nucleophilic substitution in which the carbon halogen bond is replaced with a hydroxyl group. Water molecule is the nucleophile of the reaction while the halide ion departs as the leaving group. The reaction occurs faster with alcohol acting as a common solvent. The ease of leaving of halide ions increase in as the atom becomes bigger, and the bonding length longer. Method: The experiment made use of the product of hydrolysis - halide ions. The halide ions formed could be detected by AgNO3 which forms precipitation. The length of time required is inversely proportional to the rate of reaction. By observing the changes in the test ...
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Distortions of the directional requirements in halogen...halogen contacts between hexachloroethane (HCE), C2Cl6 molecules lead to the loose crystal at ambient conditions. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction shows that the orthorhombic HCE phase of space group Pnma, with the molecules in the staggered confor
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Visualize halogen bond contacts in the protein binding site. Analyze a protein binding site for halogen bonding hotspots. Evaluate halogen contacts with the protein backbone using the scoring function XBScore. This is a Tool Publishing server. ...
wherein R3, R4, R5 and R6 independently represent a hydrogen atom, a halogen atom, a (C1-C10)alkyl group which may be substituted with a halogen atom or a lower alkoxy group, a (C4-Cg)cycloalkyl group, an aryl group which may be substituted with a halogen atom or a lower alkoxy group, an alkoxy group, R3 and R4, or R5 and R6 may be bonded at their terminals to form an alkylene group having 2-4 carbon atoms, and one of R3, R4, R5 and R6 groups represents an alkenyl group which may be substituted with a halogen atom, an alkoxy group or an alkoxy carbonyl group, of which alkoxy may be substituted with a halogen atom or atoms, provided that when R3 and R5 are the same, Rj and R^ are not the same, and R7 represents an alkyl group having 1 to 8 carbon atoms, a benzyl group which may be optionally substituted with a cycIoaJkyI group, a lower alkyl group, a lower alkoxy group, a phenoxy group or a halogen atom, or a phenyl group which may be optionally substituted with a lower alkyl group, a lower ...
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With a year under their belt since their first opened the doors to their innovation consulting agency, Kinetic Cafe is now embarking on its next stage in their evolution. They have shared with Profectio that the company will merge with digital studio Halogen Mobile.. Halogen Mobile was Co-Founded by Gary Fung and Jason McFadden after creating the mobile communications platform Ping! - which achieved 13 million users worldwide. Halogens client list currently includes: AOL Canada/Huffington Post Canada, LG, Microsoft Canada, Pizza Hut and BlogTO!.. Over the past year the two firms have strengthen their relationship when Kinetic Café assumed the role of strategic advisors to Halogen Mobiles Founders that included sharing a number of accounts, and strategic engagements with companies like Pizza Hut and Yum Brands.. ...
A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound. The alkali metals combine directly with halogens under appropriate conditions forming halides of the general formula, MX (X = F, Cl, Br or I). Many salts are halides; the hal- syllable in halide and halite reflects this correlation. All Group 1 metals form halides that are white solids at room temperature. A halide ion is a halogen atom bearing a negative charge. The halide anions are fluoride (F−), chloride (Cl−), bromide (Br−), iodide (I−) and astatide (At−). Such ions are present in all ionic halide salts. Halide minerals contain halides. All these halides are colourless, high melting crystalline solids having high negative enthalpies of formation. ...
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FIG. 1 is a front, right side perspective view of an adjustable halogen lamp showing my new design;. FIG. 2 is a top, rear, right side perspective view thereof with the lamp in an alternate position;. FIG. 3 is a left side elevational view thereof;. FIG. 4 is a front elevational view thereof;. FIG. 5 is a rear elevational view thereof;. FIG. 6 is a top plan view thereof; and,. FIG. 7 is a bottom plan view thereof.. ...
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Halogenoalkanes, also known as haloalkanes or alkyl halides, are organic compounds in which one or more hydrogen atoms in an alkane have been replaced by halogen atoms, fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine. In carbon-halogen bond, halogens have significantly greater electronegativities than carbon except iodine. In result, this functional group is polarized so that the carbon is electrophilic and the halogen is nucleophilic. Halogenoalkanes are can be classified depending on the halogen atom position on the chain of carbon atoms. The carbon which is attached with the halogen atom is linked up with only one other alkyl group in primary halogenoalkanes, whereas directly linked up with two and three other alkyl groups in secondary halogenoalkanes and tertiary halogenoalkanes respectively. In some case, primary halogenoalkanes are counted even though there are no alkyl groups attached to the carbon with the halogen on it. Three characteristics provide important influences on the chemical behavior ...
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With the above in mind, last year Halogen partnered with Development Dimensions International (DDI) to integrate and resell its comprehensive behavior-based competency library and proven leadership development content directly into Halogen TalentSpace. The DDI Learning Library became available in December 2014, and offers high impact learning modules that are grounded in behavior change and that describe specific actions that can be taken to improve on specific competencies. For example, if you wanted to set a leadership development goal around coaching, the learning unit Coaching for Peak Performance is linked to the Coaching competency in the Library. This learning unit also includes a simulation and several case studies as well as a discussion planner to help a manager prepare for a specific coaching discussion.. Thats what makes this new Learning Library so fantastic: each course is interactive with quizzes, examples, simulations, and case studies and includes tools such as a discussion ...
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Control of intermolecular interactions is integral to harnessing self-assembly in nature. Here we demonstrate that control of the competition between hydrogen bonds and halogen bonds, the two most highly studied directional intermolecular interactions, can be exerted by choice of solvent (polarity) to direct
by giving example pls explain allylic halide and how halogen atom is bonded to sp3hybradised carbon atom mf4r1wss -Chemistry - TopperLearning.com
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Dithienophenazine derivatives are molecules recently synthesized from different groups in attempt to apply them to inorganic electronics. Our group recently synthesized five different derivatives with dithieno[3,2-a:2′,3′-c]phenazine (DTPhz) with equal substituents at 9 and 10 position (H, F, Cl, Br) or pyrido[2,3-b]dithieno[3,2-f:2′,3′-h]quinoxaline (8N-DTPhz). These molecules are very similar in their electronic properties because they have similar band gaps and HOMO levels, but different dipole moments between the halogen derivatives and the non-halogen derivatives. Being very similar as donors make them very good examples to study halogen bonding in donor-acceptor co-crystals with a fully perfluorinated acceptor such as trimeric perfluoro-ortho-phenylene mercury (TPPM). Halogen bonding was important in these co-crystals, since only the donors with halogen substituents lead to co-crystals with mixed donor-acceptor stacks. Unsubstituted DTPhz do not gave co-crystals, and 8N-DTPhz gave ...
Comparing Strong and Weak Halogen Bonding in Solution: C-13 NMR, UV/Vis, Crystallographic, and Computational Studies of an Intramolecular Model Widner, D.L.*; Robinson, E.R.*; Perez, A.B.*; Vang, H.G.*; Thorson, R.A.*; Driscoll, Z.L.*; Giebel, S.M.*; Berndt, C.W.*; Bosch, E.; Speetzen, E.D.; Bowling, N.P. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2017, 5739-5749.. C-I•••N and C-I•••pi halogen bonding in the structures of 1-benzyliodoimidazole derivatives Nwachukwu, C.I.; Bowling, N. P.; Bosch, E. Acta Crystallogr. C 2017, 73, 2-8. Conjugated, trans-Spanning Ligands as Models for Multivalent p-Phenylene Ethynylenes Vang, H.G.*; Driscoll, Z.L.*; Robinson, E.R.*; Green, C.E.*; Bosch, E.; Bowling, N.P. Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2016, 891-895.. Extended Self-complementary Halogen Bond Dimers Kirchner, L.M.; Bowling, N.P.; Bosch, E., J. Chem. Crystallogr. 2015, 45, 466-475.. The power of non-conventional phenyl C-H•••N hydrogen bonds: supportive crystal-packing force and dominant supramolecular ...
The global non-halogenated flame retardant chemicals market accounted for around USD 1,424.14 million in 2016, and is expected to register a CAGR of 7.18% during 2018-2023. The demand for non-halogenated flame retardants is driven by the rapid growth of infrastructure in the emerging economies such as India and increasing consumer demand for electrical & electronic products across the world.
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Halogen bonding has emerged at the forefront of advances in improving ligand: receptor interactions. In particular the newfound ability of this extant non-covalent-bonding phenomena has revolutionized computational approaches to drug discovery while simultaneously reenergizing synthetic approaches to the field. Here we survey, via examples of classical applications involving halogen atoms in pharmaceutical compounds and their biological hosts, the unique advantages that halogen atoms offer as both Lewis acids and Lewis bases.
The synthesis and anion binding properties of novel halogen-bonding (XB) bis-iodotriazole-pyridinium-containing acyclic and {[}2]catenane anion host systems are described. The XB acyclic receptor displays selectivity for acetate over halides with enhanced anion recognition properties compared to the analogous hydrogen-bonding (HB) acyclic receptor. A reversal in halide selectivity is observed in the XB {[}2]catenane, in comparison to the acyclic XB receptor, due to the interlocked hosts unique three-dimensional binding cavity, and no binding is observed for oxoanions. Notable halide anion association constant values determined for the {[}2]catenane in competitive organicaqueous solvent mixtures demonstrate considerable enhancement of anion recognition as compared to the HB catenane analogue. X-ray crystallographic analysis of a series of halide catenane complexes reveal strong XB interactions in the solid state. These interactions were studied using Cl and Br K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy ...
The synthesis and anion binding properties of novel halogen-bonding (XB) bis-iodotriazole-pyridinium-containing acyclic and {[}2]catenane anion host systems are described. The XB acyclic receptor displays selectivity for acetate over halides with enhanced anion recognition properties compared to the analogous hydrogen-bonding (HB) acyclic receptor. A reversal in halide selectivity is observed in the XB {[}2]catenane, in comparison to the acyclic XB receptor, due to the interlocked hosts unique three-dimensional binding cavity, and no binding is observed for oxoanions. Notable halide anion association constant values determined for the {[}2]catenane in competitive organicaqueous solvent mixtures demonstrate considerable enhancement of anion recognition as compared to the HB catenane analogue. X-ray crystallographic analysis of a series of halide catenane complexes reveal strong XB interactions in the solid state. These interactions were studied using Cl and Br K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy ...
Since the SN1 and E1 reactions proceed via the same carbocation intermediate, the product ratios are difficult to control and both substitution and elimination usually take place.. Having discussed the many factors that influence nucleophilic substitution and elimination reactions of alkyl halides, we must now consider the practical problem of predicting the most likely outcome when a given alkyl halide is reacted with a given nucleophile. As we noted earlier, several variables must be considered, the most important being the structure of the alkyl group and the nature of the nucleophilic reactant. The nature of the halogen substituent on the alkyl halide is usually not very significant if it is Cl, Br or I. In cases where both SN2 and E2 reactions compete, chlorides generally give more elimination than do iodides, since the greater electronegativity of chlorine increases the acidity of beta-hydrogens. Indeed, although alkyl fluorides are relatively unreactive, when reactions with basic ...
FRX Polymers Inc., a specialist in polymeric halogen-free flame retardant solutions, has announced the availability of its Nofia non-halogenated polypho...
Ibuprofen membrane electrodes based on different plasticizers: diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), o-nitrophenyloctyl ether (o-NPOE), dioctyl sebacate (DOS) and tetraoctylammonium 2-(4-isobutylphenyl)propionate were prepared. All electrodes show: a near Nernstian slope of characteristic (58.3-60.9 mV decade−1) in the measurement range (10−4-10−1 mol L−1), limit of detection (5.0×10−5 mol L−1), really long lifetime (12 months), dependence of the electrode potential on pH (5.5-9.0), reproducibility of potential (0.6-1.2 mV) and selectivity coefficients in relation to some organic and inorganic anions. The electrodes were applied for the determination of ibuprofen in tablets by the calibration curve method and the standard addition method ...
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Growing PP demand across key end-use industries such as construction, automotive and electrical & electronics is expected to remain a key driving factor for the global market. Growing concerns regarding halogen toxicity and fire safety issues coupled with environmental issues is also expected to have a positive impact on the market growth. Favorable regulatory scenario in North America and Europe is also expected to fuel the demand over the forecast period. High loading levels and drawbacks in process ability of halogen free flame is expected to remain a key challenge for market participants.. Construction emerged as the leading application segment and accounted for 37.7% of total market volume in 2013. Increasing infrastructure activities particularly in the emerging BRICS market coupled with growth need for flame retardants based polymers in construction industry is expected to drive this segment over the forecast period. Electrical & electronics market is expected to witness the fastest ...
University of Jyväskylä. Kari Rissanen has been Academy Professor in 2008-2012 at the University of Jyväskylä and has now been re-appointed for a second term. His research field is supramolecular chemistry, nanochemistry and X-ray crystallography. Within supramolecular chemistry, Rissanen is a well-renowned expert, both in structural research and synthetics. The focus of his research is on weak intermolecular interactions in solid state materials, solutions and gaseous phases. Special attention is paid to hydrogen and halogen bonds and the coordination chemistry of transition metals. The novel nano- and supramolecular systems that Rissanen has constructed are built on weak intermolecular interactions. Halogen bonding is a relatively new concept, and Rissanens contribution has been crucial to understanding its mechanisms and potential to use it.. Rissanens aim is to construct novel encapsulated supramolecules by applying metal coordination or halogen bonding and new halogen-bonded and ...
What does an older refrigerator, bleach,toothpaste and pesticides have in common? All contain one or more halogens, the Group VII elements of the Periodic Table: fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine. (Astatine is radioactive and does not behave like the other halogens.) Today we shall study these very reactive elements, sitting so close to the most…
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Look sensible and also size wise, the xenon concealed bulbs look like the traditional halogen lamps in both bulb and outlet size and can quickly create an optimal replacement over the halogen lamps which is most gone with these days. Xenon Hid Conversion Set consists of HID XENON bulbs, two ballasts with all required circuitry, ballast placing brackets as well as naturally the installation guidebook. Before buying a Xenon Lights Hid Conversion Set Xenon Lighting significantly aid in guaranteeing improved presence on the road specifically in instances of blind places, particles as well as also pets which have a propensity to stand midway on the roadways. The advantages of xenon HID lie in sending out whiter and far better illumination compared to yellow halogen light irrespective of climate conditions.. H7 xenon bulbs are an upgrade over the regular xenon light bulbs and also many favored on expensive deluxe vehicles. Much remarkable in efficiency the H7 xenon bulbs offer 3.5 times a lot more ...
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United States Patent Richard B. Hartman White Bear Lake; George H. Smith, Maplewood, both Minn. 857,552 Sept. 12, 1969 Nov. 2, 1971 Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company Saint Paul, Minn. [72] Inventors [21 Appl. No. [22] Filed [45] Patented [73] Assignee [54] PROPENONE SENSITIZERS FOR THE PHOTOLYSIS OF ORGANIC HALOGEN COMPOUNDS 8 Claims, No Drawings 52 us. Cl 96/90, [51] Int. Cl G03c 1/60, G030 1/72 [50] Field of Search 96/90, 88, 48,115 P, 35.1, 73, 74, 65, 66.3, 99, 100, 1.3, 1.5 [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,081,165 3/1963 Ebert 96/l.3 3,374,094 3/1968 Wainer 96/90 X Primary Examiner-John T. Goolkasian Assistant Examiner-M. E. McCamish Attorney-Kinney, Alexander, Sell, Steldt & De La Hunt ABSTRACT: Photosensitive compositions containing nonbasic propenone compounds as sensitizers for photolyzable organic halogen compounds, and image recording elements in which at least one layer contains such photosensitive compositions. PROPENONE SENSITIZERS FOR THE PHOTOLYSIS OF ...
Halogen ovens are distinct from microwave ovens in that they use inert halogen gas to cook rather than radio waves. Both are able to cook foods in a relatively short period of time,...
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wherein Ra32 represents a hydrogen atom, a halogen group, or a C1-C6 alkyl group optionally having a halogen group, Ra33 represents a hydrogen atom, a halogen group, a C1-C6 alkyl group, a C1-C6 alkoxy group, a C2-C4 acyl group, a C2-C4 acyloxy group, or (meth) acryloxy group, Ra34 and Ra35 each independently represent a hydrogen atom or a C1-C12 aliphatic hydrocarbon group, Xa2 represents a single bond or a C1-C17 aliphatic hydrocarbon group in which a hydrogen atom can be replaced by a halogen group, a hydroxyl group, a C1-C6 alkoxy group, a C2-C4 acyl group or a C2-C4 acyloxy group and in which a methylene group may be replaced by an oxygen atom, a sulfur atom, a carbonyl group, a sulfonyl group or --N(Rd)-- where Rd represents a hydroxyl group or a C1-C6 alkyl group, Ya3 represents a C1-C18 hydrocarbon group optionally having a halogen atom, a hydroxyl group, a C1-C6 alkyl group, a C1-C6 alkoxy group, a C2-C4 acyl group or a C2-C4 acyloxy group, and 1a represents an integer of 0 to 4. The ...
A halogenation is either a substitution reaction in which one or more hydrogen atoms in an organic compound is replaced by halogen atoms or an addition reaction that introduces two or more halogen atoms to an organic compound.. eg. 1:. ...
Dimers of lithium formamidinate, CH(NH)2Li, and halogenated formamidines, HN=CHNHX, (X=Cl, Br, or I) are used as model systems to investigate simultaneous N-X···N and N-Li···N interactions, in tandem with orthogonal Li···X interactions. Geometry optimizations and energy calculations for the dimers are examined with the MP2 method and the M06-2X hybrid functional and the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set (the aug-cc-pVTZ-PP basis set is used for the iodine atom). Both methods predict the formation of a planar structure of C2v symmetry, regardless of the identity of the halogen atom. In this structure, the identities of the constituent monomers are essentially lost. Accordingly, the N-X···N interactions emerge as a rather symmetric quasi-linear N···X···N, where the covalent N-X bond in the halogenated formamidine is replaced by a partly covalent N···X interaction. Formation of the C2v structure is also driven by a fairly linear N···Li···N interaction parallel to the N···X···N
Porous silicon layers were fabricated by electrochemical etching of boron-doped p+-type silicon wafers (resistivity 0.01 to 0.05 Ω · cm; orientation ,100,). The composition of the solution was 1:2 hydrofluoric (HF) (48 wt.%):ethanol (98 wt.%). The wafers were galvanostatically etched under illumination from a 100-W halogen lamp. The applied etching density current was 80 mA · cm-2 for 20 s to grow layers around 75% porosity and 750 nm of thickness.. The deposition of Cu nanoparticles over p+-type crystalline Si and nanoPS layers was carried out by immersing the substrates in CuSO4 (50 mM) and H2SO4 (1 mM) aqueous solutions at room temperature during different times. H2SO4 is used to stabilize the pH. The deposition was activated by turning on the 100-W halogen lamp during the appropriate time. Once the deposition is finished, the samples are washed and rinsed twice in water and twice in ethanol and subsequently dried with N2.. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images were ...
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FRX Polymers announced the opening of its Antwerp manufacturing plant dedicated to the production of halogen free polyphosphonate flame retardant (FR) plastics. The first full scale commercial plant will focus on supplying Nofia polyphosphonates, FRX Polymers line of homopolymer, copolymer, and oligomer FR materials.
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Coordinative halogen bonds have recently gained interest for the assembly of supramolecular capsules. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry and theoretical calculations now reveal the well-defined gas-phase structures of dimeric and hexameric [N⋯I+⋯N] halogen-bonded capsules with counterions located inside their cavities as guests. The solution reactivity of the large hexameric capsule shows the intriguing solvent-dependent equilibrium between the hexamer and an unprecedented pentameric [N⋯I+⋯N] halogen-bonded capsule, when the solvent is changed from chloroform to dichloromethane. The intrinsic flexibility of the cavitands enables this novel structure to adopt a pseudo-trigonal bipyramidal geometry with nine [N⋯I+⋯N] bonds along the edges and two pyridine binding sites uncomplexed. ...
This report is a comprehensive research of halogens market in Mexico. The report starts with giving brief country profile for Mexico, including general
Material: Aluminum, Glass. Colour: Silver. Dimension (HxW): 365 mm x 100 mm. Cable: 2 meter SPT-1 with connector. Light Source Included: Halogen JC 12V 20W G4. Optional: LED cylinder 12x warm white 12V 1W GU5.3, LED cylinder 12x white 12V 1W GU5.3. IP Class: IP44 suited for outdoor use. Mounting Type: Ground spike, Mounting base. ...
Halogens are a group of highly reactive elements including fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine. When products containing halogens are burned, they produce very dangerous gasses. Public awareness of these dangers began after several tragic fires claimed the lives of victims who inhaled deadly halogenated fumes.. Several fires, including those at the Beverley Hills Supper Club, Londons Kings Cross Underground Station and Germanys Düsseldorf Airport, have lead to important changes that significantly limit where cables containing halogens may be used. Many organizations, local authorities and governments have undertaken broad initiatives to eliminate the production of halogenated material. In Asia, the United Kingdom and many European communities, the use of wire and cable containing halogens is highly regulated, and in some areas completely prohibited.. ...
5) Silver Halide Market (in North America, Europe and Asia) expected to grow at CAGR of XXXX % over the forecast period.. Do Inquiry Before Purchasing Report Here:https://market.biz/report/global-silver-halide-market-2016-asl/45410/#inquiry. At an initial stage, the Silver Halide market report covers the Silver Halide basic information including Silver Halide definitions, Silver Halide market classifications, a wide range of applications and Silver Halide industry chain framework. The Silver Halide Report also covers industry development plans and policies, Silver Halide product specification, Silver Halide manufacturing process and price structures. Then the report focuses on a deep study of global factors influencing the Silver Halide market like market revenue, product cost, Silver Halide market volume, utilization ratio along with Silver Halide market demand and supply analysis.. At a later stage, the report presents, Silver Halide market SWOT Analysis, feasibility study related to Silver ...
Chlorine is a poisonous gas and was used in the First World War. Chlorine is soluble in water and in this form has become an essential part of our life because it treats water so its good for drinking and is used in swimming pools.. The reaction with water Chlorine reacts with water in a reversible reaction to form chloric acid (HClO) and hydrochloric acid. In this reaction, the oxidation number of one of the chlorine atoms increases from a 0 to a +1. But, another Cl loses and becomes -1 and during this sort of redox reaction, where the same element decreases and increases, there is a name given to it. Its called - disproportionation.. This reaction takes place when chlorine is used to purify water for drinking and swimming pools; it prevents life threatening diseases that are in the water. It does this because Chloric acid oxidises bacteria, which kills it; its an oxiding agent! Chloric acid is also bleach.. Other halogens react similarly, however it is much more slowly as we go down the ...
HELLA was originally founded in Germany in 1899 and since then the company has evolved into a leading provider of aftermarket lighting committed to blending advanced technology with innovation and high-performance. Jeep lighting includes headlamps, light bars, small lamps and interior lighting and we carry many of these products and accessories like replacement bulbs and wiring kits. When you want to vastly improve nighttime visibility, HELLA has halogen, xenon and LED lighting systems to combat adverse weather and darkness. The company also manufactures expert vehicle electronics solutions including its Intelligent Battery Sensor and other accessories. Shop Hella Now. ...
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The pseudohalogens are polyatomic analogues of halogens, whose chemistry, resembling that of the true halogens, allows them to substitute for halogens in several classes of chemical compounds. Pseudohalogens occur in pseudohalogen molecules, inorganic molecules of the general forms Ps-Ps or Ps-X (where Ps is a pseudohalogen group), such as cyanogen; pseudohalide anions, such as cyanide ion; inorganic acids, such as hydrogen cyanide; as ligands in coordination complexes, such as ferricyanide; and as functional groups in organic molecules, such as the nitrile group. Well-known pseudohalogen functional groups include cyanide, cyanate, thiocyanate, and azide. Many pseudohalogens are known by specialized common names according to where they occur in a compound. Well-known ones include (the true halogen chlorine is listed for comparison): Examples of symmetrical pseudohalogens (Ps-Ps) include cyanogen (CN)2, thiocyanogen (SCN)2, selenorhodane (SeCN)2, azidodithiocarbonate (N3CS2)2. Another complex ...
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View Notes - Lecture 3B from CHEM CHEM 2204 at Carleton. Carbonyls and Enol (Enolate) Reactions . euterium xchange 9. Deuterium exchange 10. α- Halogen ation 11. α-alkylation 12. Ald ol formation
TY - JOUR AU - Sredović-Ignjatović, Ivana D. AU - Onjia, Antonije AU - Ignjatović, Ljubiša M. AU - Todorović, Žaklina AU - Rajaković, Ljubinka V. PY - 2015 UR - http://TechnoRep.tmf.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/3150 AB - Determination of total halogens in coal was investigated with oxygen bomb combustion followed by ion chromatography. Experimental parameters were optimized by fractional factorial design and response surface methodology. Fractional factorial design was employed in screening experiments to evaluate the influence of the oxygen pressure, catalyst, absorption solution, reduction reagent, bomb cooling time, and a combustion aid on the combustion of coal in an oxygen bomb. Response surface methodology was conducted to further refine the results obtained by fractional factorial design and to define parameters for the procedure. The accuracy and precision of combustion with ion chromatography were evaluated by the use of two certified reference materials and by fortified in-house ...
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Halogens[edit]. There are many other diseases likely to have been caused by common anions found in natural drinking water. ...
With halogens[edit]. Chalcogens also form compounds with halogens known as chalcohalides. Such compounds are known as chalcogen ... Halogens and chalcogens can also form halochalcogenate anions.[30] Organic[edit]. Alcohols, phenols and other similar compounds ... There are also mixed chalcogen-halogen compounds. These include SeSX, with X being chlorine or bromine.[dubious - discuss] Such ... Out of the compounds consisting purely of chalcogens and halogens, there are a total of 13 chalcogen fluorides, nine chalcogen ...
Halogen lamp. Main article: Halogen lamp. Halogen lamps are usually much smaller than standard incandescent lamps, because for ... Halogen lamps are incandescent lamps that use a fused quartz envelope filled with halogen gas ... Halogen lamp. Continuous. 16-23. 3,000-6,000. 3,200. Warm white (yellowish). 100 ... Also, they have higher efficacies (lumens per watt) and better lives than non-halogen types. The light output remains almost ...
Halogens[edit]. While the halogens aren't nucleophilic in their diatomic form (e.g. I2 is not a nucleophile), their anions are ... Lapworth, A. (1925). "Replaceability of Halogen Atoms by Hydrogen Atoms". Nature. 115: 625.. ...
"Halogen". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Emsley, John (2011). ... The halogens (/ˈhælədʒən, ˈheɪ-, -loʊ-, -ˌdʒɛn/[1][2][3]) are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically ... On p. 251, Schweigger proposed the word "halogen": "Man sage dafür lieber mit richter Wortbildung Halogen (da schon in der ... Diatomic halogen molecules[edit]. The halogens form homonuclear diatomic molecules (not proven for astatine). Due to relatively ...
Addition of hydrogen, halogens, and related reagents[edit]. Alkynes characteristically undergo reactions that show that they ... are "doubly unsaturated", meaning that each alkyne unit is capable of adding two equivalents of H2, halogens or related HX ...
halogens; III. metalloids ('resemble the metals in certain aspects, but are in others widely different'); and IV. metals. In ...
Bromide: Br− Bromite: BrO− 2 Bromate: BrO− 3 Perbromate: BrO− 4 Kneen; Rogers; Simpson (1972). "The Halogens". Chemistry. Facts ...
Oxygen and the halogens tend to form more ionic compounds with metals; the remaining reactive nonmetals tend to form more ... the halogens; and 18, the helium group, composed of the noble gases (excluding helium) and oganesson. Alternatively, the p- ... especially with the highly electronegative halogen nonmetals. The p-block is on the right side of the standard periodic table ... block can be described as containing post-transition metals; metalloids; reactive nonmetals including the halogens; and noble ...
Halogen: Incandescent lamps containing halogen gases such as iodine or bromine, increasing the efficacy of the lamp versus a ... 90% when compared to a halogen downlight or spotlight. LED lamps or bulbs are now available to retro fit in place of high ... and energy saving halogen lamps 70%. The lifetime is also much longer - up to 50,000 hours. A downside is still the initial ...
"Halogen". 7:02. 6.. "New Devil". 6:55. 7.. "Patience". 4:42. ...
But, when hydrogen combines with halogens, it produces acids rather than hydrides, and they are not flammable. ...
Pearson RG & Mawby RJ 1967, "The nature of metal-halogen bonds", in V Gutmann (ed.), Halogen chemistry, Academic Press, pp. 55- ... The remaining nonmetals are divided into metalloids, quintessential nonmetals, halogens, and noble gases. Since the metalloids ... The nonmetallic halogens (F, Cl, Br, I) readily form anions including in aqueous solution; the oxide ion O2− is unstable in ... In scheme (1), the halogens are in a category of their own; astatine is classed as a nonmetal, rather than a metalloid; and the ...
1. Compounds of Halogens. (in Chinese) Georg Brauer (Hrsg.), unter Mitarbeit von Marianne Baudler u. a.: Handbuch der ...
1998). "Halogens and their compounds". Encyclopaedia of occupational health and safety (4th ed.). International Labour ...
In a 2010 paper, Finlayson-Pitts detailed the role of halogens in reactions of the lower atmosphere. She found that chlorine ... Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J. (February 2010). "Halogens in the Troposphere". Analytical Chemistry. 82 (3): 770-776. doi:10.1021/ ...
... a halogen gas is used. Halogens are chemically active. Therefore, when the filament releases tungsten particles, the halogen ... Most theatrical lamps are tungsten-halogen (or quartz-halogen), an improvement on the original incandescent design that used ... Tungsten-Halogen lamps, or T-H lamps, are similar to incandescent bulbs, but instead of an inert gas being used, ... LED instruments are an alternative to traditional stage lighting instruments which use halogen lamp or high-intensity discharge ...
Other halogens behave analogously. This reaction provides a convenient method for precipitating the nickel portion of the toxic ...
http://foundationpf.com/who/ https://www.instagram.com/p/Bsb-cl3BKg5/ "Dan Jackson". Halogen. Retrieved 28 October 2019. Daniel ...
Americium (95Am) is an artificial element, and thus a standard atomic weight cannot be given. Like all artificial elements, it has no known stable isotopes. The first isotope to be synthesized was 241Am in 1944. The artificial element decays by ejecting alpha particles. Americium has an atomic number of 95 (the number of protons in the nucleus of the americium atom). Nineteen radioisotopes of americium-223Am, 229Am, 230Am, and those ranging from 232Am to 247Am-have been characterized, with the most stable being 243Am with a half-life of 7,370 years, and 241Am with a half-life of 432.2 years. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 51 hours, and the majority of these have half-lives that are less than 100 minutes. This element also has 8 meta states, with the most stable being 242mAm (t1/2 = 141 years). ...
Halo-gens Noble gases Period. 1 Hydro-gen1H​1.008 He-lium2He​4.0026 ...
Halogen lamps (also known as "quartz-halogen") are just incandescent lamps that run at a higher temperature than standard ... Halogen[70] CFL[71] LED (EcoSmart clear)[72] LED (Philips)[73] LED (Cree)[74] LED (V-TAC)[75] ... Incandescent and halogen lamps naturally have a power factor of 1, but Compact fluorescent and LED lamps use input rectifiers ... one manufacturer claimed a 16-watt LED lamp was as bright as a 150 W halogen lamp.[45] A standard general-purpose incandescent ...
Halo-gens Noble gases Period. 1 Hydro-gen1H​1.008 He-lium2He​4.0026 ...
Tin-126 is a radioisotope of tin and one of only seven long-lived fission products. While tin-126's half-life of 230,000 years translates to a low specific activity of gamma radiation, its short-lived decay products, two isomers of antimony-126, emit 17 and 40 keV gamma radiation and a 3.67 MeV beta particle on their way to stable tellurium-126, making external exposure to tin-126 a potential concern. 126Sn is in the middle of the mass range for fission products. Thermal reactors, which make up almost all current nuclear power plants, produce it at a very low yield (0.056% for 235U), since slow neutrons almost always fission 235U or 239Pu into unequal halves. Fast fission in a fast reactor or nuclear weapon, or fission of some heavy minor actinides such as californium, will produce it at higher yields. ...
Thallium (Tl) has 37 isotopes which have atomic masses that range from 176 to 212. 203Tl and 205Tl are the only stable isotopes and 204Tl is the most stable radioisotope with a half-life of 3.78 years. 207Tl, with a half-life of 4.77 minutes, has the longest half-life of naturally occurring radioisotopes. Thallium-202 (half-life 12.23 days) can be made in a cyclotron[1] while thallium-204 (half-life 3.78 years) is made by the neutron activation of stable thallium in a nuclear reactor.[2] In fully ionized state, the isotope 205Tl becomes beta-radioactive, decaying to 205Pb.[3] It means that in fully ionized state thallium has only one stable isotope - 203Tl. Standard atomic mass: 204.3833(2) u ...
0.012%). There are also 35 known artificial radioisotopes, the longest-lived of which are 179Ta with a half-life of 1.82 years, 182Ta with a half-life of 114.43 days, 183Ta with a half-life of 5.1 days, and 177Ta with a half-life of 56.56 hours. All other isotopes have half-lives under a day, most under an hour. There are also numerous isomers, the most stable of which (other than 180mTa) is 178m1Ta with a half-life of 2.36 hours. Tantalum has been proposed as a "salting" material for nuclear weapons (cobalt is another, better-known salting material). A jacket of 181Ta, irradiated by the intense high-energy neutron flux from an exploding thermonuclear weapon, would transmute into the radioactive isotope 182 ...
Electrophilic halogens: elemental fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine, and electrophilic salts such as sodium hypochlorite ...
"Halogens as oxidising agents - Chemguide". Atkins; et al. (2010). Inorganic Chemistry (5th ed.). Oxford University Press. p. ...
Digital, Halogen. "Angel Meadow". "Circle Square. Manchester's most intriguing new neighbourhood". circlesquaremanchester.com ...
"About Us". Halogen Foundation. "Our History". Lions Befrienders. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. "Art Apart ... One of the beneficiaries includes Halogen Foundation, an educational charity that helps to develop young leaders and ...
Like Group 2, you need to understand the reactions of the halogens from the point of view of the oxidation state of each of the ...
"Halogen". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Emsley, John (2011). ... The halogens (/ˈhælədʒən, ˈheɪ-, -loʊ-, -ˌdʒɛn/[1][2][3]) are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically ... On p. 251, Schweigger proposed the word "halogen": "Man sage dafür lieber mit richter Wortbildung Halogen (da schon in der ... Diatomic halogen molecules[edit]. The halogens form homonuclear diatomic molecules (not proven for astatine). Due to relatively ...
Halogens are important components of many types of compounds, especially when bonded with hydrogen. Halogens closely... ... The halogen group is composed of chlorine, fluorine, bromine, and iodine. ... The halogen group is composed of chlorine, fluorine, bromine, and iodine. Halogens are important components of many types of ... All the halogens have been employed to delineate ore deposits of zinc, cooper, and gold (Boyle, 1987; Levinson, 1980). However ...
halogen (hăl´əjĕn) [Gr.,=salt-bearing], any of the chemically active elements found in Group 17 of the periodic table [1]; the ... Pure halogens exist as diatomic molecules, e.g., Cl2; they form interhalogen compounds, i.e., compounds between two halogens. ... denoting lamps and radiant heat sources using a filament surrounded by the vapor of iodine or another halogen: halogen ... halogen (hăl´əjĕn) [Gr.,=salt-bearing], any of the chemically active elements found in Group 17 of the periodic table; the name ...
Low smoke zero halogen or low smoke free of halogen (LSZH or LSOH or LS0H or LSFH or OHLS) is a material classification ... When burned, a low-smoke zero halogen cable emits a less optically dense smoke that releases at a lower rate. During a fire, a ... LSZH cable jacketing is composed of thermoplastic or thermoset compounds that emit limited smoke and no halogen when exposed to ... Low smoke zero halogen cable considerably reduces the amount of toxic and corrosive gas emitted during combustion. ...
These halogens also react to a small extent with water, forming acidic solutions with bleaching properties. ... This experiment compares the colours of three halogens in aqueous solution and in a non-polar solvent. ... The halogens in water and a hydrocarbon solvent (optional). a Pour about 2 cm3 of each of the aqueous halogen solutions into ... Halogens undergo redox reactions with metal halides in solution, displacing less reactive halogens from their compounds. These ...
... halogen bonding has lately attracted rapidly increasing interest. As most of these... ... Dihydroquinidine-halogen complexes as chiral sources of positive halogen ion. Can J Chem 76:1233-1237Google Scholar ... Koskinen L, Hirva P, Kalenius E et al (2015) Halogen bonds with coordinative nature: halogen bonding in a S-I+-S iodonium ... Carlsson AC.C., Veiga A.X., Erdélyi M. (2014) Halogen Bonding in Solution. In: Metrangolo P., Resnati G. (eds) Halogen Bonding ...
OSNews is Exploring the Future of Computing with news on desktop, server, mobile, and specialty operating systems and new computing technology.
Halogen Guides and American Express® today announced the launch of Flight Simplified (visit ... About Halogen Guides Halogen Guides focuses on smart luxury. Our consumer Web sites take the guesswork out of ultra-luxury ... Halogen Publishers is a new division of Halogen Guides that connects more than 20 upscale travel and lifestyle publishers into ... Flight Simplified will be promoted on both the American Express and Halogen Guides websites, and through Halogen Publishers, an ...
Unicorn HRO today announced it has entered into a partnership with Halogen Software, a leading provider ... Unicorn HRO today announced it has entered into a partnership with Halogen Software, a leading provider of cloud-based talent ... "I am excited about partnering with Halogen" said Timothy Diassi, EVP & General Manager, Unicorn HRO. "They have been a leader ... A world leader in Talent Management, Halogen Software is renowned for its award-winning software, expert professional services ...
Halogen lamps are a type of incandescent lamp using a tungsten filament in bulbs that have small amounts of a halogen, such as ... All of the halogens form acids when bonded to hydrogen. Most halogens are typically produced from minerals or salts. The middle ... The name "halogen" means "salt-producing". When halogens react with metals, they produce a wide range of salts, including ... The halogens tend to decrease in toxicity towards the heavier halogens. Fluorine gas is extremely toxic; breathing in fluorine ...
... DOWNLOAD INFO PACKET Download Information Packet. Select items you wish to download ...
The vigour of the reaction depends on the reactivity order of the halogens. ... Halogen reactions with iron wool video. Video Duration : 00:01:39 time (hh:mm:ss) Halogen reactions with iron wool video ( ... Halogen reactions with iron wool. Demonstration. In this demonstration experiment, iron wool is heated in the presence of ... The order in which the experiments are done is a matter of choice, but it is probably best to leave the most reactive halogen ( ...
1 is a front, right side perspective view of an adjustable halogen lamp showing my new design; ... The ornamental design for an adjustable halogen lamp, as shown and described. ... www.google.comhttp://www.google.com/patents/USD328148?utm_source=gb-gplus-sharePatent USD328148 - Adjustable halogen lamp. ...
The halogens are a series of chemical elements. Halogen may also refer to: Halogen (album), by Whitehouse Halogen (band), an ... a type of incandescent light bulb Halogen oven, a type of cooker utilising halogen bulbs Halogen Communications, a UK ... communications consultancy Halogen Foundation, a not-for-profit in Singapore Halogen Software, a Canadian company that provides ... a US cable network This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Halogen. If an internal link led you here ...
Halogen light bulbs will be banned in Europe on September 1 to encourage consumers to switch over to the more energy-efficient ...
Halogens, stratospheric ozone and the Montreal Protocol. *Environmental Sustainability and Resilience. York research has ... have explored whether future increases in VSL halocarbons as a result of climate change could counteract the effect of halogen ...
... s largest selection and best deals for Litecraft Halogen Ceiling Lights & Chandeliers. Shop with confidence on eBay! ... 3 M T Shape Kitchen Track Light Black & 6 Soho Fixture W/ Halogen Bulb Litecraft ... 3M U Shape Kitchen Track Light Black & 6 Soho Fixture W/ Halogen Bulb Litecraft ... 3M L Shape Kitchen Track Light Black & 6 Soho Fixture W/ Halogen Bulb Litecraft ...
Halogen Lamps. Halogen lamps are an extreme hazard and are NOT PERMITTED in residence buildings. See Moving In: What Not To ... Halogen Lamps. Hazardous Materials. Candles, incense and firecrackers are NOT allowed - in Campus Housing. See Residence Life ...
Find Halogens Chemical Elements information at Best of the Web. Top rated websites. A compendium of scientific websites ... Chemistry of the Halogens Features the properties commonly found among the elements included in the Halogens group, as well as ...
One of the first steps toward energy efficient homes was the halogen light bulb, which offered the same amount of light as the ... Carefully grip the halogen bulb and gently twist it counter-clockwise until it can be pulled from the light socket. These bulbs ... How to Replace Halogen Light Bulbs With LED By J. Cavan Barry ... are able to consume a fraction of the already efficient halogen ... One of the first steps toward energy efficient homes was the halogen light bulb, which offered the same amount of light as the ...
... www.researchmoz.us/global-and-china-halogen-lamp-industry-2014-market-research-report-report.html The report firstly … ... table Of Contents chapter One Halogen Lamp Industry Overview 1.1 Halogen Lamp Definition 1.2 Halogen Lamp Classification And ... Global and China Halogen Lamp Industry 2014: Market Overview * 1. Global and China Halogen Lamp Industry 2014 Market Research ... And also listed Halogen Lamp upstream raw materials equipments and down stream clients survey analysis and Halogen Lamp ...
A halogen bulb is a long-lasting and far more energy-efficient form of the standard incandescent bulbit can yield a 40 percent ... When to Use a Halogen Bulb: PM Tool Tips. A halogen bulb is a long-lasting and far more energy-efficient form of the standard ... A halogen bulb is a long-lasting and far more energy-efficient form of the standard incandescent bulb-it can yield a 40 percent ... Install a new halogen bulb using a clean, lint-free cloth to avoid leaving oily fingerprints, which can burn through the bulbs ...
Find Halogen Light Sources suppliers with the Photonics Buyers Guide. Details for all companies and products provided to help ... halogen lamplighting sourcebulbssubminiature halogenquartz halogenilluminationtungsten halogenlight sources ... halogen Any of the five elements astatine, chlorine, fluorine, bromine and iodine, grouped because their chemical properties ... The Photonics Buyers Guide is a comprehensive resource for verified providers of Halogen Light Sources. Profiles and contact ...
Save big on our wide selection of Aurora Gray/Silver Halogen Wall Lamps and get fast & free shipping on select orders. ... Shop Aurora Gray/Silver Halogen Wall Lamps at Staples. ... Compatible with any G9 base, LED, halogen, CFL, or incandecent ... Aurora Lighting 1-Light Halogen Swing Arm Wall Sconce - Polished Steel (STL-LTR451488) Item: 2231467 / Model : STL-LTR451488 ... Aurora Lighting 1-Light Halogen Clip-On Desk Lamp - Polished Steel (STL-LTR415886) Item: 2231639 / Model : STL-LTR415886 ...
... s largest Halogen Contemporary Sconce Wall Lights selection. Find the perfect Christmas gift with eBay this Christmas. ... Searchlight 80Watts Halogen Chrome Circular Glass Bathroom Wall Bracket Light. Wall Light 80 Watt Halogen wall light in chrome ... Searchlight 2 Halogen Lights Chrome Modern Hallway Wall Fitting Bracket Light. Sculptured two light chrome halogen wall bracket ... Searchlight 40Watts Halogen Chrome Circular Glass Bathroom Wall Bracket Light. Wall Light 40Watt Halogen chrome finish circular ...
In addition, one halogen bond to a water molecule (w) is seen (left). (b) Intramolecular halogen bond identified as stabilizing ... a) Polar scatter plot relative to Θ1 and the normalized halogen (X) to oxygen distances (RX···O, where RX···O ≤ RvdW) are ... A halogen bond in biomolecules can be defined as a short C-X...O-Y interaction (C-X is a carbon-bonded chlorine, bromine, or ... Schematic of short halogen (X) interactions to various oxygen-containing functional groups (where O. Y can be a carbonyl, ...
Halogens, a series of non-metal elements that are lethal to living organisms, are commonly used in disinfectants. The halogens ... Halogens, a series of non-metal elements that are lethal to living organisms, are commonly used in disinfectants. The halogens ... The amount of a halogen used in a disinfectant is sufficient to kill microorganisms but not enough to pose a significant risk ...
Shop the latest collection of Black Halogen womens shoes from the most popular stores - all in one ... Halogen Elly Slide A classic, pointy-toe silhouette distinguishes a must-have slide. Style Name:Halogen Elly Slide (Women). ... Halogen Maisy dOrsay Flat A breezy dOrsay silhouette distinguishes a contemporary pointy-toe flat. Style Name:Halogen Maisy ... Halogen Mindy Lace-Up Pump Fringe tassels trim the slim laces that wrap up and around the ankle of this elegant pointy-toe pump ...
how far apart do you place halogen recessed lights in the kitchen? My kitchen is 12 by 14 feet. On the one side it is 9 feet ... halogen lights how far apart do you place halogen recessed lights in the kitchen? My kitchen is 12 by 14 feet. On the one side ... Re: halogen lights Are you sure you dont mean Halo? Halogen is almost extinct due to its high heat output and low efficiency. ... Halogen lites will burn the top of your dome if follicle challenged, for sure.... Or do what the rest of the would will be ...
  • The ornamental design for an adjustable halogen lamp, as shown and described. (google.com)
  • And also listed Halogen Lamp upstream raw materials equipments and down stream clients survey analysis and Halogen Lamp marketing channels industry development trend and proposals. (slideshare.net)
  • In the end, The report introduced Halogen Lamp new project SWOT analysis Investment feasibility analysis investment return analysis and also give related research conclusions and development trend analysis on Global and China Halogen Lamp industry. (slideshare.net)
  • In a word, it was a depth research report on Global and China Halogen Lamp industry. (slideshare.net)
  • And thanks to the support and assistance from Halogen Lamp industry chain related technical experts and marketing engineers during Research Team survey and interviews. (slideshare.net)
  • 3. 12.1 Halogen Lamp Project Swot Analysis 12.2 Halogen Lamp New Project Investment Feasibility Analysis chapter Thirteen Global And China Halogen Lamp Industry Research Conclusions ResearchMoz(http://www.researchmoz.us/) is the one stop online destination to find and buy market research reports & Industry Analysis. (slideshare.net)
  • This 12V 35W Racing Series halogen lamp is made for automobile use and comes with a matching gasket and a 1/2" deep lens with a slight amber tint. (sciplus.com)
  • I'm thinking about using a halogen lamp with a bottle generator. (bikeforums.net)
  • I am converting a bike lamp that uses a conventional hard-vacuum tungsten bulb to halogen, and I am concerned about the effect of overvoltage on the bulb. (bikeforums.net)
  • Zoo Med Repti Halogen Heat Lamp is another "First" from Zoo Med! (aquariumsupplies.ca)
  • The Repti Tuff is a heavy duty, "splash-proof" halogen lamp. (aquariumsupplies.ca)
  • I built a simple 'Bounce Light' using a 500 Watt Halogen lamp fitted within a reflector formed by an old cooking dish. (instructables.com)
  • This Plusrite 3358 500 watt clear double ended halogen lamp operates at 120 volts and is great for a wide variety of lighting applications, including applications that use timers to control lights, offering you complete lighting versatility. (1000bulbs.com)
  • Halogen Infrared Heat Lamp - Tests in laboratory conditions have proven halogen infrared bulbs last longer and are very shock resistant. (jefferspet.com)
  • The normal red 250 watt incandescent heat lamp was about 100*-110*F. This Halogen heat lamp was about 85-90*F on high and about 75*F on low. (jefferspet.com)
  • Just received the Halogen Infrared Heat Lamp. (jefferspet.com)
  • The Nelson Linear Halogen 500 Watt Lamp MQ05DP is designed for halogen flood lights with the R75 lamp holder. (bunnings.com.au)
  • If you can not find the Ushio halogen lamp you need, call one of our lighting specialists at 800.867.2852. (topbulb.com)
  • GE Invents A CFL/Halogen Lamp? (jimonlight.com)
  • The middle halogens, that is chlorine, bromine and iodine, are often used as disinfectants . (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1811, the German chemist Johann Schweigger proposed that the name "halogen" - meaning "salt producer", from αλς [als] "salt" and γενειν [genein] "to beget" - replace the name "chlorine", which had been proposed by the English chemist Humphry Davy . (wikipedia.org)
  • Some other halogen compounds are calomel (mercurous chloride), fluorite , sal ammoniac ( ammonium chloride ), corrosive sublimate ( mercuric chloride ), and chlorine bleaches. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 2 The halogen solutions can be diluted further to minimise the amount of chlorine or bromine fumes given off but should not be so dilute that their distinctive colours are not clearly visible in the test-tubes (a white background may be needed for chlorine water). (rsc.org)
  • In addition to using this demonstration to show the relative reactivity of the halogens, the reaction of chlorine or bromine with iron could be used on its own to show the reaction between a reactive non-metallic element and a metal. (rsc.org)
  • halogen Any of the five elements astatine, chlorine, fluorine, bromine and iodine, grouped because their chemical properties are similar. (photonics.com)
  • A halogen bond in biomolecules can be defined as a short C-X...O-Y interaction (C-X is a carbon-bonded chlorine, bromine, or iodine, and O-Y is a carbonyl, hydroxyl, charged carboxylate, or phosphate group), where the X...O distance is less than or equal to the sums of the respective van der Waals radii (3.27 A for Cl. (nih.gov)
  • Known collectively by a term derived from a Greek word meaning "salt-producing," the halogen family consists of five elements: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The halogens are all nonmetals, and tend to form salts with metals, as in the example of sodium chloride (NaCl), a bond between chlorine, a halogen, and the metal sodium. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Organic halogen compounds are known to photodissociate to give free radical halogen, such as free radical bromine and chlorine, which are good hydrogen abstractors and which will produce acid in the presence of hydrogen donors. (google.ca)
  • The committee observed that the AEGL [acute exposure guideline level] values for the three halogen fluorides are linked with each other and three other compounds, hydrogen fluoride, chlorine trifluoride, and chlorine dioxide, chemicals for which TSDs have already been published (NRC 2004, 2007). (fluoridealert.org)
  • Halogen -free is defined as both (1) no halogen compounds are intentionally added to the product or used in the manufacturing process for the product, and (2) any impurities present are less than 900 ppm bromine, less than 900 ppm chlorine, and/or less than 1500 ppm total bromine and chlorine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The halogens (/ˈhælədʒən, ˈheɪ-, -loʊ-, -ˌdʒɛn/) are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in 1826, the Swedish chemist Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius proposed the term "halogen" for the elements fluorine, chlorine, and iodine, which produce a sea-salt-like substance when they form a compound with an alkaline metal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Halogen lamps are an extreme hazard and are NOT PERMITTED in residence buildings. (uleth.ca)
  • Add halogen lamps to the list, and the answer becomes more clear: all involve one or more of the halogens, which form Group 7 of the periodic table of elements. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Welch Allyn Lighting Products (Skaneateles Falls, NY) has introduced HPX® miniature halogen lamps with enhanced ultraviolet (UV) output and increased stability. (techbriefs.com)
  • Tungsten halogen lamps behave in a similar manner to other incandescent lamps when run on a different voltage. (bikeforums.net)
  • Super high quality halogen lamps specifically made for reptile use! (aquariumsupplies.ca)
  • Heraeus has designed a series of tungsten halogen lamps (TH) specifically for use in analytical applications. (globalspec.com)
  • Redbank Instruments offer a range of Maggylamp halogen machine lamps. (ferret.com.au)
  • The PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) operation of the automotive halogen lamps will be forced by the automobile manufactures with the introduction of the increased voltage batteries. (actapress.com)
  • Increasing the battery voltage could cause decrease in material cost (thinner wires needed) but the commercial automotive halogen lamps can not to operate at higher voltage. (actapress.com)
  • I purchase two heat lamps with halogen bulb turned off because of heat outside went to turn back on for night heat and it would not come back on high or lower heat neither less than two weeks old just wondering how long the bulb supposed to last. (jefferspet.com)
  • I still like the halogen lamps. (jefferspet.com)
  • Fluorine, a pale yellow gas, is the least dense and chemically the most active, displacing the other halogens from their compounds and even displacing oxygen from water. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The chemical reactivity of halogens decreases from fluorine to iodine as the atomic radius increases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Halogens are important components of many types of compounds, especially when bonded with hydrogen. (springer.com)
  • they form interhalogen compounds, i.e., compounds between two halogens. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The halogens form numerous compounds with other elements. (encyclopedia.com)
  • LSZH cable jacketing is composed of thermoplastic or thermoset compounds that emit limited smoke and no halogen when exposed to high sources of heat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Halogens undergo redox reactions with metal halides in solution, displacing less reactive halogens from their compounds. (rsc.org)
  • Rodd's Chemistry of Carbon Compounds, Volume I, Part A: General Introduction: Hydrocarbons Halogen Derivatives covers the classification and nomenclature of hydrocarbons and their halogen derivatives. (elsevier.com)
  • 56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,081,165 3/1963 Ebert 96/l.3 3,374,094 3/1968 Wainer 96/90 X Primary Examiner-John T. Goolkasian Assistant Examiner-M. E. McCamish Attorney-Kinney, Alexander, Sell, Steldt & De La Hunt ABSTRACT: Photosensitive compositions containing nonbasic propenone compounds as sensitizers for photolyzable organic halogen compounds, and image recording elements in which at least one layer contains such photosensitive compositions. (google.ca)
  • PROPENONE SENSITIZERS FOR THE PHOTOLYSIS OF ORGANIC HALOGEN COMPOUNDS This invention relates to a new class of sensitizers for the photolysis of organic halogen compounds. (google.ca)
  • ln'particular this invention relates to sensitizers which extend the photolysis of organic halogen compounds to higher wavelengths of light. (google.ca)
  • Organic halogen compounds are widely used in the graphic arts field to produce commercially useful photosensitive constructions. (google.ca)
  • Various photosensitive products useful in printing, duplicating, copying and other imaging systems can be prepared with such organic halogen compounds. (google.ca)
  • The use of sensitizers tobroaden the spectral response of organic halogen compounds is known, and yellow azo dyes, styryl and leuco dye bases, and cyanine dyes are suitable for this purpose. (google.ca)
  • The yellow azo compounds are restricted in their absorption of light and in many cases do not effectively sensitize organic halogen compounds. (google.ca)
  • It is therefore an object of this invention to provide a novel sensitized photosensitive element having photolyzable organic halogen compounds. (google.ca)
  • Another object of this invention is to provide sensitized compositions containing photolyzable organic halogen compounds. (google.ca)
  • Here we survey, via examples of classical applications involving halogen atoms in pharmaceutical compounds and their biological hosts, the unique advantages that halogen atoms offer as both Lewis acids and Lewis bases. (mdpi.com)
  • Halogenated methane ( X -Me, Top ), uridine nucleobase ( X 5 U, Middle ), and cytosine nucleobase ( X 5 C, Bottom ) are shown looking into the halogen atoms to compare the induced negative (red), neutral (green), and positive (blue) electrostatic potentials around the halogen surfaces. (nih.gov)
  • The potential energies are presented only in the -25 to +25 kcal/mol range to emphasize the variation in electrostatic potential associated with the halogen atoms (note that some regions of electrostatic potential, especially those associated with heteroatoms, may lie beyond this ±25 kcal/mol range). (nih.gov)
  • April 6, 2016 -- Researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have found a potential path to further improve solar cell efficiency by understanding the competition among halogen atoms during the synthesis of sunlight-absorbing crystals. (eurekalert.org)
  • There are seven electrons (configuration s 2 p 5 ) in the outer electron shell of the halogen atoms, that is, they are one electron short of the stable eight-electron inert-gas configuration ( s 2 p 6 ). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Solvent polarity is shown to have a slight stabilizing effect on neutral, two-center halogen bonds while strongly destabilizes charged, two-center complexes. (springer.com)
  • It does not greatly influence the geometry of three-center halogen bonds, even though polar solvents facilitate dissociation of the counter-ion of charged three-center bonds. (springer.com)
  • Solvents possessing hydrogen bond donor functionalities efficiently destabilize all types of halogen bonds, primarily because of halogen vs hydrogen bond competition. (springer.com)
  • A purely electrostatic model is insufficient for the description of halogen bonds in polar systems whereas it may give reasonable correlation to experimental data obtained in noninteracting, apolar solvents. (springer.com)
  • Whereas dispersion plays a significant role for neutral, two-center halogen bonds, charged halogen bond complexes possess a significant charge transfer characteristic. (springer.com)
  • Halogen bonds in biological molecules. (nih.gov)
  • The present survey of protein and nucleic acid structures reveals similar halogen bonds as potentially stabilizing inter- and intramolecular interactions that can affect ligand binding and molecular folding. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, the specific geometry and diversity of the interacting partners of halogen bonds offer new and versatile tools for the design of ligands as drugs and materials in nanotechnology. (nih.gov)
  • Polar scatter plot and histogram distributions for halogen bonds. (nih.gov)
  • Depending on the stoichiometry, the resulting frameworks can form honeycomb structures of variable geometry, but also systems with four or six halogen bonds to the bromide ion. (eurekalert.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that control of the competition between hydrogen bonds and halogen bonds, the two most highly studied directional intermolecular interactions, can be exerted by choice of solvent (polarity) to direct the self-assembly of co-crystals. (rsc.org)
  • All members of the halogen family have the same valence-shell electron configurations, and thus tend to bond in much the same way. (encyclopedia.com)
  • WHENEVER the members of the halogen family put on an act, you can be sure there will be something doing in the way of entertainment. (modernmechanix.com)
  • These Rugged Ridge H3 Halogen off road light bulbs are 130 watt replac. (omix-ada.com)
  • Because of its expected applicability for modulation of molecular recognition phenomena in chemistry and biology, halogen bonding has lately attracted rapidly increasing interest. (springer.com)
  • Features the properties commonly found among the elements included in the Halogens group, as well as oxidation numbers and trends in Halogen chemistry. (botw.org)
  • Short oxygen-halogen interactions have been known in organic chemistry since the 1950s and recently have been exploited in the design of supramolecular assemblies. (nih.gov)
  • We plan to use our ion chemistry with a high-resolution time of flight mass spectrometer to make unambiguous assignments of our ion signal to halogen species by relying on their naturally occurring isotopic ratios. (washington.edu)
  • Through this association, Unicorn HRO will now offer their clients the Halogen TalentSpace™ suite of products - including market-leading solutions for performance management, learning and development, succession and leadership, compensation, and recruiting. (prweb.com)
  • For the Halogen TalentSpace blog, Sharlyn writes about HR trends and best practices that impact employee engagement and performance. (halogensoftware.com)
  • One of the first steps toward energy efficient homes was the halogen light bulb, which offered the same amount of light as the traditional incandescent bulb, but for a fraction of the energy. (ehow.com)
  • Recent developments in lighting technology have led to the use of LED's (light emitting diodes) in household bulbs, which are able to consume a fraction of the already efficient halogen bulb. (ehow.com)
  • Carefully grip the halogen bulb and gently twist it counter-clockwise until it can be pulled from the light socket. (ehow.com)
  • The Photonics Buyers' Guide is a comprehensive resource for verified providers of Halogen Light Sources. (photonics.com)
  • Sculptured two light chrome halogen wall bracket with sculptured ice glasses. (ebay.co.uk)
  • The halogen gas is used to create a powerful light that in turn quickly generates intense heat, which is circulated internally by the fan. (reference.com)
  • 3.5v Halogen HPX Spot Retinoscope provides 40% more light output than conventional scopes and maintains a consistent output level which greatly enhances illumination and produces the sharpest retinal reflex, making refractions. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The Midmark Halogen Dental Light is designed to push halogen lighting quality to the edge. (pattersondental.com)
  • The Midmark Halogen Dental Light features advanced shadow reduction, upfront touchpad controls, 3 axes of rotation, automatic on/off setting, 3 intensity settings and an independent composite safe setting. (pattersondental.com)
  • Outdoor halogen light fixtures offer a brilliant light radius which can often illuminate your entire yard. (ehow.com)
  • When you have a halogen light fixture outside and the bulb happens to go out, the difference is like, well, it is like night and day! (ehow.com)
  • A great source for home security or for simply being able to keep an eye on your dog as he does his business, halogen light fixtures are a wonderful addition to any backyard. (ehow.com)
  • Halogen light bulbs are long and thin, and they do not get screwed in, which can confuse some people. (ehow.com)
  • So to help keep your yard illuminated, here's how to change a lightbulb in an outdoor halogen light fixture. (ehow.com)
  • The first step before replacing a halogen light bulb is to turn OFF the power to the light fixture. (ehow.com)
  • The reason is that many halogen outdoor light fixtures come with a motion sensor or photoelectric switch installed and when you replace the bulb, it may automatically turn on. (ehow.com)
  • You do not want your fingers holding a halogen light bulb when it flares up as it gets extremely hot! (ehow.com)
  • Most outdoor halogen light fixtures feature a wide glass front, held in place by metal spring-loaded clamps. (ehow.com)
  • The halogen light bulb is held in place by two sockets. (ehow.com)
  • Turn the power to the halogen light fixture back ON. (ehow.com)
  • Always wear gloves when replacing a halogen light bulb. (ehow.com)
  • It's also why I decided to stop buying halogen and incandescent light bulbs. (bchydro.com)
  • The pure white light halogens emit makes them ideal for certain fixtures and situations. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Currently, solderpaste formulation is classified by IPC J-STD-004A9 standard, with permissible and declared halogen/halide level. (smta.org)
  • Low smoke zero halogen or low smoke free of halogen ( LSZH or LSOH or LS0H or LSFH or OHLS ) is a material classification typically used for cable jacketing in the wire and cable industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low smoke zero halogen cable considerably reduces the amount of toxic and corrosive gas emitted during combustion. (wikipedia.org)
  • When burned, a low-smoke zero halogen cable emits a less optically dense smoke that releases at a lower rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low Smoke Zero Halogen (LSZH / LS0H)-kappen er fremstillet af materialer, der reducerer afgivelsen af røg og halogen, når kablet udsættes for ekstreme temperaturer. (dell.com)
  • The halogen-bonding interaction is essentially described as an electrostatic interaction between a charge concentration (Lewis base) and a charge-depleted area, called an σ-hole, that a covalently bound halogen atom exhibits in the extension of this bond. (eurekalert.org)
  • Halogen bonding, the non-covalent interaction in which covalently bound halogens interact with Lewis bases, has now been utilized in the context of rational drug design. (nih.gov)
  • You may find that some halogen ovens vary in terms of wattage. (channelm.co.uk)
  • Pure halogens exist as diatomic molecules, e.g. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Mulliken RS (1950) Structures of complexes formed by halogen molecules with aromatic and with oxygenated solvents. (springer.com)
  • halogen contacts between hexachloroethane (HCE), C2Cl6 molecules lead to the loose crystal at ambient conditions. (rsc.org)
  • The molecules of the halogens are diatomic. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • While an IUPAC definition of hydrogen bonding was only released in 2011 after decades of discussions in the scientific community, it did not take such a long time to come up with an analogous definition of halogen bonding, following a revival of this interaction in the literature which can be traced back to the early 1990s, Fourmigué, M. (2017). (eurekalert.org)
  • Unicorn HRO today announced it has entered into a partnership with Halogen Software, a leading provider of cloud-based talent management solutions. (prweb.com)
  • A world leader in Talent Management, Halogen Software is renowned for its award-winning software, expert professional services, best practice-based content, and exceptional customer satisfaction. (prweb.com)
  • With their extensive experience in developing talent management products for healthcare, manufacturing, education, public sector, hospitality and professional service sectors, the partnership with Halogen Software enables Unicorn HRO to offer their clients comprehensive, cost-effective products which emphasize customer satisfaction. (prweb.com)
  • Whatever the reason driving your firm's learning and development needs - certification, performance improvement, onboarding, values alignment - with Halogen you get a complete solution that tightly integrates your learning management and content with your other talent management processes. (halogensoftware.com)
  • The Lominger LEADERSHIP ARCHITECT ® Competency Library integrates fully with the Halogen Talent Management ™ Suite. (halogensoftware.com)
  • OTTAWA, March 17 /PRNewswire/ - Halogen Software Inc., a leading providerof web-based employee performance and talent management software, todayannounced that it has been selected by Quiznos to provide a system for itsemployees at the company's Denver-based headquarters. (medindia.net)
  • Halogen Software makes powerful, simple-to-use and affordableemployee performance and talent management applications, which make HRbest-practices accessible to companies of all sizes. (medindia.net)
  • Elemental halogens are dangerous and can potentially be lethally toxic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Working in Barrow, on the north-central coast of Alaska, Lindberg and his colleagues correlated the buildup of these halogens during the Arctic spring with a dramatic, localized depletion of elemental mercury in the air. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Elemental halogens have seven valence electrons and are very reactive. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Organobromides are the most important class of flame retardants, while elemental halogens are dangerous and can be lethally toxic. (wikipedia.org)
  • When halogens react with metals they produce a wide range of salts, including calcium fluoride , sodium chloride (common table salt), silver bromide and potassium iodide . (wikipedia.org)
  • Most halogens are typically produced from minerals or salts . (wikipedia.org)
  • B73, 153-162 single-crystal X-ray diffraction structures have been reported for a series of seven halogen-bonded co-crystals featuring 1,3,5-tris(iodoethynyl)-2,4,6-trifluorobenzene as the halogen-bond donor, and bromide ions (as ammonium or phosphonium salts) as the halogen-bond acceptors. (eurekalert.org)
  • They are called halogens (from the Greek hals , salt) because they form salts (for example, common salt, NaCl) upon combination with metals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Metal sulfides react with halogens, forming sulfur and metal salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Problem is, it runs a lot hotter-so hot, in fact, that lights using halogen bulbs are completely unacceptable for children's rooms, play areas or dorm rooms. (popularmechanics.com)
  • how far apart do you place halogen recessed lights in the kitchen? (thisoldhouse.com)
  • I am placing the halogen lights from the wall ovens around the kitchen to the refrig. (thisoldhouse.com)
  • Halogen lights become very hot and could produce a burn to the skin. (tridel.com)
  • Increase the visibility and brilliance of your vehicle's lights with a SilverStar Mini halogen bulb that increase brightness by up to 30%, whiteness by up to 20%, and. (carid.com)
  • LED lighting can nowbe used to replace existing halogen spotlights and security lights. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Make sure you purchase the properly rated halogen bulb for the fixture (150w, 300w, etc. (ehow.com)
  • While a standard incandescent bulb actually lasts longer (but is dimmer) when voltage drops, a halogen bulb wears out more quickly because the lower voltage cannot sustain the chemical reaction that keeps its filament going. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Halogen ovens are distinct from microwave ovens in that they use inert halogen gas to cook rather than radio waves. (reference.com)
  • Halogen ovens heat food by way of a halogen element and a fan. (reference.com)
  • Halogen ovens also typically resemble a bowl or dome rather than the typical rectangular design of a microwave. (reference.com)
  • As if traditional ovens, cookers and microwaves didn't already cover plenty of ground, halogen ovens continue to be extremely popular with the average kitchen enthusiast. (channelm.co.uk)
  • In this buyer's guide, we will take a brief look at how halogen ovens work, what you should be looking for. (channelm.co.uk)
  • Halogen ovens come in all shapes and sizes, but it's important to know what to look for so you can narrow down your field of choice! (channelm.co.uk)
  • How Do Halogen Ovens Work? (channelm.co.uk)
  • Halogen ovens are small, countertop devices which work as something of a midway point between a traditional oven and a microwave. (channelm.co.uk)
  • The cooking element of halogen ovens is powered by halogen bulbs. (channelm.co.uk)
  • It's fairly easy to compare different halogen ovens as some will simply be bigger or more efficient. (channelm.co.uk)
  • It's safe to say that the best halogen ovens on the market are those which come with plenty of accessories included. (channelm.co.uk)
  • All good halogen ovens will come fitted with some form of control. (channelm.co.uk)
  • Look for halogen ovens which specifically mention the ease of cleaning and disassembly. (channelm.co.uk)
  • Halogen ovens have been around since 1995. (channelm.co.uk)
  • Here are some of the most commonly-posed queries about halogen ovens which may be familiar to you. (channelm.co.uk)
  • Leading halogen ovens built by major brands could only set you back £30-£50, which makes for a pretty safe investment. (channelm.co.uk)
  • Halogen ions, jockeying for a position in the growing structure, affect the movement of charges through the crystals and subsequently impact the efficiency of sunlight's conversion to electricity. (eurekalert.org)
  • Like Group 2, you need to understand the reactions of the halogens from the point of view of the oxidation state of each of the elements involved. (google.com)
  • The adoption of the leading female athlete by Halogen marked an early success for the Federal Government's recent initiative "Adopt an Athlete" aimed at producing world champions for the country at the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games. (punchng.com)
  • Tired of halogens, Jennings tried incandescents and compact fluorescents (CFLs) but they didn't meet his expectations. (bchydro.com)
  • Fyrebloc and Envirostrand products can incorporate other flame retardants such as halogens , in addition to antimony, and can be tailored to suit application requirements. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Herein, a selection of halogen bonding literature is reviewed with the discussion focusing on the solvent effect and the electronic characteristics of halogen bonded complexes. (springer.com)
  • Legon AC (1999) Prereactive complexes of dihalogens XY with Lewis bases B in the gas phase: a systematic case for the halogen analogue B-XY of the hydrogen bond B-HX. (springer.com)
  • In this HOT Highlight, Franck Meyer and Philippe Dubois discuss the emergence of halogen bonding over the last decade for crystal engineering of supramolecular complexes. (rsc.org)
  • This review article covers the recent advances relevant to halogen bonding in drug discovery and biological design over the past decade, including database survey of this interaction in protein-ligand complexes, molecular mechanical investigations of halogen bonding in drug discovery and applications of this interaction in the development of halogenated ligands as inhibitors and drugs for protein kinases, serine protease factor Xa, HIV reverse transcriptase and so on. (nih.gov)
  • This recall involves Philips 60W PAR 16 120V halogen bulbs manufactured from November 2013 to March 2015. (cpsc.gov)
  • In most cases, we can get the Ushio Eurostar halogen MR16 you need at a competitive price. (topbulb.com)
  • In addition, solution studies provide fundamental insights into the nature of halogen bonding, including, for example, the relative importance of charge transfer, dispersion, and electrostatics forces. (springer.com)
  • Metrangolo P, Neukirch H, Pilati T et al (2005) Halogen bonding based recognition processes: a world parallel to hydrogen bonding. (springer.com)
  • Erdelyi M (2012) Halogen bonding in solution. (springer.com)
  • Beale TM, Chudzinski MG, Sarwar MG et al (2013) Halogen bonding in solution: thermodynamics and applications. (springer.com)
  • Whilst hydrogen bonding has received a great deal of interest in this respect, very little work has focused on halogen bonding until now. (rsc.org)
  • Halogen bonding has emerged at the forefront of advances in improving ligand: receptor interactions. (mdpi.com)
  • However, the ability of halogens to form stabilizing interactions, such as halogen bonding, hydrogen bonding and multipolar interactions, in biomolecular systems was revealed recently. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this review is to show how halogen bonding could be used in drug design, and in particular, to stimulate researchers to apply halogen bonding in lead optimization. (nih.gov)
  • Halogen bonding should intentionally be used as a powerful tool, comparable with hydrogen bonding, to enhance the binding affinity and also influence the binding selectivity. (nih.gov)
  • Rational design of new and potent inhibitors against therapeutic targets through halogen bonding continues to be an exciting area, which will be further elucidated with the combination of various experimental techniques and theoretical calculations in the forthcoming years. (nih.gov)
  • As a result of these properties it can act as a potential candidate for the halogen bonding and here the main focus of this study was to investigate the halogen bonding ability of different halogens (Cl2, Br2 and F2) and chlorofluorocarbons with nitrobenzene theoretically. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • His group contributed to the commercial development of many PolyOne's developments including biomaterials, high temperature polymers and non-halogen flame retardant technologies. (4spe.org)
  • This book presents an overview of recent academic and industrial research efforts concerning halogen-free flame-retardant (FR) polymers and their nanocomposites. (springer.com)
  • It summarizes the synthesis methods for various types of halogen-free FR polymers and their nanocomposites, and critically reviews their flame-retardant behavior, toxic-gas evolution during combustion, and inhibition methods. (springer.com)
  • A halogen bulb is a long-lasting and far more energy-efficient form of the standard incandescent bulb-it can yield a 40 percent savings, by some accounts, depending on bulb type. (popularmechanics.com)
  • Halogen applications can optimize for speed by focusing on the changes made in components and avoiding overly flat & broad structures. (medium.com)
  • The structures revealed halogen. (mdpi.com)
  • While the counter-cations generally occupy the void spaces in the present work, the construction of halogen-bonded frameworks with potential gas storage applications is an appealing prospect which may be facilitated in the future by ligands enabling directional and multidentate interactions. (eurekalert.org)
  • The solvent polarity at which the crystal formation switches from hydrogen-bond to halogen-bond dominance depends on the relative strengths of the interactions, but is not a function of the solution-phase interactions alone. (rsc.org)
  • We have extended our measurement capabilities to include other halogen atom precursors (such as Cl2, Br2, BrCl, and HOCl). (washington.edu)
  • Upon reacting with a metal, each halogen atom removes an electron from it, thus showing oxidizing properties. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Distortions of the directional requirements in halogen. (rsc.org)
  • Formation of hydrogen-bonded co-crystals is favoured from less polar solvents and halogen-bonded co-crystals from more polar solvents. (rsc.org)
  • 4.2 The presence of free halogens in halogenated solvents is often an indication that the stabilizers in the solvent system are breaking down. (astm.org)
  • 4.3 This test method provides a means of detecting the presence of free halogens in halogenated solvents and their admixtures. (astm.org)
  • 1.1 This test method covers the evaluation of free halogens in halogenated organic solvents and their admixtures. (astm.org)
  • All Belden low smoke non halogen materials are fully compliant with all relevant IEC standards, have excellent flame retardancy and deliver an outstanding performance so you can be assured that your application is fully compliant for maximum safety and assurance. (anixter.com)
  • Check the cable specification to ensure the insulation and jacketing materials are flame retardant, low smoke and non halogen. (anixter.com)
  • Roger W. Avakian, Owner of Avakian PolyChem Consulting LLC, is currently consulting in the graphene, specialty chemicals, polymer blends and non-halogen flame retardant additives fields for several clients. (4spe.org)
  • Joseph Green retired from FMC Corporation where he was a research Fellow working in the area of phosphorus and halogen flame retardants. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This experiment compares the colours of three halogens in aqueous solution and in a non-polar solvent. (rsc.org)
  • Investigating the solubility of the halogens in a non-polar solvent can be left out, or only shown as a demonstration. (rsc.org)
  • Bertran JF, Rodriguez M (1979) Detection of halogen bond formation by correlation of proton solvent shifts. (springer.com)
  • 4.1 Free halogens will react with any residual moisture in a solvent to form acid. (astm.org)
  • A rare gas-halogen excimer laser in which the laser gases are exposed virtually only to metal and ceramic, thereby reducing contamination of the gases and optics. (google.ca)
  • In addition to obvious environmental concerns with halogen gases, the specific degassing process (lance, rotor, etc. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Competitive co-crystal formation has been investigated for three pairs of hydrogen bond and halogen bond donors, which can compete for a common acceptor group. (rsc.org)
  • The vigour of the reaction depends on the reactivity order of the halogens. (rsc.org)