Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Curing Lights, Dental: Light sources used to activate polymerization of light-cured DENTAL CEMENTS and DENTAL RESINS. Degree of cure and bond strength depends on exposure time, wavelength, and intensity of the curing light.Bromine: A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedHalogenation: Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.Light-Curing of Dental Adhesives: The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via exposure to light.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Resin Cements: Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Lewis Bases: Any chemical species which acts as an electron-pair donor in a chemical bonding reaction with a LEWIS ACID.Adhesives: Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.Hardness: The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.Laminaria: A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Laminariaceae. Dried pencil-like pieces may be inserted in the cervix where they swell as they absorb moisture, serving as osmotic dilators.Orthodontic Brackets: Small metal or ceramic attachments used to fasten an arch wire. These attachments are soldered or welded to an orthodontic band or cemented directly onto the teeth. Bowles brackets, edgewise brackets, multiphase brackets, ribbon arch brackets, twin-wire brackets, and universal brackets are all types of orthodontic brackets.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Tooth Bleaching: The use of a chemical oxidizing agent to whiten TEETH. In some procedures the oxidation process is activated by the use of heat or light.Glare: Relatively bright light, or the dazzling sensation of relatively bright light, which produces unpleasantness or discomfort, or which interferes with optimal VISION, OCULAR. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Bromates: Negative ions or salts derived from bromic acid, HBrO3.Phosphoric Acids: Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Note that organic derivatives of phosphoric acids are listed under ORGANOPHOSPHATES.Dental Debonding: Techniques used for removal of bonded orthodontic appliances, restorations, or fixed dentures from teeth.Tooth Abrasion: The pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes. It is differentiated from TOOTH ATTRITION in that this type of wearing away is the result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It differs also from TOOTH EROSION, the progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes not involving bacterial action. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p2)Lighting: The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.Polyurethanes: A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.Dental Bonding: An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.Acrylic ResinsSemiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate: The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.Bromides: Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Potassium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.New JerseyPublic-Private Sector Partnerships: An organizational enterprise between a public sector agency, federal, state or local, and a private sector entity. Skills and assets of each sector are shared to deliver a service or facility for the benefit or use of the general public.Partnership Practice: A voluntary contract between two or more doctors who may or may not share responsibility for the care of patients, with proportional sharing of profits and losses.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Ficus: A plant genus of the family MORACEAE. It is the source of the familiar fig fruit and the latex from this tree contains FICAIN.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.SikkimFullerenes: A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Exobiology: The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.Meteoroids: Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Public Housing: Housing subsidized by tax funds, usually intended for low income persons or families.Floors and Floorcoverings: The surface of a structure upon which one stands or walks.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Homeless Persons: Persons who have no permanent residence. The concept excludes nomadic peoples.Housing: Living facilities for humans.

Evidence that halogenated furanones from Delisea pulchra inhibit acylated homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated gene expression by displacing the AHL signal from its receptor protein. (1/259)

Acylated homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated gene expression controls phenotypes involved in colonization, often specifically of higher organisms, in both marine and terrestrial environments. The marine red alga Delisea pulchra produces halogenated furanones which resemble AHLs structurally and show inhibitory activity at ecologically realistic concentrations in AHL bioassays. Evidence is presented that halogenated furanones displace tritiated OHHL [N-3-(oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone] from Escherichia coli cells overproducing LuxR with potencies corresponding to their respective inhibitory activities in an AHL-regulated bioluminescence assay, indicating that this is the mechanism by which furanones inhibit AHL-dependent phenotypes. Alternative mechanisms for this phenomenon are also addressed. General metabolic disruption was assessed with two-dimensional PAGE, revealing limited non-AHL-related effects. A direct chemical interaction between the algal compounds and AHLs, as monitored by 1H NMR spectroscopy, was shown not to occur in vitro. These results support the contention that furanones, at the concentrations produced by the alga, can control bacterial colonization of surfaces by specifically interfering with AHL-mediated gene expression at the level of the LuxR protein.  (+info)

Degradation of 1,2-dibromoethane by Mycobacterium sp. strain GP1. (2/259)

The newly isolated bacterial strain GP1 can utilize 1, 2-dibromoethane as the sole carbon and energy source. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the organism was identified as a member of the subgroup which contains the fast-growing mycobacteria. The first step in 1,2-dibromoethane metabolism is catalyzed by a hydrolytic haloalkane dehalogenase. The resulting 2-bromoethanol is rapidly converted to ethylene oxide by a haloalcohol dehalogenase, in this way preventing the accumulation of 2-bromoethanol and 2-bromoacetaldehyde as toxic intermediates. Ethylene oxide can serve as a growth substrate for strain GP1, but the pathway(s) by which it is further metabolized is still unclear. Strain GP1 can also utilize 1-chloropropane, 1-bromopropane, 2-bromoethanol, and 2-chloroethanol as growth substrates. 2-Chloroethanol and 2-bromoethanol are metabolized via ethylene oxide, which for both haloalcohols is a novel way to remove the halide without going through the corresponding acetaldehyde intermediate. The haloalkane dehalogenase gene was cloned and sequenced. The dehalogenase (DhaAf) encoded by this gene is identical to the haloalkane dehalogenase (DhaA) of Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 13064, except for three amino acid substitutions and a 14-amino-acid extension at the C terminus. Alignments of the complete dehalogenase gene region of strain GP1 with DNA sequences in different databases showed that a large part of a dhaA gene region, which is also present in R. rhodochrous NCIMB 13064, was fused to a fragment of a haloalcohol dehalogenase gene that was identical to the last 42 nucleotides of the hheB gene found in Corynebacterium sp. strain N-1074.  (+info)

Renal angiotensin I-converting enzyme as a mixture of sialo- and asialo-enzyme, and a rapid purification method. (3/259)

Angiotensin I-converting enzyme [EC 3.4.15.1] was rapidly and highly purified from a particulate fraction of hog kidney cortex with 13% yield. The procedure, which was rapid, included fractionation on DEAE-cellulose and calcium phosphate gel, chromatographies on DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and hydroxylapatite columns, and gel filtration on a Sephadex G-200 column. The purified enzyme preparation gave two protein bands on standard disc gel electrophoresis, but showed a single protein component on the gel after treatment with neuraminidase [EC 3.2.1.18]. The data strongly suggest that the purified enzyme preparation was a mixture of sialo- and asialo-enzyme. Sialic acid residues apparently do not contribute to the catalytic activity of the enzyme. The enzyme was activated more by chloride ions than by other halide ions tested, using Bz-Gly-Gly-Gly as a substrate. The dissociation constant for chloride ions was determined to be 2.2 mM. Chloride did not protect the enzyme against heat or low pH. The enzyme was resistant to inactivation by trypsin [EC 3.4.21.4] and chymotrypsin [EC 3.4.21.1].  (+info)

A possible effect of different light sources on pregnancy rates following gamete intra-fallopian transfer. (4/259)

A retrospective study of 34 sequential gamete intra-Fallopian transfer (GIFT) procedures suggested a significant effect on pregnancy rates associated with the different laparoscopic light sources, with a pregnancy rate of 50% in 22 cycles using a halogen light source and 9% in 12 cycles using a xenon light source. Other explanatory variables were explored, but none was to have a significant effect on the pregnancy rate. Further investigation revealed that the xenon light source emitted more ultraviolet light than the conventional halogen light source--suggesting a possible detrimental effect of ultraviolet light on the gametes in the GIFT procedure.  (+info)

Induction and prevention of micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in cultured human lymphocytes exposed to the light of halogen tungsten lamps. (5/259)

Previous studies have shown that the light emitted by halogen tungsten lamps contains UV radiation in the UV-A, UV-B and UV-C regions, induces mutations and irreparable DNA damage in bacteria, enhances the frequency of micronuclei in cultured human lymphocytes and is potently carcinogenic to the skin of hairless mice. The present study showed that the light emitted by an uncovered, traditional halogen lamp induces a significant, dose-related and time-related increase not only in micronuclei but also in chromosome-type aberrations, such as breaks, and even more in chromatid-type aberrations, such as isochromatid breaks, exchanges and isochromatid/chromatid interchanges, all including gaps or not, in cultured human lymphocytes. All these genotoxic effects were completely prevented by shielding the same lamp with a silica glass cover, blocking UV radiation. A new model of halogen lamp, having the quartz bulb treated in order to reduce the output of UV radiation, was considerably less genotoxic than the uncovered halogen lamp, yet induction of chromosomal alterations was observed at high illuminance levels.  (+info)

DL-2-Haloacid dehalogenase from Pseudomonas sp. 113 is a new class of dehalogenase catalyzing hydrolytic dehalogenation not involving enzyme-substrate ester intermediate. (6/259)

DL-2-Haloacid dehalogenase from Pseudomonas sp. 113 (DL-DEX 113) catalyzes the hydrolytic dehalogenation of D- and L-2-haloalkanoic acids, producing the corresponding L- and D-2-hydroxyalkanoic acids, respectively. Every halidohydrolase studied so far (L-2-haloacid dehalogenase, haloalkane dehalogenase, and 4-chlorobenzoyl-CoA dehalogenase) has an active site carboxylate group that attacks the substrate carbon atom bound to the halogen atom, leading to the formation of an ester intermediate. This is subsequently hydrolyzed, resulting in the incorporation of an oxygen atom of the solvent water molecule into the carboxylate group of the enzyme. In the present study, we analyzed the reaction mechanism of DL-DEX 113. When a single turnover reaction of DL-DEX 113 was carried out with a large excess of the enzyme in H(2)(18)O with a 10 times smaller amount of the substrate, either D- or L-2-chloropropionate, the major product was found to be (18)O-labeled lactate by ionspray mass spectrometry. After a multiple turnover reaction in H(2)(18)O, the enzyme was digested with trypsin or lysyl endopeptidase, and the molecular masses of the peptide fragments were measured with an ionspray mass spectrometer. No peptide fragments contained (18)O. These results indicate that the H(2)(18)O of the solvent directly attacks the alpha-carbon of 2-haloalkanoic acid to displace the halogen atom. This is the first example of an enzymatic hydrolytic dehalogenation that proceeds without producing an ester intermediate.  (+info)

Mcm2, but not RPA, is a component of the mammalian early G1-phase prereplication complex. (7/259)

Previous experiments in Xenopus egg extracts identified what appeared to be two independently assembled prereplication complexes (pre-RCs) for DNA replication: the stepwise assembly of ORC, Cdc6, and Mcm onto chromatin, and the FFA-1-mediated recruitment of RPA into foci on chromatin. We have investigated whether both of these pre-RCs can be detected in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Early- and late-replicating chromosomal domains were pulse-labeled with halogenated nucleotides and prelabeled cells were synchronized at various times during the following G1-phase. The recruitment of Mcm2 and RPA to these domains was examined in relation to the formation of a nuclear envelope, specification of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) replication origin and entry into S-phase. Mcm2 was loaded gradually and cumulatively onto both early- and late-replicating chromatin from late telophase throughout G1-phase. During S-phase, detectable Mcm2 was rapidly excluded from PCNA-containing active replication forks. By contrast, detergent-resistant RPA foci were undetectable until the onset of S-phase, when RPA joined only the earliest-firing replicons. During S-phase, RPA was present with PCNA specifically at active replication forks. Together, our data are consistent with a role for Mcm proteins, but not RPA, in the formation of mammalian pre-RCs during early G1-phase.  (+info)

Effect of Tn10/Tn5 transposons on the survival and mutation frequency of halogen light-irradiated AB1157 Escherichia coli K-12. (8/259)

We show here that the Tn10/Tn5 transposon when inserted into the chromosome of strain AB1157 makes the bacteria more sensitive to and less mutable by halogen light irradiation. These effects are most probably caused by depletion of UmuD and UmuC proteins since: (i) transformation of the transposon-bearing bacteria with plasmids harbouring umuD'C (or umuDC) leads to recovery of the original survival and mutation frequencies; (ii) insertion of Tn10/Tn5 into chromosomal DNA has no effect on the level of mutation induced by ethyl methane-sulphonate treatment, a mutagen whose activity is umuDC-independent; (iii) the decline in survival is in about the same range for Tn10-bearing bacteria as for bacteria with deleted umuDC. However, whereas transformation of bacteria deleted in umuDC with plasmids carrying umuD'C/umuDC leads to full recovery of halogen light-induced mutability, recovery of survival is poor. This suggests that the mechanisms leading to umuDC-dependent mutagenesis and umuDC-dependent protection of cell survival are different. None of these effects occurs in bacteria bearing the Tn9 transposon in their DNA.  (+info)

  • Automotive Halogen Lighting strategic analysis research from OGAnalysis is a comprehensive market analysis on Automotive Halogen Lighting industry. (marketresearch.com)
  • Published since 2011, the present edition presents current Automotive Halogen Lighting market conditions and growth prospects between 2019 and 2025. (marketresearch.com)
  • Amidst increasing interest in automotive research from large and emerging automotive companies, the current Automotive Halogen Lighting market report has been designed to include clear insights and action plans for success in global and regional markets. (marketresearch.com)
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  • Automotive Halogen Lighting role in automotive industry continues to increase annually, driven by growing production of automotives. (marketresearch.com)
  • In particular, emerging Asia Pacific, Middle East and Latin America continue to be major target markets for Automotive Halogen Lighting suppliers. (marketresearch.com)
  • Increase in disposable incomes coupled with urban population growth remains the primary drivers of Automotive Halogen Lighting market size worldwide. (marketresearch.com)
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  • The global market for Automotive Halogen Lighting continue to offer promising growth rate over the forecast period to 2025 encouraged by increase in R&D efforts of major companies in Automotive Halogen Lighting. (marketresearch.com)
  • Asia Pacific is expected to experience the fastest growth in Automotive Halogen Lighting market during the forecast period to 2025. (marketresearch.com)
  • The research presents detailed understanding into Automotive Halogen Lighting market with actionable insights for decision makers. (marketresearch.com)
  • A method for preparing the compound includes hydrohalogenating a polymer having a vinyl chain end to obtain a halogen-containing terminal group, and reacting the terminal group with a polyamine. (justia.com)
  • Fluorine, a pale yellow gas, is the least dense and chemically the most active, displacing the other halogens from their compounds and even displacing oxygen from water. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The halogens show trends in chemical bond energy moving from top to bottom of the periodic table column with fluorine deviating slightly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical reactivity of halogens decreases from fluorine to iodine as the atomic radius increases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Solvent polarity is shown to have a slight stabilizing effect on neutral, two-center halogen bonds while strongly destabilizes charged, two-center complexes. (springer.com)
  • It does not greatly influence the geometry of three-center halogen bonds, even though polar solvents facilitate dissociation of the counter-ion of charged three-center bonds. (springer.com)
  • Solvents possessing hydrogen bond donor functionalities efficiently destabilize all types of halogen bonds, primarily because of halogen vs hydrogen bond competition. (springer.com)
  • A purely electrostatic model is insufficient for the description of halogen bonds in polar systems whereas it may give reasonable correlation to experimental data obtained in noninteracting, apolar solvents. (springer.com)
  • Whereas dispersion plays a significant role for neutral, two-center halogen bonds, charged halogen bond complexes possess a significant charge transfer characteristic. (springer.com)
  • Halogen bonds in biological molecules. (nih.gov)
  • The present survey of protein and nucleic acid structures reveals similar halogen bonds as potentially stabilizing inter- and intramolecular interactions that can affect ligand binding and molecular folding. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, the specific geometry and diversity of the interacting partners of halogen bonds offer new and versatile tools for the design of ligands as drugs and materials in nanotechnology. (nih.gov)
  • Polar scatter plot and histogram distributions for halogen bonds. (nih.gov)
  • Depending on the stoichiometry, the resulting frameworks can form honeycomb structures of variable geometry, but also systems with four or six halogen bonds to the bromide ion. (eurekalert.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that control of the competition between hydrogen bonds and halogen bonds, the two most highly studied directional intermolecular interactions, can be exerted by choice of solvent (polarity) to direct the self-assembly of co-crystals. (rsc.org)
  • Because of its expected applicability for modulation of molecular recognition phenomena in chemistry and biology, halogen bonding has lately attracted rapidly increasing interest. (springer.com)
  • Features the properties commonly found among the elements included in the Halogens group, as well as oxidation numbers and trends in Halogen chemistry. (botw.org)
  • Short oxygen-halogen interactions have been known in organic chemistry since the 1950s and recently have been exploited in the design of supramolecular assemblies. (nih.gov)
  • We plan to use our ion chemistry with a high-resolution time of flight mass spectrometer to make unambiguous assignments of our ion signal to halogen species by relying on their naturally occurring isotopic ratios. (washington.edu)
  • Currently, solderpaste formulation is classified by IPC J-STD-004A9 standard, with permissible and declared halogen/halide level. (smta.org)
  • While an IUPAC definition of hydrogen bonding was only released in 2011 after decades of discussions in the scientific community, it did not take such a long time to come up with an analogous definition of halogen bonding, following a revival of this interaction in the literature which can be traced back to the early 1990s, Fourmigué, M. (2017). (eurekalert.org)
  • Unicorn HRO today announced it has entered into a partnership with Halogen Software, a leading provider of cloud-based talent management solutions. (prweb.com)
  • A world leader in Talent Management, Halogen Software is renowned for its award-winning software, expert professional services, best practice-based content, and exceptional customer satisfaction. (prweb.com)
  • With their extensive experience in developing talent management products for healthcare, manufacturing, education, public sector, hospitality and professional service sectors, the partnership with Halogen Software enables Unicorn HRO to offer their clients comprehensive, cost-effective products which emphasize customer satisfaction. (prweb.com)
  • Whatever the reason driving your firm's learning and development needs - certification, performance improvement, onboarding, values alignment - with Halogen you get a complete solution that tightly integrates your learning management and content with your other talent management processes. (halogensoftware.com)
  • The Lominger LEADERSHIP ARCHITECT ® Competency Library integrates fully with the Halogen Talent Management ™ Suite. (halogensoftware.com)
  • OTTAWA, March 17 /PRNewswire/ - Halogen Software Inc., a leading providerof web-based employee performance and talent management software, todayannounced that it has been selected by Quiznos to provide a system for itsemployees at the company's Denver-based headquarters. (medindia.net)
  • Halogen Software makes powerful, simple-to-use and affordableemployee performance and talent management applications, which make HRbest-practices accessible to companies of all sizes. (medindia.net)
  • This paper compares and contrasts the current IPC, J-STD-004A standard and the impact of halogen-free requirements on the classification. (smta.org)
  • When halogens react with metals they produce a wide range of salts, including calcium fluoride , sodium chloride (common table salt), silver bromide and potassium iodide . (wikipedia.org)
  • Most halogens are typically produced from minerals or salts . (wikipedia.org)
  • B73, 153-162 single-crystal X-ray diffraction structures have been reported for a series of seven halogen-bonded co-crystals featuring 1,3,5-tris(iodoethynyl)-2,4,6-trifluorobenzene as the halogen-bond donor, and bromide ions (as ammonium or phosphonium salts) as the halogen-bond acceptors. (eurekalert.org)
  • They are called halogens (from the Greek hals , salt) because they form salts (for example, common salt, NaCl) upon combination with metals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Elemental halogens are dangerous and can potentially be lethally toxic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Working in Barrow, on the north-central coast of Alaska, Lindberg and his colleagues correlated the buildup of these halogens during the Arctic spring with a dramatic, localized depletion of elemental mercury in the air. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Elemental halogens have seven valence electrons and are very reactive. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • While the counter-cations generally occupy the void spaces in the present work, the construction of halogen-bonded frameworks with potential gas storage applications is an appealing prospect which may be facilitated in the future by ligands enabling directional and multidentate interactions. (eurekalert.org)
  • The solvent polarity at which the crystal formation switches from hydrogen-bond to halogen-bond dominance depends on the relative strengths of the interactions, but is not a function of the solution-phase interactions alone. (rsc.org)
  • Halogen ions, jockeying for a position in the growing structure, affect the movement of charges through the crystals and subsequently impact the efficiency of sunlight's conversion to electricity. (eurekalert.org)
  • Formation of hydrogen-bonded co-crystals is favoured from less polar solvents and halogen-bonded co-crystals from more polar solvents. (rsc.org)
  • 4.2 The presence of free halogens in halogenated solvents is often an indication that the stabilizers in the solvent system are breaking down. (astm.org)
  • 4.3 This test method provides a means of detecting the presence of free halogens in halogenated solvents and their admixtures. (astm.org)
  • 1.1 This test method covers the evaluation of free halogens in halogenated organic solvents and their admixtures. (astm.org)
  • This experiment compares the colours of three halogens in aqueous solution and in a non-polar solvent. (rsc.org)
  • Investigating the solubility of the halogens in a non-polar solvent can be left out, or only shown as a demonstration. (rsc.org)
  • Bertran JF, Rodriguez M (1979) Detection of halogen bond formation by correlation of proton solvent shifts. (springer.com)
  • A rare gas-halogen excimer laser in which the laser gases are exposed virtually only to metal and ceramic, thereby reducing contamination of the gases and optics. (google.ca)
  • In addition to obvious environmental concerns with halogen gases, the specific degassing process (lance, rotor, etc. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The adoption of the leading female athlete by Halogen marked an early success for the Federal Government's recent initiative "Adopt an Athlete" aimed at producing world champions for the country at the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games. (punchng.com)
  • Competitive co-crystal formation has been investigated for three pairs of hydrogen bond and halogen bond donors, which can compete for a common acceptor group. (rsc.org)