The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Unstable isotopes of gold that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Au 185-196, 198-201, and 203 are radioactive gold isotopes.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
A condition resulting from the excessive retention of water with sodium depletion.
Strong alkaline chemicals that destroy soft body tissues resulting in a deep, penetrating type of burn, in contrast to corrosives, that result in a more superficial type of damage via chemical means or inflammation. Caustics are usually hydroxides of light metals. SODIUM HYDROXIDE and potassium hydroxide are the most widely used caustic agents in industry. Medically, they have been used externally to remove diseased or dead tissues and destroy warts and small tumors. The accidental ingestion of products (household and industrial) containing caustic ingredients results in thousands of injuries per year.
An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)
Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.
Care provided patients requiring extraordinary therapeutic measures in order to sustain and prolong life.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
A quality-of-life scale developed in the United States in 1972 as a measure of health status or dysfunction generated by a disease. It is a behaviorally based questionnaire for patients and addresses activities such as sleep and rest, mobility, recreation, home management, emotional behavior, social interaction, and the like. It measures the patient's perceived health status and is sensitive enough to detect changes or differences in health status occurring over time or between groups. (From Medical Care, vol.xix, no.8, August 1981, p.787-805)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Insurance providing for payment of a stipulated sum to a designated beneficiary upon death of the insured.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
The individual's experience of a sense of fulfillment of a need or want and the quality or state of being satisfied.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.
The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Systems that provide all or most of the items necessary for maintaining life and health. Provisions are made for the supplying of oxygen, food, water, temperature and pressure control, disposition of carbon dioxide and body waste. The milieu may be a spacecraft, a submarine, or the surface of the moon. In medical care, usually under hospital conditions, LIFE SUPPORT CARE is available. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary)

The bioavailability, dispostion kinetics and dosage of sulphadimethoxine in dogs. (1/6090)

The disposition kinetics of sulphadimethoxine were studied in six normal beagle dogs after intravenous injection of a single dose (55 mg/kg). The median (range) distribution and elimination half times of the drug were 2.36 (2.06-3.35) hours and 13.10 (9.71-16.50) hours, respectively. Total body clearance of the drug had a median value of 21.7 ml/kg/h and a mean value of 21.4 ml/kg/h. While the overall tissue to plasma level ratio (k12/k21) of the drug was 0.55 after distribution equilibrium had been attained, analogue computer simulated curves showed that at 24 hours the fractions (percentage) of the dose in the central and tissue compartments were 12 and 11%, respectively. The drug was shown, by equilibrium dialysis method, to be highly bound to plasma proteins (greater than 75%) within the usual therapeutic range (50 to 150 mug/ml) of plasma levels. The systemic availability of sulphadimethoxine from the oral suspension was 32.8% (22.5-80.0). Since the absorption half time, 1.87 (0.86-3.22) hours, was considerably shorter than the half-life, 13.10 (9.71-16.50) hours, of the drug, the rate of absorption would have little influence on the dosage regimen. Based on the experimental data obtained, a satisfactory dosage regimen might consist of a priming dose of 55 mg/kg by the intravenous route and maintenance doses of either 27.5 mg/kg of sulphadimethoxine injection given intravenously or 55 mg/kg of the oral suspension administered at 24 hour intervals. The adequacy and duration of therapy will depend upon the clinical response obtained.  (+info)

Cocaine metabolite kinetics in the newborn. (2/6090)

The study goal was to determine the half-life elimination of cocaine and benzoylecgonine (BZE) in the newborn. Three 0.3-mL blood samples were collected during the first day of life. Urine was collected once daily. Cocaine and BZE concentrations were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. An extraction method was developed for measuring low concentrations of cocaine and BZE in small (0.1 mL) blood samples. Cocaine had a half-life of 11.6 h in one subject. The half-life of BZE during the first day of life, based on blood data in 13 subjects, was 16 h (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.8 to 21.4 h). The half-life of BZE during the first week of life, based on urine data in 16 subjects, was 11.2 h (95% CI, 10.1 to 11.8 h). The novel extraction method for small blood sample volumes should be applicable to other basic drugs.  (+info)

Re-entering the translocon from the lumenal side of the endoplasmic reticulum. Studies on mutated carboxypeptidase yscY species. (3/6090)

Misfolded or unassembled secretory proteins are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and subsequently degraded by the cytosolic ubiquitin-proteasome system. This requires their retrograde transport from the ER lumen into the cytosol, which is mediated by the Sec61 translocon. It had remained a mystery whether ER-localised soluble proteins are at all capable of re-entering the Sec61 channel de novo or whether a permanent contact of the imported protein with the translocon is a prerequisite for retrograde transport. In this study we analysed two new variants of the mutated yeast carboxypeptidase yscY, CPY*: a carboxy-terminal fusion protein of CPY* and pig liver esterase and a CPY* species carrying an additional glycosylation site at its carboxy-terminus. With these constructs it can be demonstrated that the newly synthesised CPY* chain is not retained in the translocation channel but reaches its ER lumenal side completely. Our data indicate that the Sec61 channel provides the essential pore for protein transport through the ER membrane in either direction; persistent contact with the translocon after import seems not to be required for retrograde transport.  (+info)

Cardiomegaly in the juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mouse is reduced with acute elevation of heart short-chain acyl-carnitine level after L-carnitine injection. (4/6090)

The long-term administration of L-carnitine was very effective in preventing cardiomegaly in juvenile visceral steatosis (JVS) mice, which was confirmed by heart weight as well as the lipid contents in heart tissue. After i.p. injection of L-carnitine, the concentration of free carnitine in heart remained constant, although serum free carnitine level increased up to 80-fold. On the other hand, a significant increase in short-chain acyl-carnitine level in heart was observed. These results suggest that increased levels of short-chain acyl-carnitine, not free carnitine, might be a key compound in the protective effect of L-carnitine administration in JVS mice.  (+info)

Protection against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection induced by a reduced peptide bond analogue of the H-2Db-restricted CD8(+) T cell epitope GP33. (5/6090)

Recent investigations have suggested that pseudopeptides containing modified peptide bonds might advantageously replace natural peptides in therapeutic strategies. We have generated eight reduced peptide bond Psi(CH2-NH) analogues corresponding to the H-2Db-restricted CD8(+) T cell epitope (called GP33) of the glycoprotein of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. One of these pseudopeptides, containing a reduced peptide bond between residues 6 and 7 (Psi(6-7)), displayed very similar properties of binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and recognition by T cell receptor transgenic T cells specific for GP33 when compared with the parent peptide. We assessed in vitro and in vivo the proteolytic resistance of GP33 and Psi(6-7) and analyzed its contribution to the priming properties of these peptides. The Psi(6-7) analogue exhibited a dramatically increased proteolytic resistance when compared with GP33, and we show for the first time that MHC-peptide complexes formed in vivo with a pseudopeptide display a sustained half-life compared with the complexes formed with the natural peptide. Furthermore, in contrast to immunizations with GP33, three injections of Psi(6-7) in saline induced significant antiviral protection in mice. The enhanced ability of Psi(6-7) to induce antiviral protection may result from the higher stability of the analogue and/or of the MHC-analogue complexes.  (+info)

In vivo modulation of alternative pathways of P-450-catalyzed cyclophosphamide metabolism: impact on pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity. (6/6090)

The widely used anticancer prodrug cyclophosphamide (CPA) is activated in liver by a 4-hydroxylation reaction primarily catalyzed by cytochrome P-4502B and P-4502C enzymes. An alternative metabolic pathway involves CPA N-dechloroethylation to yield chloroacetaldehyde (CA), a P-4503A-catalyzed deactivation/neurotoxication reaction. The in vivo modulation of these alternative, competing pathways of P-450 metabolism was investigated in pharmacokinetic studies carried out in the rat model. Peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) for 4-OH-CPA and CA were increased by 3- to 4-fold, and apparent plasma half-lives of both metabolites were correspondingly shortened in rats pretreated with phenobarbital (PB), an inducer of P-4502B and P-4503A enzymes. However, PB had no net impact on the extent of drug activation or its partitioning between these alternative metabolic pathways, as judged from AUC values (area-under-the-plasma concentration x time curve) for 4-OH-CPA and CA. The P-4503A inhibitor troleandomycin (TAO) decreased plasma Cmax and AUC of CA (80-85% decrease) without changing the Cmax or AUC of 4-OH-CPA in uninduced rats. In PB-induced rats, TAO decreased AUCCA by 73%, whereas it increased AUC4-OH-CPA by 93%. TAO thus selectively suppresses CPA N-dechloroethylation, thereby increasing the availability of drug for P-450 activation via 4-hydroxylation. By contrast, dexamethasone, a P-4503A inducer and antiemetic widely used in patients with cancer, stimulated large, undesirable increases in the Cmax and AUC of CA (8- and 4-fold, respectively) while reducing the AUC of the 4-hydroxylation pathway by approximately 60%. Tumor excision/in vitro colony formation and tumor growth delay assays using an in vivo 9L gliosarcoma solid tumor model revealed that TAO suppression of CPA N-dechloroethylation could be achieved without compromising the antitumor effect of CPA. The combination of PB with TAO did not, however, enhance the antitumor activity of CPA, despite the approximately 2-fold increase in AUC4-OH-CPA, suggesting that other PB-inducible activities, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase, may counter this increase through enhanced deactivation of the 4-hydroxy metabolite. Together, these studies demonstrate that the P-4503A inhibitor TAO can be used to effectively modulate CPA metabolism and pharmacokinetics in vivo in a manner that decreases the formation of toxic metabolites that do not contribute to antitumor activity.  (+info)

Prediction of the effects of inoculum size on the antimicrobial action of trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in an in vitro dynamic model. (7/6090)

The effect of inoculum size (N0) on antimicrobial action has not been extensively studied in in vitro dynamic models. To investigate this effect and its predictability, killing and regrowth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli exposed to monoexponentially decreasing concentrations of trovafloxacin (as a single dose) and ciprofloxacin (two doses at a 12-h interval) were compared at N0 = 10(6) and 10(9) CFU/ml (S. aureus) and at N0 = 10(6), 10(7), and 10(9) CFU/ml (E. coli). A series of pharmacokinetic profiles of trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin with respective half-lives of 9.2 and 4 h were simulated at different ratios of area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) to MIC (in [micrograms x hours/milliliter]/[micrograms/milliliter]): 58 to 466 with trovafloxacin and 116 to 932 with ciprofloxacin for S. aureus and 58 to 233 and 116 to 466 for E. coli, respectively. Although the effect of N0 was more pronounced for E. coli than for S. aureus, only a minor increase in minimum numbers of surviving bacteria and an almost negligible delay in their regrowth were associated with an increase of the N0 for both organisms. The N0-induced reductions of the intensity of the antimicrobial effect (IE, area between control growth and the killing-regrowth curves) were also relatively small. However, the N0 effect could not be eliminated either by simple shifting of the time-kill curves obtained at higher N0s by the difference between the higher and lowest N0 or by operating with IEs determined within the N0-adopted upper limits of bacterial numbers (IE's). By using multivariate correlation and regression analyses, linear relationships between IE and log AUC/MIC and log N0 related to the respective mean values [(log AUC/MIC)average and (log N0)average] were established for both trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin against each of the strains (r2 = 0.97 to 0.99). The antimicrobial effect may be accurately predicted at a given AUC/MIC of trovafloxacin or ciprofloxacin and at a given N0 based on the relationship IE = a + b [(log AUC/MIC)/(log AUC/MIC)average] - c [(log N0)/(log N0)average]. Moreover, the relative impacts of AUC/MIC and N0 on IE may be evaluated. Since the c/b ratios for trovafloxacin and ciprofloxacin against E. coli were much lower (0.3 to 0.4) than that for ampicillin-sulbactam as examined previously (1.9), the inoculum effect with the quinolones may be much less pronounced than with the beta-lactams. The described approach to the analysis of the inoculum effect in in vitro dynamic models might be useful in studies with other antibiotic classes.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of amikacin in low-clearance unilamellar liposomes after a single or repeated intravenous administration in the rhesus monkey. (8/6090)

Liposomal aminoglycosides have been shown to have activity against intracellular infections, such as those caused by Mycobacterium avium. Amikacin in small, low-clearance liposomes (MiKasome) also has curative and prophylactic efficacies against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. To develop appropriate dosing regimens for low-clearance liposomal amikacin, we studied the pharmacokinetics of liposomal amikacin in plasma, the level of exposure of plasma to free amikacin, and urinary excretion of amikacin after the administration of single-dose (20 mg/kg of body weight) and repeated-dose (20 mg/kg eight times at 48-h intervals) regimens in rhesus monkeys. The clearance of liposomal amikacin (single-dose regimen, 0.023 +/- 0.003 ml min-1 kg-1; repeated-dose regimen, 0.014 +/- 0.001 ml min-1 kg-1) was over 100-fold lower than the creatinine clearance (an estimate of conventional amikacin clearance). Half-lives in plasma were longer than those reported for other amikacin formulations and declined during the elimination phase following administration of the last dose (from 81.7 +/- 27 to 30.5 +/- 5 h). Peak and trough (48 h) levels after repeated dosing reached 728 +/- 72 and 418 +/- 60 micrograms/ml, respectively. The levels in plasma remained > 180 micrograms/ml for 6 days after the administration of the last dose. The free amikacin concentration in plasma never exceeded 17.4 +/- 1 micrograms/ml and fell rapidly (half-life, 1.47 to 1.85 h) after the administration of each dose of liposomal amikacin. This and the low volume of distribution (45 ml/kg) indicate that the amikacin in plasma largely remained sequestered in long-circulating liposomes. Less than half the amikacin was recovered in the urine, suggesting that the level of renal exposure to filtered free amikacin was reduced, possibly as a result of intracellular uptake or the metabolism of liposomal amikacin. Thus, low-clearance liposomal amikacin could be administered at prolonged (2- to 7-day) intervals to achieve high levels of exposure to liposomal amikacin with minimal exposure to free amikacin.  (+info)

In the context of pharmacology, "half-life" refers to the time it takes for the concentration or amount of a drug in the body to be reduced by half during its elimination phase. This is typically influenced by factors such as metabolism and excretion rates of the drug. It's a key factor in determining dosage intervals and therapeutic effectiveness of medications, as well as potential side effects or toxicity risks.

Gold radioisotopes are unstable forms of gold that emit radiation as they decay into more stable elements. They are not typically used for medical purposes, but there have been some experimental uses in the treatment of cancer. For example, Gold-198 is a radioisotope that has been used in the brachytherapy (internal radiation therapy) of certain types of tumors. It releases high-energy gamma rays and is often used as a sealed source for the treatment of cancer.

It's important to note that the use of radioisotopes in medicine, including gold radioisotopes, should only be performed under the supervision of trained medical professionals and radiation safety experts due to the potential risks associated with radiation exposure.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

Medical Definition of Water Intoxication:

Water intoxication, also known as hyponatremia, is a condition that occurs when an individual consumes water in such large quantities that the body's electrolyte balance is disrupted. This results in an abnormally low sodium level in the blood (hyponatremia), which can cause symptoms ranging from mild to severe, including nausea, headache, confusion, seizures, coma, and even death in extreme cases. It's important to note that water intoxication is rare and typically only occurs in situations where large amounts of water are consumed in a short period of time, such as during endurance sports or when someone is trying to intentionally harm themselves.

In medical terms, "caustics" refer to substances that can cause burns or destroy living tissue due to their corrosive nature. They can cause chemical burns upon contact with skin, eyes, or mucous membranes, leading to inflammation, necrosis (tissue death), and potential scarring. Common caustic substances include strong acids and bases, such as sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, and sodium hydroxide (lye).

In dermatology, the term "caustics" may also refer to chemical peeling agents used for the treatment of various skin conditions, such as hyperpigmentation, acne scars, or fine lines. These substances, which include trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and phenol, cause a controlled injury to the skin, leading to exfoliation and the stimulation of new tissue growth. However, they must be used with caution, as improper application can result in unwanted side effects or complications.

Antipyrine is a chemical compound that was commonly used as a fever reducer and pain reliever in the past. It is a type of phenylpyrazole antipyretic and analgesic. However, due to its potential for causing liver damage and other side effects, it has largely been replaced by other medications and is not widely used in modern medicine.

The medical definition of Antipyrine refers to this specific chemical compound with the formula C11H13N3O2, and not to any broader category of drugs or substances. It is a white crystalline powder that is soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and ether, but insoluble in water.

Antipyrine was first synthesized in 1883 and was widely used as a fever reducer and pain reliever until the mid-20th century. However, its use declined due to concerns about its safety profile, including the potential for liver damage, skin reactions, and other side effects.

Today, Antipyrine is still used in some medical applications, such as in the measurement of earwax conductivity as a way to assess hearing function. It may also be used in some topical creams and ointments for pain relief. However, its use as a systemic medication is generally not recommended due to its potential for causing harm.

A dosage form refers to the physical or pharmaceutical preparation of a drug that determines how it is administered and taken by the patient. The dosage form influences the rate and extent of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the body, which ultimately affects the drug's therapeutic effectiveness and safety profile.

There are various types of dosage forms available, including:

1. Solid dosage forms: These include tablets, capsules, caplets, and powders that are intended to be swallowed or chewed. They may contain a single active ingredient or multiple ingredients in a fixed-dose combination.
2. Liquid dosage forms: These include solutions, suspensions, emulsions, and syrups that are intended to be taken orally or administered parenterally (e.g., intravenously, intramuscularly, subcutaneously).
3. Semi-solid dosage forms: These include creams, ointments, gels, pastes, and suppositories that are intended to be applied topically or administered rectally.
4. Inhalation dosage forms: These include metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs), and nebulizers that are used to deliver drugs directly to the lungs.
5. Transdermal dosage forms: These include patches, films, and sprays that are applied to the skin to deliver drugs through the skin into the systemic circulation.
6. Implantable dosage forms: These include surgically implanted devices or pellets that release drugs slowly over an extended period.

The choice of dosage form depends on various factors, such as the drug's physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic indication, patient population, and route of administration. The goal is to optimize the drug's efficacy and safety while ensuring patient compliance and convenience.

Metabolic clearance rate is a term used in pharmacology to describe the volume of blood or plasma from which a drug is completely removed per unit time by metabolic processes. It is a measure of the body's ability to eliminate a particular substance and is usually expressed in units of volume (e.g., milliliters or liters) per time (e.g., minutes, hours, or days).

The metabolic clearance rate can be calculated by dividing the total amount of drug eliminated by the plasma concentration of the drug and the time over which it was eliminated. It provides important information about the pharmacokinetics of a drug, including its rate of elimination and the potential for drug-drug interactions that may affect metabolism.

It is worth noting that there are different types of clearance rates, such as renal clearance rate (which refers to the removal of a drug by the kidneys) or hepatic clearance rate (which refers to the removal of a drug by the liver). Metabolic clearance rate specifically refers to the elimination of a drug through metabolic processes, which can occur in various organs throughout the body.

Biological availability is a term used in pharmacology and toxicology that refers to the degree and rate at which a drug or other substance is absorbed into the bloodstream and becomes available at the site of action in the body. It is a measure of the amount of the substance that reaches the systemic circulation unchanged, after administration by any route (such as oral, intravenous, etc.).

The biological availability (F) of a drug can be calculated using the area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma concentration-time profile after extravascular and intravenous dosing, according to the following formula:

F = (AUCex/AUCiv) x (Doseiv/Doseex)

where AUCex is the AUC after extravascular dosing, AUCiv is the AUC after intravenous dosing, Doseiv is the intravenous dose, and Doseex is the extravascular dose.

Biological availability is an important consideration in drug development and therapy, as it can affect the drug's efficacy, safety, and dosage regimen. Drugs with low biological availability may require higher doses to achieve the desired therapeutic effect, while drugs with high biological availability may have a more rapid onset of action and require lower doses to avoid toxicity.

The chemical industry is a broad term that refers to the companies and organizations involved in the production or transformation of raw materials or intermediates into various chemical products. These products can be used for a wide range of applications, including manufacturing, agriculture, pharmaceuticals, and consumer goods. The chemical industry includes businesses that produce basic chemicals, such as petrochemicals, agrochemicals, polymers, and industrial gases, as well as those that manufacture specialty chemicals, such as dyestuffs, flavors, fragrances, and advanced materials. Additionally, the chemical industry encompasses companies that provide services related to the research, development, testing, and distribution of chemical products.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Intravenous injections are a type of medical procedure where medication or fluids are administered directly into a vein using a needle and syringe. This route of administration is also known as an IV injection. The solution injected enters the patient's bloodstream immediately, allowing for rapid absorption and onset of action. Intravenous injections are commonly used to provide quick relief from symptoms, deliver medications that are not easily absorbed by other routes, or administer fluids and electrolytes in cases of dehydration or severe illness. It is important that intravenous injections are performed using aseptic technique to minimize the risk of infection.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

Pharmacokinetics is the branch of pharmacology that deals with the movement of a drug in the body after administration. It involves the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of drugs.

1. Absorption: This is the process by which a drug is taken into the body and made available for distribution to the site of action.
2. Distribution: This refers to the dispersion of the drug throughout the body after absorption. It involves the transfer of the drug from the bloodstream into various tissues and organs.
3. Metabolism: This is the biotransformation of a drug by enzymes, usually in the liver, into metabolic products (also known as metabolites). These metabolites may be pharmacologically active, inactive, or toxic.
4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, typically through the kidneys (urine), lungs (exhaled air), skin (sweat), or gastrointestinal tract (feces).

Understanding pharmacokinetics is crucial for determining the optimal dosage regimen of a drug to achieve and maintain its therapeutic concentration in the body while minimizing potential side effects.

Tissue distribution, in the context of pharmacology and toxicology, refers to the way that a drug or xenobiotic (a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism) is distributed throughout the body's tissues after administration. It describes how much of the drug or xenobiotic can be found in various tissues and organs, and is influenced by factors such as blood flow, lipid solubility, protein binding, and the permeability of cell membranes. Understanding tissue distribution is important for predicting the potential effects of a drug or toxin on different parts of the body, and for designing drugs with improved safety and efficacy profiles.

Occupational exposure refers to the contact of an individual with potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents as a result of their job or occupation. This can include exposure to hazardous substances such as chemicals, heavy metals, or dusts; physical agents such as noise, radiation, or ergonomic stressors; and biological agents such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi.

Occupational exposure can occur through various routes, including inhalation, skin contact, ingestion, or injection. Prolonged or repeated exposure to these hazards can increase the risk of developing acute or chronic health conditions, such as respiratory diseases, skin disorders, neurological damage, or cancer.

Employers have a legal and ethical responsibility to minimize occupational exposures through the implementation of appropriate control measures, including engineering controls, administrative controls, personal protective equipment, and training programs. Regular monitoring and surveillance of workers' health can also help identify and prevent potential health hazards in the workplace.

The term "Area Under Curve" (AUC) is commonly used in the medical field, particularly in the analysis of diagnostic tests or pharmacokinetic studies. The AUC refers to the mathematical calculation of the area between a curve and the x-axis in a graph, typically representing a concentration-time profile.

In the context of diagnostic tests, the AUC is used to evaluate the performance of a test by measuring the entire two-dimensional area underneath the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, which plots the true positive rate (sensitivity) against the false positive rate (1-specificity) at various threshold settings. The AUC ranges from 0 to 1, where a higher AUC indicates better test performance:

* An AUC of 0.5 suggests that the test is no better than chance.
* An AUC between 0.7 and 0.8 implies moderate accuracy.
* An AUC between 0.8 and 0.9 indicates high accuracy.
* An AUC greater than 0.9 signifies very high accuracy.

In pharmacokinetic studies, the AUC is used to assess drug exposure over time by calculating the area under a plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-t) or AUC(0-\∞)) following drug administration. This value can help determine dosing regimens and evaluate potential drug interactions:

* AUC(0-t): Represents the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the last measurable concentration (t).
* AUC(0-\∞): Refers to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity, which estimates total drug exposure.

Defining "life" is a complex question that has been debated by philosophers, scientists, and theologians for centuries. From a biological or medical perspective, life can be defined as a characteristic that distinguishes physical entities that do have biological processes, such as growth, reproduction, and response to stimuli, from those that do not, either because such functions have ceased (death), or because they never had such functions and are classified as inanimate.

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) defines life as "the condition that distinguishes animals and plants from inorganic matter, including the capacity for growth, reproduction, functional activity, and continual change preceding death."

It's important to note that there is no one universally accepted definition of life, and different fields and disciplines may have slightly different definitions or criteria.

Diazepam is a medication from the benzodiazepine class, which typically has calming, sedative, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsant properties. Its medical uses include the treatment of anxiety disorders, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, end-of-life sedation, seizures, muscle spasms, and as a premedication for medical procedures. Diazepam is available in various forms, such as tablets, oral solution, rectal gel, and injectable solutions. It works by enhancing the effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which results in the modulation of nerve impulses in the brain, producing a sedative effect.

It is important to note that diazepam can be habit-forming and has several potential side effects, including drowsiness, dizziness, weakness, and impaired coordination. It should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional and according to the prescribed dosage to minimize the risk of adverse effects and dependence.

Valproic acid is a medication that is primarily used as an anticonvulsant, which means it is used to treat seizure disorders. It works by increasing the amount of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, a neurotransmitter that helps to reduce abnormal electrical activity in the brain. In addition to its use as an anticonvulsant, valproic acid may also be used to treat migraines and bipolar disorder. It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid solutions, and is usually taken by mouth. As with any medication, valproic acid can have side effects, and it is important for patients to be aware of these and to discuss them with their healthcare provider.

Enzyme stability refers to the ability of an enzyme to maintain its structure and function under various environmental conditions, such as temperature, pH, and the presence of denaturants or inhibitors. A stable enzyme retains its activity and conformation over time and across a range of conditions, making it more suitable for industrial and therapeutic applications.

Enzymes can be stabilized through various methods, including chemical modification, immobilization, and protein engineering. Understanding the factors that affect enzyme stability is crucial for optimizing their use in biotechnology, medicine, and research.

Cycloheximide is an antibiotic that is primarily used in laboratory settings to inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. It is derived from the actinobacteria species Streptomyces griseus. In medical terms, it is not used as a therapeutic drug in humans due to its significant side effects, including liver toxicity and potential neurotoxicity. However, it remains a valuable tool in research for studying protein function and cellular processes.

The antibiotic works by binding to the 60S subunit of the ribosome, thereby preventing the transfer RNA (tRNA) from delivering amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain during translation. This inhibition of protein synthesis can be lethal to cells, making cycloheximide a useful tool in studying cellular responses to protein depletion or misregulation.

In summary, while cycloheximide has significant research applications due to its ability to inhibit protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells, it is not used as a therapeutic drug in humans because of its toxic side effects.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Intravenous (IV) infusion is a medical procedure in which liquids, such as medications, nutrients, or fluids, are delivered directly into a patient's vein through a needle or a catheter. This route of administration allows for rapid absorption and distribution of the infused substance throughout the body. IV infusions can be used for various purposes, including resuscitation, hydration, nutrition support, medication delivery, and blood product transfusion. The rate and volume of the infusion are carefully controlled to ensure patient safety and efficacy of treatment.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Life change events refer to significant changes or transitions in an individual's personal circumstances that may have an impact on their health and well-being. These events can include things like:

* Marriage or divorce
* Birth of a child or loss of a loved one
* Job loss or retirement
* Moving to a new home or city
* Changes in financial status
* Health diagnoses or serious illnesses
* Starting or ending of a significant relationship

Research has shown that life change events can have a profound effect on an individual's stress levels, mental health, and physical health. Some life change events may be positive and exciting, while others may be challenging and difficult to cope with. In either case, it is important for individuals to take care of themselves during times of transition and seek support as needed.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

'Life cycle stages' is a term used in the context of public health and medicine to describe the different stages that an organism goes through during its lifetime. This concept is particularly important in the field of epidemiology, where understanding the life cycle stages of infectious agents (such as bacteria, viruses, parasites) can help inform strategies for disease prevention and control.

The life cycle stages of an infectious agent may include various forms such as spores, cysts, trophozoites, schizonts, or vectors, among others, depending on the specific organism. Each stage may have different characteristics, such as resistance to environmental factors, susceptibility to drugs, and ability to transmit infection.

For example, the life cycle stages of the malaria parasite include sporozoites (the infective form transmitted by mosquitoes), merozoites (the form that infects red blood cells), trophozoites (the feeding stage inside red blood cells), schizonts (the replicating stage inside red blood cells), and gametocytes (the sexual stage that can be taken up by mosquitoes to continue the life cycle).

Understanding the life cycle stages of an infectious agent is critical for developing effective interventions, such as vaccines, drugs, or other control measures. For example, targeting a specific life cycle stage with a drug may prevent transmission or reduce the severity of disease. Similarly, designing a vaccine to elicit immunity against a particular life cycle stage may provide protection against infection or disease.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Life tables are statistical tools used in actuarial science, demography, and public health to estimate the mortality rate and survival rates of a population. They provide a data-driven representation of the probability that individuals of a certain age will die before their next birthday (the death rate) or live to a particular age (the survival rate).

Life tables are constructed using data on the number of deaths and the size of the population in specific age groups over a given period. These tables typically include several columns representing different variables, such as:

1. Age group or interval: The age range for which the data is being presented (e.g., 0-1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years, etc.).
2. Number of people in the population: The size of the population within each age group.
3. Number of deaths: The number of individuals who died during the study period within each age group.
4. Death rate: The probability that an individual in a given age group will die before their next birthday. It is calculated as the number of deaths divided by the size of the population for that age group.
5. Survival rate: The probability that an individual in a given age group will survive to a specific age or older. It is calculated using the death rates from earlier age groups.
6. Life expectancy: The average number of years a person is expected to live, based on their current age and mortality rates for each subsequent age group.

Life tables are essential in various fields, including insurance, pension planning, social security administration, and healthcare policy development. They help researchers and policymakers understand the health status and demographic trends of populations, allowing them to make informed decisions about resource allocation, program development, and public health interventions.

Life support care, also known as artificial life support or mechanical ventilation, refers to medical interventions that are used to maintain and sustain the essential body functions of a patient who is unable to do so independently. These interventions can include mechanical ventilation to assist with breathing, hemodialysis to filter waste from the blood, intravenous (IV) fluids and medications to maintain circulation, and various other treatments to support organ function.

The goal of life support care is to keep a patient alive while treating their underlying medical condition, allowing time for the body to heal or providing comfort at the end of life. The use of life support can be temporary or long-term, depending on the patient's prognosis and the severity of their illness or injury.

It is important to note that decisions regarding the initiation, continuation, or withdrawal of life support care are complex and multifaceted, often requiring input from medical professionals, patients, and their families. Ethical considerations and advance directives, such as living wills and healthcare proxies, may also play a role in these decisions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "life style" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the way an individual or group lives, including their habits, behaviors, and preferences in areas such as diet, exercise, recreation, and stress management. Some lifestyle factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes and risk for certain diseases. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical meaning.

Longevity, in a medical context, refers to the condition of living for a long period of time. It is often used to describe individuals who have reached a advanced age, such as 85 years or older, and is sometimes associated with the study of aging and factors that contribute to a longer lifespan.

It's important to note that longevity can be influenced by various genetic and environmental factors, including family history, lifestyle choices, and access to quality healthcare. Some researchers are also studying the potential impact of certain medical interventions, such as stem cell therapies and caloric restriction, on lifespan and healthy aging.

Health status is a term used to describe the overall condition of an individual's health, including physical, mental, and social well-being. It is often assessed through various measures such as medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and self-reported health assessments. Health status can be used to identify health disparities, track changes in population health over time, and evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare interventions.

The Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) is a widely used, standardized measure of health-related quality of life and functional status. It is a self-reporting questionnaire that assesses the impact of illness or disability on an individual's daily life and functioning across multiple dimensions. The SIP evaluates four primary domains: physical, psychosocial, independent functioning, and overall health perception. These domains are further divided into 12 subscales, including sleep and rest, eating, work, home management, recreation and pastimes, ambulation, mobility, body care and movement, social interaction, communication, alertness behavior, and emotional behavior. The SIP is designed to measure both the severity and breadth of disability or impairment in individuals with a wide range of medical conditions. It has been used in research and clinical settings to evaluate treatment outcomes, compare the effectiveness of interventions, and monitor changes in health status over time.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Life insurance is a type of insurance policy that provides financial compensation to beneficiaries upon the death of the insured person. The policyholder pays premiums periodically to keep the policy active. In exchange, the insurance company agrees to pay a specified sum to the beneficiaries named in the policy when the insured individual passes away. Life insurance can help ensure that surviving family members or dependents have financial support to cover expenses such as funeral costs, mortgage payments, outstanding debts, and living expenses. There are various types of life insurance policies available, including term life, whole life, universal life, and variable life, each with its own features, benefits, and limitations.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Activities of Daily Living (ADL) are routine self-care activities that individuals usually do every day without assistance. These activities are widely used as a measure to determine the functional status and independence of a person, particularly in the elderly or those with disabilities or chronic illnesses. The basic ADLs include:

1. Personal hygiene: Bathing, washing hands and face, brushing teeth, grooming, and using the toilet.
2. Dressing: Selecting appropriate clothes and dressing oneself.
3. Eating: Preparing and consuming food, either independently or with assistive devices.
4. Mobility: Moving in and out of bed, chairs, or wheelchairs, walking independently or using mobility aids.
5. Transferring: Moving from one place to another, such as getting in and out of a car, bath, or bed.

There are also more complex Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) that assess an individual's ability to manage their own life and live independently. These include managing finances, shopping for groceries, using the telephone, taking medications as prescribed, preparing meals, and housekeeping tasks.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Personal Satisfaction" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the feeling of contentment or fulfillment one derives from achieving their personal goals or desires. However, in a medical context, it might be used to assess a person's quality of life or their satisfaction with their healthcare or treatment outcomes.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Psychometrics is a branch of psychology that deals with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, such as the development and standardization of tests used to measure intelligence, aptitude, personality, attitudes, and other mental abilities or traits. It involves the construction and validation of measurement instruments, including the determination of their reliability and validity, and the application of statistical methods to analyze test data and interpret results. The ultimate goal of psychometrics is to provide accurate, objective, and meaningful measurements that can be used to understand individual differences and make informed decisions in educational, clinical, and organizational settings.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Health status indicators are measures used to assess and monitor the health and well-being of a population. They provide information about various aspects of health, such as mortality rates, morbidity rates, prevalence of chronic diseases, lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, and access to healthcare services. These indicators can be used to identify trends and disparities in health outcomes, inform policy decisions, allocate resources, and evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions. Examples of health status indicators include life expectancy, infant mortality rate, prevalence of diabetes, smoking rates, and access to primary care.

Biogenesis is the biological process by which living organisms reproduce or generate new individuals through reproduction. This term also refers to the idea that a living organism can only arise from another living organism, and not from non-living matter. It was first proposed as a hypothesis by Thomas Henry Huxley in 1870, and later supported by the work of Louis Pasteur in the mid-19th century, who demonstrated that microorganisms could not spontaneously generate from non-living matter. This concept is now widely accepted in biology and is a fundamental principle of modern cell theory.

Psychological adaptation refers to the process by which individuals adjust and cope with stressors, challenges, or changes in their environment or circumstances. It involves modifying thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and copabilities to reduce the negative impact of these stressors and promote well-being. Psychological adaptation can occur at different levels, including intrapersonal (within the individual), interpersonal (between individuals), and cultural (within a group or society).

Examples of psychological adaptation include:

* Cognitive restructuring: changing negative thoughts and beliefs to more positive or adaptive ones
* Emotion regulation: managing and reducing intense or distressing emotions
* Problem-solving: finding solutions to practical challenges or obstacles
* Seeking social support: reaching out to others for help, advice, or comfort
* Developing coping strategies: using effective ways to deal with stressors or difficulties
* Cultivating resilience: bouncing back from adversity and learning from negative experiences.

Psychological adaptation is an important aspect of mental health and well-being, as it helps individuals adapt to new situations, overcome challenges, and maintain a sense of control and optimism in the face of stressors or changes.

Depression is a mood disorder that is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities. It can also cause significant changes in sleep, appetite, energy level, concentration, and behavior. Depression can interfere with daily life and normal functioning, and it can increase the risk of suicide and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of depression is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. There are several types of depression, including major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder. Treatment for depression typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a systematic process used to compare the costs and benefits of different options to determine which one provides the greatest net benefit. In a medical context, CBA can be used to evaluate the value of medical interventions, treatments, or policies by estimating and monetizing all the relevant costs and benefits associated with each option.

The costs included in a CBA may include direct costs such as the cost of the intervention or treatment itself, as well as indirect costs such as lost productivity or time away from work. Benefits may include improved health outcomes, reduced morbidity or mortality, and increased quality of life.

Once all the relevant costs and benefits have been identified and quantified, they are typically expressed in monetary terms to allow for a direct comparison. The option with the highest net benefit (i.e., the difference between total benefits and total costs) is considered the most cost-effective.

It's important to note that CBA has some limitations and can be subject to various biases and assumptions, so it should be used in conjunction with other evaluation methods to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the value of medical interventions or policies.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Life support systems are medical devices or equipment that provide necessary functions for patients who cannot breathe or maintain other vital functions on their own. These systems can include ventilators to assist with breathing, dialysis machines to perform kidney functions, and feeding tubes to provide nutrition. The goal of life support systems is to keep a patient alive while they receive treatment for an illness or injury, or until their body can function independently again.

... the second half-life is from 50% to 25%, and so on. A biological half-life or elimination half-life is the time it takes for a ... "first half-life", "second half-life", etc., where the first half-life is defined as the time required for decay from the ... Instead, the half-life is defined in terms of probability: "Half-life is the time required for exactly half of the entities to ... The biological half-life of caesium in human beings is between one and four months. The concept of a half-life has also been ...
... half-life of the radionuclide, the two act as parallel paths for elimination of the radioactivity, the effective half-life ... Biological Half-life Biological Effects of Radiation ©1996, Kenneth R. Koehler. Half-life, effective, European Nuclear Society ... An effective half-life of the drug will involve a decay constant that represents the sum of the biological and physical decay ... It reflects the cumulative effect of the individual half-lives, as observed by the changes in the actual serum concentration of ...
The longer half-life is called the terminal half-life and the half-life of the largest component is called the dominant half- ... Biological half-life (elimination half-life, pharmacological half-life) is the time taken for concentration of a biological ... Half-life, pertaining to the general mathematical concept in physics or pharmacology. Effective half-life "Elimination Half- ... The half-life of a drug is the time required for the serum concentration to be reduced by 50%. Once the half-life of the drug ...
"About Decay". Half-Life: Decay PC Port. Half-Life Creations. Retrieved September 26, 2008. Gearbox Software (2001). Half-Life: ... Half-Life: Decay is a multiplayer-only expansion pack for Valve's first-person shooter Half-Life. Developed by Gearbox Software ... "Reviews: Half-Life (PS2)". GameSpy. Archived from the original on July 9, 2008. Retrieved October 23, 2008. "Half-Life Q&A". ... Decay is set in the same location and timeframe as Half-Life. Half-Life takes place at a laboratory called the Black Mesa ...
The final script ran to 280 pages, compared to 128 pages for Half-Life 2 and 18 for Half-Life. Valve announced Half-Life: Alyx ... "Half-Life: Alyx Cut Enemies That Were Too Scary In VR". GameSpot. Retrieved March 20, 2021. O'Connor, James. "Half-Life: Alyx ... "Original Half-Life Writer Was Very Involved In Half-Life: Alyx". Prima Games. January 24, 2020. Retrieved July 25, 2020. Peel, ... McKeand, Kirk (March 23, 2020). "Half-Life: Alyx review - VR's killer app is a key component in the Half-Life story". VG247. ...
Half-Life was the opening night film for the International Women's Film Festival in Seoul, Korea. The film made a theatrical ... Half-Life is a 2008 movie directed by Jennifer Phang, starring Sanoe Lake, Julia Nickson-Soul, Leonardo Nam, Ben Redgrave, Lee ... Half-Life at IMDb v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles lacking ... Their mother Saura (Nickson-Soul) struggles to make ends meet and move on with her life while involved with her manipulative ...
It was bundled with Half-Life in many subsequent packages, including Half-Life: Platinum Pack and Half-Life: Platinum. When ... Several Half-Life games have been canceled, including Half-Life 2: Episode Three, a version of Half-Life 3, and games developed ... Independent of Half-Life: Decay, which was bundled with the retail sales of the PlayStation 2 version of Half-Life. Chris Remo ... Half-Life: Counter-Strike spawned its own series which gradually became separate from the main Half-Life games, bar occasional ...
... , currently rebranding to Delta Particles since July 2023, is a game modification of Half-Life created by ... McGlynn, Arthur (May 8, 2021). "Half-Life spinoff mod years in the making coming this summer". PCGamesN. "Half-Life: Delta es ... "Half-Life: Delta is a new campaign mod a dozen years in the making". PC Gamer. Heaton, Andrew Paul (May 9, 2021). "Half-Life ... William, Eshan (19 June 2023). "A Russian developer has released a global mod for Half-Life - Delta. He created it for 12 years ...
... may refer to: Half a Life (short story collection), a 1978 anthology of science fiction by Kir Bulychov Half a Life ... Naipaul Half a Life (memoir), a 2011 memoir by Darin Strauss "Half a Life" (Star Trek: The Next Generation), a 1991 episode ... Half-life (disambiguation) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Half a Life. If an internal link ... film), a 1982 film by Romain Goupil Half a Life (novel), a 2001 novel by V.S. ...
The mod uses voice lines from the original Half-Life, as well as Half-Life: Opposing Force, Half-Life: Blue Shift, Half-Life: ... "Half-Life: Echoes". Namuwiki. "DÉCOUVREZ HALF-LIFE : ECHOES ET SON CANDIDAT #12". Vossey. May 26, 2020. "Half-Life: Echoes". ... Half-Life: Echoes is a modification of the first-person shooter video game Half-Life created by British developer James " ... As a mod for Half-Life, Half-Life: Echoes is a first-person shooter that differs slightly from the base game. The first part of ...
In addition to the news, Planet Half-Life hosts extensive, in-depth collections of information regarding Half-Life, Half-Life 2 ... Planet Half-Life Archives Planet Half-Life Planet Half-Life Forums (Webarchive template wayback links, Articles lacking ... Planet Half-Life also offered free web hosting for Half-Life themed websites. The web hosting was regulated through GameSpy, ... April 27, 1999, A small fan site known as is relaunched as "Planet Half-Life", covering Half-Life and editing ...
"Nairobi Half Life: AFI Fest Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 3 March 2016. "Nairobi Half Life: KenyaBuzz Movie Review ... Nairobi Half Life (Swahili: Nusu Maisha ya Nairobi) is a 2012 Kenyan drama film directed by David "Tosh" Gitonga. The film was ... "Nairobi Half-life, The Contract, Flower Girl win big at Africa Magic Viewers' Choice Awards - Premium Times Nigeria". Premium ... Nairobi Half Life at IMDb (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Use dmy dates from ...
... is a mod for the first-person shooter video game Half-Life. It strives to simulate action movies, especially ... Action Half-life". Rock, Paper, Shotgun. Retrieved 2017-07-04. Meer, Alec (June 8, 2009). "Action Half-Life 2: The Sauce Of ... "Action Half-Life: The 5AM". Rock, Paper, Shotgun. Retrieved 2016-11-09. Kosak, Dave (April 1, 2001). "Action Half-Life: Behind ... Action Half-Life is the second mod in the "Action" series. The first was Action Quake 2 and the third was Action Unreal ...
Half-life, half life or halflife may also refer to: Half-Life (film), a 2008 independent film by Jennifer Phang Half Life: A ... "Half Life", a song by 10 Years from The Autumn Effect "Half Life", a song by Imogen Heap from her album Ellipse "Half Life", a ... Half-Life), a 1988 award-winning dystopia novel by Edmund Wnuk-Lipiński Half Life (3 album) (2001) Halflife (EP), an EP by ... a video game series developed by Valve Half-Life (video game), the first game in the series Half-Life 2, the second game in the ...
"Half-Life 2 Enemies". Planet Half-Life. IGN. Archived from the original on October 22, 2006. Retrieved 2008-09-23. "Half-Life 2 ... The Combine are again the primary antagonist in the prequel Half-Life: Alyx, taking place between Half-Life and Half-Life 2. ... "Half-Life 2: Episode One Walkthrough-Chapter 1: Undue Alarm". Planet Half-Life. IGN. Archived from the original on October 10, ... "Half-Life 2: Episode One Walkthrough-Chapter 5: Exit 17". Planet Half-Life. IGN. Archived from the original on October 10, 2012 ...
The Soundtrack of Half-Life 2, containing most of the music from Half-Life 2 and many tracks from the original Half-Life, was ... Half-Life: Alyx. Like the original Half-Life (1998), Half-Life 2 is a single-player first-person shooter (FPS) in which players ... Development of Half-Life 2 began in June 1999, six months after the release of the original Half-Life. It was developed by a ... Half-Life 2 was simultaneously released through Steam, CD, and on DVD in several editions. Through Steam, Half-Life 2 had three ...
Half-Life was published to critical acclaim by Alyson Books in 2004. Of Half-Life, Reed Business Information wrote "Gay readers ... Half-Life is a debut novel by Aaron Krach. Published in 2004 by Alyson Books, the novel was nominated for a Violet Quill Award ... Krach, Aaron (2004). Half-life: a novel. Alyson Books. ISBN 1-55583-854-5. OCLC 53971973. Retrieved October 26, 2009. Alyson ... Many of the familiar landmarks will remain-his best friend Dart riding shotgun; the suburban house where he lives with his dad ...
... ' upends the conventional travel genre". National Public Radio. Clement, Paul. "The Half Known Life: Finding ... The Half Known Life: In Search of Paradise is a book by Pico Iyer which was published on January 23, 2023 by Penguin Books.. ... The Half Known Life' Review: Chasing Dreams of Paradise". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2023-01-24. Kapoor, Mini (2023-01- ... ISBN 978-93-5492-885-7. Krishnan, Nikhil (2023-01-08). "The Half Known Life by Pico Iyer review: around the world in 80 clichés ...
... is an expansion pack for the first-person shooter game Half-Life. It was developed by Gearbox ... Archived official website Half-Life: Opposing Force at MobyGames Portals: 1990s Horror Science fiction Video games Half-Life: ... "Half-Life: Opposing Force Weapons". Planet Half-Life. GameSpy. Archived from the original on October 17, 2008. Retrieved ... "Half-Life: Generation". MobyGames. Retrieved April 1, 2016.[permanent dead link] "Half-Life 1: Anthology". IGN. Retrieved April ...
It was followed by Half-Life 2 (2004), Half-Life 2: Episode One (2006), Half-Life 2: Episode Two (2007), and Half-Life: Alyx ( ... and Half-Life 2: Episode Two (2007). After cancelling several other Half-Life projects, Valve released Half-Life: Alyx in 2020 ... "breaks down pretty cleanly into pre-Half-Life and post-Half-Life eras". In 2021, the Guardian ranked Half-Life the third- ... Half-Life exited PC Data's monthly top 20 in June. Half-Life became the fifth-bestselling PC game of the first half of 1999 in ...
Half a Life is a 2001 novel by Nobel laureate V. S. Naipaul published by Alfred A. Knopf. The novel is set in India, Africa and ... Half a Life is a prequel to Naipaul's 2004 novel Magic Seeds which starts with Willie in Berlin. "V S Naipaul". Booker Prize. ... There he leads a life as a different man with an interesting background 'oriental' and fakes the facts of his life. Later in ... Half a Life was long listed for the Booker prize (2001). Willie Somerset Chandran is the son of a Brahmin father and a Dalit ...
At the beginning of Half-Life, one such crystal, revealed in Half-Life 2: Episode Two to have been provided by the G-Man, is ... Valve (2005). Half-Life 2: Lost Coast (PC). Dulin, Ron (2008-11-20). "Half-Life for PC Review". GameSpot. Archived from the ... "Enemies of Half-Life 2". Planet Half-Life. Archived from the original on October 22, 2006. Retrieved 2015-06-24.{{cite web}}: ... "Half-Life 2 Walkthrough: Black Mesa East". Planet Half-Life. IGN. Archived from the original on 2012-11-13. Retrieved 2008-08- ...
"Half-Life Week, Day 2: The Half-Life Blues Shift". IGN. May 8, 2001. Retrieved October 26, 2008. Gearbox Software (2001). Half- ... Half-Life: Blue Shift is an expansion pack for the first-person shooter video game Half-Life (1998). It was developed by ... "Half-Life: Blue Shift Q&A". GameSpot. May 3, 2001. Retrieved October 26, 2008. Ajami, Amer (May 18, 2001). "E3 2001: Half-Life ... "Beta Half-Life for Sega Dreamcast". nextdimension. Retrieved July 28, 2013. Bramwell, Tom (August 25, 2005). "Free Half-Life 1 ...
... is an EP released by Local H in 2001. It was released as a teaser for their album Here Comes the Zoo, which ... "Local H - Half-Life E.P." Discogs. (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles ... "Half-Life" (Scott Lucas, Brian St. Clair) - 3:39 "Static Age" (Glenn Danzig) - 2:42 "25 or 6 to 4" (Robert Lamm) - 3:51 "Stick ...
Half a Life (French: Mourir à 30 ans) is a 1982 film directed by Romain Goupil, which won the Caméra d'Or and Award of the ... Half a Life at IMDb v t e v t e (Articles lacking sources from November 2014, All articles lacking sources, Articles with short ...
If an infusion has reached steady state then the context-sensitive half-life is equal to the terminal plasma half-life of the ... context-sensitive half-life is equal to elimination half-life Only free drug that is in the plasma is metabolised Metabolism ... context-sensitive half-life is shorter than elimination half-life Only free drug that is in the plasma is metabolised Overall ... Context-sensitive half-life or context sensitive half-time is defined as the time taken for blood plasma concentration of a ...
Half Life is the 2006 debut novel of American writer and artist Shelley Jackson. The novel presupposes an alternate history in ... Half Life received mixed-to-positive reviews; Newsweek called it "brilliant and funny," and The New York Times, while praising ...
Two weeks after the initial release of Half-Life 2, Valve revealed and released Half-Life 2: Deathmatch on Steam. Deathmatch ... like Half-Life's multiplayer, does not develop any part of the plot or story of the Half-Life series. Deathmatch includes some ... "Half-Life 2 Deathmatch Official?". IGN. Archived from the original on March 24, 2014. Retrieved March 24, 2014. "Half-Life 2: ... which allowed NVIDIA graphics card users to download and play Half-Life 2: Deathmatch along with Portal: First Slice, Half-Life ...
Between Half-Life 2: Episode Two (2007) and Half-Life: Alyx (2020), Valve canceled at least five Half-Life games, including ... Half-Life is a series of first-person shooter games developed and published by Valve, beginning with the original Half-Life, ... was developing a Half-Life expansion pack to follow Half-Life: Opposing Force. 2015, Inc declined to comment. On March 18, 2000 ... "Half-Life 2: Episode Two". Metacritic. Retrieved August 18, 2020. "Half-Life 2: Episode One gold, Two dated, Three announced". ...
The half-life of knowledge or half-life of facts is the amount of time that has to elapse before half of the knowledge or facts ... These ideas of half-life applied to different fields differ from the concept of half-life in physics in that there is no ... The concept of "half-life of knowledge" is attributed to Fritz Machlup (1962). Half-life Pessimistic induction Scientometrics ... An engineering degree went from having a half life of 35 years in ca. 1930 to about 10 years in 1960. A Delphi Poll showed that ...
... the second half-life is from 50% to 25%, and so on. A biological half-life or elimination half-life is the time it takes for a ... "first half-life", "second half-life", etc., where the first half-life is defined as the time required for decay from the ... Instead, the half-life is defined in terms of probability: "Half-life is the time required for exactly half of the entities to ... The biological half-life of caesium in human beings is between one and four months. The concept of a half-life has also been ...
Half-Life was published to critical acclaim by Alyson Books in 2004. Of Half-Life, Reed Business Information wrote "Gay readers ... Half-Life is a debut novel by Aaron Krach. Published in 2004 by Alyson Books, the novel was nominated for a Violet Quill Award ... Krach, Aaron (2004). Half-life: a novel. Alyson Books. ISBN 1-55583-854-5. OCLC 53971973. Retrieved October 26, 2009. Alyson ... Many of the familiar landmarks will remain-his best friend Dart riding shotgun; the suburban house where he lives with his dad ...
The full Half-Life 2 SDK, which practically the entire modding community has been waiting for over the past year and a half has ... a free Half-Life 2 Deathmatch component has been released and made available to all current owners of Half-Life 2 through Steam ... The full Half-Life 2 SDK, which practically the entire modding community has been waiting for over the past year and a half has ... The full Half-Life 2 SDK, which practically the entire modding community has been waiting for over the past year and a half has ...
Before Half-Life, blockbusters like Quake and Quake II were lone gunman affairs with little to no interaction with non-hostile ... It takes serious guts to try and remake the game Half-Life. Valves 1998 first-person shooter didnt change FPS gaming, it ... Black Mesa: Half-Lifes Wholly Amazing Source Engine Remake. by Dave Altavilla - Tuesday, September 18, 2012, 10:03 AM EDT ... Before Half-Life, blockbusters like Quake and Quake II were lone gunman affairs with little to no interaction with non-hostile ...
Citation: biological half life in IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 3rd ed. International Union of Pure and Applied ... For a substance the time required for the amount of that substance in a biological system to be reduced to one half of its ...
Half-Life. Half-Life 2. Portal. Mods. Counter-Strike. Day of Defeat. Team Fortress. Left 4 Dead. Steam. Forum. ... Half-Life. 25 Jahre Half-Life. 22.11.2023 , 16:57 Uhr , von filL. ... Demo (Half-Life: Uplink). FAQ. Kaufversionen. Forum. Team. Jobs. Chat. Sidebar. OpenID. News-Feeds. Twitter. HLPortal4You. ... Half-Life ist am 19.11.1998 erschienen und dieser Veröffentlichung ist eine ganze Menge gefolgt. Erste Modifikationen wie das ...
Dark Half is one such game, published by Enix in 1996. It is a late generation Super Famicom title that at first glance seems ... Dark Half is one of many hidden gems of the Super Famicoms later years that remained out of reach for non- Japanese-fluent ... Dark Half is unique, made during a time where it was becoming increasingly hard to choose from the multitude of "me too" RPGs ... Dark Half easily ticks all the checkboxes we come to expect when looking at late-generation Super Famicom titles, with the ...
According to a 2020 census report, 1 in 6 children younger than 18 lives with a half sibling. Its more common for children ... One in six children younger than 18 lives with a half sibling, according to census data. ... Woolley knows this firsthand: "I have two full siblings and three half siblings, and I am closest to one of my half brothers, ... Indeed, its true that for some half siblings, the "half" part of the equation is very much felt; maybe their divorced parents ...
A new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Thursday finds that life expectancy in the United States ... dropped a staggering one year during the first half of 2020 as the coronavirus pandemic caused its first wave of deaths. ... The life expectancy dropped from 78.8 years for the average American in 2019 to 77.8 years for the first half of 2020. Health ... 18, 2021 finds that life expectancy in the United States dropped a staggering one year during the first half of 2020 as the ...
... the threshold of discrimination for changes in health-related quality of life for chronic diseases appears to be approximately ... Interpretation of changes in health-related quality of life: the remarkable universality of half a standard deviation Med Care ... Results: For all but 6 studies, the MID estimates were close to one half a SD (mean = 0.495, SD = 0.155). There was no ... threshold of discrimination for changes in health-related quality of life for chronic diseases appears to be approximately half ...
Elite Events presents the Fall Classic Half Marathon and 5K which will take place through the Isles of Collier Preserve and ...
Valve is back with a brand new Half-Life game, and even after so long away active games development, the iconic gaming company ... Half-Life Alyx: Verdict - 5/5 - Reviewed on Oculus Rift. Half-Life: Alyx is a perfect example of what happens if you wait a ... Reloading in Half-Life Alyx is great. You push one button to eject the magazine, grab a new magazine from your backpack over ... Half-Life: Alyx is intensely atmospheric. The graphics are stunning, the voice acting is incredible, and the story drags you ...
Try this adorable half up hairstyle that you can do on your hair. ... Simple Half-Up Barbie Hairstyle. Ive been all about everything ... High ponytail and high half-up hairstyles. This is a hairstyle that I love doing on my own hair, but you can do this on anyone ...
Life insurance accounted for nearly half of inforce voluntary premiums in 2013, according to Eastbridge Consulting Group. ... Life insurance accounts for half of inforce voluntary premium. Life insurance accounted for nearly half of inforce voluntary ... Page Printed from: ... 2014/08/25/life-insurance-accounts-for-half-of-inforce-volunt/,/ID,,SOURCE,BenefitsPro,/SOURCE,,PUBLICATION-DATE,2014-08-25,/ ...
Gain a glimspe of the farming and fishing life. ... the countriside area in Hoi An for insights into the rural life ... Duration: Half days. Start/End: Hoi An/Hoi An. Group size: Minimum 2 persons up. Active level: Biking, Boating, Walking & sit ... Our Farming & Fishing Life Tour provides a close-up and intimate exposure to both the local farming and fishing communities in ... This tour provides us with a cultural window into the ways of life of both our farming and fishing communities in Hoi An. ...
Ever compared Dishonoreds Corvo Attano with Half Lifes Gordon Freeman? Arkane Studios writer Austin Grossman has, and has ... The difference between Dishonored and how it works in Half-Life 2 is that it s a lot more personal.. "I think you get that ... Arkane Writer: Dishonoreds Protagonist is Better than Half Lifes Gordon Freeman. Gordons "creepy as hell". Facebook Twitter ... Ever compared Dishonoreds Corvo Attano with Half Lifes Gordon Freeman? Arkane Studios writer Austin Grossman has, and has ...
The Oasis Half-Zip from Icebreakers active baselayer collection is made with lightweight merino fabric to keep you warm on ... The Oasis Half-Zip from Icebreakers active baselayer collection is made with lightweight merino fabric to keep you warm on ... Men / Clothing / Base & Mid Layering / Mens Oasis Long Sleeve Half-Zip Top ...
... "in Half-Lifes world" and some cool physics tricks courtesy of the Russells (Gravity Gloves), its fairly standard Half-Life ... If Valve is to commit to exploring more of Half-Life in VR, itd be easier to say go for it, but as it is, this is a best-in- ... But hey, standard Half-Life after over a decade is still as good as any FPS out there, right? There are some truly special ... Half-Life always skirts around horror, if nothing else the headcrabs would put the willies up you, but here, with them able to ...
The Tree of Life® Insignia Silver Half-Hoop Earrings feature classic hoops of sterling silver adorned with our signature leaf ... Our Tree of Life® Insignia collection plucks the pretty heart-shaped leaf from the folklore symbol of creation and renewal to ... Tree of Life® Insignia Silver Half-Hoop Earrings. Tree of Life® Insignia Silver Half-Hoop Earrings ... Tree of Life® Insignia Silver Half-Hoop Earrings. Description Our Tree of Life® Insignia collection plucks the pretty heart- ...
20mm Half Round Real Life Glass Eyes - Grey-Green German glass eyes ... These eyes are made by a highly qualified real life Prosthetic Glass Eye Maker.. The cornea is replicated exactly like that of ...
V e o h e Half-Life 2: Deathmatch. Cheaty, trainery, n vody, e tiny, cd obaly, wallpapery, screenshoty, videa, download, ... ... Half-Life: Life/2 Add-On. Half-Life: Chickenmix. Half-Life: Half-Time Level CD. Half-Life: Further Data. Half-Life: Conundrum. ... Half-Life: Cthulhu. Half-Life: Invasion. Half-Life: Generation. Half-Life: Poke646. Sweet Half-Life. Half-Life: Blue Shift. ... Half-Life: They Hunger 2: Rest in Pieces. Half-Life: They Hunger 1. Half-Life: The Specialist. Half-Life: The Gate. Half-Life: ...
... the half-full glass, not the half-empty one. ... Inventing the rest of our lives after 50, we focus on balance, ... Inventing the Rest of Our Lives: A Glass-Half-Full Frame of Mind By Suzanne Braun Levine, September 4, 2013 09:30 AM ... Is our glass going to be half-full or half-empty? The scale is tilted by circumstances - health, finances and luck - but it is ... The message is: focus on the half-full glass, not the half-empty one. We may be losing strength, importance, good looks, but we ...
Listen to Real FamilyLife® daily radio broadcasts with Dave and Ann Wilson sermons free online. Your favorite Dave and Ann Wilson messages, ministry radio programs, podcasts and more!
Year-Long Chronicle of South African Teenager s Life With Aids to Air as Half-Hour Documentary on All Things Considered, April ... Thembi Ngubane, who lives in the township of Khayelitsha, tells this story from the personal side - from breaking the news to ... All Things Considered is NPR s signature afternoon news magazine and reaches nearly 11 and a half million listeners weekly on ... April 11, 2006, Washington, D.C. -- NPR afternoon newsmagazine All Things Considered will broadcast a new half-hour documentary ...
"Half Life"s issues remain undeniably salient as a military commanded by another Bush forces out Arabic translators for their ... With its twin themes of gays in the military and the mysterious Gulf War Syndrome, "Half Life, " currently at American Theatre ... Sins of the Mother: A Review of "Judys Lifes Work" at Definition Theatre "Judys Lifes Work" is a story about the salutary ... Real Life Drama: A Review of On the Greenbelt at Strawdog Theatre Company A daughter holds a bundle of secrets that she feels ...
Joan recalled an artist in her homeroom who created life-size cutouts of The Beatles, minus the faces. Students paid a quarter ...
The Active for Life Running Challenge youth programme. The Sussex Beacon, the charity behind the Brighton Half Marathon, have ... The Active for Life Running Challenge programme supports children in Y3-Y6 to train and participate in The Brighton Half Youth ... All news , Brighton Half Marathon 2020 , Race news. Tags: Brighton, Brighton Half Marathon 2020, Youth race. ... The Active for Life team work with local schools to target those children who are the least active and /or would like the ...
Id wanted to move to Spain since I read The Sun Also Rises in 10th grade, but the idea of island life at half the cost of ... Sometimes, a downside to island life is simply getting off that island, but being in the Mediterranean makes Mallorca more ... is extensive enough that I can say what I really mean-that I dont want this adventure to end-but that doesnt mean life on ...
"I picked a career that only lasted half my life.". When a federal jury found Bonds guilty of obstruction of justice two and a ... "I picked a career that only lasted half my life". By The New Inquiry. November 20, 2013. ... half years ago, but failed to reach a verdict on three meatier perjury counts, conventional wisdom declared the prosecution a ...
  • In addition to this, a free Half-Life 2 Deathmatch component has been released and made available to all current owners of Half-Life 2 through Steam. (
  • Finally, Valve are currently running a Half-Life 2 Deathmatch map making contest . (
  • Elite Events presents the Fall Classic Half Marathon and 5K which will take place through the Isles of Collier Preserve and Sugden Regional Park. (
  • The Sussex Beacon, the charity behind the Brighton Half Marathon, have been working in partnership with Active for Life on their annual Running Challenge programme for several years. (
  • Join us for the Life Without Limits Half Marathon, 5K, and a 1-Mile Fun Run in Florence, AL. (
  • Bank Independent is proud to underwrite the costs of presenting the Life Without Limits Half Marathon, 5K, and Fun Run. (
  • For example, the medical sciences refer to the biological half-life of drugs and other chemicals in the human body. (
  • For a substance the time required for the amount of that substance in a biological system to be reduced to one half of its value by biological processes, when the rate of removal is approximately exponential. (
  • biological half life' in IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology , 3rd ed. (
  • The use of half-lives and associated confidence intervals in biological research. (
  • All Things Considered is NPR s signature afternoon news magazine and reaches nearly 11 and a half million listeners weekly on 629 public radio stations across the country. (
  • Active for Life has grown into a city-wide initiative which reaches out to thousands of Brighton & Hove residents every year, supporting them to become more active, more often. (
  • once initiated, duration of treatment is unknown and will likely need to continue for several years, if not for life. (
  • Our Farming & Fishing Life Tour provides a close-up and intimate exposure to both the local farming and fishing communities in the area near by Hoi An old town. (
  • Mn exposure matrices for large respirable particulate (Mn-LRP, dust) and small respirable particulate (Mn-SRP, fume), based on process origins, were used together with detailed work histories since 1973 (plant opening), to construct exposure metrics including burdens and cumulative burdens with various clearance half-lives. (
  • Genome-wide survey of mRNA half-lives in Bacillus subtilis identifies extremely stable mRNAs. (
  • Stable nuclides are given a half life of 1e+35 s. (
  • One in six children younger than 18 lives with a half sibling, according to census data. (
  • According to a 2020 census report, 1 in 6 children younger than 18 lives with a half sibling. (
  • Woolley knows this firsthand: "I have two full siblings and three half siblings, and I am closest to one of my half brothers, who is much younger than I am. (
  • Half-life (symbol t½) is the time required for a quantity (of substance) to reduce to half of its initial value. (
  • The converse of half-life (in exponential growth) is doubling time. (
  • N(t) is the quantity that still remains and has not yet decayed after a time t, t½ is the half-life of the decaying quantity, τ is a positive number called the mean lifetime of the decaying quantity, λ is a positive number called the decay constant of the decaying quantity. (
  • He told HuffPost the kind of relationships that develop over time with half siblings has more to do with who they develop to be as individuals rather than what their parents want, how long it took for them to meet or even whether they shared a bedroom growing up. (
  • More than half of women have this condition at some time during their life. (
  • Half-life is constant over the lifetime of an exponentially decaying quantity, and it is a characteristic unit for the exponential decay equation. (
  • Half siblings can form strong bonds that last a lifetime whether they live together growing up or just see each other during 'visits,' such as holidays and summer. (
  • Michael E. Woolley, also a professor at the University of Maryland School of Social Work and co-author of "Adult Sibling Relationships," thinks that there's something special about how bonds between half siblings are forged. (
  • When a federal jury found Bonds guilty of obstruction of justice two and a half years ago, but failed to reach a verdict on three meatier perjury counts, conventional wisdom declared the prosecution a bust. (
  • Feed ingredients were inoculated with 10 5 TCID 50 ASFV based on previous half-life calculations ( 5 , 10 ) and the infectious dose in feed ( 6 ). (
  • The half-life of routinely used medications and adjustment of the dose according to the perioperative schedule must be considered. (
  • It tweaks and improves the original game, while keeping things intact that made Half-Life great. (
  • The Oasis Half-Zip from Icebreaker's active baselayer collection is made with lightweight merino fabric to keep you warm on cool weather expeditions. (
  • These eyes are made by a highly qualified real life Prosthetic Glass Eye Maker. (
  • In terms of presentation Dark Half is arguably quite disappointing for a game released in 1996, yet it can hardly be described as ugly. (
  • I think I will ask that instead of a party or wrapped gifts, people give the gift of life to the American Red Cross in celebration of my birthday. (
  • Developing a model to support linkages and building one billion people living under life-threatening conditions trust between civil society organizations and agencies in urban slums - areas that are unplanned or that have responsible for providing services, especially health and substandard housing and service provision. (
  • Before Half-Life, blockbusters like Quake and Quake II were lone gunman affairs with little to no interaction with non-hostile NPCs (Non-Player Character). (
  • It's at this point that Rhys Darby, who plays the supporting character in Half-Life: Alyx, basically screamed in my ear, which scared the crap out of me, especially when combined with the very real threat of a Head Crab making my face the little spoon to its big spoon. (
  • Dark Half is one of many hidden gems of the Super Famicom's later years that remained out of reach for non- Japanese-fluent gamers until AGTP Translations released the complete English translation patch . (
  • When half siblings choose to see each other as "full" family, it's a true buy-in, a show of love and real kinship beyond anything the same two parents could encourage. (
  • These days, my vocabulary is extensive enough that I can say what I really mean-that I don't want this adventure to end-but that doesn't mean life on Mallorca isn't still poetry. (
  • Half-life = 5-12 days in total water-sediment systems. (
  • Generally, what determines how close half siblings are going to be is proximity," said Geoffrey Greif, a professor at the University of Maryland School of Social Work and co-author of "Adult Sibling Relationships. (
  • Learning about daily work life of local farmers in Tra Que organic farm village, sharing how to hoe and a soil, water vegetable at an organic herb garden, riding water buffalo in the field and enjoy the freshest air of the countryside's beauties. (
  • The Active for Life team work with local schools to target those children who are the least active and /or would like the opportunity to get involved with the Running Challenge to help boost their confidence and self-esteem through physical activity. (
  • The full Half-Life 2 SDK, which practically the entire modding community has been waiting for over the past year and a half has finally been released. (
  • Two weeks before high school graduation and the geography of 18-year-old Adam Westman's life is about to change dramatically. (
  • High ponytail and high half-up hairstyles. (
  • Thembi Ngubane, who lives in the township of Khayelitsha, tells this story from the personal side - from breaking the news to her family, receiving drugs at a local clinic, being ostracized by friends and neighbors and building her relationship with her boyfriend. (
  • I'd wanted to move to Spain since I read The Sun Also Rises in 10th grade, but the idea of island life at half the cost of living in the Caribbean helped seal the deal. (
  • The original term, half-life period, dating to Ernest Rutherford's discovery of the principle in 1907, was shortened to half-life in the early 1950s. (
  • La version 5.5 d' Action-Half-Life vient de sortir. (
  • Nevertheless, when there are many identical atoms decaying (right boxes), the law of large numbers suggests that it is a very good approximation to say that half of the atoms remain after one half-life. (
  • My grandson joined Active for Life after discussions with school and his physiotherapist at Seaside view. (
  • For example, if there is just one radioactive atom, and its half-life is one second, there will not be "half of an atom" left after one second. (
  • It's more common for children living with a single mom to have at least one half sibling present (32.5%), the researchers found. (
  • Only 7.6% of children living with a single dad had at least one half sibling. (
  • The programme offers reduced entry into our Brighton Half Youth Races , a fun, one-mile race aimed at children of all abilities aged 7-17. (
  • Our Tree of Life® Insignia collection plucks the pretty heart-shaped leaf from the folklore symbol of creation and renewal to create subtle designs with an uplifting meaning. (
  • Rutherford applied the principle of a radioactive element's half-life in studies of age determination of rocks by measuring the decay period of radium to lead-206. (
  • Extended half-life (EHL) factor VIII (FVIII) and IX (FIX) products are intended to decrease the burden of prophylaxis for patients with haemophilia A or B. Whether these newer concentrates have led to meaningful clinical practice change remains vague. (
  • However, play it past the first few minutes and Dark Half reveals that is anything but standard. (
  • But when death and love, perhaps, arrive unexpectedly, Adam must learn that trouble sometimes has to rumble through a tidy world to make room for the kind of magical connections that make life worth living. (