Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Keratins, Hair-Specific: Keratins that are specific for hard tissues such as HAIR; NAILS; and the filiform papillae of the TONGUE.Keratins, Type II: A keratin subtype that includes keratins that are generally larger and less acidic that TYPE I KERATINS. Type II keratins combine with type I keratins to form keratin filaments.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Hair Diseases: Diseases affecting the orderly growth and persistence of hair.Keratins, Type I: A keratin subtype that includes keratins that are generally smaller and more acidic that TYPE II KERATINS. Type I keratins combine with type II keratins to form keratin filaments.Dipodomys: A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.Pilomatrixoma: A tumor composed of cells resembling those of the hair matrix, which undergo 'mummification' and may calcify. It is a relatively uncommon tumor, which may occur at any age from infancy. The majority of patients are under 20, and females are affected more than males. The lesion is usually a solitary deep dermal or subcutaneous tumor 3-30 mm in diameter, situated in the head, neck, or upper extremity. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2401)Hair Cells, Auditory: Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Pseudogenes: Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.Keratin-8: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-18 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.Intermediate Filaments: Cytoplasmic filaments intermediate in diameter (about 10 nanometers) between the microfilaments and the microtubules. They may be composed of any of a number of different proteins and form a ring around the cell nucleus.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Hair Color: Color of hair or fur.Keratin-14: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-5 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-14 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.Hair Cells, Auditory, Inner: Auditory sensory cells of organ of Corti, usually placed in one row medially to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus). Inner hair cells are in fewer numbers than the OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS, and their STEREOCILIA are approximately twice as thick as those of the outer hair cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Keratin-10: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-1 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-10 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.Hair Removal: Methods used to remove unwanted facial and body hair.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex: A form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by serous bullae that heal without scarring. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-5 and KERATIN-14 have been associated with several subtypes of epidermolysis bullosa simplex.Hair Dyes: Dyes used as cosmetics to change hair color either permanently or temporarily.Hair Cells, Vestibular: Sensory cells in the acoustic maculae with their apical STEREOCILIA embedded in a gelatinous OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE. These hair cells are stimulated by the movement of otolithic membrane, and impulses are transmitted via the VESTIBULAR NERVE to the BRAIN STEM. Hair cells in the saccule and those in the utricle sense linear acceleration in vertical and horizontal directions, respectively.Hyperkeratosis, Epidermolytic: A form of congenital ichthyosis inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by ERYTHRODERMA and severe hyperkeratosis. It is manifested at birth by blisters followed by the appearance of thickened, horny, verruciform scales over the entire body, but accentuated in flexural areas. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-1 and KERATIN-10 have been associated with this disorder.Keratin-1: A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-10 in terminally differentiated epidermal cells such as those that form the stratum corneum. Mutations in the genes that encode keratin-1 have been associated with HYPERKERATOSIS, EPIDERMOLYTIC.Hair Cells, Auditory, Outer: Sensory cells of organ of Corti. In mammals, they are usually arranged in three or four rows, and away from the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), lateral to the INNER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and other supporting structures. Their cell bodies and STEREOCILIA increase in length from the cochlear base toward the apex and laterally across the rows, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Hair Preparations: Hair grooming, cleansing and modifying products meant for topical application to hair, usually human. They include sprays, bleaches, dyes, conditioners, rinses, shampoos, nutrient lotions, etc.Keratin-5: A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-14 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-5 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Keratin-18: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-8 in simple, or predominately single layered, internal epithelia.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Alopecia: Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Intermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.Keratin-16: A type I keratin expressed in a variety of EPITHELIUM, including the ESOPHAGUS, the TONGUE, the HAIR FOLLICLE and NAILS. Keratin-16 is normally found associated with KERATIN-6. Mutations in the gene for keratin-6 have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 1.Keratoderma, Palmoplantar: Group of mostly hereditary disorders characterized by thickening of the palms and soles as a result of excessive keratin formation leading to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum (hyperkeratosis).Keratin-17: A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-6 in rapidly proliferating squamous epithelial tissue. Mutations in the gene for keratin-17 have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 2.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Hoof and Claw: Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Saccule and Utricle: Two membranous sacs within the vestibular labyrinth of the INNER EAR. The saccule communicates with COCHLEAR DUCT through the ductus reuniens, and communicates with utricle through the utriculosaccular duct from which the ENDOLYMPHATIC DUCT arises. The utricle and saccule have sensory areas (acoustic maculae) which are innervated by the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Keratin-2: A type II keratin found expressed in the upper spinous layer of epidermal KERATINOCYTES. Mutations in genes that encode keratin-2A have been associated with ICHTHYOSIS BULLOSA OF SIEMENS.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Scalp: The outer covering of the calvaria. It is composed of several layers: SKIN; subcutaneous connective tissue; the occipitofrontal muscle which includes the tendinous galea aponeurotica; loose connective tissue; and the pericranium (the PERIOSTEUM of the SKULL).Keratin-13: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-4 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Defects in gene for keratin 13 cause HEREDITARY MUCOSAL LEUKOKERATOSIS.Desmosomes: A type of junction that attaches one cell to its neighbor. One of a number of differentiated regions which occur, for example, where the cytoplasmic membranes of adjacent epithelial cells are closely apposed. It consists of a circular region of each membrane together with associated intracellular microfilaments and an intercellular material which may include, for example, mucopolysaccharides. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Keratin-15: A type I keratin found in the basal layer of the adult epidermis and in other stratified epithelia.Keratin-6: A type II keratin found associated with KERATIN-16 or KERATIN-17 in rapidly proliferating squamous epithelial tissue. Mutations in gene for keratin-6A and keratin-6B have been associated with PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 1 and PACHYONYCHIA CONGENITA, TYPE 2 respectively.Organ of Corti: The spiral EPITHELIUM containing sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and supporting cells in the cochlea. Organ of Corti, situated on the BASILAR MEMBRANE and overlaid by a gelatinous TECTORIAL MEMBRANE, converts sound-induced mechanical waves to neural impulses to the brain.Pachyonychia Congenita: A group of inherited ectodermal dysplasias whose most prominent clinical feature is hypertrophic nail dystrophy resulting in PACHYONYCHIA. Several specific subtypes of pachyonychia congenita have been associated with mutations in genes that encode KERATINS.Vimentin: An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Hypotrichosis: Presence of less than the normal amount of hair. (Dorland, 27th ed)Desmoplakins: Desmoplakins are cytoskeletal linker proteins that anchor INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS to the PLASMA MEMBRANE at DESMOSOMES.Keratin-12: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-3 in the CORNEA and is regarded as a marker for corneal-type epithelial differentiation. Mutations in the gene for keratin-12 have been associated with MEESMANN CORNEAL EPITHELIAL DYSTROPHY.Nail Diseases: Diseases of the nail plate and tissues surrounding it. The concept is limited to primates.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Keratin-9: A type II keratin found predominantly expressed in the terminally differentiated EPIDERMIS of palms and soles. Mutations in the gene for keratin 9 are associated with KERATODERMA, PALMOPLANTAR, EPIDERMOLYTIC.Keratoderma, Palmoplantar, Epidermolytic: An autosomal dominant hereditary skin disease characterized by epidermolytic hyperkeratosis that is strictly confined to the palms and soles. It has been associated with mutations in the gene that codes for KERATIN-9.
As a type I hair keratin, it is an acidic protein which heterodimerizes with type II keratins to form hair and nails. The type ... "A splice site mutation in the gene of the human type I hair keratin hHa1 results in the expression of a tailless keratin ... "The catalog of human hair keratins. I. Expression of the nine type I members in the hair follicle". The Journal of Biological ... "Characterization and chromosomal localization of human hair-specific keratin genes and comparative expression during the hair ...
As a type I hair keratin, it is an acidic protein which heterodimerizes with type II keratins to form hair and nails. The type ... "Entrez Gene: KRT32 keratin 32". Yu J, Yu DW, Checkla DM, et al. (1993). "Human hair keratins". J. Invest. Dermatol. 101 (1 ... 1999). "The catalog of human hair keratins. I. Expression of the nine type I members in the hair follicle". J. Biol. Chem. 274 ... characterization of the human type I cuticular hair keratin hHa2 and identification of an adjacent novel type I hair keratin ...
This type I hair keratin is an acidic protein which heterodimerizes with type II keratins to form hair and nails. The type I ... 1999). "The catalog of human hair keratins. I. Expression of the nine type I members in the hair follicle". J. Biol. Chem. 274 ... 1993). "Human hair keratins". J. Invest. Dermatol. 101 (1 Suppl): 56S-59S. doi:10.1111/1523-1747.ep12362635. PMID 7686952. ... "Characterization of a 190-kilobase pair domain of human type I hair keratin genes". J Biol Chem. 273 (41): 26683-91. doi: ...
As a type I hair keratin, it is an acidic protein which heterodimerizes with type II keratins to form hair and nails. There are ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. It is one of the type I hair keratin genes which are ... "Entrez Gene: KRT33B keratin 33B". Yu J, Yu DW, Checkla DM, et al. (1993). "Human hair keratins". J. Invest. Dermatol. 101 (1 ... 1999). "The catalog of human hair keratins. I. Expression of the nine type I members in the hair follicle". J. Biol. Chem. 274 ...
All hair keratins are expressed in the hair follicle; this hair keratin, as well as KRTHB1 and KRTHB6, is found primarily in ... As a type II hair keratin, it is a basic protein which heterodimerizes with type I keratins to form hair and nails. The type II ... 2001). "The catalog of human hair keratins. II. Expression of the six type II members in the hair follicle and the combined ... 2000). "Characterization of a 300 kbp region of human DNA containing the type II hair keratin gene domain". J. Invest. Dermatol ...
All hair keratins are expressed in the hair follicle; this hair keratin, as well as KRTHB3 and KRTHB6, is found primarily in ... As a type II hair keratin, it is a basic protein which heterodimerizes with type I keratins to form hair and nails. The type II ... 1998). "A new mutation in the type II hair cortex keratin hHb1 involved in the inherited hair disorder monilethrix". Hum. Genet ... "Characterization and chromosomal localization of human hair-specific keratin genes and comparative expression during the hair ...
Langbein L, Schweizer J (2005). "Keratins of the human hair follicle". Int Rev Cytol. 243: 1-78. doi:10.1016/S0074-7696(05) ... ", "trichocyte" or "hair" keratin proteins. These are modified keratins containing large amounts of the amino acid cysteine, ... In mammals, trichocytes are the specialized epithelial cells from which the highly mechanically resilient tissues hair and ... These cells give rise to non-hair non-keratinized IRSC (inner root sheath cell) as well. ...
All hair keratins are expressed in the hair follicle; this hair keratin, as well as KRTHB1 and KRTHB3, is found primarily in ... As a type II hair keratin, it is a basic protein which heterodimerizes with type I keratins to form hair and nails. The type II ... "Entrez Gene: KRT86 keratin 86". Langbein L, Schweizer J (2005). "Keratins of the human hair follicle". Int. Rev. Cytol. 243: 1- ... 1998). "A new mutation in the type II hair cortex keratin hHb1 involved in the inherited hair disorder monilethrix". Hum. Genet ...
"Molecular elements of the regulatory control of keratin filament modulator AHF/trichohyalin in the hair follicle". Experimental ... The enzyme converts arginine to citrulline at the inner root sheath and medulla of hair follicles. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Rogers GE, Rothnagel JA (1983). "A sensitive assay for the enzyme activity in hair follicles and epidermis that catalyses the ... O'Keefe EJ, Hamilton EH, Lee SC, Steinert P (July 1993). "Trichohyalin: a structural protein of hair, tongue, nail, and ...
As a type II hair keratin, it is a basic protein which heterodimerizes with type I keratins to form hair and nails. The type II ... 1999). "The catalog of human hair keratins. I. Expression of the nine type I members in the hair follicle". J. Biol. Chem. 274 ... 2006). "A mutation in the hair matrix and cuticle keratin KRTHB5 gene causes ectodermal dysplasia of hair and nail type". J. ... characterization of the human type I cuticular hair keratin hHa2 and identification of an adjacent novel type I hair keratin ...
He studied the protein keratin (the main component of hair, nails, and skin) and keratinocytes (the most common cells in the ... Freedberg studied the protein keratin (the main component of hair, nails, and skin) and keratinocytes (the most common cells in ... ISBN 0-07-138067-1. In 1995, he was elected to the National Academy of Science's Institute of Medicine. Freedberg was named ...
with a keratinophilic and keratinolytic nature, they were often identified on hair cells of mammals and possibly fed on keratin ...
"Human type I hair keratin pseudogene phihHaA has functional orthologs in the chimpanzee and gorilla: Evidence for recent ... HHaA is a human pseudogene believed to be responsible for fur-like body hair. In humans the gene has become deactivated making ... among human beings and occasional examples have been found of people where the gene is active leading to very thick body hair ... it a pseudogene, however there is variation in the degree of body hair ...
"Human type I hair keratin pseudogene phihHaA has functional orthologs in the chimpanzee and gorilla: Evidence for recent ... 108 (1): 37-42. doi:10.1007/s004390000439. PMID 11214905. "Natural Area Rugs". Retrieved November 29, 2016. Annalisa Berta, ...
... which helps produce keratin) in the human lineage about 240,000 years ago. Mutations in the gene HR can lead to complete hair ... "hairs." If layered, rather than grown as a single coat, it may consist of short down hairs, long guard hairs, and in some cases ... nearly straight shafts of hair that protrude through the down hair layer. The distal ends of the guard hairs provide the ... Fur is the hair covering of non-human mammals, particularly those mammals with extensive body hair that is soft and thick. The ...
Keratins are a major component of hairs. Humans still have nine functional type I hair keratin genes, but the loss of that ... A gene for type I hair keratin was lost in the human lineage. ... "Human type I hair keratin pseudogene phihHaA has functional ... BMC Evolutionary Biology 10, 15 (2010). Traits affected by the mutation are sweat glands, teeth, hair thickness and breast ... 108 (1): 37-42. doi:10.1007/s004390000439. PMID 11214905. Stedman, H.H.; Kozyak, B.W.; Nelson, A.; Thesier, D.M.; Su, L.T.; Low ...
1935) "X-ray studies of the structures of hair, wool and related fibres. III. The configuration of the keratin molecule and its ... The molecular structure and elastic properties of hair keratin", Trans. R. Soc. Lond., A232, 333-394. Astbury WT and Sisson WA ... His work on keratin provided the foundation for Linus Pauling's discovery of the alpha helix. He also studied the structure for ... In the early 1930s, Astbury showed that there were drastic changes in the diffraction of moist wool or hair fibres as they are ...
"Infectious hair disease - syphilis". Keratin.com. Retrieved 2011-11-17. "Drug-Induced Hair Loss". Archived from the original on ... Daily hair counts are normally done when the pull test is negative. It is done by counting the number of hairs lost. The hair ... The wig is a layer of artificial or natural hair made to resemble a typical hair style. In most cases the hair is artificial. ... Hair loss in some people causes psychological distress. Common types include: male-pattern hair loss, female-pattern hair loss ...
... Keratin Hair Volumizer Taste for Life 2014 Supplement Essentials Awards - Beauty - NeoCell Beauty Infusion NeoCell ... Keratin Hair Volumizer and Beauty Bursts were both finalists in the VIRGO SupplySide Editor's Choice Awards in 2013. NeoCell ... 1 May 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2015. "NPA GMP Certification Program". NPAinfo.org. Natural Products Association. Retrieved 3 ...
The molecular structure and elastic properties of hair keratin". Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A232: 333-394. Astbury WT, Sisson WA ( ... 1935). "X-ray studies of the structures of hair, wool and related fibres. III. The configuration of the keratin molecule and ... Astbury WT, Street A (1931). "X-ray studies of the structures of hair, wool and related fibres. I. General". Trans. R. Soc. ... Astbury WT (1933). "Some Problems in the X-ray Analysis of the Structure of Animal Hairs and Other Protein Fibers". Trans. ...
... then further twisted and crosslinked by disulfide bridges into structures even tougher than the α-keratins of mammalian hair, ... Feathers and scales are made up of two distinct forms of keratin, and it was long thought that each type of keratin was ... that produce keratin proteins. The β-keratins in feathers, beaks and claws - and the claws, scales and shells of reptiles - are ... This type of keratin, previously thought to be specific to feathers, is suppressed during embryological development of the ...
It is sometimes sold as a human hair blend. The human hair shaft is made up of dead, hard protein, called keratin, in three ... This hair is called virgin cuticle hair, or just cuticle hair. *Hair extensions made of true virgin, raw (cuticle hair) have ... Artificial hair integrations, more commonly known as hair extensions or hair weaves, add length and/or fullness to human hair. ... Hair extensions are usually clipped on to other hair by incorporating additional human or synthetic hair. Natural human hair ...
The more flexible and elastic keratins of hair have fewer interchain disulfide bridges than the keratins in mammalian ... For example, mouse thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are known to react with antibodies for keratin 5, keratin 8, and keratin 14. ... Hair and other α-keratins consist of α-helically coiled single protein strands (with regular intra-chain H-bonding), which are ... Keratin (/ˈkɛrətɪn/) is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins. It is the key structural material making up hair, horns ...
2000). "Characterization of a 300 kbp region of human DNA containing the type II hair keratin gene domain". J. Invest. Dermatol ... This gene is a member of the type II keratin gene family and encodes a protein with an intermediate filament domain. Keratins ... 2005). "Characterization of new members of the human type II keratin gene family and a general evaluation of the keratin gene ... novel keratin genes and a surprisingly high number of pseudogenes related to keratin genes 8 and 18". J. Cell Sci. 114 (Pt 14 ...
Langbein L, Schweizer J (2005). "Keratins of the human hair follicle". Int. Rev. Cytol. 243: 1-78. doi:10.1016/S0074-7696(05) ... Keratin 1 is a member of the keratin family. It is specifically expressed in the spinous and granular layers of the epidermis ... Korge BP, Compton JG, Steinert PM, Mischke D (1993). "The two size alleles of human keratin 1 are due to a deletion in the ... This gene, of the keratin family, is formed by type II cytokeratins set in pairs in a heterotypic chain which are shown through ...
Hair follicle anatomy demonstrating a healthy hair follicle (pictured left), a whitehead or closed comedo (middle picture), and ... or excess keratin) fully accounted for the disease in its entirety.[179] This led to the current understanding that acne could ... Retrieved 1 January 2019.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j Barbieri JS, Spaccarelli N, Margolis DJ, James WD (February 2019). " ... acnes biofilm within the hair follicle worsens this process.[45] If the microcomedone is superficial within the hair follicle, ...
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What is keratin hair acidic, 1? Meaning of keratin hair acidic, 1 medical term. What does keratin hair acidic, 1 mean? ... Looking for online definition of keratin hair acidic, 1 in the Medical Dictionary? keratin hair acidic, 1 explanation free. ... redirected from keratin hair acidic, 1) KRT31. A gene on chromosome 17q21.2 that encodes a type-I keratin, an intermediate ... Keratin hair acidic, 1 , definition of keratin hair acidic, 1 by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
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  • This is not a hair straightener or flat hair iron, but a next generation technology for hair beauty, which is very successful and popular in Japan & Italian markets. (phrmg.org)
  • The ultrasonic and infrared hair straightener provides the superbly nonabbrasive cleaning of the hair cuticle layer, and super changes the proximal scale with quintessence, completely rejuvenize the degra. (phrmg.org)
  • We found that the content of Hcy-keratin increased along the hair fiber, with levels 5-10-fold higher levels in older sections at the hair's tip than in younger sections at hair's base. (springer.com)
  • It is inspired by the latest methods of micro-nutrition, a scientific approach to target deficiencies by providing essential nutrients to the core of the hair fiber. (ulta.com)
  • Thousands of miniature keratin fiber particles cling statically to hair, instantly concealing areas of thinning. (trichologic.com)
  • The thermo-protective agents in this milk sceal the scales of the hair fiber protecting it from blowdry and heat styling tools up to 180°C . The deep smoothing properties faciliate blowdry, reducing time spent to style hair. (kerastase.co.uk)
  • Morpho-Kératine™ (Morpho-Constituing Agents + Surface-Morphing Polymers) coats each hair fiber in feather-light coating, restoring the fiber's uniformity, solidity and smoothness for perfectly tamed hair. (kerastase.co.uk)
  • Using this innovative Dead Sea cosmetic ,will help to protect the external coating of your hair, strengthen the fiber shaft and aid in preventing splint ends. (israel-catalog.com)
  • AmazonLiss is a Brazilian Smoothing/Keratin Anti-frizz System with high power of regeneration of the hair fiber. (hairstraighteningcream.net)
  • The shampoo has a high ph, so it provides a deep cleaning by removing the residue of the products accumulated in the hair fiber, leaving hair extremely clean. (hairstraighteningcream.net)
  • The One Two Step Progressive is composed of two steps that return strength and strength of the hair fiber. (billubarber.com)
  • In the hair cortex, hair keratin intermediate filaments are embedded in an interfilamentous matrix, consisting of hair keratin-associated proteins (KRTAP), which are essential for the formation of a rigid and resistant hair shaft through their extensive disulfide bond cross-linking with abundant cysteine residues of hair keratins. (uniprot.org)
  • The matrix proteins include the high-sulfur and high-glycine-tyrosine keratins (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • After solubilization following fission of disulfide bonds, hard α-keratins yield two or three characteristic and unique families of constituent proteins, named because of peculiarities in composition, low-sulfur, high-sulfur, and high-tyrosine proteins. (springer.com)
  • Hair keratin associated proteins: characterization of a second high sulfur KAP gene domain on human chromosome 21. (nih.gov)
  • Keratin mechanical models were applied to WECB in its representation as an intermediate state between matrix-free intermediate filament (IF)-type proteins and the more complex composite materials incorporating IFs such as keratin. (biologists.org)
  • For instance, shampoos are intended to remove dirt deposited on hair, or dirt comprising decomposition products or oxides of the sebum secreted from a head skin, and their basic materials are anionic surfactants, nonionic surfactants or amphoteric surfactants. (google.com)
  • When hair is washed with shampoos containing these materials, the sebum or other oil components on the surface thereof can be excessively washed off, and the texture of hair after the washing tends to be bad, and it becomes difficult to comb or brush the hair. (google.com)
  • Skip the morning hair drama and stop wasting time redoing your do by maintaining the hairstyle overnight. (livestrong.com)
  • In addition to nine functional genes, the human type I hair keratin gene cluster contains a pseudogene, phihHaA (KRTHAP1), which is thought to have been inactivated by a single base-pair substitution that introduced a premature TGA termination codon into exon 4. (nih.gov)
  • A full kit for creating salon styles at home, Includes a soft finger diffuser, large paddle brush, 2 selfgrip rollers, 2 sectioning clips and a full size Keratin Smooth Heat Protection Spray. (argos.co.uk)
  • Large paddle brush, 2 x self grip rollers, 2 x sectioning clips and 200ml tresemme keratin smooth heat protection spray. (argos.co.uk)
  • Step 1 Purify is a detergent-free spray that gives your hair a fast and thorough detox by gently working its way between any build-up and pollutants and your hair itself to release and wash them away. (hairfix.co.uk)
  • Spray Purify weekly onto dry hair, comb it through and leave for a minute before rinsing. (hairfix.co.uk)
  • If desired, use hair spray for extra hold. (trichologic.com)
  • 5. A process according to claim 4, wherein the amount of said reducing agent is in the range of from 2 to 10 times in equivalent of disulfide bonds of the keratin material and the pH of the reaction system is in the range of from 2 to 12. (google.com)
  • I-Tip/Stick Tip Hair from 18 inch to 24 inch in hand tipped and available in I-Tip and U-Tip Italian ker atin bonds. (pxsoftware.co.za)
  • Regular over the counter shampoo with sulfates will break keratin bonds created during the procedure. (hairstraighteningcream.net)
  • and hierarchical layers of ordered fibrous constituents ( Rawlings, 1999 ), suggestive of a structure analogous to an intermediate filament (IF)-based material such as that of hard alpha-keratin ( Whitely and Kaplin, 1977 ). (biologists.org)
  • Despite apparent structural similarities at the IF level, there are important structural and biogenic differences between WECB and hard alpha-keratin. (biologists.org)
  • In contrast, hard alpha-keratin is a complex cylindrically arranged composite with concentric hierarchical outer layers around a major axis of fibrillar orientation ( Hearle, 2000 ). (biologists.org)
  • Following the Hookean region is the plateau-like, or `yield' region, so called due to the zone of apparent yield that precedes it, a convention used previously ( Feughelman, 1964 ) to describe the similar response to strain found in hard alpha-keratin ( Fig. 2 ). (biologists.org)
  • Although similar responses to strain are generated in both materials, significant differences in mechanical parameters exist between WECB and hard alpha-keratin. (biologists.org)
  • Fueled with an exclusive blend of keratin and apple stem cell extract, this three-in-one balm fights frizz and flyaways. (beautystoredepot.com)
  • Fast yet potent, the triple-blend by Pantene works to wrap your hair, which is made mostly of keratin, in order to fortify against damage and help restore a healthy-looking, smooth surface. (influenster.com)