Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Alopecia: Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.Hair Diseases: Diseases affecting the orderly growth and persistence of hair.Cyst Fluid: Liquid material found in epithelial-lined closed cavities or sacs.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Ovarian Cysts: General term for CYSTS and cystic diseases of the OVARY.Sebaceous Glands: Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.Hair Removal: Methods used to remove unwanted facial and body hair.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Scalp: The outer covering of the calvaria. It is composed of several layers: SKIN; subcutaneous connective tissue; the occipitofrontal muscle which includes the tendinous galea aponeurotica; loose connective tissue; and the pericranium (the PERIOSTEUM of the SKULL).Granulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Hair Color: Color of hair or fur.Epidermal Cyst: Intradermal or subcutaneous saclike structure, the wall of which is stratified epithelium containing keratohyalin granules.Hair Cells, Auditory: Sensory cells in the organ of Corti, characterized by their apical stereocilia (hair-like projections). The inner and outer hair cells, as defined by their proximity to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), change morphologically along the COCHLEA. Towards the cochlear apex, the length of hair cell bodies and their apical STEREOCILIA increase, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Follicular Fluid: The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Keratin-15: A type I keratin found in the basal layer of the adult epidermis and in other stratified epithelia.Theca Cells: The flattened stroma cells forming a sheath or theca outside the basal lamina lining the mature OVARIAN FOLLICLE. Thecal interstitial or stromal cells are steroidogenic, and produce primarily ANDROGENS which serve as precusors of ESTROGENS in the GRANULOSA CELLS.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Dermis: A layer of vascularized connective tissue underneath the EPIDERMIS. The surface of the dermis contains innervated papillae. Embedded in or beneath the dermis are SWEAT GLANDS; HAIR FOLLICLES; and SEBACEOUS GLANDS.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Keratins, Hair-Specific: Keratins that are specific for hard tissues such as HAIR; NAILS; and the filiform papillae of the TONGUE.Ectodysplasins: Transmembrane proteins belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that play an essential role in the normal development of several ectodermally derived organs. Several isoforms of the ectodysplasins exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the MRNA for the protein. The isoforms ectodysplasin A1 and ectodysplasin A2 are considered biologically active and each bind distinct ECTODYSPLASIN RECEPTORS. Genetic mutations that result in loss of function of ectodysplasin result in ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA 1, ANHIDROTIC.Keratins: A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Mediastinal Cyst: Cysts of one of the parts of the mediastinum: the superior part, containing the trachea, esophagus, thoracic duct and thymus organs; the inferior middle part, containing the pericardium; the inferior anterior part containing some lymph nodes; and the inferior posterior part, containing the thoracic duct and esophagus.Alopecia Areata: Loss of scalp and body hair involving microscopically inflammatory patchy areas.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Synovial Cyst: Non-neoplastic tumor-like lesions at joints, developed from the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE of a joint through the JOINT CAPSULE into the periarticular tissues. They are filled with SYNOVIAL FLUID with a smooth and translucent appearance. A synovial cyst can develop from any joint, but most commonly at the back of the knee, where it is known as POPLITEAL CYST.Hair Cells, Auditory, Inner: Auditory sensory cells of organ of Corti, usually placed in one row medially to the core of spongy bone (the modiolus). Inner hair cells are in fewer numbers than the OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS, and their STEREOCILIA are approximately twice as thick as those of the outer hair cells.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Follicular Cyst: Cyst due to the occlusion of the duct of a follicle or small gland.Bone Cysts: Benign unilocular lytic areas in the proximal end of a long bone with well defined and narrow endosteal margins. The cysts contain fluid and the cyst walls may contain some giant cells. Bone cysts usually occur in males between the ages 3-15 years.Skin Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities of the skin.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Hypotrichosis: Presence of less than the normal amount of hair. (Dorland, 27th ed)Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Melanocytes: Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.Bronchogenic Cyst: A usually spherical cyst, arising as an embryonic out-pouching of the foregut or trachea. It is generally found in the mediastinum or lung and is usually asymptomatic unless it becomes infected.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyChorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Dermoid Cyst: A tumor consisting of displaced ectodermal structures along the lines of embryonic fusion, the wall being formed of epithelium-lined connective tissue, including skin appendages, and containing keratin, sebum, and hair. (Stedman, 25th ed)Hair Dyes: Dyes used as cosmetics to change hair color either permanently or temporarily.Vibrissae: Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.Hair Preparations: Hair grooming, cleansing and modifying products meant for topical application to hair, usually human. They include sprays, bleaches, dyes, conditioners, rinses, shampoos, nutrient lotions, etc.Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.Hair Cells, Vestibular: Sensory cells in the acoustic maculae with their apical STEREOCILIA embedded in a gelatinous OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE. These hair cells are stimulated by the movement of otolithic membrane, and impulses are transmitted via the VESTIBULAR NERVE to the BRAIN STEM. Hair cells in the saccule and those in the utricle sense linear acceleration in vertical and horizontal directions, respectively.Hair Cells, Auditory, Outer: Sensory cells of organ of Corti. In mammals, they are usually arranged in three or four rows, and away from the core of spongy bone (the modiolus), lateral to the INNER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS and other supporting structures. Their cell bodies and STEREOCILIA increase in length from the cochlear base toward the apex and laterally across the rows, allowing differential responses to various frequencies of sound.Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Keratin-14: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-5 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-14 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Mice, Inbred C57BLKeratins, Type II: A keratin subtype that includes keratins that are generally larger and less acidic that TYPE I KERATINS. Type II keratins combine with type I keratins to form keratin filaments.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human: A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Gonadotropins, Equine: Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Anti-Mullerian Hormone: A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.Hypertrichosis: Excessive hair growth at inappropriate locations, such as on the extremities, the head, and the back. It is caused by genetic or acquired factors, and is an androgen-independent process. This concept does not include HIRSUTISM which is an androgen-dependent excess hair growth in WOMEN and CHILDREN.Receptors, FSH: Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Corpus Luteum: The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Edar-Associated Death Domain Protein: A tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor that acts as a specific signaling adaptor protein for the EDAR RECEPTOR and plays an important role in ectodermal development. It binds to edar receptor via its C-terminal death domain region and to other specific TNF receptor-associated factors via its N-terminal domain. Loss of function of edar-associated death domain protein is associated with AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE ANHIDROTIC ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIA.Gonadotropins: Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Hedgehog Proteins: A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.Odontogenic Cysts: Cysts found in the jaws and arising from epithelium involved in tooth formation. They include follicular cysts (e.g., primordial cyst, dentigerous cyst, multilocular cyst), lateral periodontal cysts, and radicular cysts. They may become keratinized (odontogenic keratocysts). Follicular cysts may give rise to ameloblastomas and, in rare cases, undergo malignant transformation.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Sweat Glands: Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.Dental Sac: Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Dentigerous Cyst: Most common follicular odontogenic cyst. Occurs in relation to a partially erupted or unerupted tooth with at least the crown of the tooth to which the cyst is attached protruding into the cystic cavity. May give rise to an ameloblastoma and, in rare instances, undergo malignant transformation.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Aromatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.Pilomatrixoma: A tumor composed of cells resembling those of the hair matrix, which undergo 'mummification' and may calcify. It is a relatively uncommon tumor, which may occur at any age from infancy. The majority of patients are under 20, and females are affected more than males. The lesion is usually a solitary deep dermal or subcutaneous tumor 3-30 mm in diameter, situated in the head, neck, or upper extremity. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2401)Radicular Cyst: Slow-growing fluid-filled epithelial sac at the apex of a tooth with a nonvital pulp or defective root canal filling.Inhibin-beta Subunits: They are glycopeptides and subunits in INHIBINS and ACTIVINS. Inhibins and activins belong to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Multipotent Stem Cells: Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Luteinization: Formation of CORPUS LUTEUM. This process includes capillary invasion of the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE, hypertrophy of the GRANULOSA CELLS and the THECA CELLS, and the production of PROGESTERONE. Luteinization is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Superovulation: Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.Melanins: Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.Mesenteric Cyst: A rare intra-abdominal tumor in the MESENTERY. Mesenteric cysts are usually benign and can be very large fluid-filled (2000 mL) lesions.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Intermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Lymphoid Enhancer-Binding Factor 1: A T-cell factor that plays an essential role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Receptors, LH: Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Minoxidil: A potent direct-acting peripheral vasodilator (VASODILATOR AGENTS) that reduces peripheral resistance and produces a fall in BLOOD PRESSURE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p371)Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal: Fibrous blood-filled cyst in the bone. Although benign it can be destructive causing deformity and fractures.Fibroblast Growth Factor 5: A fibroblast growth factor that may play a role in regulation of HAIR FOLLICLE phenotype. Spontaneous mutation of the gene for this protein results in a strain of MICE with abnormally long hair, referred to as angora mice.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Merkel Cells: Modified epidermal cells located in the stratum basale. They are found mostly in areas where sensory perception is acute, such as the fingertips. Merkel cells are closely associated with an expanded terminal bulb of an afferent myelinated nerve fiber. Do not confuse with Merkel's corpuscle which is a combination of a neuron and an epidermal cell.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Sebum: The oily substance secreted by SEBACEOUS GLANDS. It is composed of KERATIN, fat, and cellular debris.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gonadotropins, Pituitary: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).Anovulation: Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.Wnt Signaling Pathway: A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated results in the wingless phenotype, and the vertebrate INT gene, which is located near integration sites of MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS. The signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and an array of second messengers that influence the actions of BETA CATENIN.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Growth Differentiation Factor 9: A bone morphogenetic protein that plays an essential role in the regulation of ovarian folliculogenesis.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Keratin-5: A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-14 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Mutations in the gene for keratin-5 are associated with EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA SIMPLEX.Tarlov Cysts: Perineurial cysts commonly found in the SACRAL REGION. They arise from the PERINEURIUM membrane within the SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. The distinctive feature of the cysts is the presence of spinal nerve root fibers within the cyst wall, or the cyst cavity itself.Keratins, Type I: A keratin subtype that includes keratins that are generally smaller and more acidic that TYPE II KERATINS. Type I keratins combine with type II keratins to form keratin filaments.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Ovarian Diseases: Pathological processes of the OVARY.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Activins: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.Popliteal Cyst: A SYNOVIAL CYST located in the back of the knee, in the popliteal space arising from the semimembranous bursa or the knee joint.Eccrine Glands: Simple sweat glands that secrete sweat directly onto the SKIN.Carcinoma, Basal Cell: A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471)Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Saccule and Utricle: Two membranous sacs within the vestibular labyrinth of the INNER EAR. The saccule communicates with COCHLEAR DUCT through the ductus reuniens, and communicates with utricle through the utriculosaccular duct from which the ENDOLYMPHATIC DUCT arises. The utricle and saccule have sensory areas (acoustic maculae) which are innervated by the VESTIBULAR NERVE.Esophageal Cyst: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac (CYSTS) that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the ESOPHAGUS region.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.Echinococcosis: An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Methoxychlor: An insecticide. Methoxychlor has estrogenic effects in mammals, among other effects.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Integrin alpha6: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.Testicular Hormones: Hormones produced in the testis.Suction: The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Luteal Phase: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.Cochlea: The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Menotropins: Extracts of urine from menopausal women that contain high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Menotropins are used to treat infertility. The FSH:LH ratio and degree of purity vary in different preparations.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Cumulus Cells: The granulosa cells of the cumulus oophorus which surround the OVUM in the GRAAFIAN FOLLICLE. At OVULATION they are extruded with OVUM.Wool: The hair of SHEEP or other animals that is used for weaving.Mice, Inbred CBAReceptors, Gonadotropin: Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces of gonadal and other sensitive cells that bind gonadotropins and thereby modify the functions of those cells; hCG, LH, and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE are the major specific gonadotropins.Adult Stem Cells: Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.Mice, Hairless: Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Urachal Cyst: Cyst occurring in a persistent portion of the urachus, presenting as an extraperitoneal mass in the umbilical region. It is characterized by abdominal pain, and fever if infected. It may rupture, leading to peritonitis, or it may drain through the umbilicus.Proestrus: A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLE that precedes ESTRUS. During proestrus, the Graafian follicles undergo maturation.Folliculitis: Inflammation of follicles, primarily hair follicles.Follistatin: A broadly distributed protein that binds directly to ACTIVINS. It functions as an activin antagonist, inhibits FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion, regulates CELL DIFFERENTIATION, and plays an important role in embryogenesis. Follistatin is a single glycosylated polypeptide chain of approximately 37-kDa and is not a member of the inhibin family (INHIBINS). Follistatin also binds and neutralizes many members of the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA family.Vitellogenesis: The active production and accumulation of VITELLINS (egg yolk proteins) in the non-mammalian OOCYTES from circulating precursors, VITELLOGENINS. Vitellogenesis usually begins after the first MEIOSIS and is regulated by estrogenic hormones.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Breast Cyst: A fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM and found in the BREAST. It may appear as a single large cyst in one breast, multifocal, or bilateral in FIBROCYSTIC BREAST DISEASE.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
The classical clinical triad includes benign growths of the hair follicles; pulmonary cysts and spontaneous pneumothorax; and ... abnormal growths of a hair follicle), trichodiscomas (hamartomatous lesions with a hair follicle at the periphery, often found ... renal and pulmonary cysts, and noncancerous tumors of the hair follicles, called fibrofolliculomas. The symptoms seen in each ... 2002), "Mutations in a novel gene lead to kidney tumors, lung wall defects, and benign tumors of the hair follicle in patients ...
Excessive sweating can also contribute to the cause of a pilonidal cyst. Moisture can fill a stretched hair follicle, which ... doi:10.1007/s10350-008-9329-x. Pilonidal disease: origin from follicles of hairs and results of follicle removal as treatment. ... A pilonidal cyst can resemble a dermoid cyst, a kind of teratoma (germ cell tumor). In particular, a pilonidal cyst in the ... The term means "nest of hair". It was first described in 1833. Pilonidal cysts are itchy and are often very painful, and ...
Hair follicle aging. A key aspect of hair loss with age is the aging of the hair follicle.[45] Ordinarily, hair follicle ... The affected area mainly contains vellus hair follicles or no hair follicles at all, but it does not expand. Its causes are ... Temporary loss of hair can occur in areas where sebaceous cysts are present for considerable duration (normally one to several ... Drug Induced Hair Loss', American Hair Loss Association: "American Hair Loss Association - Drug Induced Hair Loss". Archived ...
Ordinarily, hair follicle renewal is maintained by the stem cells associated with each follicle. Aging of the hair follicle ... The affected area mainly contains vellus hair follicles or no hair follicles at all, but it does not expand. Its causes are ... Temporary loss of hair can occur in areas where sebaceous cysts are present for considerable duration (normally one to several ... Daily hair counts are normally done when the pull test is negative. It is done by counting the number of hairs lost. The hair ...
Ovaries normally grow cyst-like structures called follicles each month. Once an egg is released from its follicle during ... hair follicles, and sweat glands, while other commonly found components include clumps of long hair, pockets of sebum, blood, ... Large ovarian cyst Dermoid cyst in vaginal ultrasonography A complex cyst due to a dermoid as seen on ultrasound A complex cyst ... While all ovarian cysts can range in size from very small to quite large, dermoid cysts are not classified as functional cysts ...
Normally, sebaceous glands are only found in association with a hair follicle. They appear to be more obvious in people with ... The granules are similar to normal sebaceous glands of the skin but lack hair follicles and almost always lack a ductal ... and occasional small keratin-filled pseudocysts may be seen and must be differentiated from epidermoid cyst or dermoid cyst ...
Demodicosis occurs when female mites lay eggs in hair follicles. Each follicle may contain hundreds or thousands of mites, ... characterized by the blocking of the opening of the follicle by mites, keratin, and other remnants. These large cysts can burst ... Another way mites can be spread is when female mites leave the follicle they are in and go lay eggs in a new follicle. This ... Demodex bovis, also known as the cattle follicle mite, usually causes demodicosis, or demodectic mange, in cattle. This disease ...
... between the epidermis and the hair shaft in hair follicles. Dermanyssid and trombiculid mites feed whilst external to the skin ... The mites fit in the narrow space between the hair and the tube of the follicle. They may also crawl out onto the general ... Laminosioptes cysticola , the fowl cyst mite is another species of mite internally infesting birds. It has a worldwide ... These mites remain external to the true outer layer of the skin (the epidermis) which also lines the tube of the hair follicle ...
... ovarian cysts. These "cysts" are actually immature follicles not cysts. The follicles have developed from primordial follicles ... and acts directly on the hair follicles to inhibit hair growth. It is usually applied to the face. 5-alpha reductase inhibitors ... In a normal menstrual cycle, one egg is released from a dominant follicle - in essence, a cyst that bursts to release the egg. ... Diagnosis is based on two of the following three findings: no ovulation, high androgen levels, and ovarian cysts. Cysts may be ...
The density of hair - the number of hair follicles per area of skin - varies from person to person. Each strand of vellus hair ... It is characterised by the absence of vellus hair in the hairline. Eruptive vellus hair cyst (EVHC), a benign dermatologic ... is usually less than 2 mm (1/13 inch) long and the follicle is not connected to a sebaceous gland. Vellus hair is most easily ... Vellus hair is not lanugo hair. Lanugo hair is a much thicker type of hair that normally grows only on fetuses. Vellus hair is ...
... acnes within the hair follicle. If the microcomedone is superficial within the hair follicle, the skin pigment melanin is ... Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin disease that occurs when hair follicles are clogged with dead skin cells ... True cysts are in fact rare in those with acne and the term severe nodular acne is now the preferred terminology. Acne inversa ... beginning with blockage of the skin follicle by excessive dead skin cells, followed by bacterial invasion of the hair follicle ...
... over-expression of β-catenin in hair follicles induces improper hair growth. Therefore, these signals such as Wnt inhibitors ... The bulge area at the junction of arrector pili muscle to the hair follicle sheath has been shown to host the skin stem cells ... The SSCs divide with their GSC partner, and their non-mitotic progeny, the somatic cyst cells (SCCs, a.k.a. cyst cells) will ... The bulge region of the hair follicle relies on these signals to maintain the stemness of the cells. Fate mapping or cell ...
... and hair-bearing skin. Within the latter type, hairs in structures called pilosebaceous units have a hair follicle, sebaceous ... ISBN 1-4051-3130-6. Paus R, Cotsarelis G (1999). "The biology of hair follicles". N Engl J Med. 341 (7): 491-97. doi:10.1056/ ... Cyst: A cyst is an epithelial-lined cavity containing liquid, semi-solid, or solid material. Erosion: An erosion is a ... In the embryo, the epidermis, hair, and glands are from the ectoderm, which is chemically influenced by the underlying mesoderm ...
Within the latter type, the hairs occur in structures called pilosebaceous units, each with hair follicle, sebaceous gland, and ... Eccrine nevus Epidermal cyst (epidermal inclusion cyst, epidermoid cyst, infundibular cyst, keratin cyst) Epidermal nevus ... ISBN 1-4051-3130-6. Paus R, Cotsarelis G; Cotsarelis (1999). "The biology of hair follicles". N Engl J Med. 341 (7): 491-7. doi ... Gold dermatitis Hair bleach-induced Hair dye-induced Hair lotion-induced Hair spray-induced Hair straightener-induced Hair ...
The usual sequence is: underarm (axillary) hair, perianal hair, upper lip hair, sideburn (preauricular) hair, periareolar hair ... FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) is another protein hormone secreted into the general circulation by the gonadotrope cells of ... In the two years following thelarche, the uterus, ovaries, and the follicles in the ovaries increase in size. The ovaries ... usually contain small follicular cysts visible by ultrasound. Before puberty, uterine body to cervix ratio is 1:1; which ...
It is expressed in a number of other locations including hair follicles. Calretinin is a diagnostic marker for some human ... "The calcium-binding protein calretinin is a marker of the companion cell layer of the human hair follicle". The British Journal ... "Accessory liver lobe with mesothelial inclusion cysts in an omphalocele: a new malformative association". Pediatric and ...
They are commonly associated with hair follicles but they can be found in hairless regions of the skin as well. Their secretion ... This Epidermal nevi, neoplasms, cysts article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Hair casts. *Hair follicle nevus. *Intermittent hair-follicle dystrophy. *Keratosis pilaris atropicans ...
hair follicles visual identification under magnification common worldwide head-to-head contact ... Microscopy of eyelash or eyebrow hair follicle, cellophane tape method (CTP), squeezing method, skin scrapings pandemic, ... stool (diarrhea=ciliated trophozoite; solid stool=large cyst with horseshoe shaped nucleus) ingestion of cyst, zoonotic ... fecal-oral transmission of cyst, not amoeba Giardiasis Giardia lamblia lumen of the small intestine stool worldwide? ingestion ...
This is called luteinised unruptured follicle syndrome (LUFS). Physical damage to the ovaries, or ovaries with multiple cysts, ... A cycle with supernumerary follicles is usually defined as one where there are more than two follicles >16 mm in diameter. It ... Also possible is increased body mass and facial hair, which is relatively easy to treat, and is often associated with PCOS, or ... In some cases, the egg may have matured properly, but the follicle may have failed to burst (or the follicle may have burst ...
If the hairs grew within two adjacent follicles, the cow was invalid. Rabbi Akiva ruled that even if there were four or even ... If the cow had two hairs in one follicle with their roots black and their tips red or with their roots red and their tips black ... If the Red Cow had a sebaceous cyst and they cut it off, Rabbi Judah ruled the cow invalid, but Rabbi Simeon ruled it invalid ... If a cow had two black or white hairs growing within one follicle, it was invalid. Rabbi Judah said even within one hollow. ...
There are several types of cysts: Follicular cyst, the most common type of ovarian cyst. In menstruating women, a follicle ... Symptoms that may occur if the cause of the cysts is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) may include increased facial hair or ... as these are usually normal ovarian follicles. Simple cysts 5 to 7 cm in premenopausal females should be followed yearly. ... Most ovarian cysts are related to ovulation, being either follicular cysts or corpus luteum cysts. Other types include cysts ...
Hair follicle anatomy demonstrating a healthy hair follicle (pictured left), a whitehead or closed comedo (middle picture), and ... Acne vulgaris is a chronic skin disease of the pilosebaceous unit and develops due to blockages in the skin's hair follicles. ... The term nodulocystic has been used in the medical literature to describe severe cases of inflammatory acne.[25] True cysts are ... acnes biofilm within the hair follicle worsens this process.[45] If the microcomedone is superficial within the hair follicle, ...
... and hair-bearing skin.[16] Within the latter type, hairs in structures called pilosebaceous units have a hair follicle, ... Paus R, Cotsarelis G (1999). "The biology of hair follicles". N Engl J Med. 341 (7): 491-97. doi:10.1056/NEJM199908123410706. ... Cyst: A cyst is an epithelial-lined cavity containing liquid, semi-solid, or solid material.[31] ... hair, nails, and related muscle and glands.[1] The major function of this system is as a barrier against the external ...
... where they are connected to hair follicles. One or more glands may surround each hair follicle, and the glands themselves are ... Sebaceous cyst is a term used to refer to both an epidermoid cyst and a pilar cyst, though neither of these contain sebum, only ... The structure, consisting of hair, hair follicle, arrector pili muscles, and sebaceous gland, is an epidermal invagination ... those connected to hair follicles and those that exist independently.[3] Sebaceous glands are found in hair-covered areas, ...
Follicles. Thyroid follicles are small spherical groupings of cells 0.02-0.9mm in diameter that play the main role in thyroid ... In some cases it can cause chest pain, diarrhoea, hair loss and muscle weakness.[46] Such symptoms may be managed temporarily ... Parts of this tube may be obliterated, leaving small segments to form thyroglossal cysts.[22] Preterm neonates are at risk of ... The core of a follicle is surrounded by a single layer of follicular cells. When stimulated by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH ...
Hair follicle aging. A key aspect of hair loss with age is the aging of the hair follicle.[45] Ordinarily, hair follicle ... The affected area mainly contains vellus hair follicles or no hair follicles at all, but it does not expand. Its causes are ... Temporary loss of hair can occur in areas where sebaceous cysts are present for considerable duration (normally one to several ... Drug Induced Hair Loss', American Hair Loss Association: "American Hair Loss Association - Drug Induced Hair Loss". Archived ...
... cycling part of the hair follicle (Fig. 1D). The differentiation of hair follicles into interfollicular epidermal cysts ... Epidermal cysts of K14ΔNLef1 mice are derived from hair follicles. As the appearance of the cysts and onset of hair loss ... Transgenic mice develop abnormal hair follicles and show changes in the postnatal hair cycle. Although cysts developed from 6 ... Transdifferentiation of hair follicles in K14ΔNLef1 transgenic animals. Hair follicles from K14ΔNLef1 transgenic (A-C,E) and ...
Pilar cysts are fluid-filled lumps that tend to appear on the scalp. These lumps are usually harmless and often require no ... These cysts develop around hair follicles. A follicle is a collection of cells that form a tube, or sheath, around a single ... How should you treat an ingrown hair cyst? Learn about ingrown hair cysts, which develop when an ingrown hair becomes a fluid- ... These cysts grow around hair follicles.. *A meibomian cyst, or chalazion, develops around the eyelid and can appear at any age. ...
Im wondering if these are sebaceous cysts...basically infected hair follicles. Theyre prob not related to lymph nodes. I had ... so i imidiately called my mom and told her and she said that it might just be a swollen hair follicle too but when she got home ... Im wondering if these are sebaceous cysts...basically infected hair follicles. Theyre prob not related to lymph nodes. I had ... I trim my underarm hair only with hair trimmers so there is enough hair sticking out of the pore to keep the bacteria out plus ...
Hair follicle anatomy - illustration At the base of the hair follicle are sensory nerve fibers that wrap around each hair bulb ... Sebaceous cysts most often arise from swollen hair follicles. Skin injury can also cause a cyst to form. A sac of cells is ... Hair follicle anatomy - illustration At the base of the hair follicle are sensory nerve fibers that wrap around each hair bulb ... Sebaceous glands are also associated with each hair follicle that produce an oily secretion to help condition the hair and ...
Hair follicle regeneration via intracutaneous transplantation of regenerated bioengineered hair follicles.. (a) Macroscopic ... ad, adipocyte; cys, cyst; dp, dermal papilla; hs, hair shaft; irs, inner root sheath; ors, outer root sheath; sg, sebaceous ... The right panel shows the hair cycle term of natural hair (Natural hair) and the transplanted regenerated hair (Bio-hair) in ... Ectopic regeneration of a hair follicle via transplantation of a bioengineered hair follicle germ. ...
... could this cyst be causing this? Could the bump be an infected hair follicle? I feel like it might have something to do with ... If it is an infected sebaceous cyst could that be causing my hair follicles to be burning and inflamed? ... If it is an infected sebaceous cyst could that be causing my hair follicles to be burning and inflamed? ... Could the bump be an infected hair follicle? I feel like it might have something to do with the hair not being able to grow or ...
This skin model, developed using stem cells from mice, more closely resembles natural hair than existing models and may prove ... useful for testing drugs, understanding hair growth, and reducing the practice of animal testing. The work appears Jan. 2 in ... Indiana University School of Medicine researchers have cultured the first lab-grown skin tissue complete with hair follicles. ... The shape of the tissue in culture causes the hair follicles to grow into the dermal cysts, leaving them with nowhere to shed. ...
WebMD shows you whats going on down there and whether it could be a genital wart or cyst, skin tag, or herpes. ... They form when a hair follicle is blocked. Soaking in warm water can sometimes help drain a cyst. See a doctor if it hurts. It ... Keratosis pilaris is caused when too much keratin, a protein in the skin, plugs hair follicles. There isnt much you can do to ... They often show up when a hair follicle gets infected. You can also get one in the crease of your bottom and in your groin. It ...
Disorders of hair follicles and sebaceous glands: Keratinous cyst. In: The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. 17th ed. Sec ... slow-growing hard mass underneath the skin that arises from hair follicle matrix cells), sebaceous cysts (pilar and epidermoid ... The sebaceous cyst is firm, globular, movable, and non-tender. These cysts seldom cause discomfort unless the cyst ruptures or ... A sebaceous (keratinous) cyst is a slow-growing, benign cyst that contains follicular, keratinous, and sebaceous material. ...
The plugged hair follicle gradually enlarges, producing a bump. As the follicle enlarges, the wall may rupture, allowing ... Acne (acne vulgaris, common acne) is a disease of the hair follicles of the face, chest, and back that affects almost all ... cysts (the deep pimples and boils of cystic acne).. One can do a lot to treat acne using products available at a drugstore or ... Acne occurs when sebaceous (oil) glands attached to the hair follicles are stimulated at the time of puberty or due to other ...
How to get rid of a boil on an ingrown hair follicle? Boil. A boil may heal / drain on its own. Wam compresses may help a boil ... How to get rid of a boil on an ingrown hair follicle - ... How to get rid of hair follicles? * How to get rid of ingrown ... Soaks and get help: If it is an infected ingrown hair or an infected cyst (more likely), you should see a surgeon who will ... Laser: One of the best ways to treat an ingrown hair is to use a laser to destroy the hair follicle so that it doesnt come ...
... cysts can be prevented by avoiding continuous direct pressure or irritation of the buttock area when a local hair follicle ... Infection of the hair follicles can occur when the skin is disrupted or inflamed due to a number of conditions, including acne ... Pilonidal cysts often begin as tiny areas of inflammation in the base of the area of skin from which hair grows (the hair ... A boil is a skin infection that starts in a hair follicle or oil gland. Also referred to as a skin abscess, it is a localized ...
... arachnoid cyst explanation free. What is arachnoid cyst? Meaning of arachnoid cyst medical term. What does arachnoid cyst mean? ... Looking for online definition of arachnoid cyst in the Medical Dictionary? ... pilar cyst a type of epidermal cyst, almost always found on the scalp, arising from the outer root sheath of the hair follicle. ... Called also Naboths or nabothian follicles.. nasoalveolar cyst (nasolabial cyst) a fissural cyst arising outside the bones at ...
What is branchial cyst, branchiogenic cyst, branchiogenous cyst? Meaning of branchial cyst, branchiogenic cyst, branchiogenous ... branchiogenic cyst, branchiogenous cyst in the Medical Dictionary? branchial cyst, branchiogenic cyst, branchiogenous cyst ... What does branchial cyst, branchiogenic cyst, branchiogenous cyst mean? ... arising from the outer root sheath of the hair follicle.. piliferous cyst , pilonidal cyst a hair-containing sacrococcygeal ...
Hair follicles also grew out of the cysts. *Grow human like hair and human like skin on the backs of mice. The hiPSC-derived ... Epithelial stem cells are skin stem cells found in the bulge of a hair follicle (the skin structure that produces hair). ... Also, longer studies will be needed to determine whether the stem cell derived hair follicles grow and regenerate in a normal ... Some components of skin were grown, including hair follicles and skin epidermal cells, but they were not able to grow sebaceous ...
Acne is a disorder of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands. The glands become clogged, leading to pimples and cysts. ... Hair Loss. Shedding 50 to 100 hairs a day is normal. When a hair is shed, it is replaced by a new hair from the same follicle ... Hair Problems. Hair problems may be due to cosmetic causes, such as excessive shampooing and blow-drying, or due to underlying ... Scalp hair grows about one-half inch a month. As people age, the rate of hair growth slows. ...
The shape of the tissue in culture causes the hair follicles to grow into the dermal cysts, leaving them with nowhere to shed. ... they believe the skin grew a variety of hair follicle types similar to those present naturally on the coat of a mouse. The skin ... When this process was disrupted, hair follicles never appeared. After discovering this recipe for lab-grown hair follicles, the ... Researchers have cultured the first lab-grown skin tissue complete with hair follicles. This skin model, developed using stem ...
Acne is a disorder of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands. Hair follicles are the areas around the base or root of each ... This is a plug of sebum in the hair follicle. They are either closed whiteheads, or open blackheads. These are not inflamed or ... Cyst. This is a nodule with pus.. What causes acne in a child?. The cause of acne is not fully understood. Acne is linked with: ... into the hair follicles. The sebum moistens the skin and hair. The sebum and hair get to the skin surface through tiny holes ...
Acne is a disorder of the hair follicles and oil (sebaceous) glands that become clogged. This leads to pimples and cysts. ... It happens when oil secreted by sebaceous glands clogs the hair follicle. Bacteria infect the clogged follicle and cause ... Normally, the oil produced travels through the hair follicles to the skin. However, dead skin cells can plug the follicles. ... Acne is a disorder of the hair follicles and oil glands (sebaceous glands). The oil glands secrete oils (sebum) to keep the ...
Bacteria infect the clogged follicle and cause pimples. ... It occurs when oil secreted by sebaceous glands cloggs the hair ... Acne is a disorder of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands that become clogged. This leads to pimples and cysts. ... Normally, the sebum produced travels through the hair follicles to the skin. However, skin cells can plug the follicles. This ... Acne is a disorder of the hair follicles and oil glands (sebaceous glands). The sebaceous glands secrete oils (sebum) to keep ...
An epidermal cyst is a skin growth thats usually caused by swollen hair follicles. Its usually not dangerous, except if it... ... Many epidermal cysts begin to grow due to swollen hair follicles. The blockage caused by the shrinkage of space in the follicle ... Many of his epidermal cysts on his back have a small hair growing out of them, so this tells me that a hair follicle has become ... Dull razor blades can force me to go over an area two or three times, and I think this disturbs and irritates the hair follicle ...
The last two (nodules and cysts) are the most severe type of acne. A bacteria invades the hair follicle. The damaged hair ... This sebum flows out of hair follicles from the glands onto the skin to act as a natural skin moisturizer. ... Hair should be washed frequently and kept off the face.. You should never squeeze a whitehead or a blackhead. Blackhead removal ... Cysts - painful pus-filled lesions deeper in the skin that often create "ice pick" scarring ...
decreased hair follicle number ( J:65039 ) • developing hair follicles are scarce, although a few mature hair follicles, most ... hair germs appear to evaginate into the epidermis. • hair germ-like cysts became prevalent, markedly distorting the overlying ... abnormal hair follicle morphology ( J:155012 ) • hair follicles appear but exhibit defects in subsequent down-growth compared ... abnormal hair follicle outer root sheath morphology ( J:169295 ) • hair follicle stem cells in the lower outer root sheath zone ...
The shape of the tissue in culture causes the hair follicles to grow into the dermal cysts, leaving them with nowhere to shed. ... they believe the skin grew a variety of hair follicle types similar to those present naturally on the coat of a mouse. The skin ... The skin develops as a spherical cyst, and then the hair follicles grow outward in all directions, like dandelion seeds." ... The dermal cells then wrapped themselves around these cysts. When this process was disrupted, hair follicles never appeared. ...
Although, HDGF-/-/Ink4a+/- mice displayed an increased number of epidermoid cysts after exposure to UV light, no melanomas or ... Transgenic animals overexpressed HDGF in hair follicle melanocytes. Interestingly, primary melanocytes isolated from transgenic ... Staining of wildtype hair follicles revealed a nuclear HDGF expression in cells of the hair follicle including the pigmented ... Epidermoid cysts arise most frequently from the infundibulum of hair follicles and represent a keratinocyte differentiation ...
  • In women, another common cause is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) which also leads to the formation of small cysts inside the ovary. (walesonline.co.uk)
  • Although the best treatment is complete excision with removal of the intact cyst wall, small cysts can be marsupialized, in which the anterior cyst wall is excised. (aao.org)
  • The right upper eyelid had three confluent cystic lesions with keratin plugs consistent with epidermal inclusion cysts. (healio.com)
  • Lesions may resolve spontaneously via transepidermal elimination of cyst contents. (medscape.com)
  • Squamous cysts are congenital anomalies and therefore are considered incidental lesions. (nih.gov)
  • The lesion is associated with areas of hyperplastic gingival epithelium adjacent to or near the cystic areas, whereas squamous cysts tend to be a single, isolated lesions with no association to areas of epithelial hyperplasia in the oral cavity. (nih.gov)
  • Squamous cysts are considered incidental background lesions but should be diagnosed when present for completeness sake. (nih.gov)
  • Bronchogenic cysts are rare congenital lesions with a reported prevalence of 1 in 42,000 to 1 in 68,000.1 Bronchogenic cysts occur as a result of a developmental fault during the division and budding of the tracheobronchial tree in the embryonic period. (ispub.com)
  • They then injected it subcutaneously (under the skin) into nude (hairless) mice and looked two and a half weeks later at whether the hair growths on the underside of the skin were similar to hair on normal human skin. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Although most cysts can be safely ignored, they can be similar in appearance and texture to other more serious growths on the skin. (wisegeek.com)
  • Eruptive vellus hair cysts (EVHCs) were first described in 1977 by Esterly and colleagues who reported 2 children with symmetrically distributed follicular papules on the chest and flexor extremities. (medscape.com)
  • Eruptive vellus hair cysts presenting as multiple periorbital papules in a 13-year-old boy. (medscape.com)
  • Ganglion cysts usually appear on the back of the wrist. (naturalcures.com)
  • Sometimes cysts and ganglion cysts are referred to as Bible cysts because traditionally, the treatment has been to whack the cyst with a heavy book to break it up and disperse it. (naturalcures.com)
  • Ganglion cysts are common, noncancerous masses or lumps found in the hand. (healio.com)
  • Ganglion cysts may disappear or rapidly change size and can become larger with increased wrist activity, or they may become smaller with hand inactivity. (healio.com)
  • If this is due to a pilonidal cyst , successful treatment may require surgery in order to excise the cyst contents. (healthtap.com)
  • A pilonidal cyst is a unique kind of abscess that occurs in or above the crease of the buttocks. (medicinenet.com)
  • A bronchogenic cyst is a rare developmental aberration that occurs in the paediatric age group. (ispub.com)
  • We report a unique presentation of a child with an anterior chest wall mass in the sternal region, which was identified as a bronchogenic cyst. (ispub.com)
  • The skin is a rare site for bronchogenic cyst. (ispub.com)
  • The histopathology report revealed a bronchogenic cyst (Fig.2). (ispub.com)
  • Cutaneous bronchogenic cyst is a rare and usually solitary lesion that is four times more common in males than in females. (ispub.com)
  • chocolate cyst one filled with hemosiderin, causing a dark color, following local hemorrhage, such as may occur in the ovary in ovarian endometriosis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sometimes, they occur on a site that is constantly irritated, such as a cyst on your neck that rubs against your collar. (everydayhealth.com)
  • however, eruptive vellus hair cysts (EVHCs) may occur more frequently than is suggested by reports, possibly because the diagnosis is only definitively confirmed with biopsy. (medscape.com)
  • The most common location is the suprasternal notch, followed by the presternal area, the neck, and more rarely the scapular area.4,5 They are usually asymptomatic, but if the cyst is large and present in cervical area, symptoms may occur, including dyspnoea, respiratory distress, cough and dysphagia. (ispub.com)
  • These cysts appear as sacs filled with fluid and are located within or on the surface of an ovary. (healio.com)
  • A cyst on the ovary is a common occurrence for many women, as the normal function of the menstrual cycle typically causes these cysts, which are commonly referred to as functional. (healio.com)
  • embryonic cyst one developing from bits of embryonic tissue that have been overgrown by other tissues, or from developing organs that normally disappear before birth. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The bioengineered hair follicles properly connected to the host skin epithelium by intracutaneous transplantation and reproduced the stem cell niche and hair cycles. (nih.gov)
  • There is hyperkeratosis of the stratified epithelium and the upper part of the hair canals. (jax.org)
  • Cystic keratinizing hyperplasia is characterized by areas in the gingiva in which the epithelium is markedly hyperplastic and raised in papillary folds, forming cyst-like spaces filled with keratin. (nih.gov)
  • These cysts are filled with desquamated epithelium, and calcification is observed in about 25% of histopathologic specimens. (aao.org)
  • With this option, it is also helpful to lightly cauterize the posterior wall of the cyst with an Optemp cautery to further reduce the chance of recurrence of the cyst. (aao.org)
  • A predisposition exists for follicular occlusion at the level of the infundibulum, which results in cystic dilatation of the proximal hair follicle and secondary atrophy of the hair bulb. (medscape.com)
  • This skin model, developed using stem cells from mice, more closely resembles natural hair than existing models and may prove useful for testing drugs, understanding hair growth, and reducing the practice of animal testing. (eurekalert.org)
  • Also, longer studies will be needed to determine whether the stem cell derived hair follicles grow and regenerate in a normal way over time (for example, the stem cells were used to create hairy, bony tumours in the mice, which would be an unacceptable side-effect for a human baldness cure). (www.nhs.uk)
  • This was laboratory research that aimed to transform mature human skin cells into skin stem cells capable of growing human hair and skin cells when transplanted into mice. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Despite many attempts, previous research has struggled to successfully take these skin stem cells and transplant them into other humans or animals to make new skin or hair. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The researchers grew skin stem cells from mature human skin samples and conducted a variety of experiments in the laboratory to see if they could grow new hair and skin cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • This skin model, developed using stem cells from mice, more closely resembles natural hair than existing models. (fightaging.org)