A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.
Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
Infections of the nervous system caused by bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS, and marked by prominent inflammation of the MENINGES. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE that consists of several species occurring in animals and humans. Its organisms are described as gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus or rod-shaped, and nonmotile.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
Inflammation of the epiglottis.
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS that appears to be the pathogen or causative agent of the sexually transmitted disease, CHANCROID.
The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
A class of carrier proteins that bind to TRANSFERRIN. Many strains of pathogenic bacteria utilize transferrin-binding proteins to acquire their supply of iron from serum.
A thin leaf-shaped cartilage that is covered with LARYNGEAL MUCOSA and situated posterior to the root of the tongue and HYOID BONE. During swallowing, the epiglottis folds back over the larynx inlet thus prevents foods from entering the airway.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most sporadic cases in teenagers and almost all outbreaks of disease in this age group. These strains are less common in infants.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Acute suppurative inflammation of the inner eye with necrosis of the sclera (and sometimes the cornea) and extension of the inflammation into the orbit. Pain may be severe and the globe may rupture. In endophthalmitis the globe does not rupture.
Facilities which provide care for pre-school and school-age children.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.
The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus HAEMOPHILUS found, in the normal upper respiratory tract of SWINE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.
A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus HAEMOPHILUS, ubiquitous in the human ORAL CAVITY and PHARYNX. It has low pathogenicity but is occasionally implicated in ENDOCARDITIS in humans.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.
Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Proteins that specifically bind to IRON.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Purplish or brownish red discoloration, easily visible through the epidermis, caused by hemorrhage into the tissues. When the size of the discolorization is >2-3 cm it is generally called Ecchymoses (ECCHYMOSIS).
Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate.
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
Acute, localized autoinoculable infectious disease usually acquired through sexual contact. Caused by HAEMOPHILUS DUCREYI, it occurs endemically almost worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical countries and more commonly in seaports and urban areas than in rural areas.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
Method of measuring the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy. It is used to monitor the therapy in BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; OSTEOMYELITIS and other serious bacterial infections. As commonly performed, the test is a variation of the broth dilution test. This test needs to be distinguished from testing of the naturally occurring BLOOD BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibiotic derivative of CEPHALEXIN.
A species of gram-negative bacteria (currently incertae sedis) causing multisystem disease in CATTLE.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Infections with bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Inflammation of the middle ear with a clear pale yellow-colored transudate.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The quality of not being miscible with another given substance without a chemical change. One drug is not of suitable composition to be combined or mixed with another agent or substance. The incompatibility usually results in an undesirable reaction, including chemical alteration or destruction. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis responsible for most outbreaks of meningococcal disease in Western Europe and the United States in the first half of the 20th century. They continue to be a major cause of disease in Asia and Africa, and especially localized epidemics in Sub-Sahara Africa.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.
Facilities which provide care for infants.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Compounds based on ERYTHROMYCIN with the 3-cladinose replaced by a ketone. They bind the 23S part of 70S bacterial RIBOSOMES.
Child hospitalized for short term care.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.

A case-control study of risk factors for Haemophilus influenzae type B disease in Navajo children. (1/240)

To understand the potential risk factors and protective factors for invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease, we conducted a case-control study among Navajo children less than two years of age resident on the Navajo Nation. We analyzed household interview data for 60 cases that occurred between August 1988 and February 1991, and for 116 controls matched by age, gender, and geographic location. The Hib vaccine recipients were excluded from the analyses. Conditional logistic regression models were fit to examine many variables relating to social and environmental conditions. Risk factors determined to be important were never breast fed (odds ratio [OR] = 3.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.52, 8.26), shared care with more than one child less than two years of age (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 0.91, 5.96); wood heating (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 0.91, 5.05); rodents in the home (OR = 8.18, 95% CI = 0.83, 80.7); and any livestock near the home (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 0.94, 5.04).  (+info)

Efficacy of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines and persistence of disease in disadvantaged populations. The Haemophilus Influenzae Study Group. (2/240)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines among children aged 2 to 18 months and to determine risk factors for invasive Hib disease during a period of declining incidence (1991-1994). METHODS: A prospective population-based case-control study was conducted in a multistate US population of 15.5 million. A laboratory-based active surveillance system was used for case detection. RESULTS: In a multivariate analysis, having a single-parent mother (odds ratio [OR] = 4.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2, 14.8) and household crowding (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.03, 11.7) were risk factors for Hib disease independent of vaccination status. After adjustment for these risk factors, the protective efficacy of 2 or more Hib vaccine doses was 86% (95% CI = 16%, 98%). Among undervaccinated subjects, living with a smoker (P = .02) and several indicators of lower socioeconomic status were risk factors for Hib disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hib disease still occurs at low levels in the United States, predominantly in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Low immunization coverage may facilitate continuing transmission of Hib. Special efforts to achieve complete and timely immunization in disadvantaged populations are needed.  (+info)

Structural requirements of the major protective antibody to Haemophilus influenzae type b. (3/240)

Protective antibodies to the important childhood pathogen Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) are directed against the capsular polysaccharide (HibCP). Most of the antibody is encoded by a well-defined set of ("canonical") immunoglobulin genes, including the Vkappa A2 gene, and expresses an idiotypic marker (HibId-1). In comparison to noncanonical antibodies, the canonical antibody is generally of higher avidity, shows higher levels of in vitro bactericidal activity, and is more protective in infant rats. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we here characterize canonical HibCP antibodies expressed as antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) in Escherichia coli, define amino acids involved in antigen binding and idiotype expression, and propose a three-dimensional structure for the variable domains. We found that canonical Fabs, unlike a noncanonical Fab, bound effectively to HibCP in the absence of somatic mutations. Nevertheless, pronounced mutation-based affinity maturation was demonstrated in vivo. An almost perfect correlation was found between unmutated gene segments that mediated binding in vitro and those encoding canonical HibCP antibodies in vivo. Thus, the Vkappa A2a gene could be replaced by the A2c gene but not by the highly homologous sister gene, A18b, corresponding to the demonstrated usage of A2c but not of A18b in vivo. Similarly, only Jkappa1 and Jkappa3, which predominate in the response in vivo, were able to facilitate binding in vitro. These findings suggest that the restricted immunoglobulin gene usage in HibCP antibodies reflects strict structural demands ensuring relatively high affinity prior to somatic mutations-requirements met by only a limited spectrum of immunoglobulin gene combinations.  (+info)

Neutralization of macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) and MIP-1alpha attenuates neutrophil recruitment in the central nervous system during experimental bacterial meningitis. (4/240)

Chemokines are low-molecular-weight chemotactic cytokines that have been shown to play a central role in the perivascular transmigration and accumulation of specific subsets of leukocytes at sites of tissue damage. Using in situ hybridization (ISH), we investigated the mRNA induction of macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), MIP-1alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and RANTES. Challenge of infant rats' brains with Haemophilus influenzae type b intraperitoneally resulted in the time-dependent expression of MIP-2, MIP-1alpha, MCP-1, and RANTES, which was maximal 24 to 48 h postinoculation. Immunohistochemistry showed significant increases in neutrophils and macrophages infiltrating the meninges, the ventricular system, and the periventricular area. The kinetics of MIP-2, MIP-1alpha, MCP-1, and RANTES mRNA expression paralleled those of the recruitment of inflammatory cells and disease severity. Administration of anti-MIP-2 or anti-MIP-1alpha antibodies (Abs) resulted in significant reduction of neutrophils. Administration of anti-MCP-1 Abs significantly decreased macrophage infiltration. Combined studies of ISH and immunohistochemistry showed that MIP-2- and MIP-1alpha-positive cells were neutrophils and macrophages. MCP-1-positive cells were neutrophils, macrophages, and astrocytes. Expression of RANTES was localized predominantly to resident astrocytes and microglia. The present study indicates that blocking of MIP-2 or MIP-1alpha bioactivity in vivo results in decreased neutrophil influx. These data are also the first demonstration that the C-C chemokine MIP-1alpha is involved in neutrophil recruitment in vivo.  (+info)

Antibody response to accelerated Hib immunisation in preterm infants receiving dexamethasone for chronic lung disease. (5/240)

AIM: To study the effect of dexamethasone on the routine immunisation of preterm infants with chronic lung disease. METHODS: Serum samples were obtained before and after immunisation from an unselected cohort of 59 preterm infants. Haemophilus influenzae antibodies were measured using an ELISA method and differences in the geometric mean values between the two groups of babies analysed. RESULTS: Sixteen infants received no dexamethasone. Before and after immunisation antibody titres for those receiving no dexamethasone were 0.16 and 4.63 mcg IgG/ml. Corresponding values for those receiving dexamethasone were 0.10 and 0.51 mcg IgG/ml, respectively. CONCLUSION: Dexamethasone used in the treatment of chronic lung disease seems to significantly affect the antibody response of preterm infants to immunisation against Haemophilus influenzae.  (+info)

Effect of multiple mutations in the hemoglobin- and hemoglobin-haptoglobin-binding proteins, HgpA, HgpB, and HgpC, of Haemophilus influenzae type b. (6/240)

Haemophilus influenzae requires heme for growth and can utilize hemoglobin and hemoglobin-haptoglobin as heme sources. We previously identified two hemoglobin- and hemoglobin-haptoglobin-binding proteins, HgpA and HgpB, in H. influenzae HI689. Insertional mutation of hgpA and hgpB, either singly or together, did not abrogate the ability to utilize or bind either hemoglobin or the hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex. A hemoglobin affinity purification method was used to isolate a protein of approximately 120 kDa from the hgpA hgpB double mutant. We have cloned and sequenced the gene encoding this third hemoglobin/hemoglobin-haptoglobin binding protein and designate it hgpC. Insertional mutation of hgpC did not affect the ability of the strain to utilize either hemoglobin or hemoglobin-haptoglobin. An hgpA hgpB hgpC triple mutant constructed by insertional mutagenesis showed a reduced ability to use the hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex but was unaltered in the ability to use hemoglobin. A second class of mutants was constructed in which the entire structural gene of each of the three proteins was deleted. The hgpA hgpB hgpC complete-deletion triple mutant was unable to utilize the hemoglobin-haptoglobin complex and showed a reduced ability to use hemoglobin. We have identified three hemoglobin/hemoglobin-haptoglobin-binding proteins in Haemophilus influenzae. Any one of the three proteins is sufficient to support growth with hemoglobin-haptoglobin as the heme source, and expression of at least one of the three is essential for hemoglobin-haptoglobin utilization. Although the three proteins play a role in hemoglobin utilization, an additional hemoglobin acquisition mechanism(s) exists.  (+info)

The induction of immunologic memory after vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate and acellular pertussis-containing diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine combination. (7/240)

The significance of reduced antibody responses to the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) component of acellular pertussis-containing combination vaccines (DTaP-Hib) is unclear. A DTaP-Hib vaccine evaluated in infants vaccinated at ages 2, 3, and 4 months showed reduced anti-Hib polysaccharide IgG (geometric mean concentration [GMC], 1.23 microgram/mL; 57%, >1.0 microgram/mL). Polyribitolribosyl phosphate (PRP) and Hib conjugate (PRP-T) vaccine given as a booster during the second year of life was evaluated for the presence of immunological memory. After boosting, most children achieved anti-PRP IgG >1.0 microgram/mL, although the GMC was higher with PRP-T (88.5 microgram/mL) than with PRP vaccine (7.86 microgram/mL, P<.001). The GMC of the PRP group was higher than anticipated for naive PRP recipients of the same age. PRP-specific IgG avidity was significantly higher after boosting than after priming, providing further evidence for the generation of memory. Despite reduced immunogenicity, DTaP-Hib combination vaccines appear to prime for immunologic memory.  (+info)

The pathogenic role of fimbriae of Haemophilus influenzae type b in murine bacteraemia and meningitis. (8/240)

Complement activation and development of murine bacteraemia and meningitis following intranasal instillation of cell-bound fimbriated or non-fimbriated organisms were compared to clarify the role of fimbriae in the pathogenesis of illnesses caused by Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib). In-vitro resistance of non-fimbriate bacteria to the bactericidal effects of normal human serum was at least 400 times greater than that of fimbriate bacteria. The amount of C3 bound to fimbriate Hib was more than that to non-fimbriate Hib. When mice were infected with fimbriate bacteria, 11.5% died. When mice were infected with non-fimbriate bacteria, the mean number of viable organisms gradually increased or was constant up to day 7; 38.5% of these mice died. These in-vivo results were coincident with the in-vitro data. However, the content of polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP) in fimbriate organisms was the same as in non-fimbriate organisms. These results indicate that fimbriate Hib may be less likely to produce bacteraemia and meningitis, correlating with the greater susceptibility to complement-mediated bacteriolysis and the lower mortality seen with this type of organism, although fimbriae increase adherence to epithelial cells (mucosal surface).  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Rifampin Prophylaxis for Contacts of Haemophilus influenzae Type b Disease. AU - Cox, Frederick. AU - Trincher, Rose. AU - Rissing, J. Peter. AU - Patton, Maurice. AU - Mccracken, George H.. AU - Granoff, Dan M.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2015 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1981/3/13. Y1 - 1981/3/13. N2 - Rifampin prophylaxis (20 mg/kg once daily for four days) was used in close contacts of children with Haemophilus influenzae type b (HIB) disease. Two hours after a dose, the concentration of rifampin in serum and saliva exceeded the minimum bactericidal concentrations of organisms obtained from four of the carriers. In both a randomized prospective and an open study, nasopharyngeal carriage was eradicated in 37 (95%) of 39 contacts. No cases of serious H influenzae disease occurred in four to six months of follow-up. At the dose and treatment schedule used, rifampin was safe and effective for eradication of HIB carriage. (JAMA 1981;245:1043-1045).. AB - Rifampin ...
A retrospective database review showed that Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine decreased the annual number of cases of H. influenzae type b meningitis in children in Blantyre, Malawi. Among young bacterial meningitis patients, HIV prevalence was high (36.7% during 1997-2009), and pneumococcus was the most common etiologic agent (57% in 2009 ...
In response to the 2007-2009 Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine shortage in the United States, we developed a flexible model of Hib transmission and disease for optimizing Hib vaccine programs in diverse populations and situations. The model classifies population members by age, colonization/disease status, and antibody levels, with movement across categories defined by differential equations. We implemented the model for the United States as a whole, England and Wales, and the Alaska Native population. This model accurately simulated Hib incidence in all 3 populations, including the increased incidence in England/Wales beginning in 1999 and the change in Hib incidence in Alaska Natives after switching Hib vaccines in 1996. The model suggests that a vaccine shortage requiring deferral of the booster dose could last 3 years in the United States before loss of herd immunity would result in increasing rates of invasive Hib disease in children &lt;5 years of age.
In response to the 2007-2009 Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine shortage in the United States, we developed a flexible model of Hib transmission and disease for optimizing Hib vaccine programs in diverse populations and situations. The model classifies population members by age, colonization/disease status, and antibody levels, with movement across categories defined by differential equations. We implemented the model for the United States as a whole, England and Wales, and the Alaska Native population. This model accurately simulated Hib incidence in all 3 populations, including the increased incidence in England/Wales beginning in 1999 and the change in Hib incidence in Alaska Natives after switching Hib vaccines in 1996. The model suggests that a vaccine shortage requiring deferral of the booster dose could last 3 years in the United States before loss of herd immunity would result in increasing rates of invasive Hib disease in children &lt;5 years of age.
Background. Despite the excellent immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines, breakthrough cases of Hib disease still affect a small proportion of vaccinated children in the United Kingdom. We performed a retrospective study to compare the avidity of antibody directed against the Hib polysaccharide capsule (PRP) in children who experienced Hib vaccine failure in the United Kingdom among 3 historical cohorts and with age-matched healthy control subjects.. Methods. Serum samples from vaccinated children with invasive Hib disease were collected beginning in 1992 as part of enhanced surveillance for Hib disease following vaccine introduction. A total of 251 children who experienced Hib vaccine failure were identified from 3 historical cohorts (1992-1995, 1996-1999, and 2000-2003). The anti-PRP antibody concentration and avidity from healthy age-matched control subjects was obtained for the 3 contemporary time points (1995, 1999, and 2002). Serum anti-PRP antibody ...
The Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine is formulated to prevent diseases in infants and young children caused by the haemophilus influenzae type b bacteria.
OBJECTIVE: Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine was introduced into routine immunization services in Kenya in 2001. We aimed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of Hib vaccine delivery. METHODS: A model was developed to follow the Kenyan 2004 birth cohort until death, with and without Hib vaccine. Incidence of invasive Hib disease was estimated at Kilifi District Hospital and in the surrounding demographic surveillance system in coastal Kenya. National Hib disease incidence was estimated by adjusting incidence observed by passive hospital surveillance using assumptions about access to care. Case fatality rates were also assumed dependent on access to care. A price of US$ 3.65 per dose of pentavalent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-hep B-Hib vaccine was used. Multivariate Monte Carlo simulations were performed in order to assess the impact on the cost-effectiveness ratios of uncertainty in parameter values. FINDINGS: The introduction of Hib vaccine reduced the estimated incidence of Hib meningitis per
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a bacterium which can cause a range of very serious diseases, particularly in children under the age of 5. There are very few cases of Hib disease in older children and adults. 60% of cases of Hib disease result in meningitis, often with septicaemia (severe blood poisoning). 15% of cases result in epiglottitis (inflammation of the epiglottis).. Even with medical treatment, about 1 in 20 children who develop Hib meningitis die. Before a vaccine was introduced, it is estimated that there were up to 1500 cases of Hib disease every year in the UK, leading to about 900 cases of meningitis and 60 deaths each year. 1 in 5 of the babies and children who survived Hib meningitis were left with severe long-term effects such as learning disabilities, seizures (fits) or deafness.. Before a vaccine was available, Hib disease was the main cause of meningitis in young children in the UK. It is now very rare in the UK, but worldwide it is still a major cause of death in ...
Peltola H.; Eskola J.; Kayhty H.; Takala A.; Makela P.M., 1990: Protective efficacy of the hboc and prp d haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines when given at 4 6 and 14 to 18 months of age
Learn more about Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Vaccine at Portsmouth Regional Hospital What Is Hib Disease?What Is the Hib Vaccine?Who Should Be Vaccinated and When?What...
Vidor, E; Hoffenbach, A; and Fletcher, Mary A., Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine: reconstitution of lyophilised PRP-T vaccine with a pertussis-containing paediatric combination vaccine, or a change in the primary series immunisation schedule, may modify the serum anti-PRP antibody responses. (2001). College of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Articles. 910 ...
PEDVAXHIB (Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Article about Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine. Includes illustrations and topical information provided by ADAM and Drugs.com.
An increase in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in British children has been linked to the widespread use of a diphtheria/tetanus/acellular pertussis combination vaccine (DTaP-Hib). We measured anti-polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate antibody concentration and avidity before and after a Hib booster in 176 children 2-4 years of age who had received 3 doses of DTP-Hib (either DT whole cell pertussis-Hib or DTaP-Hib) combination vaccine in infancy. We also measured pharyngeal carriage of Hib. Antibody concentrations before and avidity indices after vaccination were low (geometric mean concentration 0.46 mug/mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36-0.58; geometric mean avidity index 0.16, 95% CI 0.14-0.18) and inversely related to the number of previous doses of DTaP-Hib (p = 0.02 and p|0.001, respectively). Hib was found in 2.1% (95% CI 0.7%-6.0%) of study participants. Our data support an association between DTaP-Hib vaccine combinations and clinical Hib disease through an effect on antibody concentration and
BACKGROUND: Diphtheria (D), tetanus (T), pertussis (P), hepatitis B (HepB), invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease, and measles cause substantial global morbidity and mortality. METHODS: This unique review highlights geographic differences in disease burden across certain countries in the African, Americas, Mediterranean, South-East Asian, and Western Pacific World Health Organization (WHO) regions, and relates this to vaccination coverage and local vaccine recommendations using the authors countries as illustrations. RESULTS: Substantial differences were observed in the incidence of these diseases and in vaccination coverage between the countries studied. Disease incidence often reflected inadequate surveillance, but also variable or poor vaccination coverage. Vaccination coverage against HepB was particularly low in the African and South-East Asian WHO regions; vaccination coverage against invasive Hib disease was low in these regions and in the Eastern Mediterranean and Western ...
This vaccine is for injection into a muscle. It is given by a health care professional.. A copy of Vaccine Information Statements will be given before each vaccination. Read this sheet carefully each time. The sheet may change frequently.. Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. While this drug may be prescribed for children as young as 2 months old for selected conditions, precautions do apply.. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The differences in incidence rates of Haemophilus influenzae type b disease and the variation in Hib conjugate vaccine efficacy achieved among different ethnic groups suggest genetic influences on the immune response to Hib vaccine. The serum anti-PRP antibody concentration of 43 monozygotic (MZ) and 147 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs in the Gambia was measured using a standardised Hib ELISA. Intrapair correlations for MZ and DZ twin pairs were compared and heritability in antibody responses to Hib conjugate vaccine was estimated to be 51% (95% CI: 32-66%), indicating a significant genetic contribution in the response. We conclude that genetic factors may be involved in the variation in immune response to Hib vaccine observed in different populations and may contribute to cases of vaccine failure.. ...
Hib disease can cause serious illnesses like meningitis and pneumonia. To protect kids from this bacterial infection, they should receive the Hib vaccine as infants.
Hib disease can cause serious illnesses like meningitis and pneumonia. To protect kids from this bacterial infection, they should receive the Hib vaccine as infants.
Did you know? For every 20 children who get sick with Hib, 1 may die. Farins story Marijean shares her story about how her son, Farin, died of Hib meningitis.
Far too many children remain undervaccinated against serious diseases like pertussis, polio and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease, said David P. Greenberg, M.D., Associate Vice President and Regional Medical Head North America, Sanofi Pasteur. We are committed to helping protect more children by making vaccination as easy and convenient as possible for parents and healthcare providers. The availability of Quadracel is a step in this direction. When Quadracel is used in children who started their immunization series with Pentacel® (DTaP-IPV/Hib), it can save an extra shot and may help improve vaccination coverage for children through 6 years of age.. A 2015 report from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) showed an 11 percent vaccination coverage drop-off from the third to fourth dose of DTaP, and a 12 percent drop-off from the primary to full series of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib).. To protect infants and children from life-threatening diseases, the CDC recommends children ...
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The incidence of Hib disease in young children has dramatically reduced over the past 20 years thanks to vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b, or Hib.
The next article is a bit of hand-waving and cherry picking about Haemophilus influenzae, a bacteria which can cause numerous infections, notably meningitis. The vaccine protects against H flu type b, not a. During the 1-year period after Hib vaccination started, Hib meningitis dropped by 69% (HUZZAH!) but H flu type a meningitis increased by a whopping 800%. Now before you go all crazy lets look at the actual numbers. The incidence of Hib meningitis was 2.62/100,000 person-years before vaccination and 0.81 after. The incidence of H flu type a meningitis was 0.02/100,000 person years, or 131 times lower than Hib, and it went up to 0.16, which is still 5 times lower than the incidence of Hib after vaccination. Want some proof of cherry picking? Kelly uses these two quotes directly from the articles abstract: Hib immunization contributed to an increased risk for H. influenzae type a meningitis through selection of circulating H. influenzae type a clones and the incidence for H. influenzae ...
Hib - Also Known as Haemophilus influenzae type b. In-depth information from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Hib Disease: Information for Parents. Fact sheet from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...
Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (Hib) vaccine recommendations, composition, types, storage and handling, administration, and resources.
Report #39: A couple with serious concerns about the safety and morality of vaccination delay immunizing their infant daughter. While they research their questions, their daughter is hospitalized with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib).
Introduction Vaccines are crucial to population health. Nevertheless, there are multiple barriers for parents or carers to vaccinate their children, resulting in lower than required population immunisation coverage. Aim This study aimed to identify the information needs and concerns of health consumer regarding childhood vaccination. Methods We conducted a retrospective, mixed method study of 1,342 childhood vaccination-related calls to an Australian consumer medicines call centre, NPS Medicines Line (September 2002-June 2010). Call narratives were explored to identify the key themes. Themes were compared for callers from high and low immunisation coverage areas (National Health Performance Authority data linked to caller postcode). Results Vaccines that raised the most questions were the measles, mumps, rubella vaccine (29.9%), combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis, Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (18.5%) and varicella vaccine (17.5%). The most commonly
The Hib vaccine protects children against infections like meningitis and pneumonia that are caused by the Haemophilus influenzae type b bacterium.
FIC = One dose bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine, three doses pentavalent (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, hepatitis B, haemophilus influenzae type b) vaccine, three doses polio vaccine and one dose measles vaccine. The proportion of FIC infants by 10 months of age in each of the intervention arms (SMS only and SMS + subsidy) will be separately compared to the control arm using statistical analyses that adjust for the cluster design and any socio-demographic variables that may be unequally distributed across study ...
However for me Im always appalled at how lightly people take asthma, which is always linked with vaccinations and in particular the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine. Although no human studies have been completed (why would they), a nasal Hib vaccine has been shown to stimulate Th1 and Th2 cells in mice, and we know that overstimulated Th2 cells in the immune system increases the risk of asthma and allergy. The Hib vaccination has also been shown to raise histamine levels in rats who also suffer increased bronchocstriction. The vaccine has also been shown to cause eosinophil (white blood cells that fight infection) accumulation in the dermis of the skin seen in people with atopic dermatitis (eczema ...
Child Care Requirements Effective August 1, 2007. Hepatitis B (HepB) #1 (Month 1) #2 (Month 4) #3 (Month 12). Inactivated Polio (IPV) #1 (Month 2) #2 (Month 4) #3 (Month 12). Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis (DTaP) #1 (Month 2) #2 (Month 4) #3 (Month 6) #4 (Month 15). Haemophilus Influenzae type b (Hib) #1 (Month 2) #2 (Month 4) (#3) (Month 6) #3 or #4[c] (Month 12). Pneumococcal[d] (PCV7) #1 (Month 2) #2 (Month 4) #3 (Month 6) #4 (Month 15). Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) #1 (Month 12). Varicella[e] (VAR; aka Chickenpox) (Month 15). Children who are not age-appropriately vaccinated should follow the catch-up schedule. (See the catch-up schedule in the Pink Book). Where there is an age range for a vaccine, the vaccine is NOT required until the END of the age range. An infant between birth and 2 months of age may receive one or more doses of Hep B vaccine. The number of recommended doses of Hib vaccine will vary according to the age at which a child receives the 1st dose of Hib and the type of Hib ...
Every day, dedicated researchers - across UR Medicine and throughout the University of Rochester - are working to improve the health of our most vulnerable patients: infants and children. Our research has helped children around the world lead healthy lives, from the discovery of lung surfactant to help premature babies survive, to the development of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine to prevent one of the most common forms of bacterial meningitis in children, and many other serious diseases of childhood.. Building on this legacy of world-class discoveries, research in areas related to childrens health at the University of Rochester continues to make a significant impact across the nation and around the world. However, there is much more work to be done.. Bricks and mortar are vital to providing the state-of-the-art care and healing environment that children need when they are ill; an environment like the one to be found in our new Golisano Childrens Hospital. But our childrens ...
Define Haemophilus influenzae type b. Haemophilus influenzae type b synonyms, Haemophilus influenzae type b pronunciation, Haemophilus influenzae type b translation, English dictionary definition of Haemophilus influenzae type b. n. Abbr. Hib A rod-shaped, gram-negative bacterium found in the human respiratory tract that causes acute respiratory infections, such as pneumonia, and...
Description of disease Vaccination, Haemophilus influenzae type B (HIB). Treatment Vaccination, Haemophilus influenzae type B (HIB). Symptoms and causes Vaccination, Haemophilus influenzae type B (HIB) Prophylaxis Vaccination, Haemophilus influenzae type B (HIB)
Haemophilus influenzae type b HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B (HIB) VACCINES FOR AUSTRALIAN CHILDREN: INFORMATION FOR IMMUNISATION PROVIDERS Disease and epidemiology Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is
Example(s): ACT-HIB (Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine),Infanrix Hexa (tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, polio, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and hepatitis B combined vaccine (DTaP-IPV-Hib-hep B, called the 6-in-1)),Pentacel (tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b combined vaccine (DTaP-IPV-Hib, called the 5-in-1))
H. influenzae type b has been nearly abolished in the U.S. due to effective vaccine development, which has been available since 1988. Immunization with the Hib vaccine can help prevent Haemophilus influenzae type b disease. In rare cases, children may still develop H. influenzae type b infections. This can occur if the child has not completed their series of immunizations or in older children who did not receive the vaccine as an infant. ...
H. influenzae type b has been nearly abolished in the U.S. due to effective vaccine development, which has been available since 1988. Immunization with the Hib vaccine can help prevent Haemophilus influenzae type b disease. In rare cases, children may still develop H. influenzae type b infections. This can occur if the child has not completed their series of immunizations or in older children who did not receive the vaccine as an infant.. ...
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a major cause of invasive bacterial infection in children that can be prevented by a vaccine, but there is still uncertainty about its relative importance in Asia. This study investigated the age-specific prevalence of Hib carriage and its molecular epidemiology in carriage and disease in Nepal. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from children in Kathmandu, Nepal, from 3 different settings: a hospital outpatient department (OPD), schools, and childrens homes. Hib was isolated using Hib antiserum agar plates, and serotyping was performed with latex agglutination. Hib isolates from children with invasive disease were obtained during active microbiological surveillance at Patan Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal. Genotyping of disease and carriage isolates was undertaken using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Swabs were taken from 2,195 children, including 1,311 children at an OPD, 647 children attending schools, and 237 children in homes. Overall, Hib was identified in 5
Collected resources and information for haemophilus influenzae type b (hib) disease and vaccination: Access the latest recommendations, news, information, and resources from IAC, government agencies, professional journals, and other organizations in one spot on immunize.org.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural and antigenic conservation of the P2 porin protein among strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b. AU - Hansen, E. J.. AU - Pelzel, S. E.. AU - Orth, K.. AU - Moomaw, C. R.. AU - Radolf, J. D.. AU - Slaughter, C. A.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - The P2 porin protein is the most abundant protein in the outer membrane of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Biochemical and immunochemical techniques were used to characterize the P2 proteins from a number of different Hib strains. P2 proteins from Hib outer membrane vesicles were resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to nitrocellulose for in situ tryptic digestion. Solid-phase tryptic digests of P2 from eight Hib strains were resolved by high-pressure liquid chromatography and shown to be similar if not identical. Radioimmunoprecipitation analysis involving Hib cells (containing intrinsically radiolabeled proteins or lipooligosaccharide) and Western blot (immunoblot) analysis ...
We compared the immunogenicity of the four available Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines in Alaska Native infants. Three of the vaccines, Hib oligosaccharide-CRM197 (HbOC), polyribosylribitol phosphate-diphtheria toxoid (PRP-D) and polyribosylribitol phosphate-tetanus toxoid (PRP- …
Haemophilus influenzae (including Hib) is a bacterium that can cause a severe infection, occurring mostly in infants and children younger than five years of age. It can cause lifelong disability and be deadly. In spite of its name, Haemophilus influenzae bacteria do not cause influenza (the flu).. There are six identifiable types of Haemophilus influenzae bacteria (a through f) and other non-identifiable types (called nontypeable). The one most people are familiar with is Haemophilus influenzae type b, or Hib. Theres a vaccine that can prevent disease caused by Hib, but not the other types of Haemophilus influenzae bacteria.. ...
Haemophilus influenzae is caused by bacteria which strikes children younger than 5 years old. So book a visit now to get a haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine as an injection for your child.
This study evaluated the vaccination response to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in malnourished pregnant women (MN), cord blood (CB) and in infants at two and six months of age for comparison with a control group (C). Twenty-eight malnourished pregnant women and 29 pregnant controls were immunized with conjugated Act-HIB® in the third trimester of pregnancy. Blood samples were collected from all before the immunization, during labor (post immunization), and from CB. All infants were immunized with Hib vaccine according to normal vaccine schedule and sera were collected at two and six months of age. Antibody levels to polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) were similar for both groups. Preimmunization: MN 1.94 µg/mL, C 1.68 µg/mL; post-vaccination: MN 18.53 µg/mL and C 17.55 µg/mL; in CB from MN 14.46 µg/mL and from C 17.04 µg/mL. Infants from MN and C mothers presented respectively at two months: 5.18 µg/mL and 8.60 µg/mL and at six months: MN 3.42 µg/mL and C 2.18 µg/mL. Antibody ...
Vaccination against influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae is recommended for elderly and immunocompromised individuals. However, there is little information concerning the efficacy of vaccination in specific groups of patients. In this study, 52 patients underwent vaccination against influenza, S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) as they attended hospital outpatient clinics. Serum was analysed prior to vaccination and 4-6 weeks afterwards. Antibody titres against S. pneumoniae and Hib were compared with reference values corresponding to the geometric mean titres of a healthy UK population. For influenza vaccination, haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titres were measured against three inactivated strains; a titre of , or = 1/40 was considered protective. No patient had protective titres to all three antigens prior to vaccination and 41 patients (85%) had titres , 1/40 to all 3 strains. Post vaccination only 9/48 patients (19%) achieved protective antibody titres. Resistance to ...
Haemophilus influenzae type b (or Hib) is a vaccine-preventable disease that can cause ear infections, pneumonia, and bacterial meningitis, especially in young children. Learn more.
BACKGROUND: Infections during pregnancy confers increased risk of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. However, the case for advocating Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) and viral Influenza vaccinations in pregnancy is still debatable.. OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of Hib and viral Influenza vaccinations during pregnancy on maternal, neonatal and infant health outcomes compared to placebo/control.. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Groups Trials Register (29 January 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies.. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled clinical trials (including cluster-randomised trials) and quasi-randomised trials evaluating Hib or viral influenza vaccination during pregnancy compared with no vaccination or placebo.. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, risk of bias and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy.. MAIN RESULTS: Two trials were included this ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization and sequence analysis of the lsg (LOS synthesis genes) locus from Haemophilus influenzae type b. AU - McLaughlin, R.. AU - Lee, N. G.. AU - Abu Kwaik, Y.. AU - Spinola, Stanley. AU - Apicella, M. A.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027947863&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027947863&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. VL - 1. SP - 165. EP - 174. JO - Innate Immunity. JF - Innate Immunity. SN - 1753-4259. IS - 3. ER - ...
Haemophilus influenzae type b is a serious bacterial disease that usually strikes children younger than 5. It is spread from person-to-person by coughing and sneezing.
Haemophilus influenzae type b is a serious bacterial disease that usually strikes children younger than 5. It is spread from person-to-person by coughing and sneezing.
Haemophilus influenzae type b is a serious bacterial disease that usually strikes children younger than 5. It is spread from person-to-person by coughing and sneezing.
Haemophilus influenzae type b is a serious bacterial disease that usually strikes children younger than 5. It is spread from person-to-person by coughing and sneezing.
Haemophilus influenzae type b is a serious bacterial disease that usually strikes children younger than 5. It is spread from person-to-person by coughing and sneezing.
Description: Haemophilus influenzae type b disease, also called Hib disease, is an illness that can cause a potentially fatal brain infection in young children. Hib disease is caused by the bacteria, Haemophilus influenzae serotype b. The Hib bacterium is widespread in humans. Along with other bacteria, it usually lives in the throat and nose without causing illness. In some cases, though, the bacterium breaks through the bodys defenses and causes disease. Hib disease is spread through contact with discharges or droplets from the nose or throat of an infected person and can spread from person to person through sneezing, coughing, or speaking closely with an infected person. A person does not have to have symptoms to spread the bacterium. The most common and severe manifestation of Hib disease is meningitis (inflammation and swelling in the coverings of the brain and spinal cord). Symptoms of meningitis include fever, weakness, vomiting, and a stiff neck. Hib can also cause infection of the ...
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The status of Haemophilus influenzae (Hib) disease and its prevention by vaccination was reviewed for the period 1997 to 2000. This forms the background to a change in national vaccine policy, from the use of two Hib vaccines to the use of PRP-OMP only throughout Australia from May 2000. Notifications of Hib in the 7-year period between 1993 and 2000 declined by 87 per cent among children 0-4 years of age; adjustment for likely under-reporting increase this to a 95 per cent reduction. Among age groups not included in the immunisation program, there was also a substantial decline in notified cases. Overall, a minimum 430 cases and 13 deaths were prevented by Hib immunisation annually in Australia. Enhanced Hib surveillance recorded 532 cases over seven years, with 353 in unvaccinated persons, 74 fulfilling criteria for true vaccine failure and 75 partially immunised. Of unvaccinated cases, 60 and 182 were eligible for routine and catch-up immunisation respectively. Although the overall incidence for 0-4
Roush, SW. The New England Journal of Medicine, November 14, 2007; 298(13): 2155-2163. Context National vaccine recommendations in the United States target an increasing number of vaccine-preventable diseases for reduction, elimination, or eradication.. Objective To compare morbidity and mortality before and after widespread implementation of national vaccine recommendations for 13 vaccine-preventable diseases for which recommendations were in place prior to 2005.. Design, Setting, and Participants For the United States, prevaccine baselines were assessed based on representative historical data from primary sources and were compared to the most recent morbidity (2006) and mortality (2004) data for diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, rubella (including congenital rubella syndrome), invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), acute hepatitis B, hepatitis A, varicella, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and smallpox.. Main Outcome Measures Number of cases, deaths, and ...
Define Hib vaccine. Hib vaccine synonyms, Hib vaccine pronunciation, Hib vaccine translation, English dictionary definition of Hib vaccine. n. A conjugate vaccine administered to immunize children against infection by a rod-shaped, gram-negative bacterium, Haemophilus influenzae type b, which...
In 1994, the Italian Ministry of Health implemented a National Surveillance System to obtain data on the incidence of bacterial meningitis and its causative agents, including Haemophilus influenzae type b Hib. As a consequence, case reporting of Hib meningitis is increasing year by year ; in 1996, there were 126 notifications, of which 73% were...
CHERRY HILL, N.J. -- Today the National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners (NAPNAP) launched Hibdisease.com, a comprehensive online resource for both healthcare providers and parents, which focuses on Hib disease (Haemophilus influenzae type B), a vaccine preventable childhood disease that was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis and post-natal mental retardation prior to the availability of effective vaccines. Hib disease continues to pose a serious threat to U.S. children.
Hib disease is caused by bacteria called Haemophilus influenzae type b. Hib bacteria are spread through contact with mucus or droplets from the nose and throat of an infected person when they cough or sneeze. Hib can be spread by people who are ill with the disease. More commonly, however, Hib is spread by people who have the bacteria in their noses and throats but who are not ill. Before Hib vaccines, there were about 20,000 cases of invasive Hib each year in the U.S. Invasive disease means that germs invade parts of the body that are normally free from germs. When this happens, disease is usually very severe, causing hospitalization or even death. Before a Hib vaccine was available, Hib was the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in the U.S. About 12,000 children each year-most of them younger than 5 years of age-got Hib meningitis. Meningitis is just one of the invasive diseases that can be caused by Hib. Hib can also cause life-threatening infections that make it difficult to breathe, ...
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The death of a Minnesota child from who had not been vaccinated against Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type B), has prompted health officials to remind parents that meningitis is still around, and that it can be deadly.. According to Kristen Ehresmann, RN, MPH, of the Minnesota Department of Health, We had a death from a child who was unvaccinated. We want to encourage parents who have delayed or refused vaccination to reconsider. Hib vaccine not only protects your child, but also protects babies who have not completed their primary series or those who have immune compromise.. The CDC also warns that children should receive all of their basic Hib vaccinations. Anne Schuchat, MD, director of the CDCs National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases says, The situation in Minnesota might be isolated, or it might be the beginning of a trend in other places. We are working hard to determine which of these stories is the right one.. The current outbreak in Minnesota occurred in a ...
Professor Booy trained in paediatrics during the 1980s at the Royal Childrens Hospital, Brisbane, and spent much of the 1990s doing epidemiological research on life threatening infectious diseases in the United Kingdom. This included 4 years in Oxford where he completed a doctorate on the epidemiology and prevention of Haemophilus influenzae type b disease.. In 1999 Professor Booy appointed Professor of Child Health, Head of Department, Royal London Hospital, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London. He returned to Australia in early 2005.. Professor Booy has conducted extensive research into serious infections and their prevention with over 150 scientific publications to his credit.. He is on the Scientific Influenza Advisory Group (SIAG) for the Office of Health Protection, Department of Health and Ageing (DoHA) and the Chief Medical Officers Vaccine Advisory Group (VAG) for the Office of Health Protection, DoHA. He is also a member of the Paediatric Scientific Program ...
After Hib vaccine was introduced in October 1992 the number of cases of invasive Hib disease among adults in England and Wales fell markedly. This phenomenon was attributed to interruption of transmission of the organism from immunised children, or herd immunity.10 A resurgence in adult cases of invasive Hib disease occurred in 2002 and 2003, mirroring trends in paediatric infections over the same period and following a decline in the concentration of serum antibody to Hib in English adults aged 30-39 years. The fall in serum antibody concentrations may have resulted from reduced transmission of the organism, providing fewer opportunities for natural boosting of immunity.. The data presented here show how difficult it is to ensure consistency of case ascertainment over long periods of time and how important it is to account for this in the analysis. Improved reporting and typing led to an apparent increase in the incidence of invasive ncHi disease,6 11 but more constant numbers in recent years ...
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines represent a new technology wherein an immunogen is targeted to a specific immune response mechanism. Covalent attachment of the Hib polysaccharid
Antibody Responses, Children, Complement, Conjugate Vaccines, Diphtheria, Haemophilus, Haemophilus Influenzae, Haemophilus Influenzae Type B, Human, Immunization, Infant, Infants, Pertussis, Schedules, Serum, Tetanus, Vaccines
On the 26th, we will have an appointment with my babys pediatrician. He will have his first shot of Haemophilus Influenzae Type b HiB Vaccine which will cost us P 1,500.00 per shot or roughly 37 USD. I am still hopefully waiting for a big break... I mean, financial breakthrough. My income in article writing really helps me. As of now, I am still waiting for more opportunities. I am also accepting ghost writing from my co-bloggers because they can pay me immediately. I also enjoyed writing and it somehow help me in developing my writing skills (hitting two birds in one shot- earning and learning). I am beginning to love the life that I have right now. I try not to focus on the difficulties, rather, I try to be more positive in every challenges that we encounter everyday. It is not that easy, but by Gods strength, which I always ask for everyday, I become stronger. My hubby was also very supportive though we have misunderstanding sometimes but at the end of the day, we have still each other, ...
The nurse depicted in this 2006 photograph, was in the process of administering an intramuscular vaccination in the left shoulder muscle of a young girl. The nurse was pinching the overlying shoulder skin, in order to immobilize the injection site.. Immunization is one of the most important things a parent can do to protect their childrens health. Today, we can protect children younger than two years old from 14 serious diseases including:. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (bacterial meningitis);Diphtheria; Hepatitis A; Hepatitis B; Influenza; Measles; Mumps; Pertussis (whooping cough); Pneumococcal disease; Polio; Rubella (German measles); Tetanus (lockjaw); Rotavirus; Varicella (chickenpox);. At least one vaccine is needed for each of these diseases, and for some diseases several doses are required for the best protection. Several combination vaccines exist in which multiple vaccines are given in a single shot, reducing the number of shots needed.. ...
Vaccine article selection – curated by Elena Kostova, PhD View article list Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is one of the leading....
Global vaccine market is probable to reach US$ 60 Billion by the end of year 2022 says the recent report published by Renub Research entitled Global Vaccines Market & Forecast by 14 vaccines (Influenza, Cervical Cancer, Zoster, MMRV, Pneumococcal, Meningococcal, Hepatitis, Dtap, Travel and Miscellaneous, Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (Hib), Combos, Polio, Rotavirus, Varicella), number of immunized person, number of vaccines doses administered and company sales - forecast to 2022.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. Click here for summary of the report with TOC: http://www.renub.com/global-vaccines-market-and-forecast-14-vaccines-market-number-of-people-immunized-doses-of-vaccines-administered-1200-p.php. Vaccines Prevent Diseases. With so many diseases in the world, there needs to be something to protect people from getting sick and even dying. So, we have vaccines to protect ourselves from getting sick. In simple words, Vaccines immunize and protect people from several serious ...
Global vaccine market is probable to reach US$ 60 Billion by the end of year 2022 says the recent report published by Renub Research entitled Global Vaccines Market & Forecast by 14 vaccines (Influenza, Cervical Cancer, Zoster, MMRV, Pneumococcal, Meningococcal, Hepatitis, Dtap, Travel and Miscellaneous, Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (Hib), Combos, Polio, Rotavirus, Varicella), number of immunized person, number of vaccines doses administered and company sales - forecast to 2022.. Get Free 10% Customization in this Report. Click here for summary of the report with TOC: http://www.renub.com/global-vaccines-market-and-forecast-14-vaccines-market-number-of-people-immunized-doses-of-vaccines-administered-1200-p.php. Vaccines Prevent Diseases. With so many diseases in the world, there needs to be something to protect people from getting sick and even dying. So, we have vaccines to protect ourselves from getting sick. In simple words, Vaccines immunize and protect people from several serious ...
Birth cohort and clinical examinations. The Faroe Islands constitute a Nordic fishing community located in the North Atlantic between Shetland and Iceland. A birth cohort was formed from consecutive births during 1999-2001. Informed consent was obtained from a total of 656 mothers in connection with consecutive spontaneous singleton births at term.. In the Faroes, the government offers free medical care, and childhood vaccinations are carried out according to a schedule similar to the one used in Denmark. The first childhood vaccination, at age 3 months, includes immunization against diphtheria and tetanus, along with pertussis, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. Repeat inoculations are given at ages 5 and 12 months, and a booster vaccination against diphtheria and tetanus is given at age 5 years.. To examine possible changes in antibody responses to vaccinations, the birth cohort was prospectively followed until age 7 years. A subgroup of these cohort members first came for a follow-up ...
BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are at risk for undervaccination and poor vaccine response at four years of age. Childhood vaccine coverage and immune response were compared between PHIV and HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS: PHIV and HEU children were enrolled prospectively at fifteen sites from 2002-2009. Full vaccination by age four years was defined as: three hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine doses; four tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine doses; three doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine by age 12 months or ≥1 dose given after age 12 months; one measles-containing vaccine dose; one rubella-containing vaccine dose ...
Still another major finding of GBD 2013 was the enormous impact of both new vaccines and expanded use of old vaccines in reducing the mortality of major childhood scourges such as diphtheria, tetanus, measles, rotavirus and pneumonoccal infections, and meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type B. We have some promising new drugs for parasitic diseases in advanced development, but vaccines have previously lagged. However, the RTS,S malaria vaccine is completing advanced clinical trials and is moving towards licensure, while new vaccines for leishmaniasis, hookworm infection, and schistosomiasis are in phase 1 clinical trials and beyond. Such vaccines could go a long way towards reducing the one million deaths that are now attributed to parasitic diseases. In addition, we could also see a reduction in the additional 1.1 million deaths from malnutrition, anemia, and renal failure, conditions that can be caused by underlying parasitic infections.. Peter J Hotez MD PhD is Co-Editor-in-Chief of ...
Utah Daycare Vaccine Mandates: IMMUNIZATION REQUIREMENTS FOR CHILDREN IN EARLY CHILDHOOD PROGRAMS (Includes children in a licensed day care center, nursery or preschool, child care facility, family home care, or Head Start Program) Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis Polio Measles Mumps Rubella Hepatitis B and Hepatitis A Varicella (Chickenpox) Pneumococcal Haemophilus Influenzae type b *New requirements…
Haemophilus influenzae). Similar sequences, called DNA uptake sequences (DUS), are found in species of the family Neisseriaceae ... Specific recognition of DUSs is mediated by a type IV pilin. Davidsen et al. reported that in N. meningitidis DUSs occur at a ... "Specific DNA recognition mediated by a type IV pilin". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110 (8): 3065-70. Bibcode:2013PNAS.. ...
Haemophilus influenzae type b; respiratory syncytial virus and influenza vaccines. She has worked extensively with American ...
Hamborsky, j (2015). "Haemophilus influenzae type b". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Epidemiology and Prevention ... Historically it was most often caused by Haemophilus influenzae type B, but with the availability of immunization this is no ... Epiglottitis was historically mostly caused by infection by H. influenzae type b. With vaccination it is now more often caused ... Before Hemophilus influenzae (Hib) immunization children of two to four were most commonly affected. With immunization about ...
This approach is used in the Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine. Heterologous vaccines also known as "Jennerian vaccines", ... Haemophilus influenzae type b). Likewise, a recombinant protein derived from the viruses or bacteria can be generated in yeast ... "Different Types of Vaccines , History of Vaccines". www.historyofvaccines.org. Retrieved 2019-05-03. "Types of Vaccines". ... There are several types of vaccines in use. These represent different strategies used to try to reduce the risk of illness ...
The Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine, often called Hib vaccine, is a vaccine used to prevent Haemophilus influenzae type b ... However, non-type B disease is rare in comparison to pre-vaccine rates of Haemophilus influenzae type B disease. Prior to ... Lay summary (PDF). "Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccines for Prevention of Haemophilus influenzae Type b Disease Among Infants and ... Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)". Immunisation against infectious disease. Public Health England. "Haemophilus B Conjugate ...
18.1%), and Haemophilus influenzae (4.9%). Viral pneumonia: influenza and respiratory syncytial virus and, in the ... usually of the MRSA type. Others are Haemophilus spp. (5%). In the ICU results were S. aureus (17.4%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( ... Haemophilus influenzae, and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus should also be considered. Pneumonia that starts in the hospital ... and less Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. In European and Asian studies, the etiology of HCAP was similar ...
Salam, RA; Das, JK; Dojo Soeandy, C; Lassi, ZS; Bhutta, ZA (9 June 2015). "Impact of Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) and ... "Vaccine Information Statement - Haemophilus Influenzae Type b". Retrieved 25 April 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link ... A review into haemophilus influenza type B (Hib) and viral influenza found one good piece of research that showed the flu ...
"Acute epiglottitis in the era of post-Haemophilus influenzae type B (HIB) vaccine". J Anesth. 27 (2): 316-7. doi:10.1007/s00540 ... Epiglottitis is mainly caused by Haemophilus influenzae. A person with epiglottitis may have a fever, sore throat, difficulty ... The incidence of epiglottitis has decreased significantly in countries where vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae is ... which is most commonly due to the vaccine-preventable bacteria Haemophilus influenzae. Dysfunction may cause the inhalation of ...
Haemophilus influenzae and Chlamydia trachomatis are coccobacilli. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a gram negative ... A coccobacillus (plural coccobacilli) is a type of rod-shaped bacteria. The word coccobacillus reflects an intermediate shape ... Important human diseases caused by coccoid bacteria include staphylococcal infections, some types of food poisoning, some ...
Morris SK, Moss WJ, Halsey NA (Jul 2008). "Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine use and effectiveness". Lancet ... Haemophilus influenzae type B, tetanus, Lyme disease, rotavirus, Argentina Hemorrhagic Fever, human papillomavirus (HPV) and ... "Differences in the immune response to hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines in Guatemalan infants by ethnic ... "Differences in the immune response to hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines in Guatemalan infants by ethnic ...
Haemophilus influenzae, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Chlamydia trachomatis are coccobacilli. Aggregatibacter ... A coccobacillus (plural coccobacilli), or bacilluscocco, is a type of bacterium with a shape intermediate between cocci ( ... Haemophilus ducreyi, another medically important Gram-negative coccobacillus, is observed in sexually transmitted disease, ...
Visser A, Hoosen A (September 2012). "Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines - a South African perspective". Vaccine ... including antibiotic-resistant types, only to be entirely offset by increased carriage of non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs). This ...
2010). "Global use of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine". Vaccine. 28 (43): 7117-22. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine. ... The example of the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine". Vaccine. 29 (13): 2371-80. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.11.090. PMID ...
Englund, JA; Glezen, WP; Thompson, C; Anwaruddin, R; Turner, CS; Siber, GR (Dec 1997). "Haemophilus influenzae type b-specific ... "Safety and antibody persistence following Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines given ... the Haemophilus influenzae conjugate vaccine in Quinvaxim licensed to Berna, Acellimune, an Acellular pertussis combination ...
Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, especially if not received in childhood. For adults who have not been previously ... In particular, patients are at risk from Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and meningococcus. The risk is ... becoming infected with encapsulated bacteria such as Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria ... There are two distinct types of genetic disorders: heterotaxy syndrome and isolated congenital asplenia. polysplenia Acquired ...
Alexander, HE; Leidy, G (1946), "Influence of Streptomycin on Type b Haemophilus influenzae.", Science (published Aug 2, 1946 ... She is known for her development of the first effective remedies for Haemophilus influenzae infection, as well as being one of ... In the early 1940s, Alexander began researching Haemophilus influenzae (Hib), at the time an almost invariably fatal disease in ...
In the second patient, Haemophilus influenzae was cultured from the ulcer. Both patients were treated with antibiotics, ... Lens types[edit]. Orthokeratology lenses are made by a number of companies and all use special gas-permeable contact lenses to ... In 1994, the FDA granted the first ever daily wear approval for a lens indicated for Orthokeratology to a type of lens called ... In June 2002, the FDA granted approval for overnight wear of a type of corneal reshaping called "Corneal Refractive Therapy" ( ...
"Decline of bone and joint infections attributable to haemophilus influenzae type b". Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (341): 128-33. ... "Reduced incidence of septic arthritis in children by Haemophilus influenzae type-b vaccination. Implications for treatment". J ... a common cause in infants Haemophilus influenzae Neisseria gonorrhoeae - the most common cause of septic arthritis in young, ...
Sentinel systems collect data on Haemophilus influenzae type b, meningococcus and pneumococcus. Because sentinel surveillance ... "Types of surveillance". conflict.lshtm.ac.uk. Retrieved 2020-04-19. "Sentinel and Influenza Surveillance". health.hawaii.gov. ...
"Generic protocol for population-based surveillance of Haemophilus influenzae type B" (PDF). World Health Organization. Centers ... Reidl J, Schlör S, Kraiss A, Schmidt-Brauns J, Kemmer G, Soleva E (2000). "NADP and NAD utilization in Haemophilus influenzae ... Some pathogens, such as the yeast Candida glabrata and the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae are NAD+ auxotrophs - they cannot ... Reactions of this type are catalyzed by a large group of enzymes called oxidoreductases. The correct names for these enzymes ...
in Haemophilus influenzae and identified as a novel type of glycosyltransferase in 2010. The Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae N- ... Haemophilus influenzae has an additional HMW1C homologue HMW2C, which together with the adhesin HMW2 forms a similar substrate- ... In Haemophilus influenzae (a respiratory tract pathogen), the N-glycosyltransferase HMW1C attaches galactose and glucose taken ... The Haemophilus influenzae N-glycosyltransferase has domains with homologies to glutathione S-transferase and glycogen synthase ...
"Invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b diseases in Bangladesh, with increased resistance to antibiotics". The Journal of ... "Impact of introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine into childhood immunization on meningitis in ... The surveillance data is generated on invasive childhood diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, ...
... and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine impact on pneumonia in the Gambia; creation of funded population based ...
This was the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate, which protects against meningitis. The vaccine was soon ... Vaccine T cell B cell Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) Hib vaccine Immunogenicity Meningococcal vaccine Pneumococcal vaccine ... A conjugate vaccine is a type of vaccine which combines a weak antigen with a strong antigen as a carrier so that the immune ... when the immune response to the Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3 polysaccharide antigen was increased by combining the ...
This approach is used in the Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine.[42] ... Haemophilus influenzae type b). Likewise, a recombinant protein derived from the viruses or bacteria can be generated in yeast ... "Types of Vaccines". coastalcarolinaresearch.com. Retrieved 2019-05-03.. *^ He, Hongxuan (2013-11-20). "Vaccines and Antiviral ... There are several types of vaccines in use.[32] These represent different strategies used to try to reduce the risk of illness ...
This approach is used in the Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine.[48] ... Haemophilus influenzae type b). Likewise, a recombinant protein derived from the viruses or bacteria can be generated in yeast ... "Types of Vaccines". coastalcarolinaresearch.com. Retrieved 2019-05-03.. *^ Philadelphia, The Children's Hospital of (2014-08-18 ... There are several types of vaccines in use.[37] These represent different strategies used to try to reduce the risk of illness ...
"Introduction of Haemophilus Influenzae type b (Hib) as Pentavalent (DPT-HepB-Hib) Vaccine in Two States of India". Indian ... "NTAGI subcommittee recommendations on Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) vaccine introduction in India" (PDF). Indian ... and on the introduction of Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) vaccine as well as scale up of Hepatitis B vaccine across the ...
McKinney WP, Agner RC (December 1989). "Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b in an ... It can also be associated with Haemophilus influenzae. Viruses may also be implicated in adrenal problems: Cytomegalovirus can ... "Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome without purpura due to Haemophilus influenzae group B". Postgrad Med J. 61 (711): 67-8. doi: ...
Karvonen, M.; Cepaitis, Z.; Tuomilehto, J. (1999). "Association between type 1 diabetes and Haemophilus influenzae type b ... causing an autoimmune state leading to immune-mediated type 1 diabetes, and he is quoted on many anti-vaccine websites, such as ... and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus". Pediatrics. 108 (6): e112. doi:10.1542/peds.108.6.e112. PMID 11731639. ... "did not find an increased risk of type 1 diabetes associated with any of the routinely recommended childhood vaccines." ...
Interaction with Haemophilus influenzae[edit]. Historically, Haemophilus influenzae has been a significant cause of infection, ... Type strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase ... influenzae survives; further analysis showed that neutrophils exposed to dead H. influenzae were more aggressive in attacking S ... A study of competition in vitro revealed S. pneumoniae overpowered H. influenzae by attacking it with hydrogen peroxide.[27] ...
Ang pagbabakuna sa mga sanggol laban sa Haemophilus influenzae type B ay nagsimula noong 1988 at humantong sa kapansin-pansing ... 1993). "Decline of childhood Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) disease in the Hib vaccine era". JAMA. 269 (2): 221-6. doi: ... Ang mga pagbabakuna laban sa Haemophilus influenzae at Streptococcus pneumoniae ay mayroong magandang ebidensiya para ... Ang mga organismo na pinaka-karaniwang sangkot ay ang Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae at Klebsiella pneumoniae ...
Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Escherichia coli O157:H7. He also wrote on the history of science and ... His research focused on improved bacteria typing, or "fingerprinting", methods, and led to new methods for the investigation of ...
Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis). These atypical organisms include special bacteria, viruses, fungi, and ... Meanwhile, many such organisms are identified as bacteria, albeit unusual types (Mycoplasma is a type of bacteria without a ... Atypical pneumonia, also known as walking pneumonia, is the type of pneumonia not caused by one of the pathogens most commonly ...
A review of an oral Haemophilus influenzae vaccine found 1.6 exacerbations per year as opposed to a baseline of 2.1 in those ... Inhaled bronchodilators are the primary medications used,[2] and result in a small overall benefit.[121] The two major types ... "Haemophilus influenzae oral vaccination for preventing acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive ... Traditionally, two types of COPD were known as chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Most cases of COPD are a mixture of both ...
Haemophilus:. *H. influenzae *Haemophilus meningitis. *Brazilian purpuric fever. *H. ducreyi *Chancroid. *H. parainfluenzae * ... Lam, TB; Omar, MI; Fisher, E; Gillies, K; MacLennan, S (23 September 2014). "Types of indwelling urethral catheters for short- ... the type of underwear used, personal hygiene methods used after urinating or defecating, or whether a person typically bathes ...
Haemophilus influenzae/Legionella pneumophila *Buffered charcoal yeast extract agar. *Pseudomonas aeruginosa *Cetrimide agar ... The two major types of growth media are those used for cell culture, which use specific cell types derived from plants or ... Differential or indicator media distinguish one microorganism type from another growing on the same medium.[7] This type of ... Different types of media are used for growing different types of cells.[3] ...
In 1995 a team at The Institute for Genomic Research sequenced the first bacterial genome; Haemophilus influenzae.[6] A few ... The 3 main types of media used for testing are:[26] *Solid culture: A solid surface is created using a mixture of nutrients, ... e (1995) Whole-genome random sequencing and assembly of Haemophilus influenzae Rd" Science 269:496-512. ... There are four kinds of microorganisms that cause infectious disease: bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses, and one type of ...
Haemophilus influenzae cellulitis. *Pseudomonal pyoderma / Pseudomonas hot-foot syndrome / Hot tub folliculitis / Ecthyma ... Other types[edit]. The following types of abscess are listed in the medical dictionary:[33] ... Bacterial infection is the most common cause.[8] Often many different types of bacteria are involved in a single infection.[6] ... They are usually caused by a bacterial infection.[8] Often many different types of bacteria are involved in a single infection. ...
Not to be confused with Haemophilus influenzae.. Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease caused by an ... Three of the four types of influenza viruses affect humans: Type A, Type B, and Type C.[2][6] Type D has not been known to ... They included the 1957 Asian Flu (type A, H2N2 strain) and the 1968 Hong Kong Flu (type A, H3N2 strain), but even these smaller ... This type of influenza mutates at a rate 2-3 times slower than type A[52] and consequently is less genetically diverse, with ...
Haemophilus influenzae • Helicobacter Pylori • Klebsiella oxytoca • Klebsiella pneumoniae • Legionella • Listeria monocytogenes ... Mikola H, Waris M, Tenovuo J. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1, respiratory syncytial virus and echovirus type 11 by ...
Vaccination against adenovirus, Haemophilus influenzae, pneumococcus, and Neisseria meningitidis is also effective.[27] ... "Molecular epidemiology of circulating human adenovirus types in acute conjunctivitis cases in Chandigarh, North India". Indian ... and Haemophilus influenzae.[14][16] Though very rare, hyperacute cases are usually caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Neisseria ... Common bacteria responsible for nonacute bacterial conjunctivitis are Staphylococcus, Streptococcus,[5] and Haemophilus species ...
Haemophilus influenzae (HIB), and human papillomavirus (HPV).[7] In 2019, the NIH was ranked number two in the world, behind ... There are numerous funding mechanisms for different project types (e.g., basic research, clinical research, etc.) and career ...
Haemophilus influenzae cellulitis. *Pseudomonal pyoderma / Pseudomonas hot-foot syndrome / Hot tub folliculitis / Ecthyma ... Arthur Eichengrün invented this type of colloidal silver, which was marketed by Bayer from 1897 onward. The silver-based ... gonorrhoeae in all specimen types except urine.[30][31] ... Haemophilus:. *H. influenzae *Haemophilus meningitis. * ...
B96.3) Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) as the cause of diseases classified to other chapters ... B21.2) HIV disease resulting in other types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ...
Haemophilus:. *H. influenzae *Haemophilus meningitis. *Brazilian purpuric fever. *H. ducreyi *Chancroid. *H. parainfluenzae * ... Cholera is caused by a number of types of Vibrio cholerae, with some types producing more severe disease than others.[2] It is ... susceptibility to cholera is also affected by their blood type, with those with type O blood being the most susceptible.[14] ... This type of toilet stops transmission of disease via the fecal-oral route due to water pollution. ...
Haemophilus:. *H. influenzae *Haemophilus meningitis. *Brazilian purpuric fever. *H. ducreyi *Chancroid. *H. parainfluenzae * ... Shigellosis is caused by one of several types of Shigella bacteria.[3] Three species are associated with bacillary dysentery: ... Bacillary dysentery is a type of dysentery, and is a severe form of shigellosis. ...
... the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae. The circular chromosome contains 1,830,137 bases and its publication in the journal ... Each type of the nucleotide blocks the ion flow through the pore for a different period of time. The method does not require ... "Whole-genome random sequencing and assembly of Haemophilus influenzae Rd". Science. 269 (5223): 496-512. Bibcode:1995Sci...269 ... The benefit of this sequencing type is its ability to capture a large number of targets with a homogenous coverage.[108] A ...
... non-typable Haemophilus influenzae, or Moraxella catarrhalis.[22][23] Diagnosis[edit]. Individuals with obstructive pulmonary ... Bronchitis is divided into two types: acute and chronic.[1] Acute bronchitis is also known as a chest cold.[1] ...
Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis.[7] Causes of bacterial infection of the trachea are ... "Types of Tracheostomy Tubes".. *^ "Medical Definition of CRICOTHYROTOMY". www.merriam-webster.com. Merriam Webster. Retrieved ... usually when needed for particular types of surgery to be carried out so that the airway can be kept open. The provision of the ...
Haemophilus influenzae type b. Type. Conjugate vaccine. Identifiers. ATC code. J07AG01 (WHO) ... Haemophelus influenzae type B) (HIB) അണുബാധ തടയുന്നതിനുള്ള പ്രതിരോധ മരുന്നാണു Haemophelus influenzae type B വാക്സിൻ. ഈ വാക്സിനെ ...
Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae Antigen mixtures. Cutibacterium acnes LcrV. Yersinia Lipomannan. Mycobacterium: ... A peculiarity first recognized in 2006 is the expression of TLR2 on Tregs (a type of T cell), which experience both TCR- ...
1995). "Whole-genome random sequencing and assembly of haemophilus influenzae Rd". Science. 269 (5223): 496-512. Bibcode: ... In actuality, sequencing projects are subject to various types of bias, including differences of how well regions can be cloned ... "Statistical aspects of discerning indel-type structural variation via DNA sequence alignment". BMC Genomics. 10: article 359. ...
Haemophilus influenzae/Legionella pneumophila *Buffered charcoal yeast extract agar. *Pseudomonas aeruginosa *Cetrimide agar ... This type is also commonly used for susceptibility testing of Campylobacter.. It has a few properties that make it excellent ...
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, Hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine, inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), and pneumococcal ... According to the economic modernization perspective, this is one type economic growth viewed as the driving force behind the ... "What types of unintentional injuries kill our children? Do infants die of the same types of injuries? A systematic review" ... These types of techniques can develop quality ethnographic data that will ultimately lead to a better portrayal of the ...
... a homologous transporter from Haemophilus influenzae. In BtuCD, the packing of the helices is complex. The noticeable pattern ... This type of secretion is referred to as type I secretion, which involves three components that function in concert: an ABC ... different types of drugs can be used or the ABC transporters themselves must be inhibited. For other types of drugs to work ... type I ABC importer, type II ABC importer and ABC exporter folds. The classification of importer folds is based on detailed ...
Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib). Epiglottitis, meningitis, pneumonia. Hib vaccine. Hiberix, Pentacel, ActHIB, Pedvax HIB, ... oral adenovirus type 4 and type 7 vaccine, in U.S. Military recruits". Vaccine. 31 (28): 2963-2971. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine. ... "Regression of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated lymphomas in a rat model: Peptide-induced T-cell immunity ...
en:Haemophilus influenzae (27). *en:HBsAg (13). *en:Headache (102) → 두통 *en:Health care quality (2) ... en:Type 3 diabetes (2). *en:Ulcer (10). *en:Ultraviolet index (24) ...
Haemophilus:. *H. influenzae *Haemophilus meningitis. *Brazilian purpuric fever. *H. ducreyi *Chancroid. *H. parainfluenzae * ... The effectiveness of UV devices is reduced when water is muddy or turbid; as UV is a type of light, any suspended particles ...
... such as Streptococcus species and Haemophilus influenzae, can be tested but require specialized growth media and incubation ... This resistance might be because a type of bacteria has intrinsic resistance to some antibiotics,[2] because of resistance ... provide standards for the type and depth of agar, temperature of incubation, and method of analysing results.[10] Disc ... This type of test is considered a diffusion test.[17] ...
Hib is short for Haemophilus influenzae type b, a type of bacteria. Despite its name, Hib doesnt cause influenza, but it can ... La enfermedad por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib). If youre the parent of a child or teen, chances are your child received ... Other symptoms will depend on the type of illness that results from the Hib disease:. *Meningitis symptoms include a headache, ...
Haemophilus influenzae bacteria, including Hib, can cause many kinds of infections. These can range from mild ear infections to ... Haemophilus influenzae, a type of bacteria, can cause many different kinds of infections. These infections range from mild, ear ... H. influenzae can also be a common cause of ear infections in children and bronchitis in adults. Learn more about these ... H. influenzae most often cause pneumonia, but can also cause severe illnesses like meningitis and bloodstream infections. ...
Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (Hib) Vaccine Information Statement ... Haemophilus influenzae type b can cause many different kinds of ... Hib vaccine can prevent Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease.. ... Hib vaccine may be given as a stand-alone vaccine, or as part of a combination vaccine (a type of vaccine that combines more ... Haemophilus Influenzae Type b (Hib) VIS. ... Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) Vaccine: What You Need to ...
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is one of the leading causes of invasive bacterial infection in young children worldwide. ... Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines.. Kelly DF1, Moxon ER, Pollard AJ. ...
La enfermedad por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib). What Is Hib Disease?. Hib is short for Haemophilus influenzae type b, a ... Symptoms of Hib infection depend on the type of illness it caused. These include:. *Meningitis: This is an infection of the ... type of bacteria. It can cause serious illnesses, some of which can be life-threatening. ...
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) Vaccine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Comvax® (containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B). *MenHibrix® (containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, ... Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease is a serious disease caused by bacteria. It usually affects children under 5 years ... Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) Vaccine Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services/Centers for ...
Article about Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine. Includes illustrations and topical information provided by ADAM and ... Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine. The Hib vaccine prevents Hib disease. This illness can be severe and life- ... Learn more about Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine. Associated drugs. *Vaccination and Prophylaxis ... Is caused by the bacterium called Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib for short) ...
If youre like many parents, you may have been unfamiliar with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infections until your ...
... the first conjugate vaccine was licensed by the FDA for the prevention of infections due to Haemophilus influenzae type b. This ... H influenzae type b is a major cause of serious infections in infants and children, about 30% of which occur in children 18 ... is a conjugate of H influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide and diphtheria toxoid and is officially designated as Haemophilus ... months of age and older.1,2 American licensure of the "first-generation" vaccines, the Haemophilus b polysaccharide vaccines or ...
Haemophilus influenzae type b resistant to chloramphenicol and ampicillin. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1983; 286 :722 ... Haemophilus influenzae type b resistant to chloramphenicol and ampicillin.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1983; 286 doi: https://doi. ...
Haemophilus influenzae type b, and hepatitis B combined vaccine (DTaP-IPV-Hib-hep B, called the 6-in-1)),Pentacel (tetanus, ... and Haemophilus influenzae type b combined vaccine (DTaP-IPV-Hib, called the 5-in-1)) ... Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine),Infanrix Hexa (tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, polio, ... Haemophilus Influenzae Type B (Hib) Vaccine. British Columbia Specific Information Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) is a ...
Haemophilus influenzae type b definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and ... Haemophilus aegyptius, Haemophilus ducreyi, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus influenzae type b, Haemophilus influenzae type ... A gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium of the genus Haemophilus that is found in the human respiratory tract and causes acute ... Haemophilus influenzae type b. haemophilic, Haemophilus, ... Haemophilus influenzae type b is the most common pathogenic ...
Adhesin genes and serum resistance in Haemophilus influenzae type f isolates.. Watson ME Jr1, Nelson KL, Nguyen V, Burnham CA, ... The incidence of invasive infections due to Haemophilus influenzae has decreased significantly in developed countries with high ... Publication types, MeSH terms, Substances, Grant support. Publication types. *Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural ... rates of vaccination against H. influenzae serotype b (Hib). This vaccine provides no protection against H. influenzae serotype ...
The Report Haemophilus influenzae Type B Infections Global Clinical Trials Review, H1, 2016 provides information on pricing, ... infectionstype btype b infectionshaemophilus influenzaehaemophilus influenzae type b infectionshaemophilus influenzae type b ... Haemophilus influenzae disease is caused by six different types of the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae spreads through direct ... Growing Prevalence of Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Infections to Drive Number of Clinical Trials. Press Release • Feb 14, 2017 ...
Haemophilus influenzae type b synonyms, Haemophilus influenzae type b pronunciation, Haemophilus influenzae type b translation ... English dictionary definition of Haemophilus influenzae type b. n. Abbr. Hib A rod-shaped, gram-negative bacterium found in the ... Related to Haemophilus influenzae type b: Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine. Hae·moph·i·lus in·flu·en·zae type b. (hē-mŏf′ə ... Pipeline Products for Haemophilus influenzae Type B Infections - Overview 9. Haemophilus influenzae Type B Infections - ...
Meningitis Caused by Haemophilus Influenzae Type B (HiB). Haemophilus influenzae type b. Vaccination Schedule for Haemophilus ... Haemophilus B-Hepatitis B Vaccine. Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) is a bacteria that can cause serious illness, including ... Haemophilus B Hepatitis B Vaccine. Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) is a bacteria that can... liver cancer, cirrhosis, or ... Diphth/Haemophilus/Pertussis/Tetanus/Polio. Diphtheria, haemophilus influenzae type B, pertussis, polio, and tetanus are ...
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). 20 February 2012. Key facts. *Haemophilus influenzae type b, or Hib, is a bacterium ... Contrary to what the name Haemophilus influenzae suggests, the bacterium does not cause influenza. ...
Haemophilus influenzae type b definition: noun Abbr. Hib A rod-shaped, gram-negative bacterium found in the human respiratory ... Origin of Haemophilus influenzae type b. New Latin Haemophilus īnfluenzae species name Greek haima blood Greek -philos -philous ... Haemophilus influenzae type b. Hae·moph·i·lus in·flu·en·zae type b. noun ... Haemophilus influenzae type b. (n.d.). Retrieved September 21st, 2018, from http://www.yourdictionary.com/haemophilus- ...
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines represent a new technology wherein an immunogen is targeted to a ... Haemophilus influenzae type b carriage and immunity four years after receiving the Haemophilus influenzae oligosaccharide-CRM ... Further studies on the immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal type 6B polysaccharide-protein ... Efficacy of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine PRP-T. Lancet 1994; 344: 362-6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Association between type 1 diabetes and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination: birth cohort study BMJ 1999; 318 :1169 ... Association between type 1 diabetes and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination: birth cohort study. BMJ 1999; 318 doi: https ... Objectives: To determine the effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination and its timing on the risk of type 1 diabetes ... Relative risk of type 1 diabetes in Finnish children up to 10 years after Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination ...
We compared the immunogenicity of the four available Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines in Alaska Native ... Haemophilus influenzae type b-polysaccharide vaccine-diphtheria toxoid conjugate * Haemophilus influenzae-type b polysaccharide ... Comparative immunogenicity of four Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines in Alaska Native infants Pediatr Infect Dis ... We compared the immunogenicity of the four available Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines in Alaska Native ...
Haemophilus influenzae type b immunization : introducing Haemophilus influenzae type B (‎Hib)‎ conjugate vaccine into national ... Inmunización contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b : introducción de la vacuna conjugada contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo B ... Haemophilus influenzae type b diseases in children: a pre-vaccination study  Bakir, M.; El Khadir, A.; Devadas, K.; Farrukh, A ... Haemophilus influenzae type b (‎Hib)‎ meningitis in the pre-vaccine era : a global review of incidence, age distributions, and ...
This is a type of rod-shaped bacterium that can cause serious diseases. It is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in ... Cause - The Haemophilus influenzae type B bacterium has several different strains, each with a different capsule around the ... Nasty Infectious Diseases You Want To Avoid - Haemophilus influenzae type b. Updated on December 31, 2008 ... most of them are infected with Haemophilus influenzae type b (usually shortened to H. flu or "Hib"). Its serious because ...
Outer-membrane proteins from isolates of Haemophilus influenzae type b were examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide ... Subtyping isolates of Haemophilus influenzae type b by outer-membrane protein profiles J Infect Dis. 1981 May;143(5):668-76. ... Outer-membrane proteins from isolates of Haemophilus influenzae type b were examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide ... Thus, comparison of the major outer-membrane proteins of H. influenzae type b is a useful technique for investigating the ...
Learn more about Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Vaccine at Portsmouth Regional Hospital What Is Hib Disease?What Is the Hib ... Haemophilus influenzae type B, or Hib, is a bacteria that can cause infections. It usually occurs in children under 5 years old ... Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) VIS. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/ ...
Haemophilus influenzae type b (or Hib) is a vaccine-preventable disease that can cause ear infections, pneumonia, and bacterial ... There are multiple types of Haemophilus influenzae, but type b (commonly referred to as Hib), has historically been the most ... Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-not to be confused with seasonal influenza-is a vaccine-preventable disease that is ... Haemophilus influenzae type b. In: Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. Hamborsky J, Kroger A, Wolfe S ...
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  • Hib vaccine can prevent Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease . (cdc.gov)
  • Hib vaccine may be given as a stand-alone vaccine, or as part of a combination vaccine (a type of vaccine that combines more than one vaccine together into one shot). (cdc.gov)
  • Combination vaccines are made when two or more types of vaccine are combined together into a single shot, so that one vaccination can protect against more than one disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you're like many parents, you may have been unfamiliar with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infections until your pediatrician recommended a vaccine to protect your child against them. (healthychildren.org)
  • On Dec 22, 1987, the first conjugate vaccine was licensed by the FDA for the prevention of infections due to Haemophilus influenzae type b. (aappublications.org)
  • This vaccine is a conjugate of H influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide and diphtheria toxoid and is officially designated as Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine (diphtheria toxoid-conjugate). (aappublications.org)
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine is given to protect people from becoming infected with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) bacteria. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • This vaccine provides no protection against H. influenzae serotype f (Hif), typically associated with invasive infections in adults with chronic disease and/or immunodeficiency, and rarely in otherwise healthy adults and children. (nih.gov)
  • Effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type B conjugate vaccine on prevention of pneumonia and meningitis in Bangladeshi children: a case-control study. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • H. influenzae type b has been nearly abolished in the U.S. due to effective vaccine development, which has been available since 1988. (rochester.edu)
  • Five million children each year to receive their first shot of pentavalent vaccine against bacterium Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). (emaxhealth.com)
  • This month, Pakistan is introducing a new combination vaccine that will protect its children against the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and four other common childhood diseases. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Hi does anyone know where i can get Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in pakistan. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in Alaska: background epidemiology for a vaccine efficacy trial. (springer.com)
  • Prevention of Haemophilus influenzae type b bacteremic infections with the capsular polysaccharide vaccine. (springer.com)
  • Polysaccharide vaccine for prevention of Haemophilus influenzae type b disease. (springer.com)
  • Protective efficacy of Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide vaccine. (springer.com)
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-not to be confused with seasonal influenza -is a vaccine-preventable disease that is particularly dangerous for young children. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Before the development of an effective vaccine, Hib caused the overwhelming majority-roughly 95% -of serious Haemophilus influenzae infections. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine is combined with other vaccines so that you or your child can get protection against several diseases with fewer shots. (immunizebc.ca)
  • The Hib vaccine protects against infection from the bacteria Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). (immunizebc.ca)
  • This vaccine does not protect against infections caused by other types of Haemophilus influenzae nor against meningitis due to other micro-organisms. (news-medical.net)
  • This article discusses the epidemiology of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease and its prevention by vaccination for the period 1995 to 2005, comparing surveillance data for 1995-2000, when both PRP-OMP and HbOC vaccines were used, with 2000-2005, when only PRP-OMP vaccine was used. (health.gov.au)
  • Serotype b (Hib) was responsible for 95% of Haemophilus influenzae disease prior to vaccine introduction. (vaccinesafety.edu)
  • Here we review the microbiology, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations of H. influenzae infection in the Hib conjugate vaccine era with particular attention to the evolving effects of vaccines and antimicrobial agents. (asm.org)
  • HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B CONJUGATE VACCINE (hem OFF fil us in floo En zuh type B KAN ji get VAK seen) is used to prevent infections of a Haemophilus bacteria. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b strain 20752 capsular polysaccharide tetanus toxoid conjugate antigen is an active immunization as a booster dose given intramuscularly to pediatric patients who have received a primary series with a Haemophilus b Conjugate Vaccine that is licensed for primarly immunization. (drugbank.ca)
  • The vaccine contains Haemophilus b capsular polysaccharide (polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate [PRP]), which is a high molecular weight polymer prepared from the Haemophilus influenzae type b strain 20,752. (drugbank.ca)
  • HEXYON is a hexavalent vaccine which has Marketing Authorisation for the primary and booster vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b infections and hepatitis B, in infants from 6 weeks to 24 months of age. (has-sante.fr)
  • Impact of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in South Africa and Argentina. (ajtmh.org)
  • Impact of routine vaccination with a conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine. (ajtmh.org)
  • Antibody Persistence for up to 5 Years After a Fourth Dose of Haemophilus influenzae Type b and Neisseria Meningitidis Serogroups C and Y-Tetanus Toxoid Conjugate Vaccine (HibMenCY-TT). (lww.com)
  • type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine (PRP-T) and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) were introduced in Japan in December 2008 and February 2010, respectively. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The Ab response of a healthy adult to the first dose of a Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) conjugate vaccine was studied at the level of Ig gene usage by circulating Ab-secreting cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • 5 years of age were identified through a regional hospital surveillance system for 3 years after introduction of routine immunization with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine in Senegal in July 2005. (ajtmh.org)
  • Haemophilus influenzae Type b Polysaccharide Vaccine: An Effic" by Lee H. Harrison, Claire V. Broome et al. (unl.edu)
  • The Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide vaccine was licensed for use in the United States in April 1985. (unl.edu)
  • To obtain additional information about the efficacy of the vaccine, we studied cases of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease ascertained through active surveillance in areas with a total population of 34 million. (unl.edu)
  • The Public Health Agency of Canada provides information on haemophilus influenzae and the vaccine used to prevent haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). (immunize.ca)
  • and any variation in effect according to type of vaccine, mode of administration (separately or in combination with other vaccines), number of doses, and age at first dose. (jefferson.edu)
  • The cross-reactive material (CRM197) of diphtheria toxin is considered to be advantageous as a carrier molecule in the formulation of a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine. (springer.com)
  • Osaka, Japan, January 22, 2016 - Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited (TSE: 4502) today announced that the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has approved the New Drug Application ('NDA') for a conjugate vaccine to prevent infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in children aged from 2 months to under 5 years of age. (fiercevaccines.com)
  • We examined i.n. vaccination in a mouse immune-response model with a commonly used Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine (Hibv) composed of the polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) capsule antigen conjugated to tetanus toxoid. (asm.org)
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a major cause of invasive bacterial infection in children that can be prevented by a vaccine, but there is still uncertainty about its relative importance in Asia. (ox.ac.uk)
  • There are limited prospective data for Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease in Asia, where some countries are considering vaccine introduction. (elsevier.com)
  • CDC's website offers information and resources on Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type b) vaccine. (immunizepa.org)
  • Children's Hospital of Philadelphia provides questions and answers about Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type b) from the Vaccine Education Center. (immunizepa.org)
  • The Haemophilus influenzae type b ("Hib") vaccine is formulated to prevent diseases in infants and young children caused by the haemophilus influenzae type b bacteria. (ccandh.com)
  • Unencapsulated H. influenzae strains are unaffected by the Hib vaccine and cause ear infections (otitis media), eye infections (conjunctivitis), and sinusitis in children, and are associated with pneumonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines. (nih.gov)
  • 1,2 American licensure of the "first-generation" vaccines, the Haemophilus b polysaccharide vaccines or "plain" capsular polysaccharide vaccines (often referred to as PRP), was based on a field trial conducted in Finland. (aappublications.org)
  • Wenger, "Impact of Haemophilus influenzae type b Vaccines on the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis," Infectious Agents and Disease, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • polio and hepatitis B vaccines, or the polio and haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines, Haller says. (everydayhealth.com)
  • B vaccines, or the polio and haemophilus influenzae . (everydayhealth.com)
  • The introduction of conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines into the primary infant immunisation schedule in October 1992 has resulted in a dramatic decline in the incidence of infection with invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b in Britain. (bmj.com)
  • We report the effect on immunogenicity and reactogenicity of interchanging the two different Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines during primary immunisation. (bmj.com)
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines represent a new technology wherein an immunogen is targeted to a specific immune response mechanism. (springer.com)
  • Development and clinical uses of Haemophilus b conjugate vaccines. (springer.com)
  • Functional activities of human antibody induced by the capsular polysaccharide or polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b. (springer.com)
  • We compared the immunogenicity of the four available Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines in Alaska Native infants. (nih.gov)
  • There are two conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines used in the United States: PRP-OMP and PRP-T. Hib polysaccharide is chemically bound to a non-Hib protein carrier, creating a more effective antigen and therefore stimulating a better immune response, particularly in infants, than with the plain polysaccharide. (vaccinesafety.edu)
  • The widespread use of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines has nearly eradicated invasive Hib disease where the vaccines are used. (asm.org)
  • The introduction of vaccines for otitis media and global shifts in antimicrobial susceptibility emphasize the importance of continued surveillance of H. influenzae colonization and disease patterns. (asm.org)
  • The development and widespread use of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines have nearly eradicated invasive Hib disease in children in countries where the vaccines are used widely. (asm.org)
  • The WHO position paper on Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines. (ajtmh.org)
  • Conjugate vaccines consisting of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) 3 capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) covalently coupled to a protein carrier constitute the first members of a new generation of polysaccharide vaccines aimed at protection against a variety of bacterial infections. (jimmunol.org)
  • In Canada, there are two manufacturers that supply three combination vaccines against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), for use in infancy through early childhood. (canada.ca)
  • The GAVI-funded Hib Initiative paved the way for low-income countries to introduce Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines. (immunize.ca)
  • Conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines for sickle cell disea" by Slimane Allali, Martin Chalumeau et al. (jefferson.edu)
  • Conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines for sickle cell disease. (jefferson.edu)
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines with placebo or no treatment, or comparing different types of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines in people with sickle cell disease. (jefferson.edu)
  • DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: No trials of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines in people with sickle cell disease were found. (jefferson.edu)
  • Therefore, despite the absence of evidence from randomised controlled trials, it is expected that Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines may be useful in children affected with sickle cell disease, especially in African countries where there is a high prevalence of the disease. (jefferson.edu)
  • Insel, R. A., and Anderson, P. W., (1986), Oligosaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines induce and prime for oligoclonal IgG antibody responses to the Haemophilus influenzae b capsular polysaccharide in human infants, J. Exp. (springer.com)
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines (Hibv) are widely used in the pediatric population and require several intramuscular vaccination rounds of to achieve optimal efficacy. (asm.org)
  • H. influenzae most often cause pneumonia, but can also cause severe illnesses like meningitis and bloodstream infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Haemophilus influenzae , a type of bacteria, can cause many different kinds of infections. (cdc.gov)
  • H. influenzae can also be a common cause of ear infections in children and bronchitis in adults. (cdc.gov)
  • H influenzae type b is a major cause of serious infections in infants and children, about 30% of which occur in children 18 months of age and older. (aappublications.org)
  • A gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium of the genus Haemophilus that is found in the human respiratory tract and causes acute respiratory infections, such as pneumonia, and other diseases, especially meningitis in young children. (dictionary.com)
  • The incidence of invasive infections due to Haemophilus influenzae has decreased significantly in developed countries with high rates of vaccination against H. influenzae serotype b (Hib). (nih.gov)
  • Growing Prevalence of Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Infections to. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The report describes the current scenario of the clinical trials on Heamophilus influenza Type B infections. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The report, titled " Heamophilus Influenzae Type B Infections Global Clinical Trials Review, H1, 2016," offers an overview of the number of clinical trials and the average enrolment in them across the top countries where the trials have been conducted. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The report studies the clinical trials on Haemophilus influenzae type B infections conducted across five key regions: North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East and Africa, and Central and South America. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • In terms of phase, trial status, and end point status, the report further analyzes the proportion of the prevalence of Haemophilus influenzae type B infections to infectious disease clinical trials across the G7 and E7 countries. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The top pharmaceutical companies participating in the Haemophilus influenzae type B infections therapeutics clinical trials have been profiled in the report. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The report assists new as well as existing market players in formulating key business strategies by identifying prominent locations for conducting clinical trials on Haemophilus influenzae type B infections. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Haemophilus influenzae type B, or Hib, is a bacteria that can cause infections. (epnet.com)
  • The report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutics under development for Haemophilus influenzae Type B Infections, complete with analysis by stage of development, drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In rare cases, children may still develop H. influenzae type b infections. (rochester.edu)
  • different types of infections caused by bacteria. (everydayhealth.com)
  • treat different types of bacterial infections. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Prevention of Haemophilus influenzae type b infections in high-risk infants treated with bacterial polysaccharide immune globulin. (springer.com)
  • The latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide Haemophilus influenzae Type B Infections - Pipeline Review, H2 2017, provides an overview of the Haemophilus influenzae Type B Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline landscape. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare latest pipeline guide Haemophilus influenzae Type B Infections - Pipeline Review, H2 2017, provides comprehensive information on the therapeutics under development for Haemophilus influenzae Type B Infections (Infectious Disease), complete with analysis by stage of development, drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b infections (often just called Hib) are serious bacterial infections and can cause meningitis (inflammation of the outer covering of the brain), which can lead to brain damage, deafness, epilepsy, or partial blindness. (news-medical.net)
  • This success was accompanied by a shift in capsular serotypes of invasive H. influenzae disease, with nontypeable strains replacing type b strains as the most common bloodstream isolate, but there is no convincing evidence of a true increase in the incidence of non-serotype b invasive infections. (asm.org)
  • H. influenzae causes predominantly mucosal infections. (asm.org)
  • The epidemiology and clinical manifestations of Haemophilus influenzae infections have undergone dramatic changes in the last 2 decades. (asm.org)
  • The Haemophilus influenzae Type B Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline guide also reviews of key players involved in therapeutic development for Haemophilus influenzae Type B Infections and features dormant and discontinued projects. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Haemophilus influenzae Type B Infections (Infectious Disease) pipeline guide helps in identifying and tracking emerging players in the market and their portfolios, enhances decision making capabilities and helps to create effective counter strategies to gain competitive advantage. (reportsnreports.com)
  • The pipeline guide provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of Haemophilus influenzae Type B Infections (Infectious Disease). (reportsnreports.com)
  • The pipeline guide reviews pipeline therapeutics for Haemophilus influenzae Type B Infections (Infectious Disease) by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources. (reportsnreports.com)
  • The pipeline guide reviews key companies involved in Haemophilus influenzae Type B Infections (Infectious Disease) therapeutics and enlists all their major and minor projects. (reportsnreports.com)
  • The pipeline guide evaluates Haemophilus influenzae Type B Infections (Infectious Disease) therapeutics based on mechanism of action (MoA), drug target, route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Find and recognize significant and varied types of therapeutics under development for Haemophilus influenzae Type B Infections (Infectious Disease). (reportsnreports.com)
  • Recent trends in pediatric Haemophilus influenzae type B infections in Canada. (cmaj.ca)
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe changes in the number of cases of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infections among Canadian children before and after the introductory phases of Hib vaccination. (cmaj.ca)
  • Other serotypes of Haemophilus influenzae (not type b) are found in the nose and throat of up to 80% of healthy people and can also cause infections, though they do not commonly cause meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord). (sa.gov.au)
  • Since other types of bacteria can cause similar infections, it is important to test specifically for the presence of Hib. (vic.gov.au)
  • AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There has been a dramatic decrease in the incidence of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b infections observed in the post-vaccination era in people with sickle cell disease living in high-income countries. (jefferson.edu)
  • H. influenzae is responsible for a wide range of localized and invasive infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pathogenesis of H. influenzae infections is not completely understood, although the presence of the polyribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP) capsule in encapsulated type b (Hib), a serotype causing conditions such as epiglottitis, is known to be a major factor in virulence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doctors consider pneumonia an invasive infection when H. influenzae also infects the blood or fluid surrounding the lungs. (cdc.gov)
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is one of the leading causes of invasive bacterial infection in young children worldwide. (nih.gov)
  • Symptoms of Hib infection depend on the type of illness it caused. (kidshealth.org)
  • The most common severe types of Heamophilus influenzae disease are bacteremia (bloodstream infection), pneumonia (lung infection), and meningitis (infection of the brain and spinal cord). (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health is today (December 17) investigating a case of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infection affecting a 1-month-old baby boy, and hence urged the public to maintain good personal hygiene, especially hand hygiene. (gov.hk)
  • Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) is a bacterium that causes a life-threatening infection that can lead to serious illness, especially in children. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Haemophilus influenzae type B (HIB) is a potentially serious bacterial infection that occurs mostly in young children aged two months to two years. (drpaul.com)
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a bacterium that causes a broad spectrum of illnesses ranging from local respiratory infection to serious invasive disease, including meningitis, epiglottitis, septic arthritis and septicemia. (health.gov.au)
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is bacteria that commonly causes bacterial meningitis and pneumonia and is the leading cause of other invasive diseases, such as septic arthritis (joint infection), epiglottitis (infection and swelling of the epiglottis) and cellulites (rapidly progressing skin infection which usually involves the face, head, or neck). (who.int)
  • The bacterium Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) can cause serious infection in humans. (sa.gov.au)
  • The Centre for Health Protection (CHP) of the Department of Health is today (May 15) investigating a case of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infection, and hence urged the public to maintain good personal hygiene, especially hand hygiene. (flutrackers.com)
  • There are several types of Haemophilus influenzae bacteria and infection with the type b (Hib) bacterium can cause a range of conditions in vulnerable people, some of which are medical emergencies. (vic.gov.au)
  • BACKGROUND: People affected with sickle cell disease are at high risk of infection from Haemophilus influenzae type b. (jefferson.edu)
  • Indication Prevention of the bacterial infection, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). (fiercevaccines.com)
  • Effect of dexamethasone or HWA-138 in combination with antibiotics in experimental Haemophilus influenzae type b infection. (asm.org)
  • This document contains the case definitions for Haemophilus influenzae type B infection which is nationally notifiable within Australia. (health.gov.au)
  • However, H. influenzae isolated from cerebrospinal fluid or blood would indicate H. influenzae infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diphtheria, haemophilus influenzae type B , pertussis, polio, and tetanus are serious diseases caused by bacteria or virus. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Hexaxim helps to protect against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis and serious diseases caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b. (news-medical.net)
  • Hib is short for Haemophilus influenzae type b, a type of bacteria. (kidshealth.org)
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease is a serious disease caused by bacteria. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) is a bacteria that most commonly infects children under 5 years of age. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) is a bacteria that can. (everydayhealth.com)
  • rapid tests on fluid or blood give results in just a few hours and are often helpful in identifying the type of bacteria. (hubpages.com)
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a bacteria which causes serious disease that usually strikes children under the age of 5. (stanfordchildrens.org)
  • All wild-type bacteria synthesizing a Kdo phosphate (Kdo-P) carry a heptose on position 5 of the Kdo. (asm.org)
  • Although the kinase is not essential for the growth of bacteria containing a complete LPS ( 20 ), we showed that it is essential in a deep-rough mutant of E. coli harboring the Kdo transferase of H. influenzae , which transfers only a single Kdo residue to lipid A. This mutant can survive only if the Kdo kinase is also expressed ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Aerobic gram-negative bacteria Polysaccharide capsule Six different serotypes (a-f) of polysaccharide capsule 95% of invasive disease caused by type b. (slideserve.com)
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b is one of six haemophilus influenzae bacteria. (ccandh.com)
  • Epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae invasive disease in developing countries and intervention strategies. (springer.com)
  • Indicated for active immunization in pediatric patients 15 months through 4 years of age as a booster dose for the prevention of invasive disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b. (drugbank.ca)
  • Forty-one non-type b Haemophilus influenzae isolates from cases of invasive disease were characterized. (asm.org)
  • Quantitative measurement of 'natural' and immunization-induced Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide antibodies. (springer.com)
  • Antibodies prevalence against Haemophilus influenzae type b in Jeddah population, Saudi Arabia. (iospress.com)
  • In contrast to the poor immunogenicity of the purified HIB Ps in mice and rabbits, the HIB Ps-protein conjugates induced serum anti-type b antibodies having bactericidal activity at levels shown to be protective in humans when low doses were injected subcutaneously in a saline solution. (rupress.org)
  • Rabbits injected with the HIB Ps-protein conjugates emulsified in Freund's adjuvant produced high levels of serum anti-type b antibodies which induced a bactericidal effect upon H. influenzae type b organisms. (rupress.org)
  • Haemophilus influenzae disease is caused by six different types of the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae spreads through direct contact or through respiratory droplets such as sneezing and coughing. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • We used studies of the duration of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) colonization ( 1-3 ) and disease ( 4 ) to determine the rates of recovery from colonization and disease. (cdc.gov)
  • The epidemiology and prevention of disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b. (springer.com)
  • Haemophilus influenzae disease in the White Mountain Apaches: molecular epidemiology of a high risk population. (springer.com)
  • Efficacy of human hyperimmune globulin in prevention of Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in infant rats. (springer.com)
  • Update: prevention of Haemophilus influenzae type b disease. (springer.com)
  • Misidentifying H. haemolyticus as H. influenzae has important implications in accurately elucidating colonization patterns and characterizing pathogenetic mechanisms of H. influenzae , because H. haemolyticus is a commensal and rarely causes disease. (asm.org)
  • Resistance to type b disease requires serum antibody to induce the complement-mediated reaction. (asm.org)
  • To determine the importance of specific capsule type in the pathogenesis of invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease, we compared the virulence of type b and type d strains isolated from different children with the virulence of transformation-derived type b and type d organisms. (asm.org)
  • In African countries, where coverage of this vaccination is still extremely low, Haemophilus influenzae type b remains one of the most common cause of bacteraemias in children with sickle cell disease. (jefferson.edu)
  • The implementation of childhood immunisation schedules, including universal Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccination, may substantially improve the survival of children with sickle cell disease living in low-income countries. (jefferson.edu)
  • We currently lack data to evaluate the potential effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination among unvaccinated adults with sickle cell disease. (jefferson.edu)
  • Genotyping of disease and carriage isolates was undertaken using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Naturally acquired disease caused by H. influenzae seems to occur in humans only. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this respect, H. influenzae cultured from the nasopharyngeal cavity or sputum would not indicate H. influenzae disease, because these sites are colonized in disease-free individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adhesin genes and serum resistance in Haemophilus influenzae type f isolates. (nih.gov)
  • Outer-membrane proteins from isolates of Haemophilus influenzae type b were examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. (nih.gov)
  • Although more than 98% of natural isolates of Haemophilus influenzae type b carry a duplication of 17 kilobases (kb) of DNA at the chromosomal capsulation locus, only one copy is required for capsulation. (asm.org)
  • By PCR capsular genotyping, 33 nonencapsulated strains, 4 type f isolates, and 4 b − strains were identified. (asm.org)
  • By pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, the nonencapsulated isolates exhibited great genetic heterogenicity, whereas the type f and the b − strains seemed to have a clonal spread. (asm.org)
  • The most common ST isolates were sequence type 6 (ST6) and the novel ST722. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A relationship was found between the comparative virulence of H. influenzae types in humans and their resistance to the bactericidal effect of antibody-free complement. (asm.org)
  • Laboratory Manual for the Diagnosis of Meningitis Caused by Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae. (ajtmh.org)
  • Latex agglutination (LA) was compared with counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) for the diagnosis of pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae type b in children less than 6 years old in Papua New Guinea. (eurekamag.com)
  • This is a type of rod-shaped bacterium that can cause serious diseases. (hubpages.com)
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a bacterium which can cause a range of very serious diseases, particularly in children under the age of 5. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The relative virulence of the six H. influenzae types in the infant rat model was generally similar to that in humans. (asm.org)
  • Anderson, P., Pichichero, M. E., and Insel, R. A., (1985), Immunogens consisting of oligosaccharides from the capsule of Haemophilus influenzae type b coupled to diphtheria toxoid or the toxin protein CRM197, J. Clin. (springer.com)
  • We propose that the virulence of type b strains is due to their greater resistance to the bactericidal activity of serum complement alone. (asm.org)
  • The recent observation that widely accepted methods do not reliably distinguish strains of H. influenzae from H. haemolyticus has important implications for clinical microbiology laboratories and also in the interpretation of published studies of colonization of the human nasopharynx ( 31 ). (asm.org)
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b, or Hib, is a bacterium estimated to be responsible for some eight million serious illnesses and an estimated 371 000 deaths per year, chiefly through meningitis and pneumonia. (who.int)
  • Effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination against bacterial pneumonia in Colombia. (ajtmh.org)
  • In infants and young children, H. influenzae type b (Hib) causes bacteremia, pneumonia, epiglottitis and acute bacterial meningitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial meningitis causes cloudy fluid, with a high amount of certain types of white blood cells, low sugar, and high protein. (hubpages.com)
  • The therapeutic efficacy of Haemophilus influenzae type B strain 20752 capsular polysaccharide tetanus toxoid conjugate antigen can be decreased when used in combination with 2-Methoxyethanol. (drugbank.ca)
  • The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Haemophilus influenzae type B strain 20752 capsular polysaccharide tetanus toxoid conjugate antigen is combined with Acetylsalicylic acid. (drugbank.ca)
  • After intraperitoneal challenge, type b and type a strains had the lowest 50% effective doses for bacteremia, removed by several logs from the values of the other types. (asm.org)
  • By intranasal challenge, type b strains produced higher rates and levels of bacteremia than did type a strains. (asm.org)
  • all type b strains (whether natural or derived by transformation), a natural type d, and a type d derived by transformation were able to produce bacteremia with similar frequency (42 to 62%) when 10(7) colony-forming units was given intranasally. (asm.org)
  • Subcutaneous inoculation of 10(3) colony-forming units of strains with the type b capsule produced bacteremia at a greater frequency than did the strains with the type d capsule (P less than 0.002). (asm.org)
  • Cause - The Haemophilus influenzae type B bacterium has several different strains, each with a different capsule around the bacterium. (hubpages.com)
  • A member of the Pasteurellaceae family, H. influenzae is a nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic, Gram-negative coccobacillus that requires special growth factors, hemin (factor X) and NAD (factor V). H. influenzae strains are divided into two groups depending upon the presence or absence of a polysaccharide capsule. (asm.org)
  • On comparing capsule polysaccharide production by these three type b strains with that by a prototypic type b strain with a duplicated locus, a gene dosage effect was demonstrated, with a halving of detectable polysaccharide in the single-copy strains. (asm.org)
  • As well as subserving augmented capsule polysaccharide production, a duplicated configuration of the type b cap locus endows strains with genetic instability not found in capsulate single-copy variants. (asm.org)
  • Comparative virulence of Haemophilus influenzae with a type b or type d capsule. (asm.org)
  • Preparation, characterization, and immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide-protein conjugates. (rupress.org)
  • The importance of the carrier molecule for the enhanced immunogenicity of the HIB Ps-protein conjugates was shown by the failure of HIB Ps hybrids prepared with either the homologous polysaccharide or pneumococcus type 3 polysaccharide to induce antibodie in mice. (rupress.org)
  • Vaccination Schedule for Haemophilus Influenzae Type B There are two kinds of. (everydayhealth.com)
  • The OpsX protein is a novel type of heptosyltransferase I, and data collected about this enzyme will broaden our understanding of heptosyltransferases in general. (asm.org)
  • Infants were randomly allocated to receive one of six different sequences of a single batch of a Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide (polyribosylphosphate)-tetanus conjugate (ActHIB, Pasteur-Merieux-MSD, Lyons, France) or a single batch of a Haemophilus influenzae type b oligosaccharide-mutant diphtheria toxin conjugate (HibTITER, Cyanamid-Lederle-Praxis Biologicals, Pearl River, USA), or both. (bmj.com)
  • During the mid-1980s to early 1990s, a highly virulent clonal group of Haemophilus aegyptius, localized in and around the São Paulo State of Brazil, was found to be responsible for Brazilian purpuric fever, an acute septicemic fulminant illness affecting children. (wikipedia.org)
  • All types of meningitis may appear in children either gradually or suddenly. (hubpages.com)
  • From March 2000 to February 2002, a population-based study of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis was conducted among children less than five years of age in Hanoi, Vietnam. (ajtmh.org)
  • Immunization of children against H. influenzae type b. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Before the implementation of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccination in high-income countries, this was responsible for a high mortality rate in children under five years of age. (jefferson.edu)
  • Haemophilus influenzae type b carriage and novel bacterial population structure among children in urban Kathmandu, Nepal. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Scientists were able to isolate H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius after studying the blood and cerebrospinal fluids of affected children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius (Hae) is a causative agent of acute and often purulent conjunctivitis, more commonly known as pink eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • The report studies the coverage of the clinical trials on the basis of region, country (G7 and E7), trial status, phase, sponsor type, and end point status. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The average enrolment target trends in the clinical trials for Haemophilus influenzae during the period between 2011 and 2015 have been analyzed. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • In one laboratory-derived and two clinical type b strains, the capsulation locus had a single copy of this 17-kb segment, together with 1.3 kb of DNA identified as lying between the repeats of the duplicated locus. (asm.org)
  • Clinical diagnosis of H. influenzae is typically performed by bacterial culture or latex particle agglutinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies were undertaken to gain insight into the virulence of type b in contrast to the other Haemophilus influenzae capsular types. (asm.org)
  • Haemophilus aegyptius was first observed by Koch in 1883. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was listed as "Hemophilus aegyptius" for the first time in the seventh edition of Bergey's Manual after Pittman and Davis explored and described the characteristic differences between this bacterium and H. influenzae. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1892, Pfeiffer discovered H. influenzae, raising some confusion over whether H. aegyptius was different from H. influenzae. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to account for both the similarities and differences, H. aegyptius has been classified as a biogroup of H. influenzae. (wikipedia.org)
  • After discovering another, and very similar, outbreak in Londrina (located a little under 200 miles from Promissao), scientists determined that a single H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius clone is responsible for all cases of BPF. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the H. influenzae strain I69 is a spontaneous mutant that contains only the Kdo-P ( 16 ) and thus represents the minimal LPS structure to enable survival in this species. (asm.org)
  • The type d isolate was more virulent than a mutagenized derivative of the strain. (asm.org)
  • Five-day-old infant rats were inoculated once intraperitoneally with 1 x 10(4) to 10 x 10(4) CFU of H. influenzae type b (strain 1406). (asm.org)
  • A method is presented for covalently bonding Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (HIB Ps) to several proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and encapsulated Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) were inoculated into the middle ears of Sprague-Dawley rats. (diva-portal.org)
  • Haemophilus influenzae is an aerobic gram-negative coccobacillus bacterium with encapsulated typeable strains and unencapsulated nontypeable strains. (vaccinesafety.edu)
  • The gradual type is harder to diagnose because the symptoms (at least at first) are vague. (hubpages.com)
  • Type b was most resistant to the bactericidal effect of complement. (asm.org)
  • Food and Drug Administration Approval for Use of Hiberix as a 3-Dose Primary Haemophilus influenzae Type b (Hib) Vaccination Series. (vaccinesafety.edu)
  • Haemophilus influenzae (formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae) is a Gram-negative, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic capnophilic pathogenic bacterium of the family Pasteurellaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gram stained and microscopic observation of a specimen of H. influenzae will show Gram-negative coccobacillus. (wikipedia.org)
  • this finding alone could not account for the differences in virulence among the H. influenzae types in the infant rat model. (asm.org)
  • In this study, the effects of dexamethasone and HWA-138, an analog of pentoxifylline, on CSF cultures and cochlear inflammation in an infant rat model of Haemophilus influenzae type b were studied. (asm.org)