Signs and symptoms of higher cortical dysfunction caused by organic conditions. These include certain behavioral alterations and impairments of skills involved in the acquisition, processing, and utilization of knowledge or information.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.
A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM control. (American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988)
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.
Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.
The period from about 5 to 7 years to adolescence when there is an apparent cessation of psychosexual development.
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
Defense mechanisms involving approach and avoidance responses to threatening stimuli. The sensitizing process involves intellectualization in approaching or controlling the stimulus whereas repression involves unconscious denial in avoiding the stimulus.
A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.
The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.
Recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches, not preceded or accompanied by an aura, in attacks lasting 4-72 hours. It is characterized by PAIN of moderate to severe intensity; aggravated by physical activity; and associated with NAUSEA and / or PHOTOPHOBIA and PHONOPHOBIA. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
A disorder beginning in childhood whose essential features are persistent impairment in reciprocal social communication and social interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. These symptoms may limit or impair everyday functioning. (From DSM-5)
Motor behavior that is repetitive, often seemingly driven, and nonfunctional. This behavior markedly interferes with normal activities or results in severe bodily self-injury. The behavior is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. (DSM-IV, 1994)
The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.
A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. Like ketamine, it can produce a dissociative state. It exerts its pharmacological action through inhibition of NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). As a drug of abuse, it is known as PCP and Angel Dust.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.
Semisynthetic derivative of ergot (Claviceps purpurea). It has complex effects on serotonergic systems including antagonism at some peripheral serotonin receptors, both agonist and antagonist actions at central nervous system serotonin receptors, and possibly effects on serotonin turnover. It is a potent hallucinogen, but the mechanisms of that effect are not well understood.
A piperidine botanical insecticide.
A suspected industrial carcinogen (and listed as such by OSHA). Its N-hydroxy metabolite is strongly carcinogenic and mutagenic.
A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (DITERPENES) from the root of ACONITUM plants. It activates VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS. It has been used to induce ARRHYTHMIAS in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.
A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.
A group of compounds that are methyl derivatives of the amino acid TYROSINE.
An inhibitor of the enzyme TYROSINE 3-MONOOXYGENASE, and consequently of the synthesis of catecholamines. It is used to control the symptoms of excessive sympathetic stimulation in patients with PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed)
A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.
Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.
A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)
Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Historical term for a chronic, but fluctuating, disorder beginning in early life and characterized by recurrent and multiple somatic complaints not apparently due to physical illness. This diagnosis is not used in contemporary practice.
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.

Modulation of Hydra attenuata rhythmic activity: phase response curve. (1/799)

We investigated the effect of photic stimulation on the frequency of Hydra attenuata column contractions. We used positive or negative abrupt light transitions, single or repetitive light or darkness pulses, and alternation of light and darkness periods. The main results are: (a) The frequency of the contraction pulse trains (CPTs) varies transiently in response to an abrupt variation of the light intensity. (b) CPTs in progress can be inhibited by different types of photic stimuli. (c) The response time to a single photic stimulus varies during the inter-CPT interval and depends also on the polarity of the stimulus. (d) The CPTs are entrainable with repetitive light stimulation of various frequencies. (e) Long-lasting variations of the frequency of CPTs occur after the end of a repetitive light stimulation. We suggest that the mechanism responsible for the rhythym of column contractions is quite similar to that on which other biological rhythmic phenomena are based.  (+info)

Time and memory: towards a pacemaker-free theory of interval timing. (2/799)

A popular view of interval timing in animals is that it is driven by a discrete pacemaker-accumulator mechanism that yields a linear scale for encoded time. But these mechanisms are fundamentally at odds with the Weber law property of interval timing, and experiments that support linear encoded time can be interpreted in other ways. We argue that the dominant pacemaker-accumulator theory, scalar expectancy theory (SET), fails to explain some basic properties of operant behavior on interval-timing procedures and can only accommodate a number of discrepancies by modifications and elaborations that raise questions about the entire theory. We propose an alternative that is based on principles of memory dynamics derived from the multiple-time-scale (MTS) model of habituation. The MTS timing model can account for data from a wide variety of time-related experiments: proportional and Weber law temporal discrimination, transient as well as persistent effects of reinforcement omission and reinforcement magnitude, bisection, the discrimination of relative as well as absolute duration, and the choose-short effect and its analogue in number-discrimination experiments. Resemblances between timing and counting are an automatic consequence of the model. We also argue that the transient and persistent effects of drugs on time estimates can be interpreted as well within MTS theory as in SET. Recent real-time physiological data conform in surprising detail to the assumptions of the MTS habituation model. Comparisons between the two views suggest a number of novel experiments.  (+info)

Visual evoked potentials in migraine patients: alterations depend on pattern spatial frequency. (3/799)

Visual information is conducted by two parallel pathways (luminance- and contour-processing pathways) which are thought to be differentially affected in migraine and can be investigated by means of pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Components and habituation of VEPs at four spatial frequencies were compared between 26 migraineurs (13 without aura, MO; 13 with aura, MA) and 28 healthy volunteers. Migraineurs were recorded in the headache-free interval (at least 72 h before and after an attack). Five blocks of 50 responses to chequerboards of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 cycles per degree (c.p.d.) were sequentially averaged and analysed for latency and amplitude. Differences in VEPs were dependent on spatial frequency. Only when small checks were presented, i.e. at high spatial frequency (2 and 4 c.p.d.), was the latency of N2 significantly prolonged in MA and did it tend to be delayed in MO subjects. Habituation behaviour was not significantly different between groups under the stimulating conditions employed. Prolonged N2 latency might be explained by the lack or attenuation of a contour-specific component N130 in migraineurs, indicating an imbalance of the two visual pathways with relative predominance of the luminance-processing Y system. These results reflect an interictally persisting dysfunction of precortical visual processing which might be relevant in the pathophysiology of migraine.  (+info)

Ischemic preconditioning in 18- to 20-month-old gerbils: long-term survival with functional outcome measures. (4/799)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In young animals, ischemic preconditioning protects CA1 hippocampal neurons against global ischemia. However, cerebral ischemia occurs most frequently in individuals aged >/=65 years. This study examined the protection provided by ischemic preconditioning in a population of aged (18- to 20-month-old) gerbils. METHODS: One group of animals was exposed to two 1.5-minute episodes of global ischemia separated by 24 hours and followed 72 hours later by a 5-minute occlusion of both carotid arteries. A second group was given 2 episodes of preconditioning only. Two other groups were exposed to 5 minutes of ischemia or sham surgery. The animals survived 10, 30, or 60 days. Functional and histological assessments were used to determine the extent of protection. RESULTS: Ten days after ischemia there was >80% protection of CA1 neurons in ischemic preconditioned animals compared with 6% in ischemic gerbils. Nevertheless, these preconditioned animals were impaired in open-field tests of habituation. In addition, CA1 dendritic field potentials were smaller in amplitude compared with those in sham animals. While there was a complete loss of staining for CA1 microtubule-associated protein-2 in ischemic animals, staining in ischemic preconditioned animals was normal. This suggests that dendritic abnormalities per se were not responsible for the observed functional deficits. CA1 cell survival declined to approximately 75% of sham values (P<0.05) at 60 days after ischemia. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic preconditioning provided substantial neuroprotection in aged gerbils. Nonetheless, the striking dissociation between histological and functional protection provided by ischemic preconditioning in aged animals emphasizes the need to use functional end points and long-term survival when assessing neuroprotection. Although functional recovery was evident with increasing survival time, CA1 cell death continued, thereby raising the possibility that the level of neuroprotection attained was not permanent.  (+info)

Spatial summation in the receptive fields of MT neurons. (5/799)

Receptive fields (RFs) of cells in the middle temporal area (MT or V5) of monkeys will often encompass multiple objects under normal image viewing. We therefore have studied how multiple moving stimuli interact when presented within and near the RF of single MT cells. We used moving Gabor function stimuli, <1 degrees in spatial extent and approximately 100 msec in duration, presented on a grid of possible locations over the RF of the cell. Responses to these stimuli were typically robust, and their small spatial and temporal extent allowed detailed mapping of RFs and of interactions between stimuli. The responses to pairs of such stimuli were compared against the responses to the same stimuli presented singly. The responses were substantially less than the sum of the responses to the component stimuli and were well described by a power-law summation model with divisive inhibition. Such divisive inhibition is a key component of recently proposed "normalization" models of cortical physiology and is presumed to arise from lateral interconnections within a region. One open question is whether the normalization occurs only once in primary visual cortex or multiple times in different cortical areas. We addressed this question by exploring the spatial extent over which one stimulus would divide the response to another and found effective normalization from stimuli quite far removed from the RF center. This supports models under which normalization occurs both in MT and in earlier stages.  (+info)

Effects of sustained phencyclidine exposure on sensorimotor gating of startle in rats. (6/799)

Phencyclidine (PCP), a non-competitive NMDA antagonist with actions at multiple other central nervous system receptors, can cause both acute and lasting psychoses in humans, and has also been used in cross-species models of psychosis. Acute exposure to PCP in rats produces behavioral changes, including a loss of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex, which parallels the loss of PPI observed in schizophrenia patients. Sustained exposure to PCP in rats produces neuropathological changes in several limbic regions and prolonged behavioral abnormalities that may parallel neuropsychological deficits in schizophrenia. It is unclear whether sustained PCP exposure will also produce a loss of prepulse inhibition which parallels the decrease observed in schizophrenia patients. In the present study, we examined changes in PPI during and after sustained PCP administration, using 5-day PCP exposure via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps, or 14-day PCP exposure via repeated intraperitoneal injections. In both forms of drug delivery, PPI was disrupted during, but not after, sustained drug exposure. PPI does not appear to be sensitive to neuropathological effects of sustained PCP exposure.  (+info)

The vibrational startle response of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria. (7/799)

Substratum vibrations elicit a fast startle response in unrestrained quiescent desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria). The response is graded with stimulus intensity and consists of a small, rapid but conspicuous movement of the legs and body, but it does not result in any positional change of the animal. With stimuli just above threshold, it begins with a fast twitch of the hindlegs generated by movements of the coxa-trochanter and femur-tibia joints. With increasing stimulus intensity, a rapid movement of all legs may follow, resulting in an up-down movement of the whole body. The magnitude of both the hindleg movement and electromyographic recordings from hindleg extensor and flexor tibiae muscles increases with stimulus amplitude and reaches a plateau at vibration accelerations above 20 m s(-)(2) (peak-to-peak). Hindleg extensor and flexor tibiae muscles in unrestrained animals are co-activated with a mean latency of 30 ms. Behavioural thresholds are as low as 0. 47 m s(-)(2) (peak-to-peak) at frequencies below 100 Hz but rise steeply above 200 Hz. The response habituates rapidly, and inter-stimulus intervals of 2 min or more are necessary to evoke maximal reactions. Intracellular recordings in fixed (upside-down) locusts also revealed co-activation of both flexor and extensor motor neurones with latencies of approximately 25 ms. This shows that the neuronal network underlying the startle movement is functional in a restrained preparation and can therefore be studied in great detail at the level of identified neurones.  (+info)

Dizocilpine (MK-801) prevents the development of sensitization to ethanol in DBA/2J mice. (8/799)

DBA/2J mice repeatedly exposed to ethanol (2 g/kg, i.p. every 48 h for 8 days) exhibit sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effects of ethanol. Pretreatment with the NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (0.2-0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) completely prevents the development of sensitization. Thus, NMDA receptors appear to play an important role in behavioural sensitization to ethanol.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Distinct neuronal circuits mediate experience-dependent, non-associative osmotactic responses in Drosophila. AU - Acevedo, Summer F.. AU - Froudarakis, Emmanuil I.. AU - Tsiorva, Anna Angeliki. AU - Skoulakis, Efthimios M C. PY - 2007/3. Y1 - 2007/3. N2 - Osmotactic responses can be modified in an experience-dependent manner and have been used to condition animals in negative or positive associative paradigms. Experience-dependent non-associative defects in avoidance of aversive odors were reported in Drosophila learning mutants. This prompted an examination of the contribution of the mushroom bodies and inner antenoglomerular tract, the two neuronal populations implicated in processing olfactory information to experience-dependent non-associative osmotactic responses. Silencing inner antenoglomerular tract synapses results in defective osmotaxis after experiencing a different odor, but not electric shock. Conversely, structural or functional perturbation of the mushroom bodies ...
Habituation is one factor that may be related to excess energy intake. Research has shown that the rate of habituation is inversely related to the amount of food consumed and slower habituation may be a factor that is relevant to obesity, as overweight youth and adults habituate slower and consume more energy than their peers. Habituation is a basic form of learning that is observed in many response systems. We believe that habituation is an important process that mediates food regulation during a meal and across meals. However, there has been no research in children that translates basic research on habituation to food into clinical interventions for pediatric obesity. In the first phase, we will implement a series of laboratory studies to assess the effects of stimulus specificity and variety and the simultaneous reduction of variety for high energy density foods on short (within meal) and long-term (across meal) habituation. The second phase is designed to implement a series of field studies ...
Habituation has been defined as a response decrement produced by repeated or continuous stimulation (Harris 1943). Cain and Carlson (1971) have demonstrated that a response induced by electrical brain stimulation (EBS) can habituate. Carlton (1963) suggested that the physiological basis of habituation was accumulation of acetylcholine at central cholenergic synapses and that the effects of this accumulation could be blocked by anticholenergic drugs such as scopolamine. The present experiment was designed to test Carltons hypothesis by determining the effect of scopolamine upon habituation of EBS-induced running. (Author)(*SCOPOLAMINE
In patients with Crohns disease (CD) stress is believed to increase the incidence of disease relapse. The brain processes stressful stimuli and triggers the stress-evoked responses. Habituation to stress is an adaptive process that allows minimizing these responses. We hypothesized inadequate habituation to stress in CD patients. The aim of this study was to compare the neural habituation between CD patients and controls. Twenty CD patients and eighteen controls underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing two repeated runs of a stress-evoking task. The task elicited different neural activity between the groups across runs in (1) amygdala, hippocampus, (2) insula, putamen (3) cerebellar regions, suggesting altered habituation to stress in patients. These structures regulate the neuroendocrine and autonomic stress-evoked responses that control the proinflammatory responses. The inadequate habituation to stress that we found in patients could play a role in the relationship between
Looking for newborn habituation? Find out information about newborn habituation. A condition of tolerance to the effects of a drug or a poison, acquired by its continued use; marked by a psychic craving for it when the drug is withdrawn.... Explanation of newborn habituation
Another field of research, learning and memory, helps shed light on the conservation of gene function in behaviours across divergent species. The many types of learning and memory will not be discussed here nor will their relevance for the species life histories. There are many paradigms for testing learning and memory, both non-associative and associative, that are informative for interspecific comparisons. One non-associative paradigm is habituation distinguished by decreases in a response to a stimulus following repeated stimulation. Another is sensitization, an increase in response to a neutral stimulus following exposure to a stronger stimulus. Habituation and sensitization are observed in species as diverse as C. elegans [55], D. melanogaster [56], Rattus norvegicus [57] and humans [58]. Associative learning has also been observed in many species [59,60].. Associative learning paradigms can be separated into two categories: (i) operant and (ii) classical (Pavlovian) conditioning [60]. In ...
«Sensitize» Sensitization is a non-associative learning process in which repeated administrations of a stimulus results in the progressive amplification of a ...
The present study assessed absolute (e.g., CoV) and relative (e.g., ICC) between-day variability of executive function (i.e., Eriksen-Flanker-test, Stroop-Color-test, Digit-Span and Five-Point-test) before and after a single bout of moderately intense aerobic cycling exercise (30 min at 70% of the heart rate reserve). The study was applied to healthy and active seniors using a three-day (habituation day, first day, second day) repeated measures design.. First, we found notable between-day habituation (from 1st to 2nd day) mainly for some time-dependent measures obtained from the Eriksen-Flanker-, Stroop-Color as well as completed figures in the Five-Point test at both pre and post testing. This is not surprising from a general viewpoint of between-day-learning. However, our testing and training session were interspersed by 7 days. Thus, also longer during between-trial breaks of up to 7 days should account for habituation effects. As these habituation effects became smaller from day 2 to day 3, ...
Habituation is learning to get used to something after being exposed to it for a while. Habituation usually involves getting used to something that is annoying or frightening, but not dangerous. Habituation is one of the simplest ways of learning. It occurs in just about every species of animal. You have probably learned through habituation many times. For example, maybe you were reading a book when someone turned on a television in the same room. At first, the sound of the television may have been annoying. After awhile, you may no longer have noticed it. If so, you had become habituated to the sound. Another example of habituation is shown in Figure below. Crows and most other birds are usually afraid of people. They avoid coming close to people, or they fly away when people come near them. The crows landing on this scarecrow have gotten used to a human in this place. They have learned that the scarecrow poses no danger. They are no longer afraid to come close. They have become habituated to ...
Imagined food consumption is a method of elaborately imagining oneself eating a specific food that, when repeated 30 times, has been shown to decrease subsequent intake of the same food. The technique relies on a memory-based habituation process when behavioral and motivational responses to a stimulus decrease after its repeated presentation. Thus, repeatedly imagining food consumption leads to food-specific habituation effects. Large numbers of imagined consumption repetitions are effortful and time consuming and can be problematic when applied in interventions with the goal of reducing food intake. In the present study, we assessed the efficacy of the technique at smaller numbers of repetitions while testing motor simulation as a potential facilitator of the habituation-based consumption-reduction effect. 147 participants imagined eating chocolate pudding 15 or 3 consecutive times and simultaneously performed either facilitating or not-facilitating eating movements. Results showed that participants
The innate nature of humans to be able to acclimatize to slight touch or odor may also facilitate the human vital signs to get used to medical interventions such as mechanical ventilation.
Habituation is a simple form of learning that all animals, including people, are capable of. In this lesson, you will learn what it is, how it...
So here is my story. I have tinnitus caused by an acoustic trauma for 5 months now. Now recently my tinnitus started to change after my fourth month...
We investigated the basis of change detection in a short-term priming task. In two experiments, participants were asked to indicate whether or not a target word was the same as a previously presented cue. Data from an experiment measuring magnetoencephalography failed to find different patterns for same and different responses, consistent with the claim that both arise from a common neural source, with response magnitude defining the difference between immediate novelty versus familiarity. In a behavioral experiment, we tested and confirmed the predictions of a habituation account of these judgments by comparing conditions in which the target, the cue, or neither was primed by its presentation in the previous trial. As predicted, cue-primed trials had faster response times, and target-primed trials had slower response times relative to the neither-primed baseline. These results were obtained irrespective of response repetition and stimulus-response contingencies. The behavioral and brain ...
Background: Latent inhibition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is sensitive to external and internal cues. Time of day can serve as an internal cue, and latent inhibition may be reduced if the pre-exposure and conditioning stages occur at different times of day. This contextual cue attributed to a change in the time of day may reveal a temporal specificity of latent inhibition. Although the habituation period to spatial contexts is a determinant variable for the spatial specificity of latent inhibition of CTA, the influence of contextual-temporal familiarity (time of day) on latent inhibition of CTA has not been explored through direct comparisons between different periods of habituation to the temporal context. Method: Two different periods of contextual habituation (short vs. long) previous to taste pre-exposures were compared in Wistar rats to analyze the influence of these periods on the temporal specificity of latent inhibition of CTA. Results: A long period of habituation, in relation ...
RATIONALE: A deficit in attention and information processing has been considered a central feature in schizophrenia, which might lead to stimulus overload and cognitive fragmentation. It has been shown that patients with schizophrenia display a relative inability to gate incoming stimuli. Thus, patients repeatedly subjected to acoustic startle-eliciting stimuli habituate less to these stimuli than controls. Furthermore, schizophrenia-like symptoms can be induced by pharmacological manipulations in humans by psychotomimetic drugs, e.g. phencyclidine (PCP) and D-amphetamine (D-AMP). Recent studies show that the behavioural and biochemical effects of PCP in rodents are blocked by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors, suggesting that NO plays an important role in at least the pharmacological effects of PCP. OBJECTIVES: The first aim of the present study was to investigate if PCP, MK-801 and D-AMP impair habituation of acoustic startle in mice. Secondly, we examine the effect of the NOS inhibitor, ...
@Kathi just recently posted about her set back and it inspired me to reflect on my rocky-road to habituation (and its resident setbacks). So, I...
It is the fact that those who are rushing for US for studies or on assignments from the company, they would not like to return for the life style being different and having habituated and experienced the wholesome comforts for everything including ways and means to earn extra income for future, many does not want to return. Some of my friends who promised their parents that they would return back after studies and settle here in Hyderabad are staying back there and even got married to the girls of Indian origin and they are unlikely to return. So once we are habituated to the tastes of new life it is difficult to return to the old fold. So it is not the impact of the country or the area where we reside matters. but the way the thought process changes from the nothing to affluent life would change the very perception of life. ...
This post is part of our Pedagogy theory week series.. Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday. For a very short presentation of pedagogy theory, see the Monday post. Here, Marion Vorms describes and discusses the Pedagogical treatment of a famous psychological effect. György Gergely will discuss her critiques on Saturday.. The so-called perseverative search error (or A-not-B error) was first observed by Piaget. A-not-B errors are mistakes performed by infants close to 1 year of age. The standard experimental set up highlighting these errors consists in a hide-and-search task, divided into two phases. During the first phase (habituation, or A-trials), the demonstrator repeatedly hides an object under one (A) of two containers (A and B) in full view of the infant, who is allowed to retrieve the object after each hiding event. After this habituation period, the demonstrator hides the object under container B (still in full view of the infant). During this second phase (test ...
There is increasing concern that environmental stimuli in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) may be detrimental to the preterm infants hospitalized there. Separately, there is longstanding recognition that preterm infants at 40 weeks postconcept
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The insect mushroom bodies are higher-order brain centers and critical for odor learning. We investigated experience dependent plasticity of their intrinsic neurons, the Kenyon cells (KCs). Using calcium imaging, we recorded KC responses and investigated non-associative plasticity by applying repeated odor stimuli. Associative plasticity was examined by performing appetitive odor learning experiments. Olfactory, gustatory and tactile antennal stimuli evoked phasic calcium transients in sparse ensembles of responding KCs. Repeated stimulation with an odor led to a decrease in KCs response strength. The pairing of an odor (conditioned stimulus, CS) with a sucrose reward (unconditioned stimulus) induced a prolongation of KC responses. After conditioning, KC responses to a rewarded odor (CS+) recovered from repetition-induced decrease, while the responses to a non-rewarded odor (CS−) decreased further. The spatio-temporal pattern of activated KCs changed for both odors when compared with the response
Non-associative memory contributes to filtering extraneous information from the environment. Additionally, behavioral state alterations such as stress have long been implicated in memory. Here, I determined how stress, through evoked changes in the noradrenergic system, affects early processing of sensory information during non-associative tasks. In chapter 1, I show that behavioral habituation to odor stimuli is correlated with adaption of neural responses in mitral/tufted (M/T) neurons of the main olfactory bulb (MOB) in anesthetized rats. I further show that both behavioral and neural habituation require functioning NMDA receptors in the MOB. This suggests a likely odor experience-dependent plasticity that occurs in the MOB. In chapter 2, I show that noradrenergic manipulations affect odor memory duration. Specifically, acute stress abolishes odor memory expression at a 30min delay, but this effect is blocked by infusions of noradrenaline (NA) antagonists into the MOB prior to the experiment. ...
Traditionally, the study of the parameters, operations and mechanisms of classical conditioning has been carried out considering the conditioned response (CR) separately and by regarding it as the optimum way of measuring the behavioral manifestation of conditioning. There are fundamentally two theories which have attempted to explain the nature of this response. The theory of the substitution of stimuli is based on the close similarity which is frequently observed between the CR and the UR. The association between the CS and the US produces a transference of the eliciting capacity of the US to the CS, with the result that the latter ends up provoking the same reflex reaction as the US (Jenkins and Moore, 1973). On the other hand, the CR does not always resemble the UR (Wasserman, 1973), but instead seems to be a preparatory reaction from the organism in order to receive the US (Jenkins, Barrera, Ireland, and Woodside, 1978). This preparatory characteristic becomes even more evident in the ...
Aktogen Limited is a Cambridge University start-up company founded in 2003 by Dr. Zoltan Asztalos who has more than fifteen years experience in fruit fly behaviour genetics.. Aktogen offers behaviour and genetic services for fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster laboratories, as well as pharmaceutical companies.. Aktogen has particular experience in behaviour tests from as simple as locomotion to learning and memory measurements.. The company also offers services to generate transgenic Drosophila strains, including making custom designed genetic constructs and embryo transformation.. Aktogen aims to accelerate the discovery of drug targets and drugs for the treatment of human CNS disorders. Drosophila offers a wealth of genetic tools and complex behaviour for the identification of the inherited components of CNS disorders. Aktogen has an edge in developing automated fruit fly behaviour systems to effectively test complex behaviour (e.g. non-associative learning, habituation and sensitization) that ...
Coppola G, Ambrosini A, Di Clemente L, Magis D, Fumal A, Gérard P, Pierelli F & Schoenen J. Interictal abnormalities of gamma band activity in visual evoked responses in migraine: an indication of thalamocortical dysrhythmia? Cephalalgia 2007; 27:1360-1367. London. ISSN 0333-1024. Between attacks, migraineurs lack habituation in standard visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Visual stimuli also evoke high-frequency oscillations in the gamma band range (GBOs, 20-35 Hz) assumed to be generated both at subcortical (early GBOs) and cortical levels (late GBOs). The consecutive peaks of GBOs were analysed regarding amplitude and habituation in six successive blocks of 100 averaged pattern reversal (PR)-VEPs in healthy volunteers and interictally in migraine with (MA) or without aura patients. Amplitude of the two early GBO components in the first PR-VEP block was significantly increased in MA patients. There was a significant habituation deficit of the late GBO peaks in migraineurs. The increased ...
74 pages - TIL / Amazon. Gabriel Ojeda-Sagues debut collection, Oil and Candle, opens with the lines: there is a coded syndrome / of poets who want blood. A syndrome / of poets is like a murder of crows. It spreads out like cancer, which the speaker imagines having, in multiple places especially my skin. It is a phrase that pathologizes desire, desire for the blood thats your own and for the blood that isnt.. In another moment, the speaker watches while poets have a contest where they hold up / Kleenex soaked with how much blood they can get / out of themselves, and a white man passes out first. The speaker wishes that hadnt happened because every body gets very dramatic about the emotions of / white men. Habituated responses here are another kind of ritual. Inexplicable habituation, the poems argue, is what race and ritual have to do with each other.. Ritual and race are both typologies that people use to imagine a futurity they can live with, and both are troubled and leaned on ...
The escape response evoked by vibrational stimuli and its habituation, essential behaviors for fish larvae survival, can be altered by neurotoxic environmental pollutants commonly found in our aquatic ecosystems. In this study we have analyzed the suitability of the Vibrational Startle Response Assay (VSRA) to obtain mechanistic information about the mode of action (MoA) of the chemicals impairing the escape response and its habituation. As a proof of concept, the pathophysiological mechanisms behind the action of two common neurotoxic pesticides, chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO) and imidacloprid, over their effects on arousal and habituation of the escape response were studied by using pharmacological antagonists of the nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, mecamylamine (MCA) and scopolamine, respectively. Furthermore, potential changes in the neurotransmitter profile were analyzed. Results revealed that whereas the effect of CPO on arousal was mainly mediated by the activation of nAChRs, ...
This post was a companion to HABITUATION, both of which I wrote in early 2010. Since I revisited and largely rewrote that as Cold Water Habituation, my plan was to do the same in this post also. Acclimatization (acclimatisation for those of us who forego the use of the z) is a different factor to habituation. While…
After the intensity of the siphon stimuli to be used for an experiment had been determined (see below), the preparation was rested for 2 hr, during which time the afferent vein of the gill and the rest of the preparation were perfused with normal ASW to completely wash out the MgCl2. This perfusion was maintained for the rest of the experiment. At the end of the 2 hr rest period, a single stimulus (at the predetermined intensity for habituation) was delivered to the siphon. Preparations that did not respond to this initial stimulus with a visible gill contraction were discarded. Furthermore, data from preparations from the experiments in which a within-preparation design was used (below) were only accepted if the posttest response of the untrained site was at least 80% of the pretest response (see Experimental design).. Shipments of Aplysia from our local supplier varied significantly according to whether or not preparations from the animals expressed long-lasting habituation. In some cases, ...
Discover the story behind our paper, Habituation as an adaptive shift in response strategy mediated by neuropeptides, which was published in npj Science of Learning
To test hippocampal-dependent learning in the absence of immature neurons, both DCXDTR and WT mice were treated with DT and subsequently tested in the active place avoidance task in Room 1, 3 d after the last DT injection. The experimental design is shown in Figure 2C. In the 5 min habituation phase, during which the shock zone was not activated, both DCXDTR and WT mice explored the arena to a similar extent. The total distance covered (WT: 30.0 ± 1.4 m vs DCXDTR: 26.7 ± 1.5 m), the number of virtual shocks (WT: 27.9 ± 2.0 vs DCXDTR: 24.33 ± 1.6), and the number of entries into the shock zone (WT: 13.3 ± 0.8 vs DCXDTR: 12.1 ± 1.0) were similar between genotypes (n = 12 per experimental group). During habituation, the number of virtual shocks was typically higher than the number of entries into the shock zone because test animals were not presented with an aversive stimulus to encourage their exit from this area. However, after activation of the shock zone, the number of shocks ...
Have you ever had a strong craving for a food that you know is bad for you? For many of us, we experience strong cravings for some type of food on a daily basis. Sometimes these cravings are so strong that the particular food we are craving becomes all we can think about or focus on until that food is consumed. These cravings are usually triggered by something in our environment that reminds us of the specific food and they can lead to overeating.. A recent study, conducted by Carey Morewedge, a psychologist at Carnegie Mellon University, concluded that by imagining yourself eating a specific food, you can reduce your interest in that food and therefore eat less of it. This is known as habituation and is thought to occur naturally when we eat. Habituation was previously thought to only occur while you are actually eating but Morewedges study has found that this can occur through the power of your own mind.. The answer to stopping a food craving does not come by thinking just about how the food ...
If you can study something behavioral on college students, you can bet it gets studied a lot. Its easy and cheap to run these sorts of tests. Which is how we came to understand the power of pique and the risk of habituation.. It turns out that if you see something over and over again, you start to ignore it. And so marketers of all stripes work to pique your interest by making funky little adjustments. Theyll change the speed limit to 57, or hang a sign upside down. In one study, they found that a scientist dressed as a panhandler raised more money when he asked for 37 cents instead of a quarter. (No word about what happens when a panhandler dresses like a scientist.) And so, selfish marketers will put ʇuǝƃɹn in the subject line of an email that couldnt be less urgent…. This leads to pique blindness.. Just as bright white snow can overwhelm our retina so we cant see very well, all of this pique to fight habituation has a downside. Its creating a culture of hustle and noise that only ...
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
Im stuck on the article! I get everything except for the noradrenaline bit in the Stressed out section, it says more noradrenaline is synthesized with repeated stress as a coping mechanism but shouldnt it be the other way around because the neurons are getting habituated? Also what exactly does noradrenaline do in the coping of stress? Thanks in advance for any help ...
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary Figures - complete blots for figure 5 mmc1. Committee (IACUC) under process # 160908-01, relative to the Information for the Treatment and Usage of Lab Animals released with the U.S. Institute for Lab Animal Analysis (8th model). For everyone experiments, pets were habituated to handling to tests prior. 2.3. Schwann cell size dimension To study the result of dental SCC on Schwann cell morphology, 20??103 (20k) RSC-96 cells were cultured in 6-well plates using the same variety of HSC-3 cells or DOK cells grown in cell inserts (3-m pore size, Corning, Fig.?1A). Control RSC-96 cells were cultured with inserts containing lifestyle media DMEM only. Following a day in co-culture, cell inserts had been discarded; RSC-96 cells had been set and stained with Diff-Quik option (Microptic) regarding the manufacturers process. The RSC-96 cells had been imaged under a Nikon Eclipse TI microscope. Cell body area was measured using Nikon Component software program ...
Penetrance is defined as the piece of people who maintain the gene and who emerge the cognate phenotype. Beforeaproper sewagesystemwasconstructed,peopleinlargecities sufferedfromdiseases(includingcholera)carriedin pollutedwater Demographic and epidemiological data is habituated to constantly through politicians and handling planners in orderliness to enquire into the characteristics and needs of local populations, and to turn up tell of intelligent decisions about new service developments or fettle interventions. Again integrated heedfulness pathways are in place to generate steadfast all patients are articulately monitored erectile dysfunction and coronary artery disease in patients with diabetes purchase extra super avana 260mg with amex erectile dysfunction doctors in coimbatore. In indiscretion or intercurrent illnesses is the instances, above all during the first sign of most notable determinant of outcome in a metabolic disease, i. Arginine also comes in the by-prescription-only ...
Many of us are here because of pain. Whether it was getting habituated/addicted to prescription pain medications or using unlawful drugs to self-treat pain, whether it might be because you are...
Some college students passing a good time of their life are more interested to become a member of the team and habituated to drink more resulting vomiting but they do not care to think it a mistreatment of alcohol. On the other hand there are many people whose religions needs self-discipline think that tasting of Read more ...
Tinnitus rehabiliation device and method - A tinnitus method and device for providing relief to a person suffering from the disturbing effects of tinnitus is described. The method can be implemented entirely in software to spectrally modify an audio signal in accordance with a predetermined masking algorithm which modifies the intensity of the audio signal at selected frequencies. A predetermined masking algorithm is described which provides intermittent masking of the tinnitus wherein, at a comfortable listening level, during peaks of the audio signal the tinnitus is completely obscured, whereas during troughs the perception of the tinnitus occasionally emerges. In practice it has been found that such intermittent masking provides an immediate sense of relief, control and relaxation for the person, whilst enabling sufficient perception of the tinnitus for habituation and long term treatment to occur. Advantageously the predetermined masking algorithm is specifically tailored to the audiometric ...
Will not be boring. During such sessions do not have to count the number of lifts lazily torso, gathering on the third and top ten in the break chatting with a girlfriend. Here have to work to wear, because high intensity - is, for example, 25 sit-ups in half a minute, then ten seconds of rest, then squats and stay again. And muscle escape the effect of habituation ...
Habituation to a specific practice, such as drinking alcoholic beverages or using drugs (for example, heroin, cocaine, or amphetamines), and disorders characterized by the chronic use of a drug, alcohol, or similar substance. Addiction and addictive ...
Habituation to a specific practice, such as drinking alcoholic beverages or using drugs (for example, heroin, cocaine, or amphetamines), and disorders characterized by the chronic use of a drug, alcohol, or similar substance. Addiction and addictive ...
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Unfolding reveals the rest of the hierarchy. I imagine that maintaining the hierarchy after applying the filter could prove almost impossible and I thought it could be powerful enough in its most simple form. Having a filter in effect would remove hierarchy (expand all and remove level distinction) and only show items that contain the filter text (using Name Matching method if thats possible to implement). That is, entering the word usp_aoeuaoeu would keep the 7 rows (where that string occurs) in the view but typing ALTER PROCEDURE would only keep that one ...
most claims of evidence of global warming are guilty of something called the prosecutors fallacy. In its simple form it runs as follows, for instance, if A shoots B, with near certainty there will be gunpowder evidence on As hands. On the other hand, in a legal proceeding this is often flipped, so that it is argued that if C has evidence of gunpowder on his hands, then C shot B ...
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Siphon (?), n. [F. siphon, L. sipho, -onis, fr. Gr. a siphon, tube, pipe.] 1. A device, consisting of a pipe or tube bent so as to...
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Psychophysiologic" by people in this website by year, and whether "Habituation, Psychophysiologic" was a major or minor topic ... "Habituation, Psychophysiologic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Habituation, Psychophysiologic" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Habituation, Psychophysiologic". ...
Habituation, Psychophysiologic * Physical Stimulation * Reflex / physiology* ...
Schizophrenic patients exhibit impairments in both sensorimotor gating and habituation in a number of paradigms. Through human ... Gating and habituation of the startle reflex in schizophrenic patients Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1992 Mar;49(3):206-15. doi: 10.1001 ... Habituation, Psychophysiologic / physiology* * Humans * Male * Physical Stimulation * Reaction Time / physiology* * Reflex, ... Schizophrenic patients exhibit impairments in both sensorimotor gating and habituation in a number of paradigms. Through human ...
Habituation, Psychophysiologic*. Intensive Care Units, Neonatal*. Male. Noise*. Grant Support. ID/Acronym/Agency: DC 243/DC/ ... can alter habituation. Chicks were incubated, hatched, and reared in either a quiet or a NICU-sound environment. Habituation ...
Habituation, Psychophysiologic. Humans. Infant. Knowledge*. Learning*. Male. Mental Recall. Orientation*. Pattern Recognition, ...
Psychophysiologic assessment: To show lack of response habituation to repeatedly presented stimuli (in respiratory period, ...
Habituation, Psychophysiologic/*drug effects, Hallucinogens/*pharmacology, Haloperidol/pharmacology, Male, Mice, NG- ... on drug-induced deficit in habituation. RESULTS: PCP (4 mg/kg), MK-801 (0.4 mg/kg) and D-AMP (5.0 mg/kg), impaired habituation ... OBJECTIVES: The first aim of the present study was to investigate if PCP, MK-801 and D-AMP impair habituation of acoustic ... Habituation of acoustic startle is disrupted by psychotomimetic drugs: differential dependence on dopaminergic and nitric oxide ...
Habituation, Psychophysiologic, Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers, Haloperidol, Halothane, Haplorhini, Head, Heart, Heart Rate, ...
Habituation, Psychophysiologic, Happiness, Heart Rate, Hostility, Human-computer interaction, Humans, Image Processing, ...
Age Factors, Aging, physiology, Animals, Exploratory Behavior, physiology, Female, Growth Hormone, metabolism, Habituation, ... Psychophysiologic, physiology, Insulin-Like Growth Factor I, genetics, metabolism, Liver, physiology, Male, Maze Learning, ... activity level and an altered habituation process. These results indicate that liver-derived IGF-I mediates at least part of ... there were several signs of an altered habituation process with different time patterns of locomotor activity and horizontal ...
TAGS: habituation, psychophysiologic, motion, training, transfer technique Journal of Vision. 2019; 19(4):6. doi: https://doi. ...
Habituation, Psychophysiologic, Humans, Waiting Lists National Category Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Identifiers. ... Hyperreactivity in the autonomous nervous system is supposed to hinder habituation processes and might contribute to ... habituation, hospital admission, human, male, methodology, middle aged, multimodality cancer therapy, pathophysiology, ... biofeedback treatment targeting physiological activity ought to reduce tinnitus annoyance and facilitate habituation. ...
Habituation, Psychophysiologic 1 0 Headache Disorders, Secondary 1 0 Hepatitis C, Chronic 1 0 ...
Habituation, Psychophysiologic 2 0 HIV Infections 2 0 Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture 2 0 ...
Habituation, Psychophysiologic Entry term(s). Habituation (Psychophysiology) Habituation, Psychophysiological Habituations ( ... Habituation Entry term(s):. Habituation (Psychophysiology). Habituation, Psychophysiological. Habituations (Psychophysiology). ... Habituation, Psychophysiologic - Preferred Concept UI. M0009735. Scope note. The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated ... It does not include drug habituation.. Allowable Qualifiers:. CL classification. DE drug effects. ES ethics. GE genetics. PH ...
C16 - Congenital, Hereditary, and Neonatal Diseases and Abnormalities ...
Habituation, Psychophysiologic. *Humans. *Models, Psychological. *Reinforcement, Psychology. Grant support. *Intramural NIH HHS ...
Habituation, Psychophysiologic. *Mice. *Mice, Inbred C57BL. *Reinforcement (Psychology)*. Grant support. *MH066172/MH/NIMH NIH ...
We hypothesized inadequate habituation to stress in CD patients. The aim of this study was to compare the neural habituation ... The inadequate habituation to stress that we found in patients could play a role in the relationship between stress and ... Habituation to stress is an adaptive process that allows minimizing these responses. ... suggesting altered habituation to stress in patients. These structures regulate the neuroendocrine and autonomic stress-evoked ...
Habituation, Psychophysiologic (MeSH) * Male (MeSH) * Mice (MeSH) * Mice, Inbred C57BL (MeSH) * Mice, Knockout (MeSH) ...
Habituation, Psychophysiologic (D006185) Cerebellum (D002531) Morphine Dependence (D009021) Morphine (D009020) Body Weight ( ...
Cognition/diagnosis , Habituation, Psychophysiologic/etiology , Habituation, Psychophysiologic/physiology , Headache/physiology ... Female , Habituation, Psychophysiologic , Humans , Male , Medical Audit , Qualitative Research , Retrospective Studies , ... Auditory Threshold , Habituation, Psychophysiologic , Health Status , Humans , Needs Assessment , Negativism , Noise/adverse ... Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases , Habituation, Psychophysiologic , Self Efficacy , Task ...
Habituation, Psychophysiologic - physiology , Adult , Cerebral Cortex - physiology , Female , Amygdala - blood supply , Photic ... Functional connectivity , Insula , Emotion , Amygdala , Habituation , Psychology, Experimental , Neurosciences , Social ... Behavioral habituation during repeated exposure to aversive stimuli is an adaptive process. However, the way in which changes ... 2. Full Text The Neural Correlates of Anomalous Habituation to Negative Emotional Pictures in Borderline and Avoidant ...
Habituation, Psychophysiologic (D006185) Morphine Dependence (D009021) Locomotion (D008124) Morphine (D009020) Body Weight ( ...
By contrast, in other parts of the receptive field the degree of habituation was similar in both phases. The receptive field ... Gregarious locusts showed less habituation to repeated looming stimuli along the eye equator than did solitarious locusts. ... Animals, Behavior, Animal, Female, Grasshoppers, Habituation, Psychophysiologic, Male, Neurons, Afferent, Sense Organs, Social ... By contrast, in other parts of the receptive field the degree of habituation was similar in both phases. The receptive field ...
Pitman RK, Orr SP, Forgue DF, DeJong JB, Clairborn JM: Psychophysiologic assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder imagery in ... contrasted to the attenuated or dysregulated biological and behavioral responses characteristically associated with habituation ... Shalev AY, Orr SP, Pitman RK: Psychophysiologic assessment of traumatic imagery in Israeli civilian patients with posttraumatic ... Studies of psychophysiologic (1O5-108), electrophysiologic (109- 112), and neurochemical (109, 110, 113-118) alterations in ...
5) Adaptation to the best of these alternatives through habituation.. This is a rather left brain, logical process that uses a ... Guided imagery is used to help teach psychophysiologic relaxation, to relieve symptoms, to stimulate healing responses in the ... Habituation & Automaticity. Redundancy Effects show that we generally lose consciousness of repeated and predictable events. ... How this learning [habituation] actually occurs is better understood, perhaps, from a biological perspective. ...
Habituation, Kreutzberg J D, Levodopa/pharmacology, Male, Memory/*drug effects, Mice, Psychophysiologic/drug effects ... Treatment with MPTP severely disrupted the males habituation-dishabituation response… Tags: *Social Behavior, 1-Methyl-4- ... with MPTP or vehicle were tested for their ability to demonstrate a memory-recognition response as evaluated in a habituation- ...
  • Short-term habituation involves a temporary reduction in attention paid to recently presented stimuli, and is thus a distinct process from those that are involved in working memory in humans. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Habituation cognitive behavior was evaluated in 4 sessions, one week each session. (bvsalud.org)
  • Scopolamine potentiated the habituation in LA and decreased the obsessive-compulsive behavior in OF. (bvsalud.org)
  • PA had an anxiolytic effect and favored deshabituation, combined with nicotine induced an anxiogenic effect, galantamine favored habituation and scopolamine decreased obsessive-compulsive behavior and favored motor habituation indicated a possible anxiolytic effect. (bvsalud.org)
  • OBJECTIVES: The first aim of the present study was to investigate if PCP, MK-801 and D-AMP impair habituation of acoustic startle in mice. (gu.se)
  • RESULTS: PCP (4 mg/kg), MK-801 (0.4 mg/kg) and D-AMP (5.0 mg/kg), impaired habituation of the acoustic startle response in mice. (gu.se)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The finding that PCP, MK-801 and D-AMP impair habituation in mice is consistent with the idea that these treatments model certain filter deficits seen in schizophrenic patients. (gu.se)
  • At 20 mo of age, the LI-IGF-I-/- mice displayed a more prominent decrease in activity level with decreased horizontal activity throughout the test period, and at day 1, there were several signs of an altered habituation process with different time patterns of locomotor activity and horizontal activity compared with the control mice. (gu.se)
  • In conclusion, old LI-IGF-I-/- mice displayed a decrease in both horizontal and rearing (exploratory) activity level and an altered habituation process. (gu.se)
  • These mice show deficits in short-term habituation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This proposal links an established risk gene with a psychological process central to psychosis and is supported by findings of comparable deficits in short-term habituation in mice lacking the NMDAR receptor subunit Grin2a (which also shows association to schizophrenia). (ox.ac.uk)
  • The role of habituation in hippocampus-dependent spatial working memory tasks: evidence from GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit knockout mice. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We now argue that the spatial alternation deficit in GluA1 knockout mice is due to an inability to show stimulus-specific, short-term habituation to recently experienced stimuli. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We have recently demonstrated that GluA1 knockout mice show impaired short-term habituation, but, surprisingly, show enhanced long-term spatial habituation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Exploratory and habituation phenotype of heterozygous and homozygous COMT knockout mice. (rcsi.ie)
  • Male mice treated with MPTP or vehicle were tested for their ability to demonstrate a memory-recognition response as evaluated in a habituation-dishabituation task. (omeka.net)
  • The psychophysiological assessments measured psychophysiologic reactivity to loud tones and the acquisition and extinction of a conditioned fear response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The task elicited different neural activity between the groups across runs in (1) amygdala, hippocampus, (2) insula, putamen (3) cerebellar regions, suggesting altered habituation to stress in patients. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Secondly, we examine the effect of the NOS inhibitor, L-NAME, and the dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol, on drug-induced deficit in habituation. (gu.se)
  • Furthermore, the present results suggest that NO is critically involved in these effects on habituation, whereas that of dopamine is less clear. (gu.se)
  • Conditional knockout of tumor overexpressed gene in mouse neurons affects RNA granule assembly, granule translation, LTP and short term habituation. (umassmed.edu)
  • After that age repeated stimulation resulted in habituation, as is observed in the adult. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Two different habituation-dishabituation test paradigms were used to evaluate differences in social memory/recognition among 3-, 15- and 22-month-old male Fischer 344 rats. (omeka.net)
  • Furthermore, to investigate whether perceptual habituation to dyspnoea stimuli occurs, the study was repeated over four experimental sessions. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We did not observe perceptual habituation over the four sessions. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Habituation, Psychophysiologic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • A role for impaired short-term habituation and the GRIA1 (GluA1) AMPA receptor subunit. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We propose that this mouse phenotype represents a cause of aberrant salience and, in turn, that aberrant salience (and the resulting positive symptoms) in schizophrenia may arise, at least in part, from a glutamatergic genetic predisposition and a deficit in short-term habituation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Desiderato O, Testa M (1976) Shock-stress, gastric secretion and habituation fistula rats. (springer.com)
  • The contribution that components of the hippocampal system in the rat make to the modulation of attention or stimulus processing was assessed using several simple behavioural assays: the orienting response (OR) to a novel stimulus, the subsequent habituation and dishabituation of this OR, and the latent inhibition effect that typically results from repeated exposure to a stimulus. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We first evaluated infants' abilities to discriminate naturally uttered single/geminate obstruents (/pata/ and /patta/) using the visual habituation-dishabituation method. (duke.edu)
  • Hyperreactivity in the autonomous nervous system is supposed to hinder habituation processes and might contribute to maladjustment to tinnitus symptoms in the long run. (diva-portal.org)
  • A univariate relationship was also observed between pre-trauma heart rate (HR) reactivity to fear cues during conditioning and post-trauma psychophysiologic reactivity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These effects have important implications for our understanding of habituation and latent inhibition, and the neural mechanisms involved in attentional modulation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Accordingly, biofeedback treatment targeting physiological activity ought to reduce tinnitus annoyance and facilitate habituation. (diva-portal.org)
  • In a controlled study we have searched for a differentiation in autonomous activation between patients having low and high methadone plasma levels, using static and dynamic pupillometry and habituation of skin conductance response. (nih.gov)
  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging study reveals differences in the habituation to psychological stress in patients with Crohn's disease versus healthy controls. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The aim of this study was to compare the neural habituation between CD patients and controls. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Software was designed to enable automatic training in all its phases, including habituation, shaping, and learning. (bvsalud.org)
  • Starvation-induced changes in memory sensitization, habituation and psychosomatic responses. (journalacri.com)
  • Habituation to stress is an adaptive process that allows minimizing these responses. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Sleep is a natural periodic state of rest essential for normal psychophysiologic responses. (journalacri.com)
  • We hypothesized inadequate habituation to stress in CD patients. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The inadequate habituation to stress that we found in patients could play a role in the relationship between stress and inflammatory exacerbations in CD. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Sensitization also occurred in newborn rat pups, which changed at four postnatal weeks to habituation. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Habituation, Psychophysiologic" by people in this website by year, and whether "Habituation, Psychophysiologic" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • Post-trauma assessment included a measure of psychophysiologic reactivity during recollection of the traumatic event using a script-driven imagery task. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The notions of functional correspondences of correspondence between a macrocosm and a microcosm misrepresent the case: the distinguished structures to which functional correspondences are mapped are distinct identities only after the Western or modernizing cultural fact of enculturated IBE habituation, and CORRESPOND to nothing in the actual case. (oocities.org)
  • Polytobacco use and risk perceptions among young adults: The potential role of habituation to risk. (umassmed.edu)
  • The influence of selective lesions to components of the hippocampal system on the orienting [correction of orientating] response, habituation and latent inhibition. (ox.ac.uk)
  • El objetivo de esta revisión es describir los mecanismos que subyacen a la conducta del neonato durante la aplicación de la subescala de habituación que forma parte de la Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS), con especial énfasis en la vía visual. (bvsalud.org)
  • PA had anxiolytic and antidepressant effect effect in AM, combined with nicotine potentiated an anxiogenic effect in AM, galantamine favored habituation in OF. (bvsalud.org)