RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Virus Latency: The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Mumps virus: The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Viruses, Unclassified: Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Sendai virus: The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Myxoma virus: The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Cowpox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Variola virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.Lassa virus: A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.Norwalk virus: The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Encephalitis Viruses: A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.DNA Virus InfectionsVirus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Epstein-Barr Virus Infections: Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.Leukemia Virus, Feline: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus: A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.Hepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.RNA Virus InfectionsSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Oncolytic Viruses: Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.Orf virus: The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.Human T-lymphotropic virus 1: A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral: A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Friend murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse: The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Sarcoma Viruses, Murine: A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).Archaeal Viruses: Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Influenza A Virus, H7N7 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. The H7N7 subtype produced an epidemic in 2003 which was highly pathogenic among domestic birds (POULTRY). Some infections in humans were reported.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Fowlpox virus: The type species of the genus AVIPOXVIRUS. It is the etiologic agent of FOWLPOX.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Leukemia Virus, Bovine: The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.DucksHendra Virus: A species of HENIPAVIRUS first identified in Australia in 1994 in HORSES and transmitted to humans. The natural host appears to be fruit bats (PTEROPUS).Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Borna disease virus: A species in the genus Bornavirus, family BORNAVIRIDAE, causing a rare and usually fatal encephalitic disease in horses and other domestic animals and possibly deer. Its name derives from the city in Saxony where the condition was first described in 1894, but the disease occurs in Europe, N. Africa, and the Near East.Bunyamwera virus: A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Distemper Virus, Canine: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Rinderpest virus: A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing cattle plague, a disease with high mortality. Sheep, goats, pigs, and other animals of the order Artiodactyla can also be infected.Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 9. This avian origin virus was first identified in humans in 2013.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Herpesvirus 3, Human: The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Monkeypox virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing an epidemic disease among captive primates.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 18.104.22.168.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.African Swine Fever Virus: The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Respirovirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.Reticuloendotheliosis virus: A species in the group RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN of the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS that causes a chronic neoplastic and a more acute immunosuppressive disease in fowl.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Rift Valley fever virus: A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.Infectious Anemia Virus, Equine: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Infectious bronchitis virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.Herpesvirus 1, Suid: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Torque teno virus: A species of non-enveloped DNA virus in the genus ANELLOVIRUS, associated with BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS; and HEPATITIS. However, no etiological role has been found for TTV in hepatitis.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Influenza A Virus, H5N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 2. The H5N2 subtype has been found to be highly pathogenic in chickens.AKR murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.Ectromelia virus: A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS infecting mice and causing a disease that involves internal organs and produces characteristic skin lesions.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Avian myeloblastosis virus: A species of ALPHARETROVIRUS causing anemia in fowl.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Influenza A Virus, H1N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 2. It is endemic in both human and pig populations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Ross River virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)Gene Products, env: Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.Classical swine fever virus: A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Proviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.Inclusion Bodies, Viral: An area showing altered staining behavior in the nucleus or cytoplasm of a virus-infected cell. Some inclusion bodies represent "virus factories" in which viral nucleic acid or protein is being synthesized; others are merely artifacts of fixation and staining. One example, Negri bodies, are found in the cytoplasm or processes of nerve cells in animals that have died from rabies.Serial Passage: Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Ebolavirus: A genus in the family FILOVIRIDAE consisting of several distinct species of Ebolavirus, each containing separate strains. These viruses cause outbreaks of a contagious, hemorrhagic disease (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER, EBOLA) in humans, usually with high mortality.Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease: Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses (DIARRHEA VIRUSES, BOVINE VIRAL). Often mouth ulcerations are the only sign but fever, diarrhea, drop in milk yield, and loss of appetite are also seen. Severity of clinical disease varies and is strain dependent. Outbreaks are characterized by low morbidity and high mortality.SARS Virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Respirovirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.Vesiculovirus: A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
"Protection and Virus Shedding of Falcons Vaccinated against Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A Virus (H5N1)". Emerging ... individuals having been found infected with highly pathogenic H5N1 (in Saudi Arabia) and H7N7 (in Italy) strains. Therefore, an ... which found that 5 falcons vaccinated with a commercial H5N2 influenza vaccine survived infection with a highly pathogenic H5N1 ...
Influenza A virus subtype H7N9
We think this virus is more easily transmitted from poultry to humans than H5N1." Furthermore, there is great concern because ... However, later investigation demonstrated that H7N9 may infect wild songbirds and caged parakeets which then shed the virus ... H7N9 is a bird flu strain of the species Influenza virus A (avian influenza virus or bird flu virus). Avian influenza A H7 ... The avian influenza A(H7N9) virus is a subgroup among this larger group of H7 viruses. Although some H7 viruses (e.g. H7N2, ...
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1
Birds are also able to shed the virus for longer periods of time before their death, increasing the transmissibility of the ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause ... A bird-adapted strain of H5N1, called HPAI A(H5N1) for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1, is ... "Antigenic and genetic characteristics of H5N1 viruses and candidate H5N1 vaccine viruses developed for potential use as pre- ...
H5N1 genetic structure
Webster in July 2005 reveal further progression toward pathogenicity in mice and longer virus shedding by ducks. Asian lineage ... H5N1 genetic structure is the molecular structure of the H5N1 virus's RNA. H5N1 is an Influenza A virus subtype. Experts ... for H5N1 article Antigenic and genetic characteristics of H5N1 viruses and candidate H5N1 vaccine viruses developed for ... "Antigenic and genetic characteristics of H5N1 viruses and candidate H5N1 vaccine viruses developed for potential use as pre- ...
Avian influenza in cats
The specific virus that they get is H5N1, which is a subtype of Avian Influenza. In order to get the virus, cats need to be in ... However, it was also found that cats can still shed some of the virus but in low numbers. If a cat is exhibiting symptoms, they ... Two of the main organs that the virus affects are the lungs and liver. The H5N1 virus has been found in China, Thailand, ... Because the virus infects the lungs of cats, it is one of the preferred model animals to study the effects of H5N1 in humans. ...
This variant of the H5N1 virus also illustrates the continuing evolution of the H5N1 virus, and its emergence has caused ... Webster in July 2005 reveal further progression toward pathogenicity in mice and longer virus shedding by ducks. Asian lineage ... "Antigenic and genetic characteristics of H5N1 viruses and candidate H5N1 vaccine viruses developed for potential use as pre- ... "Antigenic and genetic characteristics of H5N1 viruses and candidate H5N1 vaccine viruses developed for potential use as pre- ...
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1
Mutations occurring within this genotype are increasing their pathogenicity. Birds are also able to shed the virus for ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause ... Low pathogenic H5N1. Low pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (LPAI H5N1) also called "North American" H5N1 commonly occurs in ... H5N1) for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1, is the highly pathogenic causative agent of H5N1 ...
Spanish flu research
Influenza viruses have a relatively high mutation rate that is characteristic of RNA viruses. The H5N1 virus has mutated into a ... Results reported by Webster in July 2005 reveal further progression toward pathogenicity in mice and longer virus shedding by ... of the 1918 virus and subsequent human viruses differ by only 10 amino acids from the avian influenza viruses. Viruses with ... Such mutations in avian H5N1 viruses can change virus strains from being inefficient at infecting human cells to being as ...
"The emergence and diversification of panzootic H5N1 influenza viruses". Virus Research. H5N1. 178 (1): 35-43. doi:10.1016/j. ... To try to control this, scientists did research involving the shed feathers of domestic ducks to test the prevalence of H5N1. ... "We have received now confirmation that the virus found in Turkey is an avian flu H5N1 virus. There is a direct relationship ... It is feared that if the avian influenza virus combines with a human influenza virus (in a bird or a human), the new subtype ...
Intensive animal farming
In fact, the root cause of the continuing H5N1 pandemic threat may be the way the pathogenicity of H5N1 viruses is masked by ... Piglets also may be weaned and removed from the sows at between two and five weeks old  and placed in sheds. However, grower ... the virus mutates in response to the antibodies - and now we have a situation where we have five or six "flavours" of H5N1 out ... "CNN". CDC H5N1 Outbreaks and Enzootic Influenza by Robert G. Webster et al. "Expert: Bad vaccines may trigger China bird flu". ...
Until H5N1, all known avian influenza viruses had a Glu at position 627, while all human influenza viruses had a Lys.[citation ... in order to create an infection that could shed aerosolized virus particles. Such an infection, however, must occur in the ... The highly pathogenic influenza A virus subtype H5N1 is an emerging avian influenza virus that is causing global concern as a ... Health experts are concerned that the coexistence of human flu viruses and avian flu viruses (especially H5N1) will provide an ...
Pandemic H1N1/09 virus
... virus is less likely to take on genetic material." The H5N1 virus is mostly limited to birds, but in rare cases when it infects ... but it has been found that they can continue to shed virus for several days after that. The virulence of swine flu virus is ... The Pandemic H1N1/09 virus is a swine origin Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 virus strain responsible for the 2009 flu pandemic ... In July 2009, WHO experts named the virus "pandemic H1N1/09 virus" to distinguish it from both various seasonal H1N1 virus ...
Global spread of H5N1
H5N1 virus confirmed as the cause of death for a 32-year-old man from Quảng Bình Province, Vietnam. March 19, 2009: H5N1 virus ... H5N1 has the potential to infect cattle. Asymptomatic shedding of H5N1 by infected calves and subsequent seroconversion is ... and it is in this region that multiple clades of H5N1 influenza virus have already emerged. The Asian H5N1 virus was first ... H5N1 virus confirmed as the cause of death for a 23-year-old woman from Thanh Hóa, Vietnam. July 1, 2009: Three cases of H5N1 ...
31 March 2009). "H5N1 virus may be adapting to pigs in Indonesia". University of Minnesota: Center for Infectious Disease ... it does not block infection or shedding of the virus. Facility management includes using disinfectants and ambient temperature ... Swine influenza virus (SIV) or swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is ... A triple reassortment event in a pig host of North American H1N1 swine virus, the human H3N2 virus and avian H1N1 virus ...
Avian flu H5N1 is present in wild bird populations and can be carried large distances by migrating birds. This virus is easily ... The birds may be harvested on several occasions or the whole shed may be cleared at one time. A similar rearing system is ... An outbreak of Nipah virus in Malaysia in 1999 was traced back to pigs becoming ill after contact with fruit-eating flying ... In the developed world, the majority of the poultry reared for meat is raised indoors in big sheds, with automated equipment ...
Supari refused WHO researchers access to Indonesia's H5N1 bird flu virus samples in 2006. Indonesia resumed sending some H5N1 ... The following day a correspondence letter appeared in Nature shedding light on what had triggered the sudden shift in Supari's ... given the widespread reluctance of countries affected by the H5N1 virus to share their data, out of fear such disclosure could ... Supari would later describe in her book an affinity for Peter Bogner, his plea to her government to share its bird flu virus ...
... but with viral shedding preceding illness by one day. Children are much more infectious than adults and shed virus from just ... April 2006). "H5N1 Virus Attachment to Lower Respiratory Tract". Science. 312 (5772): 399. doi:10.1126/science.1125548. PMID ... In virus classification influenza viruses are RNA viruses that make up three of the five genera of the family Orthomyxoviridae ... In otherwise healthy adults, influenza virus shedding (the time during which a person might be infectious to another person) ...
Are viruses alive? The replicator paradigm sheds decisive light on an old but misguided question. Studies in History and ... Scientist studying the H5N1 influenza virus. Viruses are important to the study of molecular and cell biology as they provide ... I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ...
Are viruses alive? The replicator paradigm sheds decisive light on an old but misguided question. Studies in History and ... Scientist studying the H5N1 influenza virus. Viruses are important to the study of molecular and cell biology as they provide ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... Quote: "Virus: virus (s.n. II), gen. sing. viri, nom. pl. vira, gen. pl. vīrorum (to be distinguished from virorum, of men)." ...
... for H5N1 article Antigenic and genetic characteristics of H5N1 viruses and candidate H5N1 vaccine viruses developed for ... but with viral shedding preceding illness by one day. Children are much more infectious than adults and shed virus from ... H5N1), for "highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1") causes H5N1 flu, commonly known as "avian ... In virus classification, influenza viruses are RNA viruses that make up four of the seven genera of the family Orthomyxoviridae ...
... for H5N1 article Antigenic and genetic characteristics of H5N1 viruses and candidate H5N1 vaccine viruses developed for ... See especially Figure 5 which shows that virus shedding tends to peak on day 2 whereas symptoms tend to peak on day 3. ... September 2005). "Avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in humans". N Engl J Med. 353 (13): 1374-85. PMID 16192482. doi:10.1056/ ... Tri tipa influence utiču na ljude. Obično se virus širi putem vazduha iz kašlja i kijanja. This is believed to occur ...
In severely immunocompromised patients there were reports of prolonged shedding of oseltamivir- (or zanamivir)-resistant virus ... Heiberg, Marty (14 October 2005). "Oseltamivir-resistant H5N1 virus isolated from Vietnamese girl". University of Minnesota. ... In the 2013-2014 season only 1% of 2009 H1N1 viruses showed oseltamivir resistance. No other influenza viruses were resistant ... Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2013 Jan;7(Suppl 1):25-36. doi:10.1111/irv.12047 PMID 23279894 Hay, Alan J; Hayden, Frederick G ...
The host cell then forms new viruses that combine their antigens; for example, H3N2 and H5N1 can form H5N2 this way. Because ... Role in transmission of influenza viruses from non-human animals to people. Influenza A viruses are found in many ... It could occur with primate viruses and may be a factor for the appearance of new viruses in the human species such as HIV. Due ... Antigenic shift is the process by which two or more different strains of a virus, or strains of two or more different viruses, ...
Influenza bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
... for H5N1 article Antigenic and genetic characteristics of H5N1 viruses and candidate H5N1 vaccine viruses developed for ... Shedding virus influenza (waktu di mana seseorang dapat menularkan virus pada orang lain) dimulai satu hari sebelum gejala ... Virus influenza C. Virus-virus tersebut memiliki kekerabatan yang jauh dengan virus parainfluenza manusia, yang merupakan virus ... Jenis-jenis virusSunting. Dalam klasifikasi virus, virus influenza termasuk virus RNA yang merupakan tiga dari lima genera ...
... expressed in transgenic pigs have been shown to serve as virus receptors, and may also help to protect viruses from attack by ... While the procedure itself did not advance the progress on xenotransplantation, it did shed a light on the insufficient amount ... H5N1) Infection in Humans". New England Journal of Medicine. 353 (13): 1374-1385. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.730.7890. doi:10.1056/ ... Unknown viruses, as well as those not harmful in the animal, may also pose risks. Of particular concern are PERVS (porcine ...
... while the dependence on cold appears to be due to infected hosts shedding the virus for a longer period of time. The ... 2007 Bernard Matthews H5N1. *2007 Australian equine. *2006 H5N1 India. *1976 swine flu ... The flu shot is made up of inactivated (killed) viruses, and the nasal spray vaccines are made up of live viruses. The flu shot ... Three virus families, Influenzavirus A, B, and C are the main infective agents that cause influenza. During periods of cooler ...
Figure 3 - Protection and Virus Shedding of Falcons Vaccinated against Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A Virus (H5N1) -...
Vaccinated birds showed no influenza virus antigen in tissues and shed virus at lower titers from the oropharynx only. ... Vaccination could protect these valuable birds and, through reduced virus shedding, reduce risk for transmission to other avian ... and these birds shed high levels of infectious virus from the oropharynx and cloaca. ... Ten falcons vaccinated with an inactivated influenza virus (H5N2) vaccine seroconverted. We then challenged 5 vaccinated and 5 ...
Protection and virus shedding of falcons vaccinated against influenza A virus (H5N1) | Veterinary Sciences Tomorrow
Protection and virus shedding of falcons vaccinated against influenza A virus (H5N1). Posted on December 10, 2007. by Vetscite ... Vaccinated birds showed no influenza virus antigen in tissues and shed virus at lower titers from the oropharynx only. ... Because fatal infections with highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 have been reported in birds of prey ... Vaccination could protect these valuable birds and, through reduced virus shedding, reduce risk for transmission to other avian ...
Virus Shedding and Potential for Interspecies Waterborne Transmission of Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza Virus in Sparrows and...
To assess the duration and routes of virus shedding and the waterborne virus transmission of HPAI H5N1 virus between sparrows ... Virus Shedding and Potential for Interspecies Waterborne Transmission of Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza Virus in Sparrows and ... the sparrows shed virus for several days, and their drinking water was rapidly contaminated with virus. The long-term shedding ... Our findings on the shedding of HPAI H5N1 virus in infected sparrows, when taken together with the ethological knowledge of ...
H5N1: COVID-19: Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks
Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks. The abstract: We identified seasonal human ... coronaviruses, influenza viruses and rhinoviruses in exhaled breath... ... COVID-19: Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks. Thanks to Mike Coston for tweeting the link ... Thanks to Mike Coston for tweeting the link to this short report in Nature Medicine: Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled ...
Mutant H5N1 Virus Stirs Biosafety Debate
While research on the lab-altered H5N1 virus that can be transmitted between mammals in laboratories is put on hold, scientists ... New documentary on the alt-right sheds light on the movements beginnings. 2 reactions0%100%0% ... While research on the lab-altered H5N1 virus that can be transmitted between mammals in laboratories is put on hold, scientists ... Predicting the Next Major Virus] While some maintain this research is crucial to preventing or mitigating an H5N1 pandemic, ...
Saker falcon - Wikipedia
"Protection and Virus Shedding of Falcons Vaccinated against Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A Virus (H5N1)". Emerging ... individuals having been found infected with highly pathogenic H5N1 (in Saudi Arabia) and H7N7 (in Italy) strains. Therefore, an ... which found that 5 falcons vaccinated with a commercial H5N2 influenza vaccine survived infection with a highly pathogenic H5N1 ...
Gyrfalcon - Wikipedia
FT briefing: bird flu
Following Britains first outbreak of H5N1 virus on a commerical poultry farm, FT.com explains what causes the disease, how it ... How would the H5N1 virus have got into the Bernard Matthews turkey shed? ... Following Britains first outbreak of H5N1 virus on a commerical poultry farm, FT.com explains what causes the disease, how it ... Their droppings contain large amounts of virus, which can survive for weeks in dust and soil. A small bird carrying the virus ...
Role of domestic ducks in the propagation and biological evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses in Asia | PNAS
... the newer H5N1 viruses are shed primarily from the upper respiratory tract (3, 4). Our findings of H5N1 virus isolates from ... ducks that survived experimental infection with highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus shed virus for a prolonged period. Virus ... Selection of Variant H5N1 Viruses in Ducks. To detect antigenic changes associated with the extended shedding of virus, we ... The longer period of virus-shedding appears to be another characteristic of the H5N1 viruses currently circulating in ducks. ...
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 - Wikipedia
Mutations occurring within this genotype are increasing their pathogenicity. Birds are also able to shed the virus for ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause ... Low pathogenic H5N1. Low pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 (LPAI H5N1) also called "North American" H5N1 commonly occurs in ... H5N1) for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1, is the highly pathogenic causative agent of H5N1 ...
A Naturally Occurring Deletion in Its NS Gene Contributes to the Attenuation of an H5N1 Swine Influenza Virus in Chickens |...
... but virus shedding was not detected. All of the chickens survived during the observation period. The SW/FJ/03-01NS virus also ... Genetic analysis of the two H5N1 swine influenza viruses.The H5N1 influenza viruses SW/FJ/01 and SW/FJ/03, which were isolated ... Biological properties of the two H5N1 swine influenza viruses.Our previous study demonstrated that H5N1 viruses isolated from ... Weight changes in mice inoculated with H5N1 swine influenza viruses and a duck influenza virus. Groups of five mice were ...
New light shed on cause of lung injury in severe flu
To make their discovery, scientists infected three groups of mice with H1N1 flu virus. (Note: this is NOT the H5N1 flu virus ... H5N1 »Leukocyte »Leukocyte Biology »T cells »flu infection »flu virus »immune cell »immune response »killer T cells »lung ... Further reports about: , H5N1 , Leukocyte , Leukocyte Biology , T cells , flu infection , flu virus , immune cell , immune ... "As the H5N1 research shows, it is quite possible for the virus to mutate or be bioengineered into a form that could wipe most ...
Newcastle Disease Virus-Vectored Vaccines Expressing the Hemagglutinin or Neuraminidase Protein of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian...
Shedding of the NDV vaccine constructs from the respiratory tracts of AGM following immunization. AGM (4 animals per group) ... Newcastle Disease Virus-Vectored Vaccines Expressing the Hemagglutinin or Neuraminidase Protein of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian ... Newcastle Disease Virus-Vectored Vaccines Expressing the Hemagglutinin or Neuraminidase Protein of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian ... Newcastle Disease Virus-Vectored Vaccines Expressing the Hemagglutinin or Neuraminidase Protein of H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian ...
Mass turkey cull to halt bird flu in England - RT World News
A mass culling of turkeys has begun in southern England after an outbreak of the H5N1 strain of bird flu. This was the first ... has been confirmed as the deadly H5N1 strain of the virus. The main mystery now is how the virus reached the turkeys. And for ... The farm has about 22 turkey sheds, and all the birds will be culled. The bird flu that killed hundreds of turkeys in southern ... In recent weeks, H5N1 has killed 6 people in Indonesia and has spread through birds in Vietnam and Thailand. The virus has also ...
Interim Guidance for Specimen Collection, Processing, and Testing for Patients with Suspected Infection with Novel Influenza A...
... and Testing for Patients with Suspected Infection with Novel Influenza A Viruses Associated with Severe Disease in Humans - CDC ... influenza viral shedding in the lower respiratory tract has been documented for critically ill patients with HPAI H5N1 virus ... H5N1) virus using viral culture. Any work with live wild-type highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses must be conducted ... A demonstrated rise in the H5N1- or H7N9-specific antibody level is required for a diagnosis of H5N1 or H7N9 virus infection. ...
H5N1 Or Avian Influenza
Infected birds shed the H5N1 virus through secretions in their saliva, nose and feces. New birds get infected when they have ... There are two main types of the H5N1 virus. A low pathogenic strain commonly referred to as LPAI H5N1, and a high pathogenic ... H5N1 Or Avian Influenza*. By: Ponderweb. 15 Dec 2008. Influenza A virus is a member of the family Orthomyxoviridae. It is ... Testing for H5N1 is done by growing the virus out or a molecular test will be performed. (2) This process can take up to two ...
Welcome to CDC stacks | Avian Influenza A Virus (H5N1) Outbreaks, Kuwait, 2007 - 17181 | Emerging Infectious Diseases
Protection and Virus Shedding of Falcons Vaccinated against Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A Virus (H5N1) ... Phylogenetic analysis of influenza A viruses (H5N1) isolated from Kuwait in 2007 show that (H5N1) sublineage clade 2.2 viruses ... Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype Influenza In ... A preparedness plan for avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection was activated in Lebanon in 2016 after reported cases in ...
Welcome to CDC stacks
Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype Influenza In Birds Migratory Neurons Research Swans Virus Shedding Wild Birds Research ... Protection and Virus Shedding of Falcons Vaccinated against Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A Virus (H5N1) ... virus (H5N1). To determine whether red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are susceptible to infection with HPAI virus (H5N1), we infected ... virus subtype H5N1 epizootic and their contribution to the spread of the responsible viruses in Eurasia and Africa are unclear ...
Dead Swans Declare Avian Flu's Arrival in Italy and Nigeria | MedPage Today
The avian flu virus has made its way to western Europe and northern Africa, raising concerns that its appearance among ... immunocompromised patients may give the A(H5N1) strain an opening to mutat ... "One study found that ducks infected with H5N1 virus are now shedding more virus for longer periods without showing symptoms of ... In Atlanta, the CDC cautioned that there is little natural immunity to H5N1 strains of the influenza virus, raising the specter ...
Science Clips - Volume 9, Issue 26, June 5, 2017
Neuraminidase-based recombinant virus-like particles protect against lethal avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection in ferrets ... Moreover, N1-immune ferrets shed less infectious virus than similarly challenged control animals. In contrast, ferrets ... Avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses represent a growing threat for an influenza pandemic. The presence of widespread avian ... These results provide support for continued development of NA-based vaccines against influenza H5N1 viruses. ...
Detecting Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Domestic Duck Feathers - FluTrackers News and Information
... early detection of infected ducks that are shedding the virus would reduce the risk of spreading AI virus (H5N1) in a region ... detection of H5N1, but it could also be important. for spreading H5N1. is it similar for other flu-viruses ?. it could go ... Re: Detecting Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) in Domestic Duck Feathers. , larger amounts of viruses can be isolated for a longer ... H5N1) in asymptomatic domestic ducks. When virus shedding from domestic ducks is maintained at a low level of viral load during ...
Pharmaceuticals | Free Full-Text | Oromucosal Administration of Interferon to Humans | HTML
... virus inoculation blocked virus infection in two of four guinea pigs challenged with either H5N1 or 1918 influenza A virus. A ... antiviral potential of exogenous alpha interferon to reduce virus shedding. J. Virology 2009, 83, 2851-2861. [Google Scholar] ... Mice were inoculated with 1000, 100 or 10 MID50 of H5N1 viruses A/HongKong/483/97 or A/HongKong/486/97. IFNα/β receptor-deficit ... The authors concluded that the type I IFN response contributed to the early control of H5N1 virus infections, but was ...
Greater virulence of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus in cats than in dogs, Archives of Virology | 10.1007/s00705-014...
"Greater virulence of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus in cats than in dogs, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the ... Viruses were shed in the nose and rectum of cats and in the nose of dogs. Viruses were detected in brain, lung, kidney, ... Greater virulence of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus in cats than in dogs. Greater virulence of highly pathogenic H5N1 ... and pathogenesis of H5N1 virus in domestic cats and dogs to find out which animal is more susceptible to H5N1 influenza virus. ...
FoRK] [TNR] Chicken Little: We'll survive the bird flu
But the few autopsies that have been performed ,,# on h5n1 victims reveal virus deep in the crevasses of the lung ,,# tissues, ... With a respiratory infection, this ,,# generally means that germs must be shed in coughing, sneezing, or ,,# simply mouth- ... is that we dont actually know h5n1s true ,,# mortality rate. We have no idea how many people in Asia contracted ,,# h5n1, ... The virus didnt need to keep people well enough to walk ,,# about--fresh victims were close at hand. ,,# ,,# But now, ...
Publication : USDA ARS
Similarly, the Re-1 and Re-5 vaccines did not protect well against the 2011 H5N1 HPAI viruses. High number of ducks shed virus ... protection against mortality after challenge with the 2010 H5N1 HPAI viruses; however, the vaccinated ducks shed viruses for ... were protected after infection with the two H5N1 HPAI viruses isolated in 2008 showing no mortality and limited virus shedding ... the Re-1 and Re-5 vaccines did not protect well against the 2011 H5N1 HPAI viruses (HA clade 2.3.2). High number of ducks shed ...
Japanese Flu Drug Shows Promising Results in Patient Trials, Ask the Doctors | uexpress
... and also showed promise against the H5N1 and H7N9 strains. Because viral shedding was shown to be controlled within two days, ... Dear Doctor: Apparently Japan just approved a new drug that can get rid of the flu virus in one day. When can we get this drug ... Dear Reader: The prospect of a one-dose drug that kills the influenza virus in 24 hours would be remarkable. As the most severe ... Viruses are basically microscopic (and sub-microscopic) protein-covered packets of genetic material whose core function is to ...
Frontiers | Cell Receptors for Influenza a Viruses and the Innate Immune Response | Microbiology
However, due to the ability of the HA of avian, swine or human influenza viruses to bind differently linked SA, and to the high ... However, due to the ability of the HA of avian, swine or human influenza viruses to bind differently linked SA, and to the high ... with the cell surface is a key factor for entry of the virus and productive infection of the cell. This glycoprotein has ... with the cell surface is a key factor for entry of the virus and productive infection of the cell. This glycoprotein has ...
Immunogenetic Factors Associated with Severe Respiratory Illness Caused by Zoonotic H1N1 and H5N1 Influenza Viruses
This paper will summarize known immunogenetic factors associated with susceptibility or severity of both pH1N1 and H5N1 ... Following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and ongoing sporadic avian-to-human transmission of H5N1 viruses, an emphasis has been placed ... Overcoming these barriers and conducting collaborative research can lead to insights that will shed light on the varying degree ... 3. H5N1 Avian Influenza. Pathogenic avian influenza A/H5N1 viruses are endemic among poultry populations across Asia and Africa ...
Study refines view of H5N1 virus's binding preferences | CIDRAP
... complex than previously thought and have to do with the particular shape of the cell-surface sugar molecules to which viruses ... CIDRAP News) A research report published last week says that the factors governing whether H5N1 avian influenza viruses can ... said the study sheds important light on how avian viruses may adapt to humans, but he also added some caveats. ... They write that other flu virus genes may play a role in H5N1 transmission, but that mutations permitting the virus to bind to ...
Protocols and Video Articles Authored by John M. Pearce
Glass Wool Filters for Concentrating Waterborne Viruses and Agricultural Zoonotic Pathogens ... recent studies have shown several species of ducks capable of surviving experimental inoculations of H5N1 and shedding virus. ... To investigate the possibility of migratory birds as a means of H5N1 dispersal into North America, we monitored for the virus ... 2008 , Pubmed ID: 18533040 The global spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus has stimulated interest in a ...
- Inoculated birds shed virus at high titers from the oropharynx and cloaca, and infection was fatal. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Interestingly, the only confirmed presence of asymptomatic infection with HPAI H5N1 in wild birds was in tree sparrows in Henan Province, China. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Among sparrows, starlings, and pigeons inoculated with HPAI H5N1 virus isolates, only sparrows experienced lethal infection, and transmission to contact birds was extremely rare ( 2 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Therefore, an experiment was done with hybrid gyr-saker falcons, which found that 5 falcons vaccinated with a commercial H5N2 influenza vaccine survived infection with a highly pathogenic H5N1 strain, whereas 5 unvaccinated falcons died. (wikipedia.org)
- The available evidence shows that H5N1 infection is widespread among domestic ducks in southern China ( 2 ) and may therefore be endemic in domestic ducks throughout southeast Asia. (pnas.org)
- The diagnosis of H5N1 avian flu on one of Europe's largest turkey farms is deeply disturbing for the commercial poultry industry, after a year in which European birds had largely escaped infection by the virus. (ft.com)
- But anyway, flu virus dies at temperatures above 70 deg C so cooking removes any remote risk of H5NI infection from eating birds or eggs. (ft.com)
- As David Catlow, president of the British Veterinary Association, says, many experts thought that the greatest risk of infection was in small-scale back-yard poultry operations, where birds are more exposed to flu virus from wild birds - not in a modern, enclosed factory farm. (ft.com)
- This change in PB2 amino acid sequence influenced the outcome of the virus infection in mice ( 13 ). (asm.org)
- Invariant NKT cells reduce accumulation of inflammatory monocytes in the lungs and decrease immune-pathology during severe influenza A virus infection. (innovations-report.com)
- CDC recommends maintaining the enhanced surveillance efforts practiced currently by state and local health departments, hospitals, and clinicians to identify patients at increased risk for novel influenza A virus infection. (cdc.gov)
- Clinicians should notify their state health department immediately when they decide to test a patient for novel influenza A virus infection so that appropriate testing and follow up of contacts is initiated. (cdc.gov)
- Human infection with a novel influenza A virus is a nationally notifiable condition . (cdc.gov)
- See Interim Guidance for Infection Control Within Healthcare Settings When Caring for Confirmed Cases, Probable Cases, and Cases Under Investigation for Infection with Novel Influenza A Viruses Associated with Severe Disease for more information and consult CDC for specific case-by-case infection control recommendations if needed. (cdc.gov)
- Our results suggest that the intensive monitoring of dogs is necessary to prevent human infection by H5N1 influenza virus, since infected dogs may not show clear clinical signs, in contrast to infected cats. (deepdyve.com)
- Ducks vaccinated with the Re-1 vaccines were protected after infection with the two H5N1 HPAI viruses isolated in 2008 showing no mortality and limited virus shedding. (usda.gov)
- The interaction of the hemagglutinin (HA) of the influenza A viruses (IAV) with the cell surface is a key factor for entry of the virus and productive infection of the cell. (frontiersin.org)
- Historically, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) rarely resulted in infection or clinical disease in wild birds. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, since 2002, disease and mortality from natural HPAIV H5N1 infection have been observed in wild birds including gulls. (biomedcentral.com)
- A mouse model of infection was used to determine the infectivity and tissue tropism of the parental wt viruses compared to the ca master donor viruses as well as the H5N1 reassortants. (asm.org)
- To date, human-to-human transmission of H5N1 HPAI viruses has been very limited, and most cases of infection in humans have occurred through close contact with infected live or dead poultry ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
- At a dose of 10 mg/kg, zanamivir completely protected mice from infection with H9N2 viruses and increased the mean survival day and the number of survivors infected with H6N1 and H5N1 viruses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The increased prevalence of A/Quail/HK/G1/97 in poultry in China, together with serological evidence of infection in up to 60% of quail and up to 16% of quail shedding this virus in cages in Hong Kong poultry markets in 1999 to 2000 ( 10 ), increases the likelihood of transmission to mammals, including humans. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- We compared the infection rate of different subtype influenza viruses in human lung endothelial cells, and assessed the host response to infection," he says. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells support productive replication of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses: possible involvement in the pathogenesis of human H5N1 virus infection. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The experimental or natural infection of type A influenza virus infection of the dogs from human [ 5 , 6 ] and horse [ 3 , 7 ] were reported. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, fever is the most significant clinical feature in influenza virus infection. (biomedcentral.com)
- Why would influenza virus infection cause gastrointestinal symptoms? (virology.ws)
- The Ministry of Public Health in Thailand has today confirmed an additional case of H5N1 infection. (who.int)
- To date, Thailand has reported nine cases of human H5N1 infection. (who.int)
- The virus multiplies in the intestines of these birds, which can carry the virus without developing signs of infection, and very large quantities of virus are shed in faeces. (who.int)
- Many affected countries are reporting highly pathogenic H5N1 infection in birds for the first time in their histories. (who.int)
- The H5N1 strain is capable of infecting a broad range of hosts, which may help explain recent media reports of infections and deaths in mammalian and avian species not normally considered susceptible to infection and severe disease. (who.int)
- In humans, the disease caused by H5N1 infection differs from that usually caused by influenza viruses, where respiratory symptoms are dominant. (who.int)
- As of January 2007, more than 250 confirmed cases of human infection with A(H5N1) in 10 countries have been reported to WHO. (who.int)
- The results of the tests could shed light on numerous aspects of the strain's infection mechanism as well as pave the way for a human vaccine. (bio-medicine.org)
- This study explains why some age groups have been more prone to severe or fatal complications from an infection with new flu viruses. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- however, the data to date on H5N1 influenza virus infection in dogs are conflicting. (blogspot.com)
- Virus replication was detected in all animals that were euthanized on day 3 or day 5 post-infection and in the animal that died on day 4 post-infection. (blogspot.com)
- We report a fatal H5N1 infection in a dog following ingestion of an H5N1-infected duck during an outbreak in Thailand in 2004. (blogspot.com)
- Our results demonstrate that dogs are susceptible to infection with avian influenza (H5N1) virus and can shed virus from the nose without showing apparent signs of disease. (blogspot.com)
- Infection in Red Foxes Fed Infected Bird Carcasses," the authors discuss that eating infected wild birds may put wild carnivores at risk for infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. (cdc.gov)
- So to determine whether foxes were susceptible to infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, the investigators infected three foxes intratracheally. (cdc.gov)
- Experimental infection studies show that raccoons infected with avian and human influenza A viruses could shed and transmit the virus to virus-free animals and then they would seroconvert. (cdc.gov)
- The new study, using weakened viruses in the lab, supports the conclusions of controversial research published in 2012 which demonstrated that just a few genetic mutations could enable bird flu to spread between ferrets, which are used to model flu infection in humans. (evesdrift.com)
- We propose active surveillance to support prevention of spread of the virus, and in areas where infection is documented, culling of wild birds and infected poultry, especially domestic ducks. (blogspot.com)
- The PA-interacting host protein nucleolin acts as an antiviral factor during highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus infection. (amedeo.com)
- Moreover, if HIV and H5N1 co-infection amplifies the spread of H5N1, it could cause a significant increase in the numbers of people infected with the avian flu virus. (survivalmonkey.com)
- According to the world health organization (WHO) update, 2011, since 2003, 520 confirmed cases of human infection with H5N1 have been reported, of which 307 died due to disease complications. (hindawi.com)
- Current vaccines against AI viruses can reduce mortality, clinical signs, shedding, and transmission of the virus in poultry, but they are not capable of preventing infection and virus replication [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- [email protected]#To study the antiviral properties of the five Asian medicinal plants against in vitro infection by the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1). (bvsalud.org)
- Thereafter, they were investigated in vitro for antiviral activity and cytokine response upon H5N1 virus infection. (bvsalud.org)
- Thus, they were selected for further studies on their cytokine response upon virus infection. (bvsalud.org)
- The results of this study shed light on alternative therapeutic sources for treatment of H5N1 influenza virus infection in the future. (bvsalud.org)
- The identification and characterization of susceptibility loci for H5N1 infection in humans could have profound implications. (semanticscholar.org)
- The development of a safe and effective vaccine against H5N1 infection is important. (semanticscholar.org)
- However, neither virus appeared to be well adapted to chickens or turkeys and required a dose of 6log10 50% egg infectious doses (EID50) per bird to achieve 50% infection and did not transmit to contact exposure birds. (usda.gov)
- Adaptation, in the H2 hemagglutinin derived from an avian virus, includes the ability to bind to the mammalian receptor, a significant prerequisite for infection of mammals, in particular humans, which poses a big concern for public health. (plos.org)
- Both viruses replicated in the entire respiratory tract, but only swine H2N3 could be isolated from lung tissue on day 6 post infection. (plos.org)
- Pigs have been suggested to play an important role in transmission between birds and humans by acting as a "mixing vessel" for influenza viruses allowing for major genetic changes through reassortment of gene segments during co-infection , . (plos.org)
- Belser J, Szretter K, Katz J, Tumpey T. Simvastatin and oseltamivir combination therapy does not improve the effectiveness of oseltamivir alone following highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza virus infection in mice. (labome.org)
- Modest reductions in lung cytokine production in H5N1 but not H1N1 virus-infected simvastatin-treated mice indicate a potential benefit for statin use in mitigating disease following severe virus infection. (labome.org)
- This study provides evidence that intake of ginseng extract will have beneficial effects on preventing lethal infection with newly emerging influenza viruses. (labome.org)
- Belser J, Katz J, Tumpey T. The ferret as a model organism to study influenza A virus infection. (labome.org)
- Therefore swine can be infected with both avian and human influenza A viruses and serve as a source for infection for a number of species as the incidents of direct infection from birds to humans have been rare. (medsci.org)
- The influenza virus is of animal origin and its infection of humans may date back as early as 2000 B.C.E. when humans began to domesticate animals. (medsci.org)
- Since 1997 there have been more than 100 confirmed cases of human infection by avian bird flu virus. (targetwoman.com)
- Avian bird flu is an infection that is caused by bird flu viruses. (targetwoman.com)
- Symptoms of avian flu depend on the strain of virus that caused the infection. (targetwoman.com)
- Since mid 2003, Asian flu H5N1 has caused probably the largest outbreak of poultry infection. (targetwoman.com)
- Indonesia has also seen fatal cases of human infection of avian flu H5N1. (targetwoman.com)
- Avian influenza virus infection can be diagnosed using specimens of blood, sputum or from swabs of the nose and throat. (targetwoman.com)
- The continuous infection events (spill-over) from birds to humans increase the chance that reassortment with human endemic viruses will occur, or that human adaptation mutations will become fixed. (biomedcentral.com)
- To assess the susceptibility of pigeons (Columba livia) to infection with H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus ( HPAIV ), four groups of 1-yr-old and 4-wk-old racing pigeons (10 birds in each group) were inoculated oculonasally with 106 50% egg infectious dose ( EID50 ) of A/crested eagle/Belgium/0½004 (clade 1) or A/swan/Poland/305- 135V08 /2006 (clade 2.2). (sciensano.be)
- We then challenged 5 vaccinated and 5 nonvaccinated falcons with HPAI (H5N1). (vetscite.org)
- Under experimental conditions, passerine species have shown varied susceptibility to HPAI H5N1 viruses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The emergence of new reassortant variants between human viruses such as A (H1N1)pdm09 and H5N1 HPAI virus, potentially generating reassortants with the transmissibility of the 2009 H1N1 virus and the virulence of the HPAI H5N1 viruses, would pose a threat to public health ( 7 ). (asm.org)
- HPAI H5N1), this is not accurate. (lsu.edu)
- In other words, there are both HPAI H5N1 and LPH5N1 avian influenza viruses. (lsu.edu)
- The HPAI H5N1 strain of avian influenza was first identified in Hong Kong in 1997, and behaves as an HPAI strain. (lsu.edu)
- No specific cause for the February 2007 outbreak of HPAI H5N1 in England has yet been identified, but it has been suggested the outbreak may be linked to frozen uncooked turkey meat imported from Hungary where there had been an outbreak of HPAI H5N1 a month earlier. (lsu.edu)
- In addition, the persistence of two highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses from Asia was examined to provide some insight into the potential for these viruses to be transmitted and maintained in the environments of wild bird populations. (huehner-info.de)
- Results from the two HPAI H5N1 viruses from Asia indicate that these viruses did not persist as long as the wild-type AIVs. (huehner-info.de)
- These results suggest that the duck has become the "Trojan horse" of Asian H5N1 influenza viruses. (pnas.org)
- A low pathogenic strain commonly referred to as LPAI H5N1, and a high pathogenic strain referred to as HPAI H5N1or Asian H5N1. (alpharubicon.com)
- The Asian H5N1 was first diagnosed in the Americas in Canada in January 2014. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The high-path virus is sometimes called Asian H5N1. (storey.com)
- The vaccine for H5N1 is not widely available, and drug resistance and a slow distribution system for antiviral drugs mean a small outbreak could not be contained, they contend. (yahoo.com)
- CHINA - Considering the widespread nature of the current H5N1 outbreak in Asia and the capability of influenza viruses to jump the species barriers, it is inevitable that H5N1 virus will be detected in some pigs. (thepigsite.com)
- On 24 August 2014, the Minister of Health in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) confirmed an outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in the area of Djera, outside Boende, Equateur province, northern DRC. (typepad.com)
- Available epidemiological data, as well as preliminary laboratory findings, indicate a low likelihood that the DRC outbreak is related to the much larger ongoing outbreak in west Africa, but only the final laboratory analysis can shed more definite light on this. (typepad.com)
- However, a Qinghai-like H5N1 virus caused an outbreak in migratory waterfowl during 2005 before spreading from Asia to Europe and Africa ( 3 , 4 ). (blogspot.com)
- Early in 2014, an outbreak of HPAI caused by a novel reassortant H5N8 virus occurred in Korea. (blogspot.com)
- It has been suggested that viruses belonging to the major genotypes Buan2 and Donglim3 might be reassortants containing the polymerase basic protein 2, hemagglutinin (HA), nucleoprotein, and neuraminidase (NA) genes from viruses in the outbreak in China during 2010 (A/duck/Jiangsu/k1203/2013 (H5N8) ( 17 ). (blogspot.com)
- About 2,500 turkeys died in the initial outbreak of the virus, which appears to have been confined to one of 22 sheds at the farm. (enn.com)
- When there is the desire for routine vaccination, constant reformulation of AI vaccines is required according to the circulating field virus, which can be cumbersome in the case of an immediate outbreak. (hindawi.com)
- Replication of H5N1 HPAIV in RM and AGM. (asm.org)
- A through D) The NS (A and C) and TL (B and D) samples were assayed by limiting dilution (A and B) to measure infectious virus and by QRT-PCR (C and D) to measure HPAIV RNA. (asm.org)
- E) Titers of infectious H5N1 HPAIV in various tissues taken at necropsy were determined by plaque titration of tissue homogenates. (asm.org)
- We inoculated sixteen black-headed gulls with 1 × 10 4 median tissue culture infectious dose HPAIV H5N1 (A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005) intratracheally and intraesophageally. (biomedcentral.com)
- Also, black-headed gulls are listed by the European Food Safety Authority [ 9 ] as having higher probability to be exposed to Asian linage HPAIV H5N1 during migration outside the European Union, because of their gregarious behaviour and their tendency to use both wild areas and built-up areas. (biomedcentral.com)
- We focussed this study based on our previous work that demonstrated that single reassortment of the NS-segment from an H5 HPAIV into an H7 HPAIV changes the ability of the virus to replicate in mammalian hosts. (biomedcentral.com)
- Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a highly contagious disease which is a zoonotic pathogen of significant economic and public health concern. (biomedcentral.com)
- The mean death time in all species was late (3-9 days post exposure) when compared to H5N1 HPAIV (2-3 days). (usda.gov)
- These results suggest the intercontinental H5N8 and H5N2 HPAIVs have reduced virulence and transmissibility for gallinaceous host compared to historical H5N1 HPAIV while maintaining low virulence and high infectivity for wild waterfowl. (usda.gov)
- H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a major animal pathogen and public health threat. (ox.ac.uk)
- However, little is known about how H5N1 HPAIV emerged and established in Indonesia. (ox.ac.uk)
- To address these questions, we analysed Indonesian H5N1 HPAIV gene sequences isolated during 2003-2007. (ox.ac.uk)
- Our results support the observations that pigeons are resistant to H5N1 HPAIV (no deaths or clinical signs), but there may be clade-dependent differences in the pathogenic potentials of H5N1 HPAIV of Asian origin. (sciensano.be)
- We identified seasonal human coronaviruses, influenza viruses and rhinoviruses in exhaled breath and coughs of children and adults with acute respiratory illness. (typepad.com)
- Surgical face masks significantly reduced detection of influenza virus RNA in respiratory droplets and coronavirus RNA in aerosols, with a trend toward reduced detection of coronavirus RNA in respiratory droplets. (typepad.com)
- Currently, studies with these viruses, which were engineered to spread via respiratory droplets between ferrets , are being done at BSL-3 or higher facilities. (yahoo.com)
- Shedding of the NDV vaccine constructs from the respiratory tracts of AGM following immunization. (asm.org)
- Virus was detected mainly in the respiratory tract on the first days after inoculation, and then concentrated more in pancreas and central nervous system from 4 dpi onwards. (biomedcentral.com)
- Hemagglutinin helps the virus attach to cells in the respiratory system, while neuraminidase is involved in the release of new virus particles from host cells. (bioedonline.org)
- Instead of just infecting the respiratory tract, though, H5N1 may spread throughout the body and infect the brain, for example, leaving victims in a coma. (huffingtonpost.com)
- Both of these viruses have caused severe respiratory problems, such as pneumonia and respiratory failure. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Researchers determined that dogs have susceptible receptor cells in their upper and lower respiratory tracts, and can shed the virus while not manifesting clinical symptoms of the disease. (blogspot.com)
- Moreover, receptors for avian (H5N1) virus are present not only in the lower part of the respiratory tract of dogs but also in their trachea and nose, which are potential portals of entry for the virus. (blogspot.com)
- Analysis of genetic variability of respiratory syncytial virus groups A and B in Kuwait. (amedeo.com)
- Unlike the wild type H5N1, this mutant virus was transmitted by direct contact in the ferret model although not by airborne respiratory droplets. (cdc.gov)
- However, a reassortant virus with the mutant hemagglutinin, a human N2 neuraminidase and internal genes from an H5N1 virus was partially transmitted via respiratory droplets. (cdc.gov)
- To think that the 1918 flu started out as a harmless intestinal bird virus that jumped directly from its wild host into human beings and immediately turned into an explosive respiratory killer is to believe that hippos fly. (latimes.com)
- Influenza viruses are highly contagious and can cause seasonal epidemics, manifesting as an acute febrile illness with variable degrees of severity, ranging from mild fatigue to respiratory failure and death. (medscape.com)
- These viruses typically replicate in the gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tract of both these natural hosts and chickens, and typically present as subclinical to mild disease ( 3 , 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
- FluMist contains live attenuated influenza viruses that replicate in the nasopharynx of the recipient and are shed in respiratory secretions. (prnewswire.com)
- Because of ducks' ability to "silently" spread H5N1 HPAI virus and their unresolved role as a reservoir, they are the focus of much research ( 5 , 6 , 11 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Wild waterfowl, including ducks, are natural hosts of influenza A viruses. (pnas.org)
- Here we show that these H5N1 viruses are reverting to nonpathogenicity in ducks. (pnas.org)
- Ducks experimentally infected with viruses isolated between 2003 and 2004 shed virus for an extended time (up to 17 days), during which variant viruses with low pathogenicity were selected. (pnas.org)
- In all other reports, ducks infected with highly pathogenic H5 or H7 avian influenza viruses, including those isolated in Hong Kong in 1997-2002, consistently showed no disease signs or had very mild disease ( 7 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
- We hypothesized that the biological characteristics of H5N1 viruses circulating in ducks are evolving rapidly by mechanisms that have not previously been detected. (pnas.org)
- Here we show that in domestic ducks inoculated with the H5N1 viruses isolated in 2004, diminishing pathogenicity allows the shedding of detectable virus for long periods (facilitating virus transmission), and variant viruses are selected within a single passage. (pnas.org)
- Even asymptomatic domestic ducks can shed the virus continuously from the oral cavity and cloaca (3 5). (flutrackers.com)
- Therefore, early detection of infected ducks that are shedding the virus would reduce the risk of spreading AI virus (H5N1) in a region where the virus has been endemic in domestic ducks. (flutrackers.com)
- We previously reported that AI virus (H5N1) can replicate in feather epidermal cells in asymptomatic domestic ducks (6). (flutrackers.com)
- We now report the usefulness of feathers for virus detection in domestic ducks. (flutrackers.com)
- We obtained the following results: feathers tested positive for influenza A virus from days 3 through 6 pi in 1 duck (a), and on days 3 and 4 pi in 2 ducks (b and c), whereas all oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were negative (Appendix Figure, panel B). (flutrackers.com)
- Domestic ducks have been recognized as one of the primary factors in the spread of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza (AI) viruses. (usda.gov)
- In this study, we examined the efficacy of two vaccines used in Vietnam to H5N1 HPAI in ducks. (usda.gov)
- Ducks were then challenged with H5N1 HPAI viruses isolated in Vietnam in 2008, 2010 and 2011. (usda.gov)
- however, the vaccinated ducks shed viruses for more than 7 days after challenge. (usda.gov)
- These studies demonstrate the poor protection conferred by the Re-1 and Re-5 commercial vaccines against H5N1 HPAI viruses isolated from 2010-2011 in Vietnam, underlining the importance of routine examination of vaccine efficacy in the control of H5N1 HPAI in ducks. (usda.gov)
- Three experiments were conducted using the commercial inactivated Re-1 and Re-5 vaccines to vaccinate ducks twice before one month of age followed by challenge with H5N1 HPAI viruses isolated in Vietnam in 2008, 2010 and 2011. (usda.gov)
- Migratory waterfowl, most notably ducks, are the primary natural reservoirs for all variations of influenza A viruses. (bioedonline.org)
- About 1,000 farm ducks found dead last week in South Jeolla province of South Korea were confirmed on Feb 26 to have highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza, according to a story yesterday from the country's Yonhap News Agency. (umn.edu)
- Waterfowl such as ducks act as a reservoir, or storage system, for the virus. (missouri.edu)
- Ducks or geese may contract the disease and either recover or survive for long periods of time while shedding virus as they move about. (missouri.edu)
- The aim of this study was to evaluate the pathogenesis in and mode of transmission of this virus among domestic and wild ducks. (blogspot.com)
- The combined effects of water temperature, salinity, and pH on persistence of avian influenza virus (AIV) were evaluated in a model distilled-water system using three isolates from ducks sampled in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. (huehner-info.de)
- All mallard ducks became infected with both viruses at all challenge doses (bird infective dose (usda.gov)
- High amounts of virus were detected in oropharyngeal swabs, with some ducks still shedding virus 14 days after inoculation. (usda.gov)
- Similarly, in sparrows and starlings inoculated with the H5N1 HPAI A/chicken/Hong Kong/220/97 virus, clinical signs were observed only in sparrows, and no deaths occurred ( 9 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In 1997, an avian H5N1 influenza virus, A/Hong Kong/156/97 (A/HK/156/97), caused six deaths in Hong Kong, and in 1999, an avian H9N2 influenza virus infected two children in Hong Kong. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The influenza virus isolates used in this study were received by the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital Influenza Repository from multiple collaborators, including the World Health Organization Influenza Laboratory Network. (pnas.org)
- Influenza virus isolates from some patients in Vietnam in the winter of 2004 were found to be resistant to the older, more affordable anti-influenza drugs: amantidine and rimantadine. (globalsecurity.org)
- I would likely also investigate H5N1 contaminated feces left by rodents, infiltrated viruses left by unprotected foot traffic, or in the food supply itself. (blogspot.com)
- Through feces, flu particles are deposited in water, where another duck or goose picks them up, gets infected and sheds the virus in turn. (latimes.com)
- Further, we proved that the NS1 genes of the two viruses differ in their stabilities in the host cells and in their abilities to interact with the chicken cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor. (asm.org)
- These viruses and a third avian virus [A/Teal/HK/W312/97 (H6N1)] have six highly related genes encoding internal proteins. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Additionally, A/Chicken/HK/G9/97 (H9N2) virus has PB1 and PB2 genes that are highly related to those of A/HK/156/97 (H5N1), A/Teal/HK/W312/97 (H6N1), and A/Quail/HK/G1/97 (H9N2) viruses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In the first paragraph, the author writes '…five mutations in just two genes have allowed the virus to spread between mammals in the lab. (virology.ws)
- Instead, the bird genes evolved into a human virus that killed as many as 50 million people. (latimes.com)
- The sublime malignance of the 1918 virus doesn't lie in one part but rather in how the genes function together. (latimes.com)
- Yeah, 'debunking' the threat of H5N1 has become popular for some reason. (xent.com)
- Influenza viruses are an important threat to human health and global economy, causing an annual average of 36,000 deaths and over 200,000 hospitalizations during the 1990s ( CDC, 2010 ). (frontiersin.org)
- The CDC says H5N1 poses no threat in the U.S. - at least at this point. (cbsnews.com)
- The biggest threat is the possibility of efficient human-to-human transmission either by continued gradual evolution of the virus, as has been seen in Turkey, or by a sudden reassortment event. (survivalmonkey.com)
- AI viruses have contributed significantly to this, and in recent years, highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) viruses have emerged as a major zoonotic threat. (frontiersin.org)
- These methods will provide improved risk assessment of emerging influenza viruses that pose a threat to public health. (labome.org)
- More probably, the virus originated in some of the migratory waterfowl that frequent the East Anglian coast in winter - and was carried in by a contaminated worker, feed or equipment. (ft.com)
- At this point, it seems increasingly likely that the virus will continue be transmitted from one migratory species to another, eventually finding its way to the Americas. (survivalmonkey.com)
- The most fundamental of these was whether it was necessary or wise to recreate by molecular means a naturally extinct virus that represented one of the deadliest infectious agents in human history. (asm.org)
- To elucidate the susceptibility of dogs to this pathogen, we infected two groups of 6 beagles with 10(6) 50% egg-infectious dose of H5N1 AIV A/bar-headed goose/Qinghai/3/05 (BHG/QH/3/05) intranasally (i.n.) and intratracheally (i.t.), respectively. (blogspot.com)
- But in next month's issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases , Thai researchers describe a cat that died of H5N1 after eating a pigeon carcass. (blogspot.com)
- The strain of A(H5N1) found recently in Africa appears to have come from Northern China and Siberia. (medpagetoday.com)
- The A (H5N1) highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus reemerged in 2003 in Asia and subsequently spread to Africa, Europe, and the Middle East, becoming endemic in some countries. (asm.org)
- Despite efforts to eradicate H5N1 in southeast Asia it has spread to central Asia, Europe, and Africa. (pnas.org)
- In those 25 months, the virus has spread throughout Asia and into Siberia, the Middle East, North and West Africa, the Mediterranean, Central Europe, India and now Northern and Western Europe (Map). (survivalmonkey.com)
- The influenza A virus genome consists of eight segments of negative-stranded RNA, which code for 11 proteins. (sciencemag.org)
- For many viruses, one or two proteins allow cell attachment and entry, which occurs through the plasma membrane or following endocytosis at low pH. (prolekare.cz)
- We've engineered a different mutation with the same effect into one of the virus proteins and achieved a similar outcome. (evesdrift.com)
Highly pathogenic H5N1 strain1
- For this study, we performed extensive genetic and biological analyses of two H5N1 viruses that were isolated from pigs in the Fujian province of southern China. (asm.org)
- Viruses are basically microscopic (and sub-microscopic) protein-covered packets of genetic material whose core function is to copy themselves. (uexpress.com)
- The co-circulation of avian, human, and pig viruses in pigs is of significant concern because of the potential for a genetic exchange, or "reassortment," of material between these viruses. (thepigsite.com)
- Some viruses, such as influenza A, are unable to "proofread" and correct errors that occur while their genetic information is being copied. (bioedonline.org)
- Viruses generally swap genetic material easily. (bioedonline.org)
- Pigs are susceptible to both bird and mammalian viruses, and thus serve as excellent "mixing vessels" for recombining genetic material from related viruses. (bioedonline.org)
- the Vietnamese viruses were in two genetic and antigenic subgroups, clades 2.3.2 and 2.3.4. (uga.edu)
- The virus is often resistant to developed treatments because of its genetic drift or shift property. (flutrackers.com)
- LPAI viruses have been isolated from at least 105 wild bird species of 26 different families ( Table 1 ) ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Dogs are not normally considered vulnerable to influenza viruses , although in recent years an equine H3N8 influenza has jumped species to canines and has spread across the country (see the CDC 's Key Facts about Canine Influenza (Dog Flu) ). (blogspot.com)
- That is why most viruses are selective as to what organ systems they attack, or even what species are susceptible. (blogspot.com)
- Here, we review the immune/virus interactions in both avian and mammalian species, and provide an overview or our understanding of how immune dysregulation is driven. (frontiersin.org)
- The results are discussed with respect to mechanisms for HA-mediated receptor binding, as well as regarding the species of molecules that may act as receptors for influenza virus on host cell surfaces. (labome.org)
- We highlight the recent and emerging uses of this species in influenza virus research that are advancing our understanding of virus-host interactions. (labome.org)
- The primal source for all influenza "A" virus in mammals and domestic avian species is aquatic bird reservoirs. (medsci.org)
- Influenza viruses provide unique opportunities to study these processes in nature because of their rapid evolution, extensive surveillance, large data sets and propensity to jump species boundaries. (ox.ac.uk)
Trachea and cloaca1
- When influenza viruses are transmitted to a novel host, mutations occur in the genome to enable the virus to adapt. (asm.org)
- What's more, the virus is just as lethal despite the mutations. (virology.ws)
- Fouchier's published paper does not prove that five mutations are sufficient for aerosol transmission among ferrets, and the virus does not kill ferrets when it is transmitted through the air. (virology.ws)
- The Imperial team studied mutations in the gene for haemagglutinin, a protein on the surface of the virus that enables it to get into host cells. (evesdrift.com)
- Stock viruses were grown in 10-day-old embryonated chicken eggs for 36-48 h at 35°C. All experimental work with the H5N1 viruses, including animal studies, was performed in an animal biosafety level 3+ laboratory approved for use by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (pnas.org)
- The global HPAI situation significantly improved in the first half of 2008, but the FAO reports that imperfect disease surveillance systems mean that occurrence of the virus remains underestimated and underreported. (wikipedia.org)
- HPAI A(H5N1) is considered an avian disease, although there is some evidence of limited human-to-human transmission of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
- however, eradication of the disease has not been possible due to the emergence and spread of new viruses. (usda.gov)
- Influenza viruses belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae, and include the types, A, B, and C, from which influenza A viruses (IAV) are the responsible for most of the disease burden ( Mubareka and Palese, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Rather, it is an affinity for a particular topology, or shape, of alpha 2-6 glycan receptor that characterizes human flu viruses, says the report, written by a team from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (umn.edu)
- Unfortunately we don't know enough about the biology of these viruses to make accurate predictions, but influenza is definitely the disease to keep an eye on. (huffingtonpost.com)
- The U.S. government began to regulate research with the 1918 virus through the National Select Agents Registry Program at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (asm.org)
- Good bio-security practices should help reduce the risk of spreading the disease if the virus reaches the United States. (missouri.edu)
- avian influenza virus (H5N1) can excrete virus while remaining free of severe disease, thereby potentially playing a role in virus dispersal. (cdc.gov)
- Treatment for H5N1 consists of administration of current antiviral agents. (alpharubicon.com)
- The reason this new Japanese antiviral works so quickly is that it interferes with the ability of the influenza virus to copy itself. (uexpress.com)
- [email protected]#The results revealed that both water and ethanol extracts of all the five studied plants showed significant antiviral activity against H5N1 virus. (bvsalud.org)
- [email protected]#To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is among the earliest reports to illustrate the antiviral property of these Asian medicinal plants against the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza virus. (bvsalud.org)