Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Escherichia coli O157: A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.Benzoyl Peroxide: A peroxide derivative that has been used topically for BURNS and as a dermatologic agent in the treatment of ACNE and POISON IVY DERMATITIS. It is used also as a bleach in the food industry.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC 2.1.1.63.PeroxidasesOxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Peroxiredoxins: A family of ubiquitously-expressed peroxidases that play a role in the reduction of a broad spectrum of PEROXIDES like HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LIPID PEROXIDES and peroxinitrite. They are found in a wide range of organisms, such as BACTERIA; PLANTS; and MAMMALS. The enzyme requires the presence of a thiol-containing intermediate such as THIOREDOXIN as a reducing cofactor.Tooth Bleaching: The use of a chemical oxidizing agent to whiten TEETH. In some procedures the oxidation process is activated by the use of heat or light.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Hydroxides: Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Amitrole: A non-selective post-emergence, translocated herbicide. According to the Seventh Annual Report on Carcinogens (PB95-109781, 1994) this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen. (From Merck Index, 12th ed) It is an irreversible inhibitor of CATALASE, and thus impairs activity of peroxisomes.Acatalasia: A rare autosomal recessive disorder resulting from the absence of CATALASE activity. Though usually asymptomatic, a syndrome of oral ulcerations and gangrene may be present.Tooth Bleaching Agents: Chemicals that are used to oxidize pigments in TEETH and thus effect whitening.Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.tert-Butylhydroperoxide: A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Horseradish Peroxidase: An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.Lactoperoxidase: An enzyme derived from cow's milk. It catalyzes the radioiodination of tyrosine and its derivatives and of peptides containing tyrosine.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hypochlorous Acid: An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Paraquat: A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Tooth Discoloration: Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Ampyrone: A metabolite of AMINOPYRINE with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. It is used as a reagent for biochemical reactions producing peroxides or phenols. Ampyrone stimulates LIVER MICROSOMES and is also used to measure extracellular water.Benzene DerivativesSulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cyclic N-Oxides: Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cytochrome-c Peroxidase: A hemeprotein which catalyzes the oxidation of ferrocytochrome c to ferricytochrome c in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. EC 1.11.1.5.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Singlet Oxygen: An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.GuanineFerrocyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid ferrocyanic acid (H4Fe(CN)6).Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Glutathione Reductase: Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Scopoletin: Plant growth factor derived from the root of Scopolia carniolica or Scopolia japonica.Dianisidine: Highly toxic compound which can cause skin irritation and sensitization. It is used in manufacture of azo dyes.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)NADH, NADPH Oxidoreductases: A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.Ascorbate Peroxidases: Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Deferoxamine: Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.Glutathione Disulfide: A GLUTATHIONE dimer formed by a disulfide bond between the cysteine sulfhydryl side chains during the course of being oxidized.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Pyrogallol: A trihydroxybenzene or dihydroxy phenol that can be prepared by heating GALLIC ACID.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.Peroxiredoxin III: A THIOREDOXIN-dependent hydroperoxidase that is localized in the mitochondrial matrix. The enzyme plays a crucial role in protecting mitochondrial components from elevated levels of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Thioredoxins: Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Chloride Peroxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the chlorination of a range of organic molecules, forming stable carbon-chloride bonds. EC 1.11.1.10.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Respiratory Burst: A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.Pyruvate OxidaseMalondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Sodium Azide: A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.MethemoglobinMetmyoglobin: Myoglobin which is in the oxidized ferric or hemin form. The oxidation causes a change in color from red to brown.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.Peroxynitrous Acid: A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).Thiocyanates: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.Sulfenic Acids: Oxy acids of sulfur with the general formula RSOH, where R is an alkyl or aryl group such as CH3. They are often encountered as esters and halides. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Ditiocarb: A chelating agent that has been used to mobilize toxic metals from the tissues of humans and experimental animals. It is the main metabolite of DISULFIRAM.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Hemeproteins: Proteins that contain an iron-porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p480)Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Enzymes, Immobilized: Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Thiobarbiturates: Compounds in which one or more of the ketone groups on the pyrimidine ring of barbituric acid are replaced by thione groups.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Reducing Agents: Materials that add an electron to an element or compound, that is, decrease the positiveness of its valence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Dithiothreitol: A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.2,2'-Dipyridyl: A reagent used for the determination of iron.Acne Vulgaris: A chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous apparatus associated with an increase in sebum secretion. It is characterized by open comedones (blackheads), closed comedones (whiteheads), and pustular nodules. The cause is unknown, but heredity and age are predisposing factors.Benzidines: Very toxic industrial chemicals. They are absorbed through the skin, causing lethal blood, bladder, liver, and kidney damage and are potent, broad-spectrum carcinogens in most species.Borates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Metalloporphyrins: Porphyrins which are combined with a metal ion. The metal is bound equally to all four nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole rings. They possess characteristic absorption spectra which can be utilized for identification or quantitative estimation of porphyrins and porphyrin-bound compounds.Cerium: An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Tetraoxanes: Compounds with two peroxide groups, that is, two pairs of adjacent OXYGEN atoms. They may have activity against PLASMODIUM similar to the ARTEMISININS.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Dental Enamel Permeability: The property of dental enamel to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, mineral ions and other substances. It does not include the penetration of the dental enamel by microorganisms.Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.Iodides: Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.L-Amino Acid Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids to KETO ACIDS with the generation of AMMONIA and HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. L-amino acid oxidase is widely distributed in and is thought to contribute to the toxicity of SNAKE VENOMS.Peptostreptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.Reactive Nitrogen Species: Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Flavin-Adenine Dinucleotide: A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Luminol: 5-Amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione. Substance that emits light on oxidation. It is used in chemical determinations.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.NAD: A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Linoleic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Dental Devices, Home Care: Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.Dithionite: Dithionite. The dithionous acid ion and its salts.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Guaiacol: An agent thought to have disinfectant properties and used as an expectorant. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p747)Rotenone: A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.Spin Trapping: A technique for detecting short-lived reactive FREE RADICALS in biological systems by providing a nitrone or nitrose compound for an addition reaction to occur which produces an ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY-detectable aminoxyl radical. In spin trapping, the compound trapping the radical is called the spin trap and the addition product of the radical is identified as the spin adduct. (Free Rad Res Comm 1990;9(3-6):163)Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Onium Compounds: Ions with the suffix -onium, indicating cations with coordination number 4 of the type RxA+ which are analogous to QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS (H4N+). Ions include phosphonium R4P+, oxonium R3O+, sulfonium R3S+, chloronium R2Cl+Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Diamide: A sulfhydryl reagent which oxidizes sulfhydryl groups to the disulfide form. It is a radiation-sensitizing agent of anoxic bacterial and mammalian cells.Buthionine Sulfoximine: A synthetic amino acid that depletes glutathione by irreversibly inhibiting gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a critical step in glutathione biosynthesis. It has been shown to inhibit the proliferative response in human T-lymphocytes and inhibit macrophage activation. (J Biol Chem 1995;270(33):1945-7)Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Iron Chelating Agents: Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Reactive oxygen species, ROS, such as superoxide (O2- • ), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radicals (HO•), and singlet ...
Thus, the order of oxidizing power is CF3CO3H > CH3CO3H > H2O2. Organic peroxide Peracetic acid Peroxyacyl nitrates Harald ... Most commonly, peracids are generated by treating the corresponding carboxylic acid with hydrogen peroxide: RCO2H + H2O2 ⇌ ... HCl The oxidizing tendency of peroxides is related to the electronegativity of the substituents. Electrophilic peroxides are ... The third method involves treatment of acid chlorides: RC(O)Cl + H2O2 → RCO3H + HCl meta-Chloroperoxybenzoic acid (mCPBA) is ...
GOx at the surface of the honey reduces atmospheric O2 to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which acts as an antimicrobial barrier. GOx ... O2 is then reduced to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Glucose oxidase is widely used coupled to peroxidase reaction that visualizes ... the glucose is first oxidized by glucose oxidase to produce gluconate and hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide is then ... For example, hydrogen peroxide together with 4 amino-antipyrene (4-AAP) and phenol in the presence of peroxidase yield a red ...
"Homepage, Hydrogen Peroxide, Sodium Chlorate, H2O2". Brighten Your Future. Retrieved 2013-01-20. "DMDS for agricultural soil ... Acquisition of Montedison's organic peroxide business. 1992: Atochem becomes Elf Atochem. 2000: Creation of Atofina by merging ... Its flagship brands are Rilsan(polyamide 11), Luperox(Organic Peroxide), Kynar (PVDF), Siliporite (Molecular Sieves). ... and hydrogen peroxide (pulp and textile bleaching, chemical synthesis, water treatment). The business segment's flagship brands ...
2 Dismutation of superoxide produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2): 2 H+ + •O− 2 + •O− 2 → H2O2 + O2 Hydrogen peroxide in turn may ... Peroxiredoxins also degrade H2O2, within the mitochondria, cytosol, and nucleus. 2 H2O2 → 2 H2O + O2 (catalase) 2GSH + H2O2 → ... Then through a three-step chain reaction, water is sequentially converted to hydroxyl radical (•OH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ... In particular, one major contributor to oxidative damage is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is converted from superoxide that ...
... while the production of H2O2 by stressed organisms is a secondary source. In marine systems, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exists at ... Next, the reduction of hydrogen peroxide yields the hydroxyl radical, H2O2↔2OH•, which can then get reduced to the hydroxyl ion ... There are three main reactive oxygen species: the superoxide anion (O2−), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and the hydroxyl radical ( ... H2O2. Similarly, catalase increases the formation of water from hydrogen peroxide by catalyzing the reaction: 2H2O2↔ O2 + 2H2O ...
The molecular structure is akin to that of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Disulfur dibromide is the most stable sulfur bromide, ...
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in particular could severely damage DNA and kill the bacterium at low concentrations if not for the ... Oxygen also behaves similarly, e.g. in peroxides such as H2O2. Examples: Iron disulfide (FeS2), e.g. the mineral pyrite (V(S2)2 ... The connection is a persulfide, in analogy to its congener, peroxide (R−O−O−R′), but this terminology is rarely used, except in ... A variety of oxidants participate in this reaction including oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. Such reactions are thought to ...
Herbert, Bartt (24 July 2009). "Peroxide (H2O2) Test Programs, AR2-3 Flight Certification". NASA Engineering and Test ... Anderson, William E.; Butler, Kathy; Crocket, Dave; Lewis, Tim; McNeal, Curtis (2000). Peroxide Propulsion at the Turn of the ... and was given a new flight certification for use on the X-37 with hydrogen peroxide/JP-8 propellants. This was reportedly ...
"Satellite observations of the global distribution of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from ACE". Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy ... before recombining with sulfur and returning to geological sources as sediments Other chemical cycles include hydrogen peroxide ...
H2O2. Gamma used a silver-plated on nickel-gauze catalyst to first decompose the peroxide. For higher concentrations of H2O2 ... Harlow, John (20-24 July 1998). Hydrogen Peroxide - A U.K. Perspective. University of Surrey Symposium on Hydrogen Peroxide. ... Due to the high ratio (8:1) of the mass of H2O2 used compared to the kerosene, and also its superior heat characteristics, the ... Any pre-combustion chamber used to power the pump turbines needs only to decompose H2O2 to provide the energy. This gives the ...
The Haber-Weiss reaction generates •OH (hydroxyl radicals) from H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) and superoxide (•O2−). This reaction ... H2O2 → Fe3+ + OH− + •OH Net reaction: •O2− + H2O2 → •OH + OH− + O2 The reaction is named after Fritz Haber and his student ...
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) increases the overexpression of protein RCAN1. However. Anti-oxidants and inhibitors of Mitogen- ... Because phosphorylation of RCAN1 expression by H2O2 increases of the half-life of the protein. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Kim, Seon Sook; Seo, Su Ryeon (2013-01-29). "Hydrogen peroxide-induced MAPK activation causes the increase of RCAN1 (DSCR1) ... activated protein kinases(MAPK) treatment block the increased expression of RCAN1 by H2O2. Demonstrating that the increased ...
These solid peroxides react with water releasing H2O2 which then decomposes releasing oxygen. Air sparging involves the ... H2O2) to the water. In some cases, slurries of solid calcium or magnesium peroxide are injected under pressure through soil ... Greater amounts of oxygen can be provided by contacting the water with pure oxygen or addition of hydrogen peroxide ( ... addition of pure oxygen or peroxides, and air sparging. Recirculation systems typically consist of a combination of injection ...
H2O (hydroxide) (III) H2O2(peroxide) (IV)HO2(super oxide)(V) O2(di-oxygen). The electrons are transferred to special ...
H2O2). The body uses superoxide dismutase to reduce superoxide radicals to hydrogen peroxide. Glutathione peroxidase and ... Parts of the immune system of higher organisms, however, create peroxide, superoxide, and singlet oxygen to destroy invading ... This compound, in turn, disproportionates to ozone and peroxide, providing two powerful antibacterials. The body's range of ... similar enzymes then convert the H2O2 to water and dioxygen. ...
... and H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide). Further, some reactive oxidative species act as cellular messengers in redox signaling. Thus, ... Hydrogen peroxide is produced by a wide variety of enzymes including several oxidases. Reactive oxygen species play important ... Disturbances in the normal redox state of cells can cause toxic effects through the production of peroxides and free radicals ... Such species include free radicals and peroxides. Some of the less reactive of these species (such as superoxide) can be ...
... and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This breaks down into hydrogen peroxide when dissolved in water. TAED is often used as activator ... One of the active ingredients in OxiClean is sodium percarbonate (Na2CO3•H2O2), an adduct of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) ...
Oxidation of reduced FAD by O2 produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). THCA synthase is expressed in the glandular trichomes of ... THCA synthase may contribute to the self-defense of Cannabis plants by producing THCA and hydrogen peroxide, which are both ... The overall chemical reaction is: CPGA + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } THCA + H2O2 A hydride is transferred from ...
... atop peroxide}{H2O2}}-,[{\ce {Peroxidases \atop catalase}}]{\underset {Water}{H2O}}}}}. ... peroxide. →. Peroxidases. catalase. H. 2. O. Water. {\displaystyle {\ce {{\underset {Oxygen}{O2}}-,{\underset {Superoxide}{*O2 ... H2O2, a necessary evil for cell signaling". Science. 312 (5782): 1882-3. doi:10.1126/science.1130481. PMID 16809515.. ... This species is produced from hydrogen peroxide in metal-catalyzed redox reactions such as the Fenton reaction.[57] These ...
... and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from mitochondria. Therefore, not only is cytochrome c required in the mitochondria for cell ... Presence of peroxynitrite, H2O2, or nitrogen dioxide NO2 in the mitochondria can be lethal since they nitrate tyrosine residues ... Zhao Y, Wang ZB, Xu JX (Jan 2003). "Effect of cytochrome c on the generation and elimination of O2- and H2O2 in mitochondria". ... Cytochrome c has been used to detect peroxide production in biological systems. As superoxide is produced, the number of ...
When submerged in hydrogen peroxide the platinum oxidizes the H2O2 into 2H+ and O2. This process occurs because platinum takes ... On the other side of the rod, the gold reduces hydrogen peroxide into water, in doing so an electron is pulled from the gold. ...
Similarly, a peroxidase (another subclass of oxidoreductases) will use a peroxide (H2O2) as the electron acceptor, rather than ... One such reaction is: AH2 + O2 ↔ A + H2O2. Sometimes an oxidase reaction will look like this: 4A + 4H+ + O2 ↔ 4A+ + 2H2O. In ... The product is water, instead of hydrogen peroxide as seen above. An example of an oxidase that functions like this is complex ...
Upon their activation, macrophages produce superoxide (O2¯) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Thus N. meningitidis is likely to ...
Instead, the high-potential electrons are transferred to O2, which yields H2O2. It does generate heat however. The enzyme ... catalase, found exclusively in peroxisomes, converts the hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. Peroxisomal β-oxidation also ...
"A measurement of the 362 GHz absorption line of Mars atmospheric H2O2". Icarus 168 (1): 116-121. ഡി.ഒ.ഐ.:10.1016/j.icarus. ... 18 ppb hydrogen peroxide[8]. 10 ppb methane[9]. സൂര്യനിൽ നിന്നുള്ള ദൂരം മാനദണ്ഡമാക്കിയാൽ സൗരയൂഥത്തിലെ നാലാമത്തെ ഗ്രഹമാണ് ചൊവ്വ ...
Keywords: Oxygen reduction reaction; Electrogeneration of hydrogen peroxide; Cerium oxide nanoparticles. Abstract: This work ... InícioArtigoInfluence of the preparation method and the support on H2O2 electrogeneration using cerium oxide nanoparticles. ... This material showed the highest ring current, producing 88% H2O2 and transferring 2.2 electrons per O2 molecule via the ORR at ... Influence of the preparation method and the support on H2O2 electrogeneration using cerium oxide nanoparticles. ...
... is a simple process of either ingesting or injecting hydrogen peroxide into the body, which in turn releases free radicals of ... Hydrogen peroxide therapy, also known as oxygen therapy, ... Hydrogen Peroxide Tips From a Fellow Hubber. Never use H2O2 at ... Heres a little background in hydrogen peroxide. The chemical makeup of hydrogen peroxide is H2O2. Its very similar to water, ... Colored rice can also partly neutralize H2O2. Water and H2O2 in a test tube with colored rice showed reduced potency of H2O2 ...
... consumer products where the H2O2 may be mixed or formulated with other compounds which may have a destabilizing effect on H2O2. ... consumer products where the H2O2 may be mixed or formulated with other compounds which may have a destabilizing effect on H2O2. ...
... hydrogen peroxide? , , The molecular weight of H2O2 is 34 daltons (or close enough to 34). , 1M H2O2 = 34 g/L , 30% H2O2 = 300 ... How to prepare 1M H2O2 using 30% hydrogen peroxide?. Han via methods%40net.bio.net (by nobody from nospam.not). Mon Feb 4 20:24 ... Previous message: How to prepare 1M H2O2 using 30% hydrogen peroxide? *Next message: Post Translational Modification of ... Previous message: How to prepare 1M H2O2 using 30% hydrogen peroxide? *Next message: Post Translational Modification of ...
H2O2; find Millipore-88597 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich. ... Hydrogen peroxide solution 3%, for microbiology; CAS Number: 7722-84-1; Synonym: Catalase Test; Linear Formula: ... Hydrogen peroxide solution has been used:. • to stimulate Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) ... They catalyse the breakdown of hydrogem peroxide with the release of free oxygen (resulting in bubbles).The classical test for ...
RE: Converting H2O to H2O2 to operate and engine. H2O2 hydrogen peroxide in a highly concentrated form refered to as HTP, was ... Re: How to make H2O2. chassiz said: ↑ I actually was working on a method to produce hydrogen peroxide from water using moving ... How to make H2O2. I actually was working on a method to produce hydrogen peroxide from water using moving magnetic fields. I ... Does anyone know how to take Water H2O and convert it to Hydrogen peroxide H2O2, so basally I want to add another oxygen ...
It is the active agent in hydrogen peroxide therapy. In IV H2O2 therapy, hydrogen peroxide is infused into the circulatory ... If hydrogen peroxide is so effective, why is it not made use of in modern medicine? The reason is simple. Hydrogen peroxide ... This often is possible with hydrogen peroxide.. Some doctors believe AIDS and cancer can be helped with hydrogen peroxide. The ... Hydrogen peroxide has a remarkable clearing effect on the skin. After only a few intravenous treatments the skin takes on a ...
We studied the effect of different doses of this peroxide on the size of pepper fruit (Capsicum annuum L.). Gauges are set ... H2O2) in pure hydroponics systems can result in the improvement of the crop by oxygenating the fertigation nutrient solution ( ... INFLUENCE OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE (H2O2) IN THE FRUIT OF PEPPER (CAPSICUMANNUUM L.) Hernandez, J.C. ; Tornos, P. ; Cuervo, U.Y. ; ... The addition of Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) in pure hydroponics systems can result in the improvement of the crop by oxygenating ...
Hydrogen Peroxide / H2O2. This is one of the oxygen therapy diets that is designed to get more oxygen to the cancer cells ( ... The body manufactures its own hydrogen peroxide under certain conditions. For ozone, hydrogen peroxide, oxygen and water to ... Our white blood cells (lymphocytes) produce hydrogen peroxide to combat invasive organisms. Hydrogen peroxide transports sugar ... Hydrogen peroxide is found in the waters of many famous healing spas around the world. Its also found in several areas of the ...
Product Page for H2 O2 Hydrogen Peroxide Food Grade 35% 16 Ounces offering price, ingredients and full item description from ... H2 O2 Hydrogen Peroxide Food Grade 35%. Product UPC# 633042351603. Item# DWC35160. ...
I was fully prepared to accept hydrogen peroxide as an alternative to soap. This morning I decided to look for some ... My community-mate needs some convincing as of why hydrogen peroxide is a safe product to be used to improve hygiene in our ... Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Question: My community-mate needs some convincing as of why hydrogen peroxide is a safe product to be ... Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2). The Perfect Antiseptic? Food Grade Hydrogen Peroxide, Therapies & Tips. ...
20L Nutrilife Products H2O2 Hydrogen Peroxide, 29%, 20L (NLHP20L) A 29% liquid concentrate solution that adds oxygen to ... H2O2 Hydrogen Peroxide, 29%, 20L [hf-NLHP20L] - Pest & Disease Control - Gardening & Hydroponics Store - ... H2O2 Hydrogen Peroxide 29% 4 L, case of 4. $74.18. hf-EG1000. Earth and Grow Starter Kit (6 Plants). $75.76. eco-5644I. Azamax ... Horticulture Source » Gardening & Hydroponics Store » Pest & Disease Control » Nutrilife: H2O2 Hydrogen Peroxide, 29%, 20L [hf- ...
H2O2 - Hydrogen Peroxide 16 fl. oz. Liquid by O-W & Company Hydrogen Peroxide (12%) that is food grade to be diluted with water ... H2O2 - Hydrogen Peroxide 16 fl. oz. Directions: 1st week: 1/4 tsp. in 32 oz. distilled water, drink 4 oz. every hour. 2nd week ... Ingredients: 12% Aqueous Solution of Food Grade Hydrogen Peroxide ...
H2O2 Hydrogen Peroxide 1L, case of 12 [hf-NLHP1L] - Pest & Disease Control - Gardening & Hydroponics Store - ... case of 12 Nutrilife Products H2O2 Hydrogen Peroxide 1L (NLHP1L) A 29% liquid concentrate solution that adds oxygen to nutrient ... H2O2 Hydrogen Peroxide 29% 4 L, case of 4. $76.98. hf-GGIQDG3. Dark Green IQ w/ Side Shields. $88.00. 704645. Liquid Ladybug 1 ... Horticulture Source » Gardening & Hydroponics Store » Pest & Disease Control » Nutrilife: H2O2 Hydrogen Peroxide 1L, case of 12 ...
Hydrogen Peroxide Products and Services. *Full Service Programs Using Hydrogen Peroxide*Hydrogen Peroxide Applications ... H2O2 Refractive Index. Note: Care must be taken to ensure that the sample holder or prism is non-catalytic to H2O2 lest the ... USP Technologies is a leading provider of hydrogen peroxide and peroxide based, performance-driven, full-service environmental ... H2O2 CASE STUDIES for Remediation. *Ex-situ Soil and Groundwater Treatment*Case Study: Groundwater Treatment - Hydrogen Sulfide ...
Hydrogen Peroxide Products and Services. *Full Service Programs Using Hydrogen Peroxide*Hydrogen Peroxide Applications ... USP Technologies is a leading provider of hydrogen peroxide and peroxide based, performance-driven, full-service environmental ... H2O2 CASE STUDIES for Remediation. *Ex-situ Soil and Groundwater Treatment*Case Study: Groundwater Treatment - Hydrogen Sulfide ... In-situ Soil and Groundwater Treatment with H2O2*Total Chemical Management Solutions for ISCO ...
sir mam can you please clarify my question that what happens when hydrogen peroxide h2o2 reacts with sodium chloride nacl what ... Can you please clarify my question that what happens when hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) reacts with sodium chloride(NaCl)....What ... NaCl does not react with hydrogen peroxide.. It is a stable salt and hydrogen peroxide needs a reactant which can take away the ...
Although hydrogen peroxide is totally safe, make sure you have a skin condition that warrants it, because H2O2 can cause some ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is known as the worlds natural sanitizer for its safe and effective ability to clean and disinfect. ... This is when even the most sane of us start wondering how to lighten dark hair with hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide may be ... No, seriously! H2O2 is made of only water and oxygen - I mean, could you be MORE natural? It actually fights toxins before they ...
Mster the concepts of hydrogen peroxide, its structure, preparation, properties and strength with the help of study material ... 2. From barium peroxide-Laboratory method of preparation.. Hydrogen peroxide is prepared from barium peroxide by the following ... Concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide Solution. Hydrogen peroxide produced by any of the above method is in the form of dilute ... 1. From sodium peroxide (Mercks method). Calculated amount of sodium peroxide (Na2O2) is gradually added to an ice-cold ...
... hydrogen peroxide disinfectant, food grade hydrogen peroxide, pool and spa disinfecting ... Home > Hydrogen Peroxide, 35% Food Grade > 2 Quarts, 35% FG-H2O2 (includes $33.00 hazmat fee). ... PLEASE NOTE: By ordering 35% food grade H2O2, you are stating that you have read and understand the NOTICE regarding 35% H2O2 ...
Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2). Hydrogen peroxide is used as a chemical reagent for oxidation. The production process may generate ... our polymeric adsorbents can be used to remove these organics in order to produce high-purity hydrogen peroxide. ...
Peroxide means it is a compound with an oxygen-oxygen single bond. History of H2O2 Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 (French: Eau Oxygenee ... Hydrogen peroxide (hydrogen dioxide) is a water molecule H20 with an extra oxygen atom H2O2. ... Oxygen Therapy Using H2O2 H2O2 - what is it? ... History of H2O2. Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 (French: Eau Oxygenee) ... Hydrogen Peroxide - H2O2 - 3% (food grade in distilled water) - For more info about the use of H2O2 see the H2O2 page Size *. ...
An indication that peroxide therapy may help luekemia patients. Patients with leukemia had a seventy percent reduction in H2O2 ... No other chemical compound comes even close to hydrogen peroxide in its importance to life. H2O2 is involved in all of lifes ... The longer it sits, the more peroxide it produces for up to twenty-four hours! I always said coffee wasnt so bad.. Peroxide ... For some reason, the addition of copper to peroxide increases the lethality of peroxide on bacteria by three thousand-fold. It ...
... biohackernation.com/hydrogen-peroxide-protocol/embed/ width=600 height=400 title="[CURE] 35% H2O2 Hydrogen Peroxide ... CURE] 35% H2O2 Hydrogen Peroxide Protocol WARNING: What you are about to read is considered dangerous by SOME people (not all, ... H2O2 Hydrogen Peroxide Protocol,/a,,/blockquote, ,script type=text/javascript, ,!--//--,,![CDATA[//,,!-- /*! This file is ... To get a deep and complete understanding of H2O2, then read The One Minute Cure. But for the biohackers out there, this summary ...
Supplier of Hydrogen Peroxide Plant Hydrogen Peroxide Plant Project,Hydrogen Peroxide Generator,H2O2 EAQ Equipments,H2O2 ... This range includes H2O2 Production Plants, Hydrogen Peroxide Plant Project, Hydrogen Peroxide Generator and H2O2 EAQ ... The offered H2O2 Plant is extensively used to generate hydrogen peroxide that is useful for cleaning, bleaching, sterilizing ... Hydrogen Peroxide Plant. We are offering our prestigious clients precisely engineered Hydrogen Peroxide Plant that is ...
  • With careful attention to the possibility of dangerous oxidation of the resin, our polymeric adsorbents can be used to remove these organics in order to produce high-purity hydrogen peroxide. (dow.com)
  • We report here that H2O2 from this oxidative burst not only drives the cross-linking of cell wall structural proteins, but also functions as a local trigger of programmed death in challenged cells and as a diffusible signal for the induction in adjacent cells of genes encoding cellular protectants such as glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase. (nih.gov)
  • Products that are effectively sterilized with vaporized hydrogen peroxide include medical devices e.g. outer surfaces of pre-filled vaccine syringes, contact lenses, forceps, scissors or endoscopes. (vaisala.com)
  • The many health benefits to using hydrogen peroxide include some of which are well known, and others that are not so known, and even controversial. (imtbtrails.com)
  • The cross talk among hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) nitric oxide (NO) and UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) in UV-B-induced anthocyanin accumulation in the hypocotyls of radish sprouts was investigated. (livingseas.org)