An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of CALCIUM. They differ from CALCIUM CHANNELS which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.
Oxyvanadium ions in various states of oxidation. They act primarily as ion transport inhibitors due to their inhibition of Na(+)-, K(+)-, and Ca(+)-ATPase transport systems. They also have insulin-like action, positive inotropic action on cardiac ventricular muscle, and other metabolic effects.
A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Calcium-transporting ATPases found on the PLASMA MEMBRANE that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM from the CYTOPLASM into the extracellular space. They play a role in maintaining a CALCIUM gradient across plasma membrane.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of nitrophenyl phosphates to nitrophenols. At acid pH it is probably ACID PHOSPHATASE (EC; at alkaline pH it is probably ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (EC EC
A metallic element with the atomic symbol V, atomic number 23, and atomic weight 50.94. It is used in the manufacture of vanadium steel. Prolonged exposure can lead to chronic intoxication caused by absorption usually via the lungs.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.
Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with imidodiphosphoric acid. An analog of ATP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial ATPase and also inhibits ATP-dependent reactions of oxidative phosphorylation.
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Proton-translocating ATPases responsible for ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE synthesis in the MITOCHONDRIA. They derive energy from the respiratory chain-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the intermembranous space of the mitochondria.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.
A general class of integral membrane proteins that transport ions across a membrane against an electrochemical gradient.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Very toxic and complex pyrone derivatives from the fungus Calcarisporium arbuscula. They bind to and inhibit mitochondrial ATPase, thereby uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. They are used as biochemical tools.
Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.
A macrolide antibiotic of the oligomycin group, obtained from Streptomyces rutgersensis. It is used in cytochemistry as a tool to inhibit various ATPases and to uncouple oxidative phosphorylation from electron transport and also clinically as an antifungal agent.
Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.
A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPases that serve two important physiological functions in bacteria. One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. These proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.
A tetraiodofluorescein used as a red coloring in some foods (cherries, fish), as a disclosure of DENTAL PLAQUE, and as a stain of some cell types. It has structural similarity to THYROXINE.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. They are found in BUFONIDAE and often possess cardiotonic properties.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A compound tubular gland, located around the eyes and nasal passages in marine animals and birds, the physiology of which figures in water-electrolyte balance. The Pekin duck serves as a common research animal in salt gland studies. A rectal gland or rectal salt gland in the dogfish shark is attached at the junction of the intestine and cloaca and aids the kidneys in removing excess salts from the blood. (Storer, Usinger, Stebbins & Nybakken: General Zoology, 6th ed, p658)
A species of ascomycetous fungi of the family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, much used in biochemical, genetic, and physiologic studies.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.
Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.
Efflux pumps that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to pump arsenite across a membrane. They are primarily found in prokaryotic organisms, where they play a role in protection against excess intracellular levels of arsenite ions.
Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include DIGITOXIN and DIGOXIN and their derivatives and the STROPHANTHINS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
A constitutively expressed subfamily of the HSP70 heat-shock proteins. They preferentially bind and release hydrophobic peptides by an ATP-dependent process and are involved in post-translational PROTEIN TRANSLOCATION.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Unstable isotopes of rubidium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Rb atoms with atomic weights 79-84, and 86-95 are radioactive rubidium isotopes.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Toxic substances isolated from various strains of Streptomyces. They are 20-membered macrolides that inhibit oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial ATPases. Venturicidins A and B are glycosides. Used mainly as tools in the study of mitochondrial function.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Proton-translocating ATPases which produce ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE in plants. They derive energy from light-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the membranous cisternae (THYLAKOIDS) of the CHLOROPLASTS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi, family Sordariaceae, order SORDARIALES, comprising bread molds. They are capable of converting tryptophan to nicotinic acid and are used extensively in genetic and enzyme research. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Chemical agents that react with SH groups. This is a chemically diverse group that is used for a variety of purposes. Among these are enzyme inhibition, enzyme reactivation or protection, and labelling.
The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.

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... potassium-exchanging ATPases are tetrameric proteins, consisting of two large alpha subunits and two smaller beta subunits. The ...
Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, ... Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across ... Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase (Sodium, Potassium ATPase). Subscribe to New Research on Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase ... ATPase, Sodium, Potassium; Adenosinetriphosphatase, Sodium, Potassium; Na(+)-K(+)-Exchanging ATPase; Na(+)-K(+)-Transporting ...
Sodium-Calcium Exchange and the Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase in Cell Function: Fifth International Conference, Volume 1099. ... Sodium-Calcium Exchange and the Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase in Cell Function: Fifth International Conference, Volume 1099. ... Part V: Structure-Function Relationship of the Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase:.. 26. Plasma Membrane Ca2+ ATPases as Dynamic ... Role of Na/Ca Exchange and the Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase in β Cell Function and Death: Andre Herchuelz, Adama Kamagate, ...
Sodium-Calcium Exchange and the Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase in Cell Function. Edited by Edited by André Herchuelz (Université ...
Calcineurin inhibits VCX1-dependent H+/Ca2+ exchange and induces Ca2+ ATPases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. K W Cunningham, G R ... Calcineurin inhibits VCX1-dependent H+/Ca2+ exchange and induces Ca2+ ATPases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ... Calcineurin inhibits VCX1-dependent H+/Ca2+ exchange and induces Ca2+ ATPases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ... Calcineurin inhibits VCX1-dependent H+/Ca2+ exchange and induces Ca2+ ATPases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ...
Endothelin Stimulates Na/H Exchange in Human Peripheral Resistance Vessels but does not Inhibit Isolated Na/K ATPase. NT ... Endothelin Stimulates Na/H Exchange in Human Peripheral Resistance Vessels but does not Inhibit Isolated Na/K ATPase ... Endothelin Stimulates Na/H Exchange in Human Peripheral Resistance Vessels but does not Inhibit Isolated Na/K ATPase ... Endothelin Stimulates Na/H Exchange in Human Peripheral Resistance Vessels but does not Inhibit Isolated Na/K ATPase ...
Nucleotide Exchange from the High-Affinity ATP-Binding Site in SecA is the Rate-Limiting Step in the ATPase Cycle of the ... Nucleotide Exchange from the High-Affinity ATP-Binding Site in SecA is the Rate-Limiting Step in the ATPase Cycle of the ... translocation requires at least a 100-fold acceleration in the ATPase rate, the rate-limiting process of. ADP release from the ... that this process is the rate-limiting step in the ATPase cycle of the free enzyme. Because efficient protein. ...
Route, mechanism, and implications of proton import during Na+/K+ exchange by native Na+/K+-ATPase pumps. Natascia Vedovato, ... Route, mechanism, and implications of proton import during Na+/K+ exchange by native Na+/K+-ATPase pumps ... A single Na+/K+-ATPase pumps three Na+ outwards and two K+ inwards by alternately exposing ion-binding sites to opposite sides ... The inferred occurrence of Na+/K+ exchange and H+ import during the same conformational cycle of a single molecule identifies ...
Enquire before buying for Na+/K+ Exchanging ATPase (Sodium Potassium ATPase or Sodium Potassium Pump or EC - Drugs in ... Enquire before buying Na+/K+ Exchanging ATPase (Sodium Potassium ATPase or Sodium Potassium Pump or EC - Drugs in ... Na+/K+ Exchanging ATPase (Sodium Potassium ATPase or Sodium Potassium Pump or EC - Drugs in Development, 2021 *Pages ... Na+/K+ Exchanging ATPase (Sodium Potassium ATPase or Sodium Potassium Pump or EC - Drugs in Development, 2021 ...
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Gas-Exchange Measurements.. Gas-exchange measurements were performed using the LI-6400 system (Li-Cor), and parameters were ... ARABIDOPSIS H+-ATPASE 2 (AHA2), a typical isoform of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase (24); and POTASSIUM CHANNEL IN ARABIDOPSIS ... Gas-exchange properties of AHA2-transgenic plants. (A and B) Light responses of stomatal conductance (A) and the CO2 ... 2011) New insights into the regulation of stomatal opening by blue light and plasma membrane H+-ATPase. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol ...
... absorption is ultimately fueled by the basolateral Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA), which extrudes 3Na+ in exchange for 2K+ and thereby ... The hydration of the metabolic waste product, CO2, and the subsequent exchange of HCO3- for Cl- effectively exchanges a gas ... Exchange of a metabolic waste product (CO2), which exerts limited osmotic pressure, in exchange for an electrolyte provides an ... exchange. Additional components are required to account for active HCO3- secretion processes mediated by Cl-/HCO3- exchange, ...
ATPase, H+/K+ Exchanging Alpha Polypeptide. Alternative Names. Gastric H,K-ATPase Alpha Subunit; H(+)-K(+)-ATPase Alpha Subunit ... Recombinant ATPase, H+/K+ Exchanging Alpha Polypeptide (ATP4a), Cat#RPU40404. Write a Review Write a Review. × ... Recombinant ATPase, H+/K+ Exchanging Alpha Polypeptide (ATP4a), Cat#RPU40404. Rating Required Select Rating. 1 star (worst). 2 ...
... that are ATPases. These are the Vacuolar-type H+-ATPases (V-ATPase) which use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to transport ... Stack Exchange Network. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most ... previously shown to have ATPase activity, could confer sensitivity of the ATPase to inhibition by oligomycin, a compound that ... Quite a few times I have seen the term ATPase used for what I would consider ATP synthase. For example, my text has:. "The ...
Role of Na/Ca exchange and the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase in beta cell function and death.. ... Role of Na/Ca exchange and the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase in beta cell function and death. ... The Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and the Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase in β-cell function and diabetes par Herchuelz, André , Pachera, ... Effect of glucose on the expression level of the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in pancreatic islet ...
... and fractionation by FPLC Mono-Q anion-exchange column. •, PM H+-ATPase activity from C-PM; ○, PM H+-ATPase from FC-PM; ▵, FC- ... 1996) showed that solubilized PM H+-ATPase from maize roots treated in vivo with FC and fractionated by anion-exchange HPLC ... We tested the effect of lysoPC on the PM H+-ATPase solubilized from C-PM and FC-PM. Figure1 shows the PM H+-ATPase activity ... PM H+-ATPase Activity. Vanadate-sensitive PM H+-ATPase activity was assayed at pH 7.5 and 6.4 at 30°C, as described by Rasi- ...
K transporting subunit beta ATPase H+/K+ transporting subunit beta ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View ... ELISA Kit for ATPase, H+/K+ Exchanging Beta Polypeptide (ATP4b) *. Detection Target: ATPase, H+/K+ Exchanging Beta Polypeptide ... ATPase H /K transporting subunit beta ATPase H+/K+ transporting subunit beta ELISA Kits. Clear ... ATPase H /K transporting subunit beta ATPase H+/K+ transporting subunit beta ELISA Kits. ...
Sodium-potassium-exchanging ATPase‎ (12 F). V. *. ► Vacuolar proton-translocating ATPases‎ (17 F) ... Clamp-loader-ATPases-and-the-evolution-of-DNA-replication-machinery-1741-7007-10-34-S3.ogv 5.0 s, 640 × 480; 1.69 MB. ... Clamp-loader-ATPases-and-the-evolution-of-DNA-replication-machinery-1741-7007-10-34-S1.ogv 23 s, 640 × 480; 6.22 MB. ... Clamp-loader-ATPases-and-the-evolution-of-DNA-replication-machinery-1741-7007-10-34-S2.ogv 23 s, 640 × 480; 9.1 MB. ...
Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase Supplementary concepts * Alternating hemiplegia of childhood * Dystonia-Parkinsonism, Adult- ... are two separate movement disorders with different dominant mutations in the same sodium-potassium transporter ATPase subunit ...
ATPase involving regulation of its assembly state by elements of the glycolytic pathway could provide a means to adapt REC ATP ... ATPase (v,svg style=vertical-align:-0.0pt;width:20.75px; id=M3 height=14.1125 version=1.1 viewBox=0 0 20.75 14.1125 ... ATPase B subunit disappeared. Metabolic control of v,svg style=vertical-align:-0.0pt;width:20.75px; id=M16 height=14.1125 ... ATPase inhibitor, decreased REC ,svg style=vertical-align:-3.75374pt;width:25.862499px; id=M12 height=15.85 version=1.1 ...
exchange and HCO. 3. −. transport in pH. i. recovery from intracellular acid load in cultured epithelial cells of sheep rumen ... ATPase, V-type H. +. -ATPase and functional microtubules," Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 205, no. 18, pp. 2765-2775, ... ATPase and Cl. −. Interaction in regulation of MDCK cell pH," Journal of Membrane Biology, vol. 163, no. 2, pp. 137-145, 1998. ... V-ATPase in acid-base balance and Na. +. transport processes in frog skin," Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 200, no. 2, ...
Na+/Ca2+ exchange and Na+/K+-ATPase in the heart. The Journal of Physiology 593, no. 6 (2015): 1361-1382. ...
... has role EC (H+/K+-exchanging ATPase) inhibitor (CHEBI:49200) lansoprazole (CHEBI:6375) is a ... exchanging ATPase, EC Such compounds are also known as proton pump inhibitors. ... EC (H(+)/K(+)-exchanging ATPase) inhibitor An EC 3.6.3.* (acid anhydride hydrolase catalysing transmembrane movement ...
Mechanisms other than Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase changes may induce the early cel … ... Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase / metabolism* Substances * Electron Transport Complex IV * Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ... Mechanisms other than Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase changes may induce the early cell volume changes detected with diffusion-sensitive MR ... In contrast, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and cytochrome oxidase activity decreased in some regions during hypoxia-ischemia and remained ...
Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase • Stokes flow • Symporters • Systole • Transport Vesicles • Urea • Urine • Vasodilation • ...
Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase • Stokes flow • Symporters • Systole • Transport Vesicles • Urea • Urine • Vasodilation • ...
K+-ATPase locus; sister chromatid exchanges and micronuclei frequency. No significant cytotoxicity was seen. None of the ... SAX = Strong Anion Exchange). On the other hand, Powel et al. (2002) concluded that an additional step with a SAX SPE cartridge ... Using the buffer solutions and ion-exchange column normally used for the analysis of protein hydrolysates, DA elutes close to ... DA can be analysed, as well as preparatively isolated, by either LC or ion exchange chromatography using UV absorbance ...
ATPase.- A. Introduction.- B. History of ATPase.- C. Feedback in ATPase.- D. Conformational Changes Relevant for ATPase.- E. ... Exchange Reactions.- A. Introduction.- B. The Development of the Study of Exchange Reactions in Photophosphorylation.- C. ... Mechanisms of Exchange Reactions.- D. Requirement for Substrates.- E. The Relations Between Exchange Reactions and the ... Component Requirements of Membrane-Bound ATPase in General.- F. Relations of ATPase with Other Topics in Bioenergetics.- ...
sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity IBA Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor. more info ... E1-E2_ATPase; E1-E2 ATPase. pfam00689. Location:772 → 981. Cation_ATPase_C; Cation transporting ATPase, C-terminus. pfam13246. ... Cation_ATPase_N; Cation transporter/ATPase, N-terminus. COG4087. Location:644 → 725. COG4087; Soluble P-type ATPase [General ... sodium:potassium-exchanging ATPase activity ISS Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity. more info ...
  • ATP binds to the hydrolytically active high-affinity site approximately 3-fold more slowly than ADP when SecA is in its conformational ground state, suggesting that ATP binding probably occurs when the enzyme is in another conformational state during the productive ATPase/transport cycle. (
  • The steady-state ATP hydrolysis rate is equivalent to the rate of ADP release from the high-affinity site under a number of conditions, indicating that this process is the rate-limiting step in the ATPase cycle of the free enzyme. (
  • 10 mmol l -1 ) are required for the anion exchange process and could be the result of both a high metabolic activity of the intestinal epithelium and a close association of the anion exchange protein and the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. (
  • The phosphorylation of ADP to ATP is also catalysed by the enzyme ATPase. (
  • Surely the enzyme that catalyses the synthesis of ATP should be entitled 'ATP synthase', so why is 'ATPase' used in this case? (
  • To understand why you may encounter ATP synthase referred to as ATPase, you need to be aware of the historical context - the experimental work that preceded the knowledge of the structure and function of the enzyme complex that we have today. (
  • Analysis of the activation state of PM H + -ATPase in fractions in which the enzyme was partially separated from FCBP suggested that the establishment of an association between the two proteins was necessary to maintain the FC-induced activation of the enzyme. (
  • This suggests that the FC-induced activation of the PM H + -ATPase depends on the molecular interaction of the FC-FCBP complex with the enzyme. (
  • These data are consistent with the hypothesis that FC-induced activation of PM H + -ATPase depends on a direct interaction of the FC-FCBP complex with the enzyme, leading to the displacement of the C-terminal autoinhibitory domain. (
  • showed that solubilized PM H + -ATPase from maize roots treated in vivo with FC and fractionated by anion-exchange HPLC eluted separately with respect to FCBP and retained its activated state after enzyme insertion into liposomes, thus suggesting a permanent modification of the PM H + -ATPase not dependent on a direct interaction of the FC-FCBP complex with the enzyme. (
  • In this work we applied different approaches (solubilization with different detergents and Suc-density gradient and anion-exchange FPLC) to separate the PM H + -ATPase in the PM fraction purified from radish seedlings treated in vivo with or without FC from the FC-FCBP and to then analyze the activation state of the enzyme. (
  • This is the catalytic component of the active enzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of sodium and potassium ions across the plasma membrane. (
  • A membrane-bound enzyme, sodium-potassium-activated adenosinetriphosphatase (Na +K +ATPase), actively transports or pumps sodium out and potassium into cells to maintain the concentration gradients. (
  • The gastric hydrogen potassium ATPase or H + /K + ATPase is the proton pump of the stomach and as such is the enzyme primarily responsible for the acidification of the stomach contents (see gastric acid ). (
  • The gene ATP4A encodes the H + /K + ATPase α subunit contains and is an ~ 1000 amino acid protein that contains the catalytic sites of the enzyme and forms the pore through the cell membrane that allows the transport of ions. (
  • The H + /K + ATPase β subunit stabilizes the H + /K + ATPase α subunit and is required for function of the enzyme. (
  • This very ancient signaling pathway targeting thiols of all three subunits of the Na,K-ATPase as well as redox-sensitive kinases sustains the enzyme activity at the "optimal" level avoiding terminal ATP depletion and maintaining the transmembrane ion gradients in cells of anoxia-tolerant species. (
  • Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase ( sodium - potassium adenosine triphosphatase , also known as the Na⁺/K⁺ pump or sodium-potassium pump ) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase ) found in the membrane of all animal cells. (
  • The Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase enzyme is active (i.e. it uses energy from ATP ). (
  • [1] This enzyme belongs to the family of P-type ATPases . (
  • Non-chaperonin molecular chaperone ATPase (EC, molecular chaperone Hsc70 ATPase) is an enzyme with systematic name ATP phosphohydrolase (polypeptide-polymerizing). (
  • a membrane-bound enzyme occurring on the secretory surfaces of parietal cells that uses the energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP to drive the exchange of ions across the cell membrane, secreting acid into the gastric lumen. (
  • Treatment of erythrocyte Na+, K+-ATPase with the three Porphyrin compounds resulted in an increase in activity of the enzyme significantly (Table-I). (
  • Transmembrane ATPases are membrane-bound enzyme complexes/ion transporters that use ATP hydrolysis to drive the transport of protons across a membrane. (
  • Calcineurin inhibits VCX1-dependent H+/Ca2+ exchange and induces Ca2+ ATPases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (
  • This work demonstrated that a mitochondrial 'fraction' (F O - 'F' stood for 'fraction') when added to another 'fraction' (F 1 ), previously shown to have ATPase activity, could confer sensitivity of the ATPase to inhibition by oligomycin, a compound that inhibits oxidative phosphorylation in intact mitochondria. (
  • acid anhydride hydrolase catalysing transmembrane movement of substances) inhibitor that inhibits H + /K + -exchanging ATPase, EC (
  • Function however can be very, I would even say often is, specific, for example, the epsilon subunit inhibits ATPase activity if F1 is not attached to Fo. (
  • Digoxin inhibits Na-K ATPase and increases Calcium entry by a sodium-calcium flux exchange. (
  • Experts in the field of the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) have also contributed. (
  • Andre Herchuelz and Mordecai P. Blaustein are the authors of Sodium-Calcium Exchange and the Plasma Membrane Ca2+-ATPase in Cell Function: Fifth International Conference, Volume 1099, published by Wiley. (
  • Recent researches revealed that light-induced stomatal opening is mediated by at least three key components: blue light receptor phototropin, plasma membrane H + -ATPase, and plasma membrane inward-rectifying K + channels. (
  • DI-fusion Role of Na/Ca exchange and the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase in. (
  • Opposite effects of glucose on plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase and Na/Ca exchanger transcription, expression, and activity in rat pancreatic beta-cells. (
  • Different approaches were utilized to investigate the mechanism by which fusicoccin (FC) induces the activation of the H + -ATPase in plasma membrane (PM) isolated from radish ( Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings treated in vivo with (FC-PM) or without (C-PM) FC. (
  • The Na,K-ATPase is an ubiquitously expressed ion pump located in the plasma membrane. (
  • Sodium-Calcium Exchange in Platelet Plasma Membrane Vesicles (Extended Abstract). (
  • Alkylating Toxins and the Liver Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump/Calcium ATPase. (
  • V-ATPases (V1V0-ATPases), which are primarily found in eukaryotes and they function as proton pumps that acidify intracellular compartments and, in some cases, transport protons across the plasma membrane [ PMID: 20450191 ]. (
  • Na+/K+ -ATPase is an integral membrane protein responsible for establishing and maintaining the electrochemical gradients of Na and K ions across the plasma membrane. (
  • Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients. (
  • These are the Vacuolar-type H + -ATPases (V-ATPase) which use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to transport hydrogen ions across the membranes of certain tissues and organelles. (
  • The H+/K+ ATPase is a member of the P-type ATPase superfamily, a large family of related proteins that transport ions, most usually cations, across biological membranes in nearly all species. (
  • As an ion pump the H + /K + ATPase is able to transport ions against a concentration gradient using energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP. (
  • The Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase, as well as effects of diffusion of the involved ions maintain the resting potential across the membranes. (
  • In this situation, excess of hydrogen ions (H+) are exchanged for intracellular potassium ions, probably as a result of the cellular response to a falling blood pH. (
  • In contrast with other ions, magnesium is treated differently in two major respects: (1) bone, the principal reservoir of magnesium, does not readily exchange magnesium with circulating magnesium in the extracellular fluid space and (2) only limited hormonal modulation of urinary magnesium excretion occurs. (
  • Protons and chloride ions are pumped against gradients across the apical membranes of activated parietal cells into the gastric lumen in exchange for potassium ions. (
  • Na+, K+-ATPase pumps Na+ and K+ ions across the cell membranes to maintain the transmembrane gradients of these ions. (
  • Some transmembrane ATPases also work in reverse, harnessing the energy from a proton gradient, using the flux of ions across the membrane via the ATPase proton channel to drive the synthesis of ATP. (
  • F-, V- and A-ATPases, which contain rotary motors) and in the type of ions they transport [ PMID: 15473999 , PMID: 15078220 ]. (
  • P-ATPases (E1E2-ATPases), which are found in bacteria and in eukaryotic plasma membranes and organelles, and function to transport a variety of different ions across membranes. (
  • P-ATPases function to transport a variety of different compounds, including ions and phospholipids, across a membrane using ATP hydrolysis for energy. (
  • Based on anatomical colocalization, mutual sodium dependency, and the inhibitory effects of the Na,K-ATPase inhibitor ouabain on glutamate transporter activity, we postulated that glutamate transporters are directly coupled to Na,K-ATPase and that Na,K-ATPase is an essential modulator of glutamate uptake. (
  • This antihypertrophic effect of garlic and its sulfur metabolites were lost in H9C2 cells in presence of Na + /K + -ATPase inhibitor. (
  • A-ATPases (A1A0-ATPases), which are found in Archaea and function like F-ATPases, though with respect to their structure and some inhibitor responses, A-ATPases are more closely related to the V-ATPases [ PMID: 18937357 , PMID: 1385979 ]. (
  • ATP1A2 (ATPase Na+/K+ Transporting Subunit Alpha 2) is a Protein Coding gene. (
  • To investigate the correlation between diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) image changes with alterations in extracellular volume and changes in cytochrome oxidase and Na(+)-K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity at various times during and after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal and juvenile rats. (
  • Almost all enzymes involved in phosphorus reactions (eg, adenosine triphosphatase [ATPase]) require magnesium for activation. (
  • Because efficient protein translocation requires at least a 100-fold acceleration in the ATPase rate, the rate-limiting process of ADP release from the high-affinity site is likely to play a controlling role in the conformational reaction cycle of SecA. (
  • Treatment of FC-PM with different detergents indicated that PM H + -ATPase and the FC-FC-binding-protein (FCBP) complex were solubilized to a similar extent. (
  • Solubilized PM proteins were also fractionated by a fast-protein liquid chromatography anion-exchange column. (
  • The effects of protein kinase inhibitors on [ 3 H] d -aspartate uptake indicated the selective involvement of Src kinases, which are probably a component of the Na,K-ATPase/glutamate transporter complex. (
  • Parietal cells possess an extensive secretory membrane system and the H + /K + ATPase is the major protein constituent of these membranes. (
  • The H + /K + ATPase is a heterodimeric protein , the product of 2 genes. (
  • The gene ATP4B encodes the β subunit of the H + /K + ATPase, which is an ~ 300 amino acid protein with a 36 amino acid N-terminal cytoplasmic domain, a single transmembrane domain, and a highly glycosylated extracellular domain. (
  • Namba 2008 Distinct roles of the FliI ATPase and proton motive force in bacterial flagellar protein export. (
  • 2008) constructed a five-knockout mutant, which three ATPase / secretory fliHIJ lack of the flagellum, but it also contained two ATPase-related protein type 3 secretion systems (INVC and Sansandi). (
  • Decreased Na + /K + -ATPase protein level that observed in hypertrophy heart was increased after garlic administration. (
  • Raw garlic and both metabolites increased Na + /K + -ATPase protein level and decreased intracellular calcium levels and cell size in Iso treated H9C2 cells. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type cation transport ATPases, and to the subfamily of Na+/K+ -ATPases. (
  • The Na+/K+ ATPase is a membrane protein that is composed of two subunits - alpha and beta. (
  • In some cells there are transmembrane complexes, structurally related to the mitochondrial (or bacterial membrane) ATP synthase, that are ATPases. (
  • There are several different types of transmembrane ATPases, which can differ in function (ATP hydrolysis and/or synthesis), structure (e.g. (
  • In addition, we study the molecular structure and biochemical mechanisms of metal selectivity in transmembrane transport ATPases. (
  • A single Na + /K + -ATPase pumps three Na + outwards and two K + inwards by alternately exposing ion-binding sites to opposite sides of the membrane in a conformational sequence coupled to pump autophosphorylation from ATP and auto-dephosphorylation. (
  • Proton pumps are ___/___ exchanging ATPases. (
  • Neuronal hypoxia and acidosis would disable sodium-potassium ATPase pumps, preventing axonal action potentials, but temporarily sparing lower energy dendritic activity which may correlate more directly with consciousness (10), Another possibility is that consciousness is a low energy quantum process (11), in which case reduced molecular dynamics may limit thermal decoherence, providing a temporal window for enhanced quantum coherent states and a burst of enhanced consciousness. (
  • S.L. Gluck , The Vacuolar H+ATPases: Versatile Proton Pumps Participating in Constitutive and Specialized Functions of Eukaryotic Cells. (
  • A cell's membrane potential is maintained by ion pumps in the cell membrane, especially the Na + /K + ATPase pumps. (
  • These pumps use ATP (energy) to pump sodium out of the cell in exchange for potassium ( Figure 1 ). (
  • 11. The Regulation of the Na/Ca Exchanger and Plasmalemmal Ca2+ ATPase by Other Proteins: Abdul M. Ruknudin and Edward G. Lakatta. (
  • Fractionation of solubilized FC-PM proteins by a linear sucrose-density gradient showed that the two proteins comigrated and that PM H + -ATPase retained the activated state induced by FC. (
  • Strand exchange reaction in vitro and DNA-dependent ATPase activity of recombinant LIM15/DMC1 and RAD51 proteins from Coprinus cinereus. (
  • Glutamate transporters are sodium-dependent proteins that putatively rely indirectly on Na,K-ATPases to generate ion gradients that drive transmitter uptake. (
  • Na,K-ATPase was purified from rat cerebellum by tandem anion exchange and ouabain affinity chromatography, and the cohort of associated proteins was characterized by mass spectrometry. (
  • Glutamate transporters are sodium-dependent proteins that rely on sodium and potassium gradients generated principally by Na,K-ATPase. (
  • Rather than being just a passive connecting tube, the membrane that forms T-tubules is highly active, being studded with proteins including L-type calcium channels , sodium-calcium exchangers , calcium ATPases and Beta adrenoceptors . (
  • In synaptosomes, ouabain produced a dose-dependent inhibition of glutamate transporter and Na,K-ATPase activities, whereas in astrocytes, ouabain showed a bimodal effect whereby glutamate transporter activity was stimulated at 1 μ m ouabain and inhibited at higher concentrations. (
  • [7] Recently, glycolysis has also been shown to be of particular importance for Na⁺/K⁺-ATPases in skeletal muscles, where inhibition of glycogen breakdown (a substrate for glycolysis ) leads to reduced Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase activity and lower force production. (
  • Pharmacological inhibition of the major Na+/K+ ATPase with ouabain can rescue the BPA-induced otolith phenotype. (
  • Ang II affects blood pressure via maintenance of sodium homeostasis by regulating renal Na + absorption through its effects on Na/K-ATPase (NKA). (
  • 1,2 In this regard, the ability of Ang II to stimulate Na/K-ATPase (NKA) activity in the renal proximal tubules is an important regulatory component of sodium absorption. (
  • P-type ATPase that undergoes covalent phosphorylation during the transport cycle. (
  • F-ATPases (ATP synthases, F1F0-ATPases), which are found in mitochondria, chloroplasts and bacterial plasma membranes where they are the prime producers of ATP, using the proton gradient generated by oxidative phosphorylation (mitochondria) or photosynthesis (chloroplasts). (
  • A missense mutation of the gene for Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit causes abnormal feeding behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans. (
  • Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans Na,K-ATPase alpha-subunit gene, eat-6, disrupt excitable cell function. (
  • This entry represents the conserved C-terminal region found in several classes of cation-transporting P-type ATPases, including those that transport H + ( EC: ), Na + ( EC: ), Ca 2+ ( EC: ), Na + /K + ( EC: ), and H + /K + ( EC: ). (
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include nucleotide binding and cation-transporting ATPase activity . (
  • Evolution of substrate specificities in the P-type ATPase superfamily. (
  • Analysis of the regulation of glutamate transporter and Na,K-ATPase activities was assessed using [ 3 H] d -aspartate, [ 3 H] l -glutamate, and rubidium-86 uptake into synaptosomes and cultured astrocytes. (
  • Regulation and isoform function of the V-ATPases. (
  • It is now being recognized that intestinal anion exchange is responsible for high luminal HCO 3 - and CO 3 2- concentrations while at the same time contributing substantially to intestinal Cl - and thereby water absorption, which is vital for marine fish osmoregulation. (
  • The basolateral H + extrusion is critical for the apical anion exchange and relies on the Na + gradient established by the Na + -K + -ATPase. (
  • The anion exchange activity in vivo is likely most pronounced in the anterior segment and results in net intestinal acid absorption. (
  • A) Plot showing results of anion exchange chromatography of brain cytosol and the fractions that were analyzed further. (
  • B) Plots showing tube scission probability with anion exchange fractions under the indicated conditions. (
  • Gruber G, Marshansky V. New insights into structure-function relationships between archeal ATP synthase (A1A0) and vacuolar type ATPase (V1V0). (
  • atpase from rumen epithelium identified and quantified by immunochemical methods," Acta Physiologica Scandinavica , vol. 163, no. 2, pp. 201-208, 1998. (
  • The PMC1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a vacuolar Ca2+ ATPase required for growth in high-Ca2+ conditions. (
  • Alternating hemiplegia of childhood and rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism are two separate movement disorders with different dominant mutations in the same sodium-potassium transporter ATPase subunit gene, ATP1A3. (
  • Regardless, I can tell there are a few issues - they cite the 2003 critiques of the flagellum evolution model by the pseudonymous "Mike Gene", without noting that several later scientific developments caused Mike Gene to substantially improve his opinion about even the most radical part of Matzke 2003, which was the idea that a good chunk of the flagellum was homologous to the F1Fo- ATPase and relatives. (
  • An important gene associated with Hernia, Hiatus is ATP12A (ATPase H+/K+ Transporting Non-Gastric Alpha2 Subunit), and among its related pathways/superpathways is Constitutive Androstane Receptor Pathway . (
  • The effect of Porphyrin compounds on Na+, K+-ATPase activity was investigated using published protocols. (
  • We review evidence implicating the increase of intracellular sodium to either increased influx of sodium (via either sodium channels or sodium/hydrogen exchange) or, alternatively, to decreased efflux on the Na/K pump. (
  • To confirm the role of garlic metabolites on cardiac hypertrophy, Na + /K + -ATPase expression and intracellular calcium levels were measured after treating H9C2 cells with raw garlic and two of its active metabolites, allyl methyl sulfide and allyl methyl sulfoxide. (
  • K.D. Philipson and D.A. Nicoll , Molecular and Kinetic Aspects of Sodium-Calcium Exchange. (
  • The Relative Importance of Calcium Influx and Efflux Via Na-Ca Exchange in Cultured Myocardial Cells. (
  • The H + /K + ATPase is found in parietal cells which are highly specialised epithelial cells located in the inner cell lining of the stomach, which is called the gastric mucosa. (
  • The H + /K + ATPase transports one hydrogen ion (H + ) from the cytoplasm of the parietal cell in exchange for one potassium ion (K + ) retrieved from the gastric lumen. (
  • It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Hydrogen_potassium_ATPase" . (
  • ATPase is present in cultured sheep ruminal epithelial cells," American Journal of Physiology , vol. 291, no. 6, pp. (
  • The α1-α3 subunits of Na,K-ATPase were detected, as were the glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1, demonstrating that glutamate transporters copurify with Na,K-ATPases. (
  • The subunits of the Na,K-ATPase show distinct expression patterns. (
  • Thus, it is not surprising that mutations in Na,K-ATPase genes cause a variety of abnormalities in the brain. (
  • Thus, it is likely that abnormalities in the CNS caused by mutations in Na,K-ATPase genes in mice and humans are attributable, in part, to altered synaptic transmission induced by impaired transmitter reuptake. (
  • The catalytic subunit of Na+/K+ -ATPase is encoded by multiple genes. (
  • Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) directly bind to and inactivate the H + /K + ATPase. (
  • In medicine , specifically gastroenterology , proton pump inhibitors ( PPI ) are medications that "inhibit H(+)-K(+)-exchanging atpase. (
  • Hypoxic-ischemic changes in extracellular space and ipsilateral versus contralateral differences in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and cytochrome oxidase activity were measured. (
  • E-ATPases, which are cell-surface enzymes that hydrolyse a range of NTPs, including extracellular ATP. (
  • The title shows clearly that they were aiming to understand ATP synthesis, but were at the stage where all they could measure was the ATPase activity of fractions. (
  • We found that nucleotide exchange factor (NEF) Grp170 induces nucleotide exchange of BiP and releases SV40 from BiP. (
  • The photochemical release of free ATP initiated a rapid transphosphorylation reaction (ATP:ADP exchange), a component of which is inhibited by ouabain. (
  • One of the main enzymes involved in ion exchange and various aspects of inner ear formation are the ouabain sensitive Na+/K+ ATPases [54,66]. (
  • Addition of ouabain to embryos was used to examine whether the effects of BPA implicated Na+/K+ ATPases. (
  • The functional Na,K-ATPase is a heterodimeric ion pump which consists of a α subunit and a β subunit. (
  • Transgenic Arabidopsis plants by overexpressing H + -ATPase in guard cells exhibited enhanced photosynthesis activity and plant growth. (
  • Our results demonstrate that stomatal aperture is a limiting factor in photosynthesis and plant growth, and that overexpression of the H + -ATPase in guard cells is useful for promotion of plant growth. (
  • Here, we show that transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing H + -ATPase using the strong guard cell promoter GC1 showed enhanced light-induced stomatal opening, photosynthesis, and plant growth. (
  • These results demonstrate that stomatal aperture is a limiting factor in photosynthesis and plant growth, and that manipulation of stomatal opening by overexpressing H + -ATPase in guard cells is useful for the promotion of plant growth. (
  • These findings demonstrate that glutamate transporters and Na,K-ATPases are part of the same macromolecular complexes and operate as a functional unit to regulate glutamatergic neurotransmission. (
  • The β2 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase displays functional properties of both an integral constituent of an ion pump and an adhesion and neurite outgrowth-promoting molecule in vitro . (
  • These observations suggest that the β1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase can substitute sufficiently, at least in certain cell types, for the role of the β2 subunit as a component of a functional Na,K-ATPase, but they do not allow us to determine the possible role of the β2 subunit as an adhesion molecule in vivo . (
  • Two drug categories are commonly used to inhibit H + /K + ATPase activity. (
  • H 2 -receptor antagonists inhibit the signalling pathway that leads to activation of the ATPase. (
  • The inferred occurrence of Na + /K + exchange and H + import during the same conformational cycle of a single molecule identifies the Na + /K + pump as a hybrid transporter. (
  • Even though these components (F 1 and F 1 F O ) were derived from a mitochondrial system that coupled electron transport to ATP synthesis, and the authors believed these components were responsible for ATP synthesis, they were obliged to refer to them by the activity they had assayed: hence F 1 ATPase and F 1 F O ) ATPase. (
  • Like all P-type ATPases a phosphate group is transferred form adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to the H + /K + ATPase during the transport cycle. (
  • The Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase helps maintain resting potential , affects transport, and regulates cellular volume . (
  • Mechanisms other than Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase changes may induce the early cell volume changes detected with diffusion-sensitive MR imaging. (
  • This is an overview of the current knowledge on the plethora of molecular mechanisms tuning the activity of the ATP-consuming Na,K-ATPase to the cellular metabolic activity. (
  • Mechanisms of ATPases--a multi-disciplinary approach. (
  • [3] For neurons, the Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase can be responsible for up to 3/4 of the cell's energy expenditure. (
  • Why is ATP synthase sometimes referred to as ATPase? (
  • Quite a few times I have seen the term 'ATPase' used for what I would consider ATP synthase. (
  • In my opinion, any textbook that refers to ATP synthase as ATPase is severely out of date and should be burned. (
  • Another reason not to refer to the ATP synthase as ATPase! (
  • Both enzymes showed DNA-dependent ATPase activity and ATP-dependent strand exchange reaction in vitro. (
  • In the H + /K + - and Na + /K + -exchange P-ATPases, this domain is found in the catalytic alpha chain. (

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