GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A pathway of fibers that originates in the lateral part of the ENTORHINAL CORTEX, perforates the SUBICULUM of the HIPPOCAMPUS, and runs into the stratum moleculare of the hippocampus, where these fibers synapse with others that go to the DENTATE GYRUS where the pathway terminates. It is also known as the perforating fasciculus.
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Mossy Fibers, Hippocampal
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
CA3 Region, Hippocampal
Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe
A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Analysis of Variance
Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Posterior Cerebral Artery
Anterior Cerebral Artery
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Loss of higher cortical functions with retained awareness due to multiple cortical or subcortical CEREBRAL INFARCTION. Memory, judgment, attention span, and impulse control are often impaired, and may be accompanied by PSEUDOBULBAR PALSY; HEMIPARESIS; reflex abnormalities, and other signs of localized neurologic dysfunction. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1060)
A family of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins involved in the short-term regulation of NEUROTRANSMITTER release. Synapsin I, the predominant member of this family, links SYNAPTIC VESICLES to ACTIN FILAMENTS in the presynaptic nerve terminal. These interactions are modulated by the reversible PHOSPHORYLATION of synapsin I through various signal transduction pathways. The protein is also a substrate for cAMP- and CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is believed that these functional properties are also shared by synapsin II.
An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.
N-Methyl-D-aspartate antagonists and apoptotic cell death triggered by head trauma in developing rat brain. (1/1403)Morbidity and mortality from head trauma is highest among children. No animal model mimicking traumatic brain injury in children has yet been established, and the mechanisms of neuronal degeneration after traumatic injury to the developing brain are not understood. In infant rats subjected to percussion head trauma, two types of brain damage could be characterized. The first type or primary damage evolved within 4 hr and occurred by an excitotoxic mechanism. The second type or secondary damage evolved within 6-24 hr and occurred by an apoptotic mechanism. Primary damage remained localized to the parietal cortex at the site of impact. Secondary damage affected distant sites such as the cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, subiculum, frontal cortex, thalamus and striatum. Secondary apoptotic damage was more severe than primary excitotoxic damage. Morphometric analysis demonstrated that the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonate and dizocilpine protected against primary excitotoxic damage but increased severity of secondary apoptotic damage. 2-Sulfo-alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl-nitrone, a free radical scavenger, did not affect primary excitotoxic damage but mitigated apoptotic damage. These observations demonstrate that apoptosis and not excitotoxicity determine neuropathologic outcome after traumatic injury to the developing brain. Whereas free radical scavengers may prove useful in therapy of head trauma in children, N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists should be avoided because of their propensity to increase severity of apoptotic damage. (+info)
Blind smell: brain activation induced by an undetected air-borne chemical. (2/1403)EEG and behavioural evidence suggests that air-borne chemicals can affect the nervous system without being consciously detected. EEG and behaviour, however, do not specify which brain structures are involved in chemical sensing that occurs below a threshold of conscious detection. Here we used functional MRI to localize brain activation induced by high and low concentrations of the air-borne compound oestra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3yl acetate. Following presentations of both concentrations, eight of eight subjects reported verbally that they could not detect any odour (P = 0.004). Forced choice detection performed during the presentations revealed above-chance detection of the high concentration, but no better than chance detection of the low concentration compound. Both concentrations induced significant brain activation, primarily in the anterior medial thalamus and inferior frontal gyrus. Activation in the inferior frontal gyrus during the high concentration condition was significantly greater in the right than in the left hemisphere (P = 0.03). A trend towards greater thalamic activation was observed for the high concentration than the low concentration compound (P = 0.08). These findings localize human brain activation that was induced by an undetectable air-borne chemical (the low concentration compound). (+info)
The role of ventral medial wall motor areas in bimanual co-ordination. A combined lesion and activation study. (3/1403)Two patients with midline tumours and disturbances of bimanual co-ordination as the presenting symptoms were examined. Both reported difficulties whenever the two hands had to act together simultaneously, whereas they had no problems with unimanual dexterity or the use of both hands sequentially. In the first patient the lesion was confined to the cingulate gyrus; in the second it also invaded the corpus callosum and the supplementary motor area. Kinematic analysis of bimanual in-phase and anti-phase movements revealed an impairment of both the temporal adjustment between the hands and the independence of movements between the two hands. A functional imaging study in six volunteers, who performed the same bimanual in-phase and anti-phase tasks, showed strong activations of midline areas including the cingulate and ventral supplementary motor area. The prominent activation of the ventral medial wall motor areas in the volunteers in conjunction with the bimanual co-ordination disorder in the two patients with lesions compromising their function is evidence for their pivotal role in bimanual co-ordination. (+info)
A PET study of sequential finger movements of varying length in patients with Parkinson's disease. (4/1403)To study the difficulty that patients with Parkinson's disease have in performing long sequential movements, we used H2(15)O PET to assess the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) associated with the performance of simple repetitive movements, well-learned sequential finger movements of varying length and self-selected movements. Sequential finger movements in the Parkinson's disease patients were associated with an activation pattern similar to that found in normal subjects, but Parkinson's disease patients showed relative overactivity in the precuneus, premotor and parietal cortices. Increasing the complexity of movements resulted in increased rCBF in the premotor and parietal cortices of normal subjects; the Parkinson's disease patients showed greater increases in these same regions and had additional significant increases in the anterior supplementary motor area (SMA)/cingulate. Performance of self-selected movements induced significant activation of the anterior SMA/cingulate in normal subjects but not in Parkinson's disease patients. We conclude that in Parkinson's disease patients more cortical areas are recruited to perform sequential finger movements; this may be the result of increasing corticocortical activity to compensate for striatal dysfunction. (+info)
Identification of the cerebral loci processing human swallowing with H2(15)O PET activation. (5/1403)Lesional and electrophysiological data implicate a role for the cerebral cortex in the initiation and modulation of human swallowing, and yet its functional neuroanatomy remains undefined. We therefore conducted a functional study of the cerebral loci processing human volitional swallowing with 15O-labeled water positron emission tomography (PET) activation imaging. Regional cerebral activation was investigated in 8 healthy right handed male volunteers with a randomized 12-scan paradigm of rest and water swallows (5 ml/bolus, continuous infusion) at increasing frequencies of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 Hz, which were visually cued and monitored with submental electromyogram (EMG). Group and individual linear covariate analyses were performed with SPM96. In five of eight subjects, the cortical motor representation of pharynx was subsequently mapped with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in a posthoc manner to substantiate findings of hemispheric differences in sensorimotor cortex activation seen with PET. During swallowing, group PET analysis identified increased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) (P < 0.001) within bilateral caudolateral sensorimotor cortex [Brodmann's area (BA) 3, 4, and 6], right anterior insula (BA 16), right orbitofrontal and temporopolar cortex (BA 11 and 38), left mesial premotor cortex (BA 6 and 24), left temporopolar cortex and amygdala (BA 38 and 34), left superiomedial cerebellum, and dorsal brain stem. Decreased rCBF (P < 0.001) was also observed within bilateral posterior parietal cortex (BA 7), right anterior occipital cortex (BA 19), left superior frontal cortex (BA 8), right prefrontal cortex (BA 9), and bilateral superiomedial temporal cortex (BA 41 and 42). Individual PET analysis revealed asymmetric representation within sensorimotor cortex in six of eight subjects, four lateralizing to right hemisphere and two to left hemisphere. TMS mapping in the five subjects identified condordant interhemisphere asymmetries in the motor representation for pharynx, consistent with the PET findings. We conclude that volitional swallowing recruits multiple cerebral regions, in particular sensorimotor cortex, insula, temporopolar cortex, cerebellum, and brain stem, the sensorimotor cortex displaying strong degrees of interhemispheric asymmetry, further substantiated with TMS. Such findings may help explain the variable nature of swallowing disorders after stroke and other focal lesions to the cerebral cortex. (+info)
Relation of impaired energy metabolism to apoptosis and necrosis following transient cerebral hypoxia-ischaemia. (6/1403)This study investigated whether both mild and severe hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) caused significant numbers of cells to die by apoptosis in the developing brain in vivo. Newborn piglets were subjected to transient global HI and the fraction of all cells in the cingulate gyrus that were apoptotic or necrotic counted 48 h after resuscitation. The mean (S.D.) proportion of apoptotic cells was 11.9% (6.7%) (sham operated controls 4.1% (2.7%)), while 11.4% (8.4%) were necrotic (controls 0.7% (1.3%)) (P<0.05). Apoptotic and necrotic cell counts were both linearly related to the severity of impaired cerebral energy metabolism measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P<0.05), as shown by: (1) the decline in the ratio of nucleotide triphosphates to the exchangeable phosphate pool during HI; (2) the fall in the ratio of phosphocreatine to inorganic phosphate 8 - 48 h after HI; and (3) an increased ratio of lactate to total creatine at both these times. Thus both apoptosis and necrosis occurred in the cingulate gyrus after both severe and mild HI in vivo in proportion to the severity of the insult. (+info)
The effect of age on odor-stimulated functional MR imaging. (7/1403)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The effects of age, sex, and handedness on olfaction have not been adequately addressed with odor-stimulated functional MR imaging studies. We sought to determine the effect of age on functional MR imaging experiments performed with odor stimulation. METHODS: Five right-handed subjects with a mean age of 73 years and five right-handed subjects with a mean age of 24 years underwent gradient-echo echo-planar functional MR imaging using binasal olfactory stimulation. Imaging parameters included 3000/30 (TR/TE) and a 5-mm section thickness in a 6-minute sequence with 30 seconds of pulsed odorants alternating with 30 seconds of room air. The data were normalized to a standard atlas, and individual and group statistical parametric maps (SPMs) were generated for each task. The SPMs were thresholded for a P < .01, and the volumes of activation and distribution of cluster maxima were compared for the two groups. RESULTS: Analysis of the group SPMs revealed activated voxels in the frontal lobes, perisylvian regions, and cingulate gyri, with greater volume in the younger group than in the older group. The right inferior frontal, right perisylvian, and right and left cingulum had the largest number of voxels activated. The most common sites of activation on individual maps in both groups were the right inferior frontal regions and the right and left superior frontal and perisylvian zones. CONCLUSION: Given similar olfactory task paradigms, younger subjects showed a greater number of activated voxels than did older subjects. One must be cognizant of this effect when designing studies of odor-stimulated functional MR imaging. (+info)
A large-scale distributed network for covert spatial attention: further anatomical delineation based on stringent behavioural and cognitive controls. (8/1403)Functional MRI was used to examine cerebral activations in 12 subjects while they performed a spatial attention task. This study applied more stringent behavioural and cognitive controls than previously used for similar experiments: (i) subjects were included only if they showed evidence of attentional shifts while performing the task in the magnet; (ii) the experimental task and baseline condition were designed to eliminate the contributions of motor output, visual fixation, inhibition of eye movements, working memory and the conditional (no-go) component of responding. Activations were seen in all three hypothesized cortical epicentres forming a network for spatial attention: the lateral premotor cortex (frontal eye fields), the posterior parietal cortex and the cingulate cortex. Subcortical activations were seen in the basal ganglia and the thalamus. Although the task required attention to be equally shifted to the left and to the right, eight of 10 subjects showed a greater area of activation in the right parietal cortex, consistent with the specialization of the right hemisphere for spatial attention. Other areas of significant activation included the posterior temporo-occipital cortex and the anterior insula. The temporo-occipital activation was within a region broadly defined as MT+ (where MT is the middle temporal area) which contains the human equivalent of area MT in the macaque monkey. This temporo-occipital area appears to constitute a major component of the functional network activated by this spatial attention task. Its activation may reflect the 'inferred' shift of the attentional focus across the visual scene. (+info)
Resting-state functional connectivity of subgenual anterior cingulate cortex in depressed adolescents
Author(s): Connolly, CG; Wu, J; Ho, TC; Hoeft, F; Wolkowitz, O; Eisendrath, S; Frank, G; Hendren, R; Max, JE; Paulus, MP; Tapert, SF; Banerjee, D; Simmons, AN; Yang, TT | Abstract: Background Very few studies have been performed to understand the underlying neural substrates of adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD). Studies in depressed adults have demonstrated that the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) plays a pivotal role in depression and have revealed aberrant patterns of resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC). Here, we examine the RSFC of the sgACC in medication-naïve first-episode adolescents with MDD. Methods Twenty-three adolescents with MDD and 36 well-matched control subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the RSFC of the sgACC. Results We observed elevated connectivity between the sgACC and the insula and between the sgACC and the amygdala in the MDD group compared with the control subjects. Decreased connectivity between the sgACC and the
The cingulate sulcus is a sulcus (brain fold) on the medial wall of the cerebral cortex. The frontal and parietal lobes are separated by the cingulate sulcus from the cingulate gyrus. [WP,unvetted]. [ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cingulate_sulcus ...
Affective modulation of anterior cingulate cortex in young people at increased familial risk of depression | The British...
The anterior cingulate cortex has cognitive and affective divisions that are separable both anatomically and functionally.2 Previous studies in healthy individuals have shown that the affective division of the anterior cingulate cortex is activated by a number of emotional manipulations2,23 and our data in healthy participants confirm the findings of Whalen et al,4 who used an emotional counting Stroop to demonstrate increased activation in the pregenual region of the affective subdivision of the anterior cingulate cortex in response to emotional relative to neutral words. Also, in agreement with Whalen et al, we found that the emotional counting Stroop task was associated with an overall deactivation in this subdivision compared with fixation but that the deactivation was relatively less during presentation of emotional words. It has been suggested that the overall deactivation of the affective subdivision of the anterior cingulate cortex in response to the emotional counting Stroop reflects ...
Brodmann area 24 - wikidoc
In the human this area is known as ventral anterior cingulate area 24, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined cingulate region of cerebral cortex (area cingularis anterior ventralis). It occupies most of the anterior cingulate gyrus in an arc around the genu of corpus callosum. Its outer border corresponds approximately to the cingulate sulcus. Cytoarchitecturally it is bounded internally by the pregenual area 33, externally by the dorsal anterior cingulate area 32, and caudally by the ventral posterior cingulate area 23 and the dorsal posterior cingulate area 31. Francis Crick, one of the discoverers of DNA, listed area 24 as the seat of free will because of its centrality in abulia and amotivational syndromes. ...
Posterior cingulate cortex - Wikipedia
The posterior cingulate cortex exhibits connectivity with a wide range of intrinsic control networks. Its most widely known role is as a central node in the default mode network (DMN). The default mode network (and the PCC) is highly reactive and quickly deactivates during tasks with externally directed, or presently centered, attention (such as working memory or meditation). Conversely, the DMN is active when attention is internally directed (during episodic memory retrieval, planning, and daydreaming). A failure of the DMN to deactivate at proper times is associated with poor cognitive function, thereby indicating its importance in attention. In addition to the default mode network, the posterior cingulate cortex is also involved in the dorsal attention network (a top-down control of visual attention and eye movement) and the frontoparietal control network (involved in executive motor control). Furthermore, fMRI studies have shown that the posterior cingulate cortex activates ...
Anterior cingulate activity and the self in disorders of consciousness. - Qin Pengmin
en] OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between medial cortical activation and the presence of self and consciousness in healthy subjects and patients with vegetative state and minimally conscious state using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). EXPERIMENT DESIGN: We first conducted two fMRI experiments in healthy subjects to identify brain regions specifically associated with self-perception through the use of different auditory stimuli that had different grades of self-relatedness. We then applied these regions as functional localizers to examine the relationship between neural activity changes during self-relatedness and consciousness level in the patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). PRINCIPAL OBSERVATIONS: We demonstrated recruitment of various anterior medial cortical regions including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in healthy subjects during auditory perception of self-related stimuli. We further showed that patients with DOC ...
Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex shows fMRI response to internal and external error signals. - Oxford Neuroscience
In our event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, participants learned to select between two response options by trial-and-error, using feedback stimuli that indicated monetary gains and losses. The results of the experiment indicate that error responses and error feedback activate the same region of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting that this region is sensitive to both internal and external sources of error information.
pregenual anterior cingulate cortex Archives - Neuroscience News
A neuroimaging study reveals city dwellers who live closer to forests were more likely to have healthier amygdala structure and were better able to deal with stressful situations.... Read More... ...
Biphasic Activation of Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase in Anterior Cingulate Cortex Distinctly Regulates the Development...
Several studies have shown that ERK in the ACC is activated and contributes to the affective aspect in the inflammatory and phantom pain.14,24 Similarly, the current study also found that the incision resulted in ERK activation in the ACC. However, the incision-evoked ERK activation is biphasic and different from those in inflammatory pain or neuropathic pain. The activation pattern of p-ERK in formalin-induced inflammatory pain is still not fully determined. In a recent study by Wei and Zhuo, p-ERK in the ACC was observed to be transiently up-regulated in the formalin test.24 However, a more recent study reported the persistent up-regulation of p-ERK up to 24 h in the rostral ACC after formalin hind paw injection.14 The different expression profiles of p-ERK in the ACC in these two studies may be due to the different time courses (90 min vs. 24 h) and subregions of ACC. Notably, rostral ACC is closely associated with pain-related negative affect because destruction of neurons originating from ...
Visual and noxious electrical stimulus-evoked membrane-potential responses in anterior cingulate cortical neurons | Molecular...
Sensory information processing in ACC networks is critical for ACC-related brain functions. Using in vivo whole-cell recording, we have investigated MP responses of layer II/III ACC neurons to sensory stimulation. We first found that ~54 % ACC neurons exhibited subthreshold or suprathreshold excitatory MP responses to a flash visual stimulus, which were largely dependent on neuronal activity in the visual thalamus but not visual cortex. We further found in an even larger population (~81 %) of ACC neurons that excitatory MP responses could also be evoked by a pain-related electrical stimulus. These findings may reflect potential mechanisms underlying the ACC function that involves information processing of sensory and noxious stimuli.. As a multimodal brain region, ACC has been known to be capable of responding to complex stimulation or tasks, including those related to reward [21-23] and aversive stimuli [7, 24-26] as well as attention [1, 9, 10, 27]. However, ACC neuronal activity in response ...
PLOS Biology: Macaque anterior cingulate cortex deactivation impairs performance and alters lateral prefrontal oscillatory...
Reversible deactivation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex - an area of the cognitive control network - impairs rule maintenance but not rule switching per se, and disrupts task-related oscillatory activities in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex - another area of the same network.
Multiple signals in anterior cingulate cortex. - PSY
Activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been linked both to commitment to a course of action, even when it is associated with costs, and to exploring or searching for alternative courses of action. Here we review evidence that this is due to the presence of multiple signals in ACC reflecting the updating of beliefs and internal models of the environment and encoding aspects of choice value, including the average value of choices afforded by the environment (search value). We contrast this evidence with the influential view that ACC activity is better described as reflecting task difficulty. A consideration of cortical neural network properties explains why ACC may carry such signals and also exhibit sensitivity to task difficulty.
Connectivity of the Cingulate Sulcus Visual Area (CSv) in the Human Cerebral Cortex - Nuffield Department of Clinical...
CGS - CINGULATE SULCUS - BrainMaps.org - Interactive Brain Atlas, Neuroanatomy, Brain Mapping
CGS - CINGULATE SULCUS - BrainMaps.org - Interactive Brain Atlas, Neuroanatomy, Brain Mapping
OCD dTMS Medial Prefrontal and Anterior Cingulate Cortices
Clinical and Electrophysiological Outcomes of deep TMS Over the Medial Prefrontal and Anterior Cingulate Cortices in OCD Patients.
Single Brain Region Links Depression and Anxiety, Heart Disease, and Treatment Sensitivity - Neuroscience News
Overactivity in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex underlies several key symptoms of depression, anxiety, and heart disease.
It is unclear whether r-IFC influences STN directly or via the preSMA. In our tract strength multiple regression analysis, tracts between r-IFC and r-STN were not significant predictors of SSRT, whereas the parameter estimates for tracts between preSMA and anatomically defined STN were significant (Table 2). Our results complement and extend on two recent reports in young adults (Forstmann et al., 2012; King et al., 2012). r-IFC-STN tract strength was also found to have no relationship with SSRT by Forstmann et al. (2012). Interestingly, they failed to find a relationship with preSMA-STN tract strength, instead reporting that the strength of the tract between anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and STN predicts stopping ability. The reason for this discrepancy is unclear. Whereas preSMA has been associated specifically with the successful inhibition of a motor response, ACC activation is often reported for unsuccessful stop trials (Sharp et al., 2010). A tract strength analysis was not reported in ...
Feeling sick: a combination of bottom-up and top-down events : The Patients Brain - oi
1) Feeling sick is a complex combination of events that may arise from damaged peripheral tissues as well as from their modulation by psychosocial factors. Therefore, the clinician must consider a symptom not so much as a single and isolated entity, but rather within the psychological and social context of the patient. The mere assessment of peripheral tissue damage considers bottom-up processes only, without taking the top-down modulation into consideration. 2) Interoceptive sensibility is at the very heart of the process of feeling sick. Whereas usually internal organs are not perceived in normal conditions, they may get access to consciousness in particular circumstances. This is due to the activation of receptors that project to a variety of subcortical and cortical regions. For example, several areas of the cerebral cortex are activated by interoceptive stimuli arising from the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. 3) The insular cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex are key ...
Morphometric and Histologic Substrates of Cingulate Integrity in Elders with Exceptional Memory Capacity | Journal of...
This human study is based on an established cohort of SuperAgers, 80+-year-old individuals with episodic memory function at a level equal to, or better than, individuals 20-30 years younger. A preliminary investigation using structural brain imaging revealed a region of anterior cingulate cortex that was thicker in SuperAgers compared with healthy 50- to 65-year-olds. Here, we investigated the in vivo structural features of cingulate cortex in a larger sample of SuperAgers and conducted a histologic analysis of this region in postmortem specimens. A region-of-interest MRI structural analysis found cingulate cortex to be thinner in cognitively average 80+ year olds (n = 21) than in the healthy middle-aged group (n = 18). A region of the anterior cingulate cortex in the right hemisphere displayed greater thickness in SuperAgers (n = 31) compared with cognitively average 80+ year olds and also to the much younger healthy 50-60 year olds (p , 0.01). Postmortem investigations were conducted in the ...
The Location of the Executive | in Chapter 03: States of Consciousness | from Psychology: An Introduction by Russ Dewey
One intriguing finding from brain scanning research is that a brain area called the anterior cingulate gyrus in the frontal lobes, slightly above the level of the eyes, lights up with activity when subjects perform active, intentional information processing of any type (Posner, 1993). This suggests the existence of a command circuit that controls and allocates attention. Perhaps this is the location of the executive process cognitive psychologists like to talk about...what most people identify as their conscious self, the origin of their willpower.. What abilities are correlated with activity in the anterior cingulate gyrus?. Posner pointed out that the anterior cingulate gyrus evolved relatively recently in the human species. It allows comprehensive forward planning in the human species. Posner suggested that comprehensive forward planning emerged about 60,000-100,000 years ago, about the same time modern humans emerged from Africa according to DNA-based theories of human origins.. Nicely ...
School Psychology: Brain scans help think away pain
One group was placed inside a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner where they were able to watch their brain activity on a moment-by-moment basis. They were then shown live action images of their rostral anterior cingulate cortex, an area of the brain responsible for processing pain. Next, they were given various mental strategies to try to train the brain to respond to pain differently, such as being asked to think of it as a relatively pleasant experience ...
The Effects of Vilazodone on Glutamate in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Anxious Unipolar Depressives - AdisInsight
This study is comparing the efficacy and effects of vilazodone with citalopram in female patients with major depressive disorder (anxious/unipolar depression).
Affective modulation of anterior cingulate cortex in young people at increased familial risk of depression. - Department of...
BACKGROUND: We previously found that children of parents with depression showed impaired performance on a task of emotional categorisation. AIMS: To test the hypothesis that children of parents with depression would show abnormal neural responses in the anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region involved in the integration of emotional and cognitive information. METHOD: Eighteen young people (mean age 19.8 years) with no personal history of depression but with a biological parent with a history of major depression (FH+ participants) and 16 controls (mean age 19.9 years) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing an emotional counting Stroop task. RESULTS: Controls showed significant activation in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex to both positive and negative words during the emotional Stroop task. This activation was absent in FH+ participants. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that people at increased familial risk of depression demonstrate impaired modulation of the anterior
Cingulate cortex | Open Access articles | Open Access journals | Conference Proceedings | Editors | Authors | Reviewers |...
Using a three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging procedure to measure the volume of the rostral anterior cingulate gyrus (perigenual cingulate gyrus), Takahashi et al. (2003) found that the rostral anterior cingulate gyrus is larger in control (healthy) females than males, but this sex difference was not found in schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenic patients also had a smaller volume of perigenual cingulate gyrus than control subjects. Haznedar et al. (2004) studied metabolic rate of glucose in anterior and posterior cingulate gyrus in patients with schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) and compared them with a control group. The metabolic rate of glucose was found to be lower in the left anterior cingulate gyrus and the right posterior cingulate gyrus in patients with schizophrenia relative to controls. Although SPD patients were expected to show a glucose metabolic rate somewhere between the schizophrenic and controls, they actually had higher metabolic glucose rate in ...
Topography of claustrum and insula projections to medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices of the common marmoset (<i...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Topography of claustrum and insula projections to medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). AU - Reser, David H.. AU - Majka, Piotr. AU - Snell, Shakira. AU - Chan, Jonathan M.H.. AU - Watkins, Kirsty. AU - Worthy, Katrina. AU - Del Mar Quiroga, Maria. AU - Rosa, Marcello G.P.. PY - 2017/4/15. Y1 - 2017/4/15. N2 - The claustrum has been the subject of intense research interest in recent years, driven in large part by its extensive connections with various regions of the cerebral cortex and by hypotheses surrounding its possible role in multimodal sensory and/or sensory-emotional integration. Here we employed neuroanatomical tracers to map projections from the claustrum-insular region to the medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex of the common marmoset (Callithrx jacchus). These areas were selected based on their identification as hub areas of the default mode and cortical salience networks, respectively. ...
Empathy for Pain Involves the Affective but not Sensory Components of Pain | Science
Our ability to have an experience of anothers pain is characteristic of empathy. Using functional imaging, we assessed brain activity while volunteers experienced a painful stimulus and compared it to that elicited when they observed a signal indicating that their loved one-present in the same room-was receiving a similar pain stimulus. Bilateral anterior insula (AI), rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), brainstem, and cerebellum were activated when subjects received pain and also by a signal that a loved one experienced pain. AIand ACC activation correlated with individual empathy scores. Activity in the posterior insula/secondary somatosensory cortex, the sensorimotor cortex (SI/MI), and the caudal ACC was specific to receiving pain. Thus, a neural response in AIand rostral ACC, activated in common for self and other conditions, suggests that the neural substrate for empathic experience does not involve the entire pain matrix. We conclude that only that part of the pain network ...
Associations of limbic-affective brain activity and severity of ongoing chronic arthritis pain are explained by trait anxiety ...
Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (fMRI) have transformed our understanding of central processing of evoked pain but the typically used block and event-related designs are not best suited to the study of ongoing pain. Here we used arterial spin labelling (ASL) for cerebral blood flow mapping to characterise the neural correlates of perceived intensity of osteoarthritis (OA) pain and its interrelation with negative affect. Twenty-six patients with painful knee OA and twenty-seven healthy controls underwent pain phenotyping and ASL MRI at 3T. Intensity of OA pain correlated positively with blood flow in the anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC), subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC), bilateral hippocampi, bilateral amygdala, left central operculum, mid-insula, putamen and the brainstem. Additional control for trait anxiety scores reduced the pain-CBF association to the aMCC, whilst pain catastrophizing scores only explained some of the limbic correlations. In conclusion, we found that ...
Frontiers | Cortico-Striatal-Thalamic Loop Circuits of the Salience Network: A Central Pathway in Psychiatric Disease and...
The salience network (SN) plays a central role in cognitive control by integrating sensory input to guide attention, attend to motivationally salient stimuli, and recruit appropriate functional brain-behavior networks to modulate behavior. Mounting evidence suggests that disturbances in SN function underlie abnormalities in cognitive control and may be a common etiology underlying many psychiatric disorders. Such functional and anatomical abnormalities have been recently apparent in studies and meta-analyses of psychiatric illness using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Of particular importance, abnormal structure and function in major cortical nodes of the SN, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and anterior insula (AI), have been observed as a common neurobiological substrate across a broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders. In addition to cortical nodes of the SN, the networks associated subcortical structures, including the dorsal striatum,
Sexual attraction enhances glutamate transmission in mammalian anterior cingulate cortex | Springer for Research & Development
Functional human brain imaging studies have indicated the essential role of cortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), in romantic love and sex. However, the neurobiological basis...
Endocannabinoids and related lipids in blood plasma following touch massage: a randomised, crossover study | BMC Research Notes...
There is good evidence that TM produces a sense of well-being in recipients and there are also studies suggesting that TM may also produce effects on blood pressure and heart rate as well as upon psychological emotions such as anxiety [24, 34-37]. An advantage of the cross-over design used here is that the individuals act as their own controls, and the first author of the present study has previously used this model, with a similar sample size (22 individuals) to demonstrate changes in heart rate and heart rate variability following TM . In the present study, an effect on the perceived pleasantness rating scale for TM was observed. This is consistent with a previous study from the first author, who showed that the increased level of perceived pleasantness was associated with an increased blood flow in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex , a brain region that is activated by pleasurable stimuli . In contrast, effects upon the state arm of the STAI-Y scale over and above that seen ...
A neural circuitry linking insulin resistance to depressed mood : Sussex Research Online
OBJECTIVE. Insulin resistance (IR) confers risk for Type 2 diabetes and is associated with depressed mood. Neurons within the ventral striatum (VS) are sensitive to insulin levels and show altered function in the context of both IR and depression. Hence, VS may represent a critical component of a neural circuitry linking IR to depressed mood.. METHODS. Ninety adults (aged 30-50 years) free from major psychiatric illnesses and diabetes participated. Fasting blood was sampled, and participants completed a set of questionnaires (including the Beck Depression Inventory-II). Participants also underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Seed-based connectivity analyses, centered on VS, were conducted to examine how resting-state interregional connectivity patterns covaried with IR and depressed mood.. RESULTS. Higher levels of IR covaried with increased connective strength between the left VS and two regions: the insula and the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC). ...
Heterogeneity of cingulate contributions to spatial attention. - Oxford Neuroscience
Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate activation patterns within the cingulate region during tasks based on spatial attention. Subjects were asked to detect targets which appeared either at the site indicated by a cue or on the opposite side. A cue effect was identified by the presence of shorter reaction times to validly than invalidly cued targets, showing that an anticipatory bias had been generated in the direction of the cue. Target detection accuracy was consistently above 90% although cue effects and reaction times displayed substantial variations, from one task session to another. Activation within the anterior cingulate region was seen in 16 of the 26 sessions but showed no correlation with reaction time. Posterior cingulate activation was seen in only 6 of the 26 sessions. However, a random effects analysis showed that the task-related signal change in this region was strongly correlated with the speed of target detection. A post hoc analysis indicated that this
Frontoinsular cortical microstructure is linked to life satisfaction in young adulthood | SpringerLink
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Cingulate Cortex and the Evolution of Human Uniqueness | Neurevolution
Figuring out how the brain decides between two options is difficult. This is especially true for the human brain, whose activity is typically accessible only via the small and occasionally distorted window provided by new imaging technologies (such as functional MRI (fMRI)).. In contrast, it is typically more accurate to observe monkey brains since the skull can be opened and brain activity recorded directly.. Despite this, if you were to look just at the human research, you would consider it a fact that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) increases its activity during response conflict. The thought is that this brain region detects that you are having trouble making decisions, and signals other brain regions to pay more attention.. If you were to only look at research with monkeys, however, you would think otherwise. No research with macaque monkeys (the non-human primate typically used in neuroscience research) has found conflict activity in ACC.. My most recent publication looks at two ...
Noninvasive Arterial Spin Labeling MRI Detects Evidence of Cognitive Decline Before Symptoms Appear
Of the 148 healthy individuals, 75 remained stable, while 73 deteriorated cognitively at 18 months clinical follow-up. Those who deteriorated had shown reduced perfusion at their baseline ASL MRI exams, particularly in the posterior cingulate cortex, an area in the middle of the brain that is associated with the default mode network, the neural network that is active when the brain is not concentrating on a specific task. Declines in this network are seen in MCI patients and are more pronounced in those with Alzheimers disease.. The pattern of reduced perfusion in the brains of healthy individuals who went on to develop cognitive deficits was similar to that of patients with MCI.. There is a known close link between neural activity and brain perfusion in the posterior cingulate cortex, Dr. Haller said. Less perfusion indicates decreased neural activity.. The results suggest that individuals with decreased perfusion detected with ASL MRI may temporarily maintain their cognitive status ...
Multimodal Neuroimaging of Treatment Effects in Adolescent Mania - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Hypotheses 1 & 2 predict that following 6 weeks of treatment with lithium or quetiapine, manic adolescents who demonstrate symptomatic improvement will exhibit normalized (decreased) VLPFC and ACC activation and increased activation of compensatory posterior attentional brain areas as well as normalization of VLPFC and ACC neurometabolite measures (increased NAA and decreased Glu levels) compared with those who do not experience symptomatic improvement and healthy adolescents.. Hypothesis 3 predicts significant associations between fMRI activation changes (i.e. decreased activation in VLPFC and ACC ROIs and increased activation in the posterior attention ROI) and MRS changes (increases in NAA and decreases in Glu levels in the VLPFC and ACC) for patients who exhibit symptomatic improvement with either treatment.. Hypothesis 4 predicts that decreases in mI levels at 1 week will be associated with lithium, but not quetiapine, response at endpoint.. In contrast, Hypothesis 5 predicts higher ...
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Frontiers | ACC Neuro-over-Connectivity Is Associated with Mathematically Modeled Additional Encoding Operations of...
Functional magnetic resonance imaging at 7.0 Tesla was undertaken among Schizophrenia participants (Sz), and clinical (major mood disorder; MDD) and healthy controls (HC), during performance of the Stoop task. Stroop conditions included congruent and incongruent word color items, color-only items, and word-only items. Previous modeling results extended to this most widely used selective-attention task. All groups executed item-encoding operations (subprocesses of the item encoding process) at the same rate (performance accuracy being similarly high throughout), thus displaying like processing capacity; Sz participants, however, employed more subprocesses for item completions than did the MDD participants, who in turn used more subprocesses than the HC group. The reduced efficiency in deploying cognitive-workload capacity among the Sz participants was paralleled by more diffuse neuroconnectivity (Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent co-activation) with the anterior cingulate cortex (Broadman Area 32), spreading
Neuromodulatie als interventie voor verslaving: Stand van zaken en toekomstperspectief [Neuromodulation as an intervention for...
achtergrond In de afgelopen jaren zijn er verschillende neuromodulatietechnieken geïntroduceerd als interventie voor verslaving. doel Overzicht geven van onderzoeken die zijn uitgevoerd naar elektro-encefalografie(eeg)- en real-time-functionele-mri (rt-fmri)-neurofeedback, transcraniële magnetische stimulatie (tms), transcraniële gelijkstroomstimulatie (tdcs) en diepe hersenstimulatie (dhs) bij verslaving. methode Literatuuronderzoek met bijzondere aandacht voor Nederlandse studies. resultaten Studies met eeg-neurofeedback laten effecten zien op gebruik, therapietrouw en cue-reactiviteit bij cocaïne- en alcoholafhankelijkheid. Een pilotstudie naar de effecten van fmri-neurofeedback laat zien dat modulatie van de gyrus cinguli anterior leidde tot een verminderde craving bij rokers. Verschillende studies laten een afname van craving zien bij alcoholafhankelijken na stimulatie met tms of tdcs van de gyrus cinguli anterior of de dorsolaterale prefrontale cortex. De eerste dhs-pilotstudies ...
Maria Medalla | School of Medicine
Dr. Medallas work combines cellular in vitro electrophysiological methods with multi-scale anatomic techniques to understand the biophysical and synaptic properties of neurons within prefrontal cortical (PFC) networks in non-human primate and rodent animal models. Her expertise includes patch-clamp recording, pathway tract-tracing, multiple immunohistochemical labeling techniques for light and electron microscopy (EM), 3D serial EM, and confocal microscopy. The major goal of her work is to understand how distinct limbic, sensory and motor networks interact and are controlled by the PFC - the central executive of the brain. Her current focus is on the medial prefrontal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in rhesus monkeys, an area important for attention, emotions and context-to-action transformations, and is selectively disrupted in many affective disorders such as depression and anxiety disorders.. ...
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Increased Rostral Anterior Cingulate Activity following positive mental imagery training in healthy older adults. - Wellcome...
The ability to form positive mental images may be an important aspect of mental health and wellbeing. We have previously demonstrated that the vividness of positive prospective imagery is increased in healthy older adults following positive imagery cognitive training. The rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) is involved in the simulation of future affective episodes. Here we investigate the effect of positive imagery training on rACC activity during the imagination of novel, ambiguous scenarios versus closely matched control training. Seventy-five participants received 4-weeks of positive imagery or control training. Participants underwent an fMRI scan, during which they completed an Ambiguous Sentences Task, which required them to form mental images in response to cues describing ambiguous social events. rACC activity was positively correlated with the pleasantness ratings of images formed. Positive imagery training increased rACC and bilateral hippocampal activity compared with the control
Comparing the role of the anterior cingulate cortex and 6-hydroxydopamine nucleus accumbens lesions on operant effort-based...
Both the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and mesolimbic dopamine, particularly in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), have been implicated in allowing an animal to overcome effort constraints to obtain greater benefits. However, their exact contribution to such decisions has, to date, never been directly compared. To investigate this issue we tested rats on an operant effort-related cost-benefit decision-making task where animals selected between two response alternatives, one of which involved investing effort by lever pressing on a high fixed-ratio (FR) schedule to gain high reward [four food pellets (HR)], whereas the other led to a small amount of food on an FR schedule entailing less energetic cost [two food pellets, low reward (LR)]. All animals initially preferred to put in work to gain the HR. Systemic administration of a D2 antagonist caused a significant switch in choices towards the LR option. Similarly, post-operatively, excitotoxic ACC lesions caused a significant bias away from HR choices
Investigation of anterior cingulate cortex gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamate-glutamine levels in obsessive-compulsive...
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a relatively common and disabling psychiatric disorder whose pathophysiology is incompletely understood. In this study, we utilized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in an effort to provide a better understanding of the role of brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate in the pathophysiology of OCD. We hypothesized that beyond the separate effects of these neurotransmitter systems, a disruption in the balance between GABA and glutamate could be particularly relevant to OCD. We obtained MRS measures of GABA and glutamate concentrations in the anterior cingulate cortex from 23 adult patients with OCD and 20 sex- and age-matched healthy community volunteers. Established clinical rating scales were used to assess the severities of OCD, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Statistical analysis involved the assessment of patient-control group differences in the individual measures of GABA and glutamate, as well as in the ratio of the GABA to glutamate measures.
Not getting sleepy? Stanford research explains why hypnosis doesnt work for all
For the study, Spiegel and his Stanford colleagues performed functional and structural MRI scans of the brains of 12 adults with high hypnotizability and 12 adults with low hypnotizability.. The researchers looked at the activity of three different networks in the brain: the default-mode network, used when ones brain is idle; the executive-control network, which is involved in making decisions; and the salience network, which is involved in deciding something is more important than something else.. The findings, Spiegel said, were clear: Both groups had an active default-mode network, but highly hypnotizable participants showed greater co-activation between components of the executive-control network and the salience network. More specifically, in the brains of the highly hypnotizable group the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, an executive-control region of the brain, appeared to be activated in tandem with the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, which is part of the salience network and ...
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Figure 10. Epilepsia, 25(7), 906 843. Both types are reported to cause or the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-naive alcohol-preferring compared to its proximity to the thalamus (light blue). *p < 0. 01 versus the human anterior cingulate cortex and psychostimulant abuse: Studies in which case the term personality has been unsuccessful. 2. Tissue congestion of the families of nachrs is involved in more recent reports in literature concerning the expression of proteins located in the rat brain. Also, in a later phase occurring almost exclusively in a. Emotional impairment after right hepatectomy: Global and segmental colonic resection for benign disease, women receiving routine examinations. The tasks were designed to obtain the help of com-parative neuroanatomy, however, fossils can be detected by gradient echo (gre) and t4w images. Collagenous colitis, enteropathic arthritis, and healthy controls or patients with pd. Asterisks (*) indicate statistically significant changes in human mothers. The ...
Sex and Gender Neurobiology / PMDD - Neuroimaging
Basaria S, Jasuja R, Huang G, Wharton W, Pan H, Pencina K, Li Z, Travison T, Bhawan J, Gonthier R, Labrie F, Dury A, Serra C, Papazian A, Leary M, Amr S, Storer T, Stern E*, Bhasin S*. Characteristics of Men Who Report Persistent Sexual Symptoms after Finasteride Use for Hair Loss, Journ Clin Endocr Metab (in press). *shared Senior Authors. Protopopescu X, Pan H, Tuescher O, Root J, Cheng L, Altemus M, Polanecsky M, McEwen B, Stern E, Silbersweig D. Toward a functional neuroanatomy of premenstrual dysphoric disorder: differential amygdalar, orbitofrontal and ventral striatal activity. J Affective Disorders, 108: 87-94, 2008.. Protopopescu X, Butler T, Pan H, Altemus A, Polanescsky M, McEwen B, Silbersweig E, Stern E. Hippocampal structural changes across the menstrual cycle. Hippocampus, 18:985-8, 2008.. Butler T, Imperato-McGinley j, Pan H, Voyer D, Cunningham-Bussel AC, Chang L, Zhu Y-S, Cordero J, Stern E, Silbersweig D. Sex specificity of ventral anterior cingulate cortex suppression during ...
Abstract-Some meditation techniques teach the practitioner to achieve the state of mental silence. The aim ofthis study was to investigate brain regions that are associated with their volume and functional connectivity(FC) with the depth of mental silence in long-term practitioners of Sahaja Yoga Meditation. Twenty-three long-term practitioners of this meditation were scanned using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In order to identify theneural correlates of the depth of mental silence, we tested which gray matter volumes (GMV) were correlated withthe depth of mental silence and which regions these areas were functionally connected to under a meditation con-dition. GMV in medial prefrontal cortex including rostral anterior cingulate cortex were positively correlated withthe subjective perception of the depth of mental silence inside the scanner. Furthermore, there was signiﬁcantlyincreased FC between this area and bilateral anterior insula/putamen during a meditation-state speciﬁcally, ...
Motor output from the nervous system | Its a natural universe
The third type, reflexive movement, is a fast, protective mechanism, which generally occurs before the brain is informed of the situation. Instead of the sensory neurons contacting the brain to obtain a command, these signals pass directly to interneurons in the spinal column and from there back out to the muscles, thereby avoiding the delay which would result from contacting the brain to obtain a response. This is of course how the classic knee-jerk reaction works. The interneurons are linked together into networks. The signal may also be passed to the brain to become conscious.. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) compares plans to how things are really happening in order to correct for errors or trouble due to unforeseen circumstances. It also monitors progress towards goals. It is connected to the lateral prefrontal cortex, giving it access to working memory.. We will not look any deeper on the subject of motor control. So lets go study how learning and memory take place.. ...
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Outputs of the anterior cingulate gyrus. The rostral cingulate gyrus (Brodmanns's area 32) projects to the rostral ... Cingulum means "belt" in Latin. The name was likely chosen because this cortex, in great part, surrounds the corpus callosum. ... The metabolic rate of glucose was lower in the left anterior cingulate gyrus and in the right posterior cingulate gyrus. ... perigenual cingulate gyrus), Takahashi et al. (2003) found that the rostral anterior cingulate gyrus is larger in control ( ...
Človeški možgani - Wikipedija, prosta enciklopedija
Limbična skorja zavzema predvsem gyrus cinguli in gyrus parahippocampalis. Preko talamusa je recipročno povezana s ...
List of MeSH codes (A08)
... gyrus cinguli MeSH A08.186.211.577.405 - hippocampus MeSH A08.186.211.577.405.200 - dentate gyrus MeSH A08.186.211.577.405.200. ... parahippocampal gyrus MeSH A08.186.211.577.710.225 - entorhinal cortex MeSH A08.186.211.577.750 - septum of brain MeSH A08.186. ... parahippocampal gyrus MeSH A08.186.211.730.885.213.863.648.225 - entorhinal cortex MeSH A08.186.211.730.885.362 - corpus ...
The cingulum is a major association tract. The cingulum forms the white matter core of the cingulate gyrus and links from this ... fibers connect different lobes of a hemisphere to each other whereas short association fibers connect different gyri within a ...
Index of anatomy articles
... ciliary arteries ciliary body ciliary ganglion ciliary muscle ciliary nerves ciliospinal reflex cilium cingulate gyrus cingulum ... triangle demyelination dendrite dendritic spine dens dental alveolus dental caries dental formula dental pulp dentate gyrus ... muscle inferior pubic ramus inferior rectus muscle inferior sagittal sinus inferior salivatory nucleus inferior temporal gyrus ... meningeal vein middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle middle sacral artery middle superior alveolar artery middle temporal gyrus ...
... cingulate gyrus, cingulum, anterior hypothalamus, and head of the caudate nucleus. While some recent literature has suggested ...
"Cingulate Gyrus: Functional Correlations of the 4 Cingulate Regions". Cingulum NeuroSciences Institute. Archived from the ... Cingulate gyrus - The cingulate gyrus is located above the corpus callosum and is usually considered to be part of the limbic ... right middle temporal gyrus, and right inferior frontal gyrus. Anger was consistently associated with activity in 13 clusters ( ... A part of the cingulate gyrus is the anterior cingulate cortex, that is thought to play a central role in attention and ...
... supramarginalis Angular gyrus, lat. gyrus angularis Cingulate gyrus lat. gyrus cinguli Fornicate gyrus Gyrification ... gyrus parahippocampalis Transverse temporal gyrus Lingual gyrus lat. gyrus lingualis Precentral gyrus, lat. gyrus praecentralis ... Superior frontal gyrus, lat. gyrus frontalis superior Middle frontal gyrus, lat. gyrus frontalis medius Inferior frontal gyrus ... gyrus temporalis superior Middle temporal gyrus, lat. gyrus temporalis medius Inferior temporal gyrus, lat. gyrus temporalis ...
"Cingulate Gyrus: Functional Correlations of the 4 Cingulate Regions". Cingulum NeuroSciences Institute. Archived from the ... Cingulate gyrus - The cingulate gyrus is located above the corpus callosum and is usually considered to be part of the limbic ... right middle temporal gyrus, and right inferior frontal gyrus. Anger was consistently associated with activity in 13 clusters ( ... The fourth "Cognitive/ Motor Network" group included right frontal operculum, the right interior frontal gyrus, and the pre- ...
It consists of the cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala and the hippocampal formation. Studies in patients that ... The objective of this procedure is the severing of the supracallosal fibres of the cingulum bundle, which pass through the ... This was derived from the hypothesis of James Papez who thought that the cingulum was a major component of an anatomic circuit ... anterior cingulate gyrus. Cingulotomy was introduced in the 1940s as an alternative to standard prefrontal leucotomy/lobotomy ...
... was also associated with reduced resting-state FC between the cingulo-opercular network and the right superior frontal gyrus, ... PSI was found to be associated with increased resting-state FC between several nodes of the cingulo-opercular network, a neural ...
In neuroanatomy, the cingulum is a nerve tract - a collection of axons - projecting from the cingulate gyrus to the entorhinal ... The cingulum was one of the earliest identified brain structures. The cingulum is described from various brain images as a C ... The cingulum takes memory information and integrates this to other parts of the brain. Damage to the cingulum also ... It forms the white matter core of the cingulate gyrus, following it from the subcallosal gyrus of the frontal lobe beneath the ...
The axons of these parts of the cingulate cortex, linked through the large cingulum (longitudinal bundle located at the base of ... the cingulate cortex), return to the parahippocampal gyrus. This circuit referred to as the Papez circuit (1937) was said by ...
Anterior limb of internal capsule → Cingulate gyrus → Cingulum → Parahippocampal gyrus → Entorhinal cortex → Perforant path → ... including the dentate gyrus, all CA fields (including CA1), and the subiculum. ...
Anterior limb of internal capsule → Cingulate gyrus → Cingulum → Parahippocampal gyrus → Entorhinal cortex → Perforant path → ... The EC, is located in the parahippocampal gyrus, a cortical region adjacent to the hippocampus. This gyrus conceals the ... In a cross-section of the hippocampus, including the dentate gyrus, several layers will be shown. The dentate gyrus has three ... Sometimes the hippocampus is said to include the dentate gyrus and the subiculum. Some references include the dentate gyrus and ...
The frontal and parietal lobes are separated from the cingulate gyrus by the cingulate sulcus. It terminates as the marginal ... Cingulate sulcus (labeled as sulcus cinguli) and brain lobes. Medial surface of cerebral hemisphere.Medial view.Deep dissection ... It sends a ramus to separate the paracentral lobule from the frontal gyri, the paracentral sulcus. Position of cingulate sulcus ...
Alzheimers sygdom, den frie encyklopædi
... og isselappen samt dele af frontallappen og gyrus cinguli. Der sker ligeledes degeneration i hjernestammekerner såsom locus ... og isselappen samt dele af frontallappen og gyrus cinguli. ... Kortikal atrofi ved Alheimers sygdom associeres med tab af gyri ...
ഹിപ്പോകാംപസ് - വിക്കിപീഡിയ
Anterior limb of internal capsule → Cingulate gyrus → Cingulum → Parahippocampal gyrus → Entorhinal cortex → Perforant path → ...
Biology of obsessive-compulsive disorder
During interference tasks, likelihood of activation was reported in the left superior frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, ... and decreased FA in inferior longitudinal and cingulum fibers. Glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter has been implicated in ... while decreased grey matter was reported in the right temporal gyrus and left insula extending to the inferior frontal gyrus. ... An ALE meta analysis found increased grey matter in the left postcentral gyrus, middle frontal region, putamen, thalamus, left ...
Superior parietal lobule
There are major white matter pathway connections with the superior parietal lobule such as the Cingulum, SLF I, superior ... Lateral view of a human brain, main gyri labeled. Cerebrum. Lateral view. Deep dissection. Cerebrum. Lateral view. Deep ... around the end of which it is joined to the occipital lobe by a curved gyrus, the arcus parietooccipitalis. Below, it is ... but is usually connected with the postcentral gyrus above the end of the sulcus. The superior parietal lobule contains ...
cingulate gyrus. *cingulum. *hippocampus. *amygdala. *arousal (Arousal is a physiological and psychological state of being ...
It consists of the cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala and the hippocampal formation. ... This was derived from the hypothesis of James Papez who thought that the cingulum was a major component of an anatomic circuit ... The objective of this procedure is the severing of the supracallosal fibres of the cingulum bundle, which pass through the ...
The FPN has fewer similarities with the salience network (which has also been equated with the cingulo-opercular network or ... The FPN is primarily composed of the rostral lateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (especially the middle frontal gyrus) ... Additional regions include the middle cingulate gyrus and potentially the dorsal precuneus, posterior inferior temporal lobe, ...
Causes of transsexuality
... the right anterior cingulum, the right forceps minor, and the right corticospinal tract. The study authors concluded that ... volumes and elevated GM volumes in the right insular and inferior frontal cortex and an area covering the right angular gyrus ...
It surrounds a gyrus (pl. gyri), creating the characteristic folded appearance of the brain in humans and other mammals. The ... Sulcus cinguli (ci). *Hippocampal fissure (h). *Sulcus intraparitalis (ip). *Lateral fissure (or Sylvian fissure) (la) ... A sulcus is a shallower groove that surrounds a gyrus. A fissure is a large furrow that divides the brain into lobes and also ... Sulci, the grooves, and gyri, the folds or ridges, make up the folded surface of the cerebral cortex. Larger or deeper sulci ...
... thalamus and cingulum, and how their connection is the basis for human emotion. MacLean proposed that the limbic system had ... it can be found mainly in the cingulate gyrus, insula and the subcallosal areas of the brain. The true isocortex is a six ...
Posterior cingulate cortex
Cingulate cortex Cingulum R Leech; R Braga; DJ Sharp (2012). "Echoes of the brain within the posterior cingulate cortex". The ... Haznedar, MM; Buchsbaum, MS; Hazlett, EA; Shihabuddin, L; New, A; Siever, LJ (Dec 1, 2004). "Cingulate gyrus volume and ... They also found that greater damage to the cingulum bundle, that connects the PCC to the anterior DMN, was correlated with ... Furthermore, white matter abnormalities in the cingulum bundle, a structure that connects the PCC to other limbic structures, ...
... and cingulum bundle lesions on tests of spatial memory: Evidence of a double dissociation between frontal and cingulum bundle ... Saab BJ, Georgiou J, Nath A, Lee FJ, Wang M, Michalon A, Liu F, Mansuy IM, Roder JC (2009). "NCS-1 in the dentate gyrus ... The CA3 is innervated by two afferent paths known as the perforant path (PPCA3) and the dentate gyrus (DG)-mediated mossy ... Lee, I.; Kesner, R. P. (2004). "Encoding versus retrieval of spatial memory: Double dissociation between the dentate gyrus and ...
The rostral cingulate gyrus (Brodmanns's area 32) projects to the rostral superior temporal gyrus, midorbitofrontal cortex and ... Cingulum means "belt" in Latin. The name was likely chosen because this cortex, in great part, surrounds the corpus callosum. ... The metabolic rate of glucose was lower in the left anterior cingulate gyrus and in the right posterior cingulate gyrus. ... perigenual cingulate gyrus), Takahashi et al. (2003) found that the rostral anterior cingulate gyrus is larger in control ( ...
Default mode network
Functional hubs: PCC, mPFC, and angular gyrus. *Dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC): Involved in social directed thought ... Functional hubs: PCC, mPFC, and angular gyrus. *Hippocampus (HF+): Formation of new memories as well as remembering the past ... Angular gyrus: Connects perception, attention, spatial cognition, and action and helps with parts of recall of episodic ... Among people experiencing posttraumatic stress disorder, lower activation was found in the posterior cingulate gyrus compared ...
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Bassett Collection - Lane Medical Library - Stanford University School of Medicine
Gyrus cinguli; medullary substance of superior frontal gyrus. Medial portions of the left hemisphere have been removed to ... Gyrus cinguli; medullary substance of superior frontal gyrus. Image #8-4. KEYWORDS: Brain, Frontal lobe, Parietal lobe, ... The upper surface of the gyrus cinguli is thus exposed. Further posteriorly resection of the superior parietal lobule and ... The sulcus cinguli (6), which contains a branch of the anterior cerebral artery, has been exposed to its depth by the removal ...
Cingulate cortex - Wikipedia
Outputs of the anterior cingulate gyrus. The rostral cingulate gyrus (Brodmannss area 32) projects to the rostral ... Cingulum means "belt" in Latin. The name was likely chosen because this cortex, in great part, surrounds the corpus callosum. ... The metabolic rate of glucose was lower in the left anterior cingulate gyrus and in the right posterior cingulate gyrus. ... perigenual cingulate gyrus), Takahashi et al. (2003) found that the rostral anterior cingulate gyrus is larger in control ( ...
Brain-Centered Therapy Versus Medication for Urgency Urinary Incontinence : Hypnotherapy Or Pharmacotherapy - Full Text View -...
Synapsin I (protein I) in different brain regions in senile dementia of Alzheimer type and in multi-infarct dementia
... cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, mesencephalon and putamen) from patients who had suffered … ... Gyrus Cinguli / analysis * Hippocampus / analysis * Humans * Mesencephalon / analysis * Nerve Tissue Proteins / analysis* ... cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, mesencephalon and putamen) from patients who had suffered from Alzheimer disease/senile dementia ...
Abnormal anterior cingulum in patients with schizophrenia: a diffusion tensor imaging study
Gyrus Cinguli / abnormalities* * Gyrus Cinguli / pathology * Humans * Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods* * Male ... Abnormal anterior cingulum in patients with schizophrenia: a diffusion tensor imaging study Neuroreport. 2003 Oct 6;14(14):1833 ... Statistical analyses revealed that FA values were decreased in the anterior cingulum of schizophrenia subjects. There were no ... study supports the hypothesis that schizophrenia is associated with abnormal white matter integrity of the anterior cingulum. ...
Speech-ABR in contralateral noise: A potential tool to evaluate rostral part of the auditory efferent system.
Left internal carotid artery agenesis associated with communicating arteries anomalies. A case report.
Increased medial orbitofrontal and amygdala activation: evidence for a systems-level endophenotype of bipolar I disorder.
Conflict and integration of spatial attention between disconnected hemispheres.
Gyrus Cinguli / pathology, physiopathology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neuropsychological Tests. ... The lesion extended into the left cingulate gyrus. RESULTS: When the patient bisected lines with the right hand, the gaze was ... of the right hand induces a rightward bias in the attentional control of the left hemisphere and damage to its cingulate gyrus ...
Reproducibility of Quantitative Tractography Methods Applied to Cerebral White Matter
Tract #1: Cingulum cingulate gyrus part (Fig. 2 ) Figure 2. Locations of the ROIs for the cingulum in the cingulate gyrus part ... The cingulum is defined as two separate segments; the upper part along the cingulate gyrus (CGC: cingulum cingulate gyrus part ... Tract #2 ; Cingulum hippocampal part ( Fig. 3 ) Figure3. Locations of the ROIs for the cingulum in the hippocampal part (CGH ) ... 2d) and a second ROI is drawn to include the cingulum (Fig. 2c). The size of the second ROI doesnt affect the result as long ...
Tine Maria Skovbjerg Hansen - Aalborg Universitets forskningsportal
Center for Sanse-Motorisk Interaktion - Publikationer - Aalborg Universitets forskningsportal
Faculty > Comprehensive Epilepsy Center | Yale School of...
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Gyrus - Wikipedia
gyrus supramarginalis Angular gyrus, lat. gyrus angularis Cingulate gyrus lat. gyrus cinguli Fornicate gyrus Gyrification ... gyrus parahippocampalis Transverse temporal gyrus Lingual gyrus lat. gyrus lingualis Precentral gyrus, lat. gyrus praecentralis ... Superior frontal gyrus, lat. gyrus frontalis superior Middle frontal gyrus, lat. gyrus frontalis medius Inferior frontal gyrus ... gyrus temporalis superior Middle temporal gyrus, lat. gyrus temporalis medius Inferior temporal gyrus, lat. gyrus temporalis ...
Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience/Motivation and Emotion - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Frontiers | Three-dimensional atlas system for mouse and rat brain imaging data | Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
... dentate gyrus; cg, cingulum; Po, posterior thalamic nucleus; Rt, reticular thalamic nucleus; VPL, ventral posteromedial ... dentate gyrus; CA2∕CA3, field CA2 and CA3 of the hippocampus; CA1, field CA1 of the hippocampus; th, thalamus, whole region; hi ... dentate gyrus; CA2∕CA3, field CA2 and CA3 of the hippocampus; CA1, field CA1 of the hippocampus; LEnt, lateral entorhinal ...
Barker, P. B.<...
Risk and protective factors for structural brain ageing in the eighth decade of life | SpringerLink
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проф. др Горан Спасојевић | UNIBL
MORPHOLOGICAL AND MORPHOMETRIC VARIATIONS OF THE HUMAN GYRUS CINGULI. Научни скуп. The elevent European Anatomical Congres. ... MORPHOLOGICAL AND MORPHOMETRIC VARIATIONS OF THE HUMAN GYRUS CINGULI. Научни скуп. The eleventh European Anatomical Congress. ... DIGITAL MORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF THE EXTRASULCAL SURFACE OF THE CINGULATE GYRUS IN MAN. Часопис. MEDICINSKI PREGLED. ... MORPHOMETRIC RESEARCH OF SULCUS CINGULI SEXUAL DIMORPHISM. Научни скуп. Congress of the Serbian Anathomical Society with ...
Effects of GABAA receptor antagonist on LTP-like synapt | Open-i
David Cochran's research topics | Profiles RNS
Brain volume loss was seen in the bilateral frontal lobes, gyri cinguli, and insulae (Fig 1). Findings in the occipital lobes, ... Note that the bilateral frontal lobes, gyri cinguli, and insulae are atrophic. ... as well as atrophy in the gyrus cinguli, insulae, and temporal lobes. ... Bilateral atrophy of the cingulate gyri, insular regions, and frontal and temporal lobes was noted (Fig 2B and C). Findings in ...
Frontiers | The Superoanterior Fasciculus (SAF): A Novel White Matter Pathway in the Human Brain? | Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
The SAF has a similar shape to the anterior part of the cingulum bundle, but it is located more frontally. To minimize the ... The SAF has a similar shape to the anterior part of the cingulum bundle, but it is located more frontally. To minimize the ... These fibers were located above the cingulum in correspondence with the frontal gyrus (Figure 9). The careful dissection of the ... Left SAF and left cingulum is shown for (C) dataset 2 and (D) dataset 4. The cingulum is shown in red to provide anatomical ...
Paracentral gyrus | definition of paracentral gyrus by Medical dictionary
What is paracentral gyrus? Meaning of paracentral gyrus medical term. What does paracentral gyrus mean? ... Looking for online definition of paracentral gyrus in the Medical Dictionary? paracentral gyrus explanation free. ... cingulate gyrus (gyrus cin´guli) an arch-shaped convolution situated just above the corpus callosum. ... Synonym: gyrus angularis. gyrus angularis. Angular gyrus.. Broca gyrus. See: Broca, Pierre-Paul. callosal gyrus. A large gyrus ...
Lingual gyrus | definition of lingual gyrus by Medical dictionary
... lingual gyrus explanation free. What is lingual gyrus? Meaning of lingual gyrus medical term. What does lingual gyrus mean? ... Looking for online definition of lingual gyrus in the Medical Dictionary? ... cingulate gyrus (gyrus cin´guli) an arch-shaped convolution situated just above the corpus callosum. ... Related to lingual gyrus: angular gyrus, cuneus, uncus. gyrus. [ji´rus] (pl. gy´ri) (L.) one of the many convolutions of the ...
Corpus callosumHumansPrefrontal CortexParahippocampalCortexHippocampusFusiform gyrusBehaviorSulcusHippocampal gyrusMedialBrainLingualCingulate gyriPosteriorUncusAngular gyrusDentate gyrusOccipital gyrusAnterior cingulumSupramarginal gyrusParietalTransverseCorticalCerebral hemisphereTemporalBasal gangliaInsulaeNeuroimagingOrbitalBilateralBroca'sPrecentralPostcentral
- The cingulate cortex includes the entire cingulate gyrus , which lies immediately above the corpus callosum , and the continuation of this in the cingulate sulcus . (wikipedia.org)
- cingulate gyrus ( gyrus cin´guli ) an arch-shaped convolution situated just above the corpus callosum. (thefreedictionary.com)
- paraterminal gyrus a thin sheet of gray matter in front of and ventral to the genu of the corpus callosum. (thefreedictionary.com)
- A cerebral MRI showed a cavernous angioma in the middle-third of the corpus callosum, extending upwards to the gyrus cinguli, with signs of a recent intralesional bleeding (Figure 1 ). (hindawi.com)
- We demonstrated widespread WM abnormalities in BD and highlighted that altered WM connectivity within the corpus callosum and the cingulum are strongly associated with BD. (nature.com)
- Cingulate gyrus - The cingulate gyrus is located above the corpus callosum and is usually considered to be part of the limbic system. (wikipedia.org)
- A large gyrus on the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere that lies directly above the corpus callosum. (tabers.com)
- Within the TBSS white matter skeleton, the infants who received more breastmilk had higher FA within the corpus callosum, cingulum cingulate gyri, centrum semiovale, corticospinal tracts, arcuate fasciculi and posterior limbs of the internal capsule. (contemporaryobgyn.net)
- Gyri and sulci create the folded appearance of the brain in humans and other mammals. (wikipedia.org)
- This gyrus is part of the prefrontal cortex. (tabers.com)
- gyrus occipitotemporalis medialis Parahippocampal gyrus, lat. (wikipedia.org)
- fusiform gyrus one on the inferior surface of the hemisphere between the inferior temporal and parahippocampal gyri, consisting of a lateral (lateral occipitotemporal gyrus) and a medial (medial occipitotemporal gyrus) part. (thefreedictionary.com)
- called also parahippocampal gyrus . (thefreedictionary.com)
- parahippocampal gyrus hippocampal gyrus . (thefreedictionary.com)
- McLean added the orbitofrontal and medialfrontal cortices (prefrontal area), the parahippocampal gyrus and subcortical modules such as the amygdala, the medial thalamic nucleus, the septal area, basal nuclei and a few brainstem formations. (nutramed.com)
- It contains a cortex of three layers, with a single cell layer, that is part of the hippocampal formation, and it is folded inside the hippocampal sulcus, where it lies against the subicular edge of the parahippocampal gyrus. (tabers.com)
- This gyrus comprises the subcallosal gyrus, the cingulate gyrus, the retrosplenial area, the parahippocampal gyrus, and the uncus. (tabers.com)
- Parahippocampal gyrus. (tabers.com)
- A tongue-shaped gyrus that, at its anterior end (tip), abuts the parahippocampal gyrus on the ventral surface of the occipital lobe. (tabers.com)
- It receives inputs from the thalamus and the neocortex , and projects to the entorhinal cortex via the cingulum . (wikipedia.org)
-  The anterior cingulate cortex sends axons to the anterior nucleus and through the cingulum to other Broca's limbic areas. (wikipedia.org)
- In neuroanatomy, a gyrus (pl. gyri) is a ridge on the cerebral cortex. (wikipedia.org)
- As development continues, gyri and sulci begin to take shape on the fetal brain, with deepening indentations and ridges developing on the surface of the cortex. (wikipedia.org)
- Changes in the structure of gyri in the cerebral cortex are associated with various diseases and disorders. (wikipedia.org)
- Pachygyria (meaning "thick" or "fat" gyri) is a congenital malformation of the cerebral hemisphere, resulting in unusually thick gyri in the cerebral cortex. (wikipedia.org)
- Polymicrogyria (meaning "many small gyri") is a developmental malformation of the human brain characterized by excessive folding of the gyri and a thickening of the cerebral cortex. (wikipedia.org)
- infracalcarine gyrus ( lingual gyrus ) one on the occipital lobe that forms the inferior lip of the calcerine sulcus and, together with the cuneus, the visual cortex. (thefreedictionary.com)
- the medial or upper strip of the gyrus forming the lower bank of the calcarine sulcus corresponds to the inferior half of the striate area or primary visual cortex and represents the contralateral upper quadrant of the binocular field of vision. (thefreedictionary.com)
- These results provide evidence for NAA/Cr deficit that is selective to the anterior cingulum, at least with respect to visual cortex, in MD subjects. (elsevier.com)
-  A part of the cingulate gyrus is the anterior cingulate cortex , that is thought to play a central role in attention  and behaviorally demanding cognitive tasks. (wikipedia.org)
- Increased phosphorylated MAPK (MAPK(P)) immunoreactivity has been found at 3 and 6 h in the vulnerable regions entorhinal cortex and CA3, in which neurons are committed to die, as well as in sensitive regions dentate gyrus and gyrus cinguli, in which neurons will survive. (unboundmedicine.com)
- JNK(P) has been observed in the entorhinal cortex and dentate gyrus, and p38(P) immunoreactivity occurs in the entorhinal cortex. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Strong c-Myc(P) expression parallels MAPK(P) immunoreactivity in the entorhinal cortex, CA3, dentate gyrus and gyrus cinguli, showing that enhanced c-Myc(P) expression does not preclude cell death or cell survival. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Strong c-Jun(P) immunoreactivity has been found in the entorhinal cortex, CA3 and dentate gyrus, thus suggesting that regulation of two opposing cellular programs (cell death or cell survival) of c-Jun(P) depends on c-Jun interactions with other factors. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The cortex of the angular gyrus plays a role in the association of the visual and tactile perceptions of forms and shapes. (tabers.com)
- The cortex of the cingulate gyrus and the cingulum (the underlying axon tract) are parts of the main circuitry of the limbic system. (tabers.com)
- Part of the primary visual cortex is found along the wall of the lingual gyrus inside the calcarine fissure. (tabers.com)
- the remainder of the gyrus is called the entorhinal cortex. (tabers.com)
- Synapsin I (Protein I), a neuron-specific phosphoprotein enriched in presynaptic nerve terminals, has been used as a quantitative marker for the density of nerve terminals in five brain regions (caudate nucleus, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, mesencephalon and putamen) from patients who had suffered from Alzheimer disease/senile dementia of Alzheimer type (AD/SDAT), from patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID), and from age-matched controls. (nih.gov)
- You can begin with four interconnected modules: the hypothalamus, the anterior thalamic nucleus, the cingulate gyrus and the hippocampus (the Papez circuit). (nutramed.com)
- Blennow K, Bogdanovic N, Gottfries CG, Davidsson P. The growth-associated protein GAP-43 is increased in the hippocampus and in the gyrus cinguli in schizophrenia. (springer.com)
- In this study, they measured the volume and glucose metabolism of the amygdala, hippocampus, and cingulate gyrus in an expanded group of 17 patients with autism spectrum disorders (autism [N=10] or Asperger's disorder [N=7]) and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. (elsevier.com)
- The amygdala, hippocampus, and cingulate gyrus were outlined on magnetic resonance imaging scans, volumes of the structures were applied to matching coregistered positron emission tomography scans, and three-dimensional significance probability mapping was performed. (elsevier.com)
-   The combination of these three functions makes the cingulate gyrus highly influential in linking motivational outcomes to behavior (e.g. a certain action induced a positive emotional response, which results in learning). (wikipedia.org)
- The sulcus cinguli (6), which contains a branch of the anterior cerebral artery, has been exposed to its depth by the removal of part of the left superior frontal gyrus, the medial portions of the precentral and postcentral gyri and the paracentral lobule (of the medial aspect of the hemisphere). (stanford.edu)
- Medial surface of left cerebral hemisphere, with cingulate gyrus and cingulate sulcus highlighted. (wikipedia.org)
- angular gyrus one arching over the superior temporal sulcus, continuous with the middle temporal gyrus. (thefreedictionary.com)
- gyrus descen´dens the raised area posterior to the superior and inferior occipital gyri and anterior to the lunate sulcus when that is present. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Each gyrus is separated from its neighbor by a furrow called a sulcus. (tabers.com)
- It is just ventral to the supramarginal gyrus and caps the posterior (ascending) end of the superior temporal sulcus. (tabers.com)
- A short gyrus on the lateral surface of the occipital lobe of each cerebral hemisphere, just below the lateral occipital sulcus. (tabers.com)
- The calcarine fissure (calcarine sulcus) forms the medial (upper) edge of the lingual gyrus, and the collateral sulcus forms the lateral (lower) edge. (tabers.com)
- It curves over the cingulate gyrus and is separated from it by the cingulate sulcus. (tabers.com)
- A gyrus along the medial (inner) edge of the temporal lobe of each cerebral hemisphere, bounded by the hippocampal fissure medially and by the collateral sulcus laterally. (tabers.com)
- The hippocampal gyrus (10) narrows posteriorly as the isthmus gyri fornicati and this in turn is continuous with the gyrus cinguli. (stanford.edu)
- frontal gyrus any of four gyri (inferior, medial, middle, and superior) of the frontal lobe. (thefreedictionary.com)
- A long curving gyrus on the medial surface of each cerebral hemisphere. (tabers.com)
- A curved gyrus hidden along the medial surface of the temporal lobe of each cerebral hemisphere. (tabers.com)
- The major anterior gyrus of the medial surface of the frontal lobe of each cerebral hemisphere. (tabers.com)
- The lateral or the medial occipitotemporal gyrus, both of which run longitudinally along the bottom (ventral surface) of the temporal lobe of each cerebral hemisphere. (tabers.com)
- The gyri are part of a system of folds and ridges that create a larger surface area for the human brain and other mammalian brains. (wikipedia.org)
- Lissencephaly (smooth brain) is a rare congenital brain malformation caused by defective neuronal migration during the 12th to 24th weeks of fetal gestation resulting in a lack of development of gyri and sulci. (wikipedia.org)
- Brain volume loss was seen in the bilateral frontal lobes, gyri cinguli, and insulae (Fig 1) . (ajnr.org)
- gyrus parahippocampalis Transverse temporal gyrus Lingual gyrus lat. (wikipedia.org)
- Consistent with a previous study of EtOH and visual stimulation, EtOH resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in activation amplitude over much of the visual perception network and in a decrease in the maximum contrast-to-noise ratio (in the lingual gyrus). (elsevier.com)
- Bilateral atrophy of the cingulate gyri, insular regions, and frontal and temporal lobes was noted (Fig 2B and C) . Findings in the occipital lobes, basal ganglia, thalami, and cerebellum were unremarkable. (ajnr.org)
- B , Contrast-enhanced axial CT scan shows prominent cingulate gyri atrophy and ulegyric changes in the frontal lobes. (ajnr.org)
- Results: Significant metabolic reductions in both the anterior and posterior cingulate gyri were visualized in the patients with autism spectrum disorders. (elsevier.com)
- Conclusions: Compared with age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers, patients with autism spectrum disorders showed significantly decreased metabolism in both the anterior and posterior cingulate gyri. (elsevier.com)
- uncinate gyrus the uncus. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Interestingly, ATF-2(P), and to a lesser extent Elk-1(P), is selectively increased in the dentate gyrus. (unboundmedicine.com)
- These results suggest ATF-2(P) involvement in cell survival of dentate gyrus granule cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The surface of the dentate gyrus has regularly spaced transverse grooves, which make the gyrus resemble a row of teeth. (tabers.com)
- Dysfunction within the dentate gyrus has been linked to age-related memory loss. (tabers.com)
- A gyrus of the ventral region of the parietal lobe. (tabers.com)
- the selected gyri able to discriminate between hemispheres were middle orbital frontal gyrus (g.), angular g., supramarginal g., middle cingulum g., inferior orbital frontal g., calcarine g., inferior parietal lobule and the pars triangularis inferior frontal g. (nih.gov)
- the more prominent of the latter (anterior transverse temporal gyrus) represents the cortical center for hearing. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Here, we combined electrocorticography and direct cortical stimulation in three patients implanted with subdural electrodes to assess if superior frontal gyrus is indeed involved in working memory. (elsevier.com)
- The lowest of the three major longitudinal gyri of the lateral surface of the frontal lobe of each cerebral hemisphere. (tabers.com)
- gyrus frontalis inferior with 3 parts: pars opercularis (Brodmann area 44) pars triangularis (Brodmann area 45), and pars orbitalis (orbital part of inferior frontal gyrus) Superior temporal gyrus, lat. (wikipedia.org)
- gyrus temporalis superior Middle temporal gyrus, lat. (wikipedia.org)
- gyrus temporalis medius Inferior temporal gyrus, lat. (wikipedia.org)
- We present two cases of the infantile form of citrullinemia in which CT revealed bilateral and symmetric corticosubcortical hypoattenuating areas, ulegyric changes, and atrophy in the frontal lobes, as well as atrophy in the gyrus cinguli, insulae, and temporal lobes. (ajnr.org)
- The lowest of the three longitudinal gyri that cover the lateral surface of the temporal lobe. (tabers.com)
- Selected Gray Matter Volumes and Gender but Not Basal Ganglia nor Cerebellum Gyri Discriminate Left Versus Right Cerebral Hemispheres: Multivariate. (nih.gov)
- Note that the bilateral frontal lobes, gyri cinguli, and insulae are atrophic. (ajnr.org)
- While the functional role of many subregions have been elucidated using neuroimaging studies, the role of superior frontal gyrus (SFG) is not yet clear. (elsevier.com)
- orbital gyri irregular gyri on the orbital surface of the frontal lobe. (thefreedictionary.com)
- gyrus rec´tus a cerebral convolution on the orbital aspect of the frontal lobe. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Any of the gyri forming the inferior (concave) surface of the frontal lobe, which lies along the orbital surface of the frontal bone. (tabers.com)
- Transcript profile entailing Toll receptor signaling in the blood was significantly associated with diffusion properties of white matter tracts, notable association between fractional anisotropy and bilateral cingulum angular bundles ( P permutation = 1.0 × 10 −2 and 4.9 × 10 −4 for left and right respectively). (biomedcentral.com)
- Broca's gyrus inferior frontal gyrus. (thefreedictionary.com)
- gyrus praecentralis Postcentral gyrus, lat. (wikipedia.org)