One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
A convolution on the inferior surface of each cerebral hemisphere, lying between the hippocampal and collateral sulci.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A pathway of fibers that originates in the lateral part of the ENTORHINAL CORTEX, perforates the SUBICULUM of the HIPPOCAMPUS, and runs into the stratum moleculare of the hippocampus, where these fibers synapse with others that go to the DENTATE GYRUS where the pathway terminates. It is also known as the perforating fasciculus.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
Axons of certain cells in the DENTATE GYRUS. They project to the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus and to the proximal dendrites of PYRAMIDAL CELLS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. These mossy fibers should not be confused with mossy fibers that are cerebellar afferents (see NERVE FIBERS).
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA2 FIELD and the DENTATE GYRUS.
Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
'Reading' in a medical context often refers to the act or process of a person interpreting and comprehending written or printed symbols, such as letters or words, for the purpose of deriving information or meaning from them.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.

N-Methyl-D-aspartate antagonists and apoptotic cell death triggered by head trauma in developing rat brain. (1/1403)

Morbidity and mortality from head trauma is highest among children. No animal model mimicking traumatic brain injury in children has yet been established, and the mechanisms of neuronal degeneration after traumatic injury to the developing brain are not understood. In infant rats subjected to percussion head trauma, two types of brain damage could be characterized. The first type or primary damage evolved within 4 hr and occurred by an excitotoxic mechanism. The second type or secondary damage evolved within 6-24 hr and occurred by an apoptotic mechanism. Primary damage remained localized to the parietal cortex at the site of impact. Secondary damage affected distant sites such as the cingulate/retrosplenial cortex, subiculum, frontal cortex, thalamus and striatum. Secondary apoptotic damage was more severe than primary excitotoxic damage. Morphometric analysis demonstrated that the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonate and dizocilpine protected against primary excitotoxic damage but increased severity of secondary apoptotic damage. 2-Sulfo-alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl-nitrone, a free radical scavenger, did not affect primary excitotoxic damage but mitigated apoptotic damage. These observations demonstrate that apoptosis and not excitotoxicity determine neuropathologic outcome after traumatic injury to the developing brain. Whereas free radical scavengers may prove useful in therapy of head trauma in children, N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists should be avoided because of their propensity to increase severity of apoptotic damage.  (+info)

Blind smell: brain activation induced by an undetected air-borne chemical. (2/1403)

EEG and behavioural evidence suggests that air-borne chemicals can affect the nervous system without being consciously detected. EEG and behaviour, however, do not specify which brain structures are involved in chemical sensing that occurs below a threshold of conscious detection. Here we used functional MRI to localize brain activation induced by high and low concentrations of the air-borne compound oestra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3yl acetate. Following presentations of both concentrations, eight of eight subjects reported verbally that they could not detect any odour (P = 0.004). Forced choice detection performed during the presentations revealed above-chance detection of the high concentration, but no better than chance detection of the low concentration compound. Both concentrations induced significant brain activation, primarily in the anterior medial thalamus and inferior frontal gyrus. Activation in the inferior frontal gyrus during the high concentration condition was significantly greater in the right than in the left hemisphere (P = 0.03). A trend towards greater thalamic activation was observed for the high concentration than the low concentration compound (P = 0.08). These findings localize human brain activation that was induced by an undetectable air-borne chemical (the low concentration compound).  (+info)

The role of ventral medial wall motor areas in bimanual co-ordination. A combined lesion and activation study. (3/1403)

Two patients with midline tumours and disturbances of bimanual co-ordination as the presenting symptoms were examined. Both reported difficulties whenever the two hands had to act together simultaneously, whereas they had no problems with unimanual dexterity or the use of both hands sequentially. In the first patient the lesion was confined to the cingulate gyrus; in the second it also invaded the corpus callosum and the supplementary motor area. Kinematic analysis of bimanual in-phase and anti-phase movements revealed an impairment of both the temporal adjustment between the hands and the independence of movements between the two hands. A functional imaging study in six volunteers, who performed the same bimanual in-phase and anti-phase tasks, showed strong activations of midline areas including the cingulate and ventral supplementary motor area. The prominent activation of the ventral medial wall motor areas in the volunteers in conjunction with the bimanual co-ordination disorder in the two patients with lesions compromising their function is evidence for their pivotal role in bimanual co-ordination.  (+info)

A PET study of sequential finger movements of varying length in patients with Parkinson's disease. (4/1403)

To study the difficulty that patients with Parkinson's disease have in performing long sequential movements, we used H2(15)O PET to assess the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) associated with the performance of simple repetitive movements, well-learned sequential finger movements of varying length and self-selected movements. Sequential finger movements in the Parkinson's disease patients were associated with an activation pattern similar to that found in normal subjects, but Parkinson's disease patients showed relative overactivity in the precuneus, premotor and parietal cortices. Increasing the complexity of movements resulted in increased rCBF in the premotor and parietal cortices of normal subjects; the Parkinson's disease patients showed greater increases in these same regions and had additional significant increases in the anterior supplementary motor area (SMA)/cingulate. Performance of self-selected movements induced significant activation of the anterior SMA/cingulate in normal subjects but not in Parkinson's disease patients. We conclude that in Parkinson's disease patients more cortical areas are recruited to perform sequential finger movements; this may be the result of increasing corticocortical activity to compensate for striatal dysfunction.  (+info)

Identification of the cerebral loci processing human swallowing with H2(15)O PET activation. (5/1403)

Lesional and electrophysiological data implicate a role for the cerebral cortex in the initiation and modulation of human swallowing, and yet its functional neuroanatomy remains undefined. We therefore conducted a functional study of the cerebral loci processing human volitional swallowing with 15O-labeled water positron emission tomography (PET) activation imaging. Regional cerebral activation was investigated in 8 healthy right handed male volunteers with a randomized 12-scan paradigm of rest and water swallows (5 ml/bolus, continuous infusion) at increasing frequencies of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 Hz, which were visually cued and monitored with submental electromyogram (EMG). Group and individual linear covariate analyses were performed with SPM96. In five of eight subjects, the cortical motor representation of pharynx was subsequently mapped with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in a posthoc manner to substantiate findings of hemispheric differences in sensorimotor cortex activation seen with PET. During swallowing, group PET analysis identified increased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) (P < 0.001) within bilateral caudolateral sensorimotor cortex [Brodmann's area (BA) 3, 4, and 6], right anterior insula (BA 16), right orbitofrontal and temporopolar cortex (BA 11 and 38), left mesial premotor cortex (BA 6 and 24), left temporopolar cortex and amygdala (BA 38 and 34), left superiomedial cerebellum, and dorsal brain stem. Decreased rCBF (P < 0.001) was also observed within bilateral posterior parietal cortex (BA 7), right anterior occipital cortex (BA 19), left superior frontal cortex (BA 8), right prefrontal cortex (BA 9), and bilateral superiomedial temporal cortex (BA 41 and 42). Individual PET analysis revealed asymmetric representation within sensorimotor cortex in six of eight subjects, four lateralizing to right hemisphere and two to left hemisphere. TMS mapping in the five subjects identified condordant interhemisphere asymmetries in the motor representation for pharynx, consistent with the PET findings. We conclude that volitional swallowing recruits multiple cerebral regions, in particular sensorimotor cortex, insula, temporopolar cortex, cerebellum, and brain stem, the sensorimotor cortex displaying strong degrees of interhemispheric asymmetry, further substantiated with TMS. Such findings may help explain the variable nature of swallowing disorders after stroke and other focal lesions to the cerebral cortex.  (+info)

Relation of impaired energy metabolism to apoptosis and necrosis following transient cerebral hypoxia-ischaemia. (6/1403)

This study investigated whether both mild and severe hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) caused significant numbers of cells to die by apoptosis in the developing brain in vivo. Newborn piglets were subjected to transient global HI and the fraction of all cells in the cingulate gyrus that were apoptotic or necrotic counted 48 h after resuscitation. The mean (S.D.) proportion of apoptotic cells was 11.9% (6.7%) (sham operated controls 4.1% (2.7%)), while 11.4% (8.4%) were necrotic (controls 0.7% (1.3%)) (P<0.05). Apoptotic and necrotic cell counts were both linearly related to the severity of impaired cerebral energy metabolism measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P<0.05), as shown by: (1) the decline in the ratio of nucleotide triphosphates to the exchangeable phosphate pool during HI; (2) the fall in the ratio of phosphocreatine to inorganic phosphate 8 - 48 h after HI; and (3) an increased ratio of lactate to total creatine at both these times. Thus both apoptosis and necrosis occurred in the cingulate gyrus after both severe and mild HI in vivo in proportion to the severity of the insult.  (+info)

The effect of age on odor-stimulated functional MR imaging. (7/1403)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The effects of age, sex, and handedness on olfaction have not been adequately addressed with odor-stimulated functional MR imaging studies. We sought to determine the effect of age on functional MR imaging experiments performed with odor stimulation. METHODS: Five right-handed subjects with a mean age of 73 years and five right-handed subjects with a mean age of 24 years underwent gradient-echo echo-planar functional MR imaging using binasal olfactory stimulation. Imaging parameters included 3000/30 (TR/TE) and a 5-mm section thickness in a 6-minute sequence with 30 seconds of pulsed odorants alternating with 30 seconds of room air. The data were normalized to a standard atlas, and individual and group statistical parametric maps (SPMs) were generated for each task. The SPMs were thresholded for a P < .01, and the volumes of activation and distribution of cluster maxima were compared for the two groups. RESULTS: Analysis of the group SPMs revealed activated voxels in the frontal lobes, perisylvian regions, and cingulate gyri, with greater volume in the younger group than in the older group. The right inferior frontal, right perisylvian, and right and left cingulum had the largest number of voxels activated. The most common sites of activation on individual maps in both groups were the right inferior frontal regions and the right and left superior frontal and perisylvian zones. CONCLUSION: Given similar olfactory task paradigms, younger subjects showed a greater number of activated voxels than did older subjects. One must be cognizant of this effect when designing studies of odor-stimulated functional MR imaging.  (+info)

A large-scale distributed network for covert spatial attention: further anatomical delineation based on stringent behavioural and cognitive controls. (8/1403)

Functional MRI was used to examine cerebral activations in 12 subjects while they performed a spatial attention task. This study applied more stringent behavioural and cognitive controls than previously used for similar experiments: (i) subjects were included only if they showed evidence of attentional shifts while performing the task in the magnet; (ii) the experimental task and baseline condition were designed to eliminate the contributions of motor output, visual fixation, inhibition of eye movements, working memory and the conditional (no-go) component of responding. Activations were seen in all three hypothesized cortical epicentres forming a network for spatial attention: the lateral premotor cortex (frontal eye fields), the posterior parietal cortex and the cingulate cortex. Subcortical activations were seen in the basal ganglia and the thalamus. Although the task required attention to be equally shifted to the left and to the right, eight of 10 subjects showed a greater area of activation in the right parietal cortex, consistent with the specialization of the right hemisphere for spatial attention. Other areas of significant activation included the posterior temporo-occipital cortex and the anterior insula. The temporo-occipital activation was within a region broadly defined as MT+ (where MT is the middle temporal area) which contains the human equivalent of area MT in the macaque monkey. This temporo-occipital area appears to constitute a major component of the functional network activated by this spatial attention task. Its activation may reflect the 'inferred' shift of the attentional focus across the visual scene.  (+info)

The gyrus cinguli, also known as the cingulate gyrus, is a structure located in the brain. It forms part of the limbic system and plays a role in various functions such as emotion, memory, and perception of pain. The gyrus cinguli is situated in the medial aspect of the cerebral hemisphere, adjacent to the corpus callosum, and curves around the frontal portion of the corpus callosum, forming a C-shaped structure. It has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, and chronic pain syndromes.

The dentate gyrus is a region of the brain that is located in the hippocampal formation, which is a part of the limbic system and plays a crucial role in learning, memory, and spatial navigation. It is characterized by the presence of densely packed granule cells, which are a type of neuron. The dentate gyrus is involved in the formation of new memories and the integration of information from different brain regions. It is also one of the few areas of the adult brain where new neurons can be generated throughout life, a process known as neurogenesis. Damage to the dentate gyrus has been linked to memory impairments, cognitive decline, and neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy.

The parahippocampal gyrus is a region within the brain's temporal lobe that plays a significant role in memory encoding and retrieval, as well as in the processing of spatial navigation and visual perception. It is located next to the hippocampus, which is another crucial structure for long-term memory formation. The parahippocampal gyrus contains several subregions, including the entorhinal cortex, perirhinal cortex, and the posterior cingulate cortex, all of which contribute to various aspects of learning and memory. Damage to this area can lead to memory impairments, particularly in the context of recognizing places or objects (source: Nieuwenhuis & De Dreu, 2016).

Brain mapping is a broad term that refers to the techniques used to understand the structure and function of the brain. It involves creating maps of the various cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes in the brain by correlating these processes with physical locations or activities within the nervous system. Brain mapping can be accomplished through a variety of methods, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, electroencephalography (EEG), and others. These techniques allow researchers to observe which areas of the brain are active during different tasks or thoughts, helping to shed light on how the brain processes information and contributes to our experiences and behaviors. Brain mapping is an important area of research in neuroscience, with potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

The temporal lobe is one of the four main lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain, located on each side of the head roughly level with the ears. It plays a major role in auditory processing, memory, and emotion. The temporal lobe contains several key structures including the primary auditory cortex, which is responsible for analyzing sounds, and the hippocampus, which is crucial for forming new memories. Damage to the temporal lobe can result in various neurological symptoms such as hearing loss, memory impairment, and changes in emotional behavior.

The hippocampus is a complex, curved formation in the brain that resembles a seahorse (hence its name, from the Greek word "hippos" meaning horse and "kampos" meaning sea monster). It's part of the limbic system and plays crucial roles in the formation of memories, particularly long-term ones.

This region is involved in spatial navigation and cognitive maps, allowing us to recognize locations and remember how to get to them. Additionally, it's one of the first areas affected by Alzheimer's disease, which often results in memory loss as an early symptom.

Anatomically, it consists of two main parts: the Ammon's horn (or cornu ammonis) and the dentate gyrus. These structures are made up of distinct types of neurons that contribute to different aspects of learning and memory.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

The perforant pathway is a group of axons that primarily originate from the entorhinal cortex and terminate in the hippocampus, playing a significant role in memory and spatial navigation. It consists of two distinct sections: the lateral perforant pathway, which projects to the dentate gyrus, and the medial perforant pathway, which innervates the cornu ammonis (CA) regions of the hippocampus, specifically CA3 and CA1. This neural highway is essential for learning new information and storing long-term memories by facilitating communication between the neocortex and the hippocampal formation. Damage to the perforant pathway has been implicated in various neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

The frontal lobe is the largest lobes of the human brain, located at the front part of each cerebral hemisphere and situated in front of the parietal and temporal lobes. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive functions such as decision making, problem solving, planning, parts of social behavior, emotional expressions, physical reactions, and motor function. The frontal lobe is also responsible for what's known as "executive functions," which include the ability to focus attention, understand rules, switch focus, plan actions, and inhibit inappropriate behaviors. It is divided into five areas, each with its own specific functions: the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, Broca's area, prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. Damage to the frontal lobe can result in a wide range of impairments, depending on the location and extent of the injury.

Neurogenesis is the process by which new neurons (nerve cells) are generated in the brain. It occurs throughout life in certain areas of the brain, such as the hippocampus and subventricular zone, although the rate of neurogenesis decreases with age. Neurogenesis involves the proliferation, differentiation, and integration of new neurons into existing neural circuits. This process plays a crucial role in learning, memory, and recovery from brain injury or disease.

The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain, characterized by its intricate folded structure and wrinkled appearance. It is a region of great importance as it plays a key role in higher cognitive functions such as perception, consciousness, thought, memory, language, and attention. The cerebral cortex is divided into two hemispheres, each containing four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. These areas are responsible for different functions, with some regions specializing in sensory processing while others are involved in motor control or associative functions. The cerebral cortex is composed of gray matter, which contains neuronal cell bodies, and is covered by a layer of white matter that consists mainly of myelinated nerve fibers.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

The parietal lobe is a region of the brain that is located in the posterior part of the cerebral cortex, covering the upper and rear portions of the brain. It is involved in processing sensory information from the body, such as touch, temperature, and pain, as well as spatial awareness and perception, visual-spatial cognition, and the integration of different senses.

The parietal lobe can be divided into several functional areas, including the primary somatosensory cortex (which receives tactile information from the body), the secondary somatosensory cortex (which processes more complex tactile information), and the posterior parietal cortex (which is involved in spatial attention, perception, and motor planning).

Damage to the parietal lobe can result in various neurological symptoms, such as neglect of one side of the body, difficulty with spatial orientation, problems with hand-eye coordination, and impaired mathematical and language abilities.

Mossy fibers in the hippocampus are a type of axon that originates from granule cells located in the dentate gyrus, which is the first part of the hippocampus. These fibers have a distinctive appearance and earn their name from the numerous small branches or "spines" that cover their surface, giving them a bushy or "mossy" appearance.

Mossy fibers form excitatory synapses with pyramidal cells in the CA3 region of the hippocampus, which is involved in memory and spatial navigation. These synapses are unique because they have a high degree of plasticity, meaning that they can change their strength in response to experience or learning. This plasticity is thought to be important for the formation and storage of memories.

Mossy fibers also release neurotransmitters such as glutamate and contribute to the regulation of hippocampal excitability. Dysfunction in mossy fiber function has been implicated in several neurological disorders, including epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease.

A nerve net, also known as a neural net or neuronal network, is not a medical term per se, but rather a concept in neuroscience and artificial intelligence (AI). It refers to a complex network of interconnected neurons that process and transmit information. In the context of the human body, the nervous system can be thought of as a type of nerve net, with the brain and spinal cord serving as the central processing unit and peripheral nerves carrying signals to and from various parts of the body.

In the field of AI, artificial neural networks are computational models inspired by the structure and function of biological nerve nets. These models consist of interconnected nodes or "neurons" that process information and learn patterns through a process of training and adaptation. They have been used in a variety of applications, including image recognition, natural language processing, and machine learning.

Neural pathways, also known as nerve tracts or fasciculi, refer to the highly organized and specialized routes through which nerve impulses travel within the nervous system. These pathways are formed by groups of neurons (nerve cells) that are connected in a series, creating a continuous communication network for electrical signals to transmit information between different regions of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.

Neural pathways can be classified into two main types: sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent). Sensory neural pathways carry sensory information from various receptors in the body (such as those for touch, temperature, pain, and vision) to the brain for processing. Motor neural pathways, on the other hand, transmit signals from the brain to the muscles and glands, controlling movements and other effector functions.

The formation of these neural pathways is crucial for normal nervous system function, as it enables efficient communication between different parts of the body and allows for complex behaviors, cognitive processes, and adaptive responses to internal and external stimuli.

In the context of medicine, particularly in neurolinguistics and speech-language pathology, language is defined as a complex system of communication that involves the use of symbols (such as words, signs, or gestures) to express and exchange information. It includes various components such as phonology (sound systems), morphology (word structures), syntax (sentence structure), semantics (meaning), and pragmatics (social rules of use). Language allows individuals to convey their thoughts, feelings, and intentions, and to understand the communication of others. Disorders of language can result from damage to specific areas of the brain, leading to impairments in comprehension, production, or both.

Cerebral dominance is a concept in neuropsychology that refers to the specialization of one hemisphere of the brain over the other for certain cognitive functions. In most people, the left hemisphere is dominant for language functions such as speaking and understanding spoken or written language, while the right hemisphere is dominant for non-verbal functions such as spatial ability, face recognition, and artistic ability.

Cerebral dominance does not mean that the non-dominant hemisphere is incapable of performing the functions of the dominant hemisphere, but rather that it is less efficient or specialized in those areas. The concept of cerebral dominance has been used to explain individual differences in cognitive abilities and learning styles, as well as the laterality of brain damage and its effects on cognition and behavior.

It's important to note that cerebral dominance is a complex phenomenon that can vary between individuals and can be influenced by various factors such as genetics, environment, and experience. Additionally, recent research has challenged the strict lateralization of functions and suggested that there is more functional overlap and interaction between the two hemispheres than previously thought.

Reaction time, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the time period between the presentation of a stimulus and the subsequent initiation of a response. This complex process involves the central nervous system, particularly the brain, which perceives the stimulus, processes it, and then sends signals to the appropriate muscles or glands to react.

There are different types of reaction times, including simple reaction time (responding to a single, expected stimulus) and choice reaction time (choosing an appropriate response from multiple possibilities). These measures can be used in clinical settings to assess various aspects of neurological function, such as cognitive processing speed, motor control, and alertness.

However, it is important to note that reaction times can be influenced by several factors, including age, fatigue, attention, and the use of certain medications or substances.

The CA3 region, also known as the field CA3 or regio CA3, is a subfield in the hippocampus, a complex brain structure that plays a crucial role in learning and memory. The hippocampus is divided into several subfields, including the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA2, CA1, and the subiculum.

The CA3 region is located in the cornu ammonis (Latin for "ammon's horn") and is characterized by its distinctive appearance with a high density of small, tightly packed pyramidal neurons. These neurons have extensive branching dendrites that receive inputs from various brain regions, including the entorhinal cortex, other hippocampal subfields, and the septum.

The CA3 region is particularly noteworthy for its involvement in pattern completion, a process by which the brain can recognize and recall complete memories based on partial or degraded inputs. This function is mediated by the recurrent collateral connections between the pyramidal neurons in the CA3 region, forming an autoassociative network that allows for the storage and retrieval of memory patterns.

Deficits in the CA3 region have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, and schizophrenia.

The occipital lobe is the portion of the cerebral cortex that lies at the back of the brain (posteriorly) and is primarily involved in visual processing. It contains areas that are responsible for the interpretation and integration of visual stimuli, including color, form, movement, and recognition of objects. The occipital lobe is divided into several regions, such as the primary visual cortex (V1), secondary visual cortex (V2 to V5), and the visual association cortex, which work together to process different aspects of visual information. Damage to the occipital lobe can lead to various visual deficits, including blindness or partial loss of vision, known as a visual field cut.

In the context of medical and clinical neuroscience, memory is defined as the brain's ability to encode, store, retain, and recall information or experiences. Memory is a complex cognitive process that involves several interconnected regions of the brain and can be categorized into different types based on various factors such as duration and the nature of the information being remembered.

The major types of memory include:

1. Sensory memory: The shortest form of memory, responsible for holding incoming sensory information for a brief period (less than a second to several seconds) before it is either transferred to short-term memory or discarded.
2. Short-term memory (also called working memory): A temporary storage system that allows the brain to hold and manipulate information for approximately 20-30 seconds, although this duration can be extended through rehearsal strategies. Short-term memory has a limited capacity, typically thought to be around 7±2 items.
3. Long-term memory: The memory system responsible for storing large amounts of information over extended periods, ranging from minutes to a lifetime. Long-term memory has a much larger capacity compared to short-term memory and is divided into two main categories: explicit (declarative) memory and implicit (non-declarative) memory.

Explicit (declarative) memory can be further divided into episodic memory, which involves the recollection of specific events or episodes, including their temporal and spatial contexts, and semantic memory, which refers to the storage and retrieval of general knowledge, facts, concepts, and vocabulary, independent of personal experience or context.

Implicit (non-declarative) memory encompasses various forms of learning that do not require conscious awareness or intention, such as procedural memory (skills and habits), priming (facilitated processing of related stimuli), classical conditioning (associative learning), and habituation (reduced responsiveness to repeated stimuli).

Memory is a crucial aspect of human cognition and plays a significant role in various aspects of daily life, including learning, problem-solving, decision-making, social interactions, and personal identity. Memory dysfunction can result from various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as dementia, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and depression.

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a type of focal (localized) epilepsy that originates from the temporal lobes of the brain. The temporal lobes are located on each side of the brain and are involved in processing sensory information, memory, and emotion. TLE is characterized by recurrent seizures that originate from one or both temporal lobes.

The symptoms of TLE can vary depending on the specific area of the temporal lobe that is affected. However, common symptoms include auras (sensory or emotional experiences that occur before a seizure), strange smells or tastes, lip-smacking or chewing movements, and memory problems. Some people with TLE may also experience automatisms (involuntary movements such as picking at clothes or fumbling with objects) during their seizures.

Treatment for TLE typically involves medication to control seizures, although surgery may be recommended in some cases. The goal of treatment is to reduce the frequency and severity of seizures and improve quality of life.

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

Photic stimulation is a medical term that refers to the exposure of the eyes to light, specifically repetitive pulses of light, which is used as a method in various research and clinical settings. In neuroscience, it's often used in studies related to vision, circadian rhythms, and brain function.

In a clinical context, photic stimulation is sometimes used in the diagnosis of certain medical conditions such as seizure disorders (like epilepsy). By observing the response of the brain to this light stimulus, doctors can gain valuable insights into the functioning of the brain and the presence of any neurological disorders.

However, it's important to note that photic stimulation should be conducted under the supervision of a trained healthcare professional, as improper use can potentially trigger seizures in individuals who are susceptible to them.

The auditory cortex is the region of the brain that is responsible for processing and analyzing sounds, including speech. It is located in the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex, specifically within the Heschl's gyrus and the surrounding areas. The auditory cortex receives input from the auditory nerve, which carries sound information from the inner ear to the brain.

The auditory cortex is divided into several subregions that are responsible for different aspects of sound processing, such as pitch, volume, and location. These regions work together to help us recognize and interpret sounds in our environment, allowing us to communicate with others and respond appropriately to our surroundings. Damage to the auditory cortex can result in hearing loss or difficulty understanding speech.

Pilocarpine is a cholinergic agonist, which means it stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system by binding to muscarinic receptors. It is primarily used in the treatment of dry mouth (xerostomia) caused by radiation therapy or Sjögren's syndrome, as well as in the management of glaucoma due to its ability to construct the pupils and reduce intraocular pressure. Pilocarpine can also be used to treat certain cardiovascular conditions and chronic bronchitis. It is available in various forms, including tablets, ophthalmic solutions, and topical gels.

Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) is a synthetic thymidine analog that can be incorporated into DNA during cell replication. It is often used in research and medical settings as a marker for cell proliferation or as a tool to investigate DNA synthesis and repair. When cells are labeled with BrdU and then examined using immunofluorescence or other detection techniques, the presence of BrdU can indicate which cells have recently divided or are actively synthesizing DNA.

In medical contexts, BrdU has been used in cancer research to study tumor growth and response to treatment. It has also been explored as a potential therapeutic agent for certain conditions, such as neurodegenerative diseases, where promoting cell proliferation and replacement of damaged cells may be beneficial. However, its use as a therapeutic agent is still experimental and requires further investigation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "reading" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Reading is the activity or process of deciphering and understanding written words or text. It is a fundamental skill in language acquisition and communication, and is not typically used in a medical context unless there is a concern related to reading difficulties or disorders, such as dyslexia. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Acoustic stimulation refers to the use of sound waves or vibrations to elicit a response in an individual, typically for the purpose of assessing or treating hearing, balance, or neurological disorders. In a medical context, acoustic stimulation may involve presenting pure tones, speech sounds, or other types of auditory signals through headphones, speakers, or specialized devices such as bone conduction transducers.

The response to acoustic stimulation can be measured using various techniques, including electrophysiological tests like auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) or otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), behavioral observations, or functional imaging methods like fMRI. Acoustic stimulation is also used in therapeutic settings, such as auditory training programs for hearing impairment or vestibular rehabilitation for balance disorders.

It's important to note that acoustic stimulation should be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional to ensure safety and effectiveness.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "semantics" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Semantics is actually a branch of linguistics that deals with the study of meaning, reference, and the interpretation of signs and symbols, either individually or in combination. It is used in various fields including computer science, anthropology, psychology, and philosophy.

However, if you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to explain, I'd be happy to help!

Neuronal plasticity, also known as neuroplasticity or neural plasticity, refers to the ability of the brain and nervous system to change and adapt as a result of experience, learning, injury, or disease. This can involve changes in the structure, organization, and function of neurons (nerve cells) and their connections (synapses) in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

Neuronal plasticity can take many forms, including:

* Synaptic plasticity: Changes in the strength or efficiency of synaptic connections between neurons. This can involve the formation, elimination, or modification of synapses.
* Neural circuit plasticity: Changes in the organization and connectivity of neural circuits, which are networks of interconnected neurons that process information.
* Structural plasticity: Changes in the physical structure of neurons, such as the growth or retraction of dendrites (branches that receive input from other neurons) or axons (projections that transmit signals to other neurons).
* Functional plasticity: Changes in the physiological properties of neurons, such as their excitability, responsiveness, or sensitivity to stimuli.

Neuronal plasticity is a fundamental property of the nervous system and plays a crucial role in many aspects of brain function, including learning, memory, perception, and cognition. It also contributes to the brain's ability to recover from injury or disease, such as stroke or traumatic brain injury.

The entorhinal cortex is a region in the brain that is located in the medial temporal lobe and is part of the limbic system. It plays a crucial role in memory, navigation, and the processing of sensory information. The entorhinal cortex is closely connected to the hippocampus, which is another important structure for memory and spatial cognition.

The entorhinal cortex can be divided into several subregions, including the lateral, medial, and posterior sections. These subregions have distinct connectivity patterns and may contribute differently to various cognitive functions. One of the most well-known features of the entorhinal cortex is the presence of "grid cells," which are neurons that fire in response to specific spatial locations and help to form a cognitive map of the environment.

Damage to the entorhinal cortex has been linked to several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, and schizophrenia.

The prefrontal cortex is the anterior (frontal) part of the frontal lobe in the brain, involved in higher-order cognitive processes such as planning complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making, and moderating social behavior. It also plays a significant role in working memory and executive functions. The prefrontal cortex is divided into several subregions, each associated with specific cognitive and emotional functions. Damage to the prefrontal cortex can result in various impairments, including difficulties with planning, decision making, and social behavior regulation.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

In medical terms, the face refers to the front part of the head that is distinguished by the presence of the eyes, nose, and mouth. It includes the bones of the skull (frontal bone, maxilla, zygoma, nasal bones, lacrimal bones, palatine bones, inferior nasal conchae, and mandible), muscles, nerves, blood vessels, skin, and other soft tissues. The face plays a crucial role in various functions such as breathing, eating, drinking, speaking, seeing, smelling, and expressing emotions. It also serves as an important identifier for individuals, allowing them to be recognized by others.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

... supramarginalis Angular gyrus, lat. gyrus angularis Cingulate gyrus lat. gyrus cinguli Fornicate gyrus Gyrification ... gyrus parahippocampalis Transverse temporal gyrus Lingual gyrus lat. gyrus lingualis Precentral gyrus, lat. gyrus praecentralis ... Superior frontal gyrus, lat. gyrus frontalis superior Middle frontal gyrus, lat. gyrus frontalis medius Inferior frontal gyrus ... gyrus temporalis superior Middle temporal gyrus, lat. gyrus temporalis medius Inferior temporal gyrus, lat. gyrus temporalis ...
Brodmann area L., Nicolae; G., Lacob; O., Popescu B. (2010-11-25). "Gelastic Seizures in a Patient with Right Gyrus Cinguli ... It is a narrow band located in the anterior cingulate gyrus adjacent to the supracallosal gyrus in the depth of the callosal ... Cytoarchitecturally it is bounded by the ventral anterior cingulate area 24 and the supracallosal gyrus (Brodmann-1909). The ... Vogt, Brent A. (2005). "Pain and emotion interactions in subregions of the cingulate gyrus". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 6 (7 ...
... ciliary arteries ciliary body ciliary ganglion ciliary muscle ciliary nerves ciliospinal reflex cilium cingulate gyrus cingulum ... terms of location anatomical terms of motion anatomy Anatomy of the human heart anconeus angiography angiology angular gyrus ... triangle demyelination dendrite dendritic spine dens dental alveolus dental caries dental formula dental pulp dentate gyrus ... muscle inferior pubic ramus inferior rectus muscle inferior sagittal sinus inferior salivatory nucleus inferior temporal gyrus ...
... cingulate gyrus, cingulum, anterior hypothalamus, and head of the caudate nucleus. While some recent literature has suggested ...
... gyrus cinguli MeSH A08.186.211.577.405 - hippocampus MeSH A08.186.211.577.405.200 - dentate gyrus MeSH A08.186.211.577.405.200. ... parahippocampal gyrus MeSH A08.186.211.577.710.225 - entorhinal cortex MeSH A08.186.211.577.750 - septum of brain MeSH A08.186. ... parahippocampal gyrus MeSH A08.186.211.730.885.213.863.648.225 - entorhinal cortex MeSH A08.186.211.730.885.362 - corpus ...
The cingulum is a major association tract. The cingulum forms the white matter core of the cingulate gyrus and links from this ... fibers connect different lobes of a hemisphere to each other whereas short association fibers connect different gyri within a ...
It consists of the cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, and the hippocampal formation. Studies in patients who ... The objective of this procedure is the severing of the supracallosal fibres of the cingulum bundle, which pass through the ... This was derived from the hypothesis of James Papez who thought that the cingulum was a major component of an anatomic circuit ... anterior cingulate gyrus. Cingulotomy was introduced in the 1940s as an alternative to standard pre-frontal leucotomy/lobotomy ...
... was also associated with reduced resting-state FC between the cingulo-opercular network and the right superior frontal gyrus, ... PSI was found to be associated with increased resting-state FC between several nodes of the cingulo-opercular network, a neural ...
In neuroanatomy, the cingulum is a nerve tract - a collection of axons - projecting from the cingulate gyrus to the entorhinal ... The cingulum was one of the earliest identified brain structures. The cingulum is described from various brain images as a C ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cingulum (brain). Cingulate Gyrus: Introduction and Surface Morphology (All articles ... The cingulum takes memory information and integrates this to other parts of the brain. Damage to the cingulum also ...
The axons of these parts of the cingulate cortex, linked through the large cingulum (longitudinal bundle located at the base of ... the cingulate cortex), return to the parahippocampal gyrus. This circuit referred to as the Papez circuit (1937) was said by ...
The frontal and parietal lobes are separated from the cingulate gyrus by the cingulate sulcus. It terminates as the marginal ... Cingulate sulcus (labeled as sulcus cinguli) and brain lobes. Medial surface of cerebral hemisphere.Medial view.Deep dissection ... It sends a ramus to separate the paracentral lobule from the frontal gyri, the paracentral sulcus. Position of cingulate sulcus ...
The rostral cingulate gyrus (Brodmanns's area 32) projects to the rostral superior temporal gyrus, midorbitofrontal cortex and ... Cingulum means "belt" in Latin. The name was likely chosen because this cortex, in great part, surrounds the corpus callosum. ... 3D view of the cingulate gyrus (green) and paracingulate gyrus (yellow) in an average human brain Hadland, K. A.; Rushworth M.F ... The metabolic rate of glucose was lower in the left anterior cingulate gyrus and in the right posterior cingulate gyrus. In ...
Specifically, it targets the bilateral orbital part of the frontal gyri, superior occipital gyri, left insula, fusiform, right ... The cingulo-opercular (CO) network fundamentally functions to maintain tonic alertness which is the effortful process of making ... Lesions in the Broca's area in the IFG, the lower part of the precentral gyrus, and the opercular and insular regions are ... Regions like the occipital and lingual gyri are stable for visual feature binding in the visual system network. The parietal ...
There are major white matter pathway connections with the superior parietal lobule such as the Cingulum, SLF I, superior ... Lateral view of a human brain, main gyri labeled. Cerebrum. Lateral view. Deep dissection. Cerebrum. Lateral view. Deep ... around the end of which it is joined to the occipital lobe by a curved gyrus, the arcus parietooccipitalis. Below, it is ... but is usually connected with the postcentral gyrus above the end of the sulcus. The superior parietal lobule contains ...
During interference tasks, likelihood of activation was reported in the left superior frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, ... and decreased FA in inferior longitudinal and cingulum fibers. Glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter has been implicated in ... while decreased grey matter was reported in the right temporal gyrus and left insula extending to the inferior frontal gyrus. ... An ALE meta analysis found increased grey matter in the left postcentral gyrus, middle frontal region, putamen, thalamus, left ...
The FPN has fewer similarities with the salience network (which has also been equated with the cingulo-opercular network or ... The FPN is primarily composed of the rostral lateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (especially the middle frontal gyrus) ... Additional regions include the middle cingulate gyrus and potentially the dorsal precuneus, posterior inferior temporal lobe, ...
It surrounds a gyrus (pl. gyri), creating the characteristic folded appearance of the brain in humans and other mammals. The ... Sulcus cinguli (ci) Hippocampal fissure (h) Sulcus intraparitalis (ip) Lateral fissure (or Sylvian fissure) (la) Sulcus ... A sulcus is a shallower groove that surrounds a gyrus. A fissure is a large furrow that divides the brain into lobes and also ... Sulci, the grooves, and gyri, the folds or ridges, make up the folded surface of the cerebral cortex. Larger or deeper sulci ...
... thalamus and cingulum, and how their connection is the basis for human emotion. MacLean proposed that the limbic system had ... it can be found mainly in the cingulate gyrus, insula and the subcallosal areas of the brain. The true isocortex is a six ...
Cingulate cortex Cingulum R Leech; R Braga; DJ Sharp (2012). "Echoes of the brain within the posterior cingulate cortex". The ... Haznedar, MM; Buchsbaum, MS; Hazlett, EA; Shihabuddin, L; New, A; Siever, LJ (Dec 1, 2004). "Cingulate gyrus volume and ... They also found that greater damage to the cingulum bundle, that connects the PCC to the anterior DMN, was correlated with ... Furthermore, white matter abnormalities in the cingulum bundle, a structure that connects the PCC to other limbic structures, ...
... and cingulum bundle lesions on tests of spatial memory: Evidence of a double dissociation between frontal and cingulum bundle ... Saab BJ, Georgiou J, Nath A, Lee FJ, Wang M, Michalon A, Liu F, Mansuy IM, Roder JC (2009). "NCS-1 in the dentate gyrus ... The CA3 is innervated by two afferent paths known as the perforant path (PPCA3) and the dentate gyrus (DG)-mediated mossy ... Lee, I.; Kesner, R. P. (2004). "Encoding versus retrieval of spatial memory: Double dissociation between the dentate gyrus and ...
Gyrus Cinguli * Humans * Seizures / diagnosis * Young Adult ...
gyrus supramarginalis Angular gyrus, lat. gyrus angularis Cingulate gyrus lat. gyrus cinguli Fornicate gyrus Gyrification ... gyrus parahippocampalis Transverse temporal gyrus Lingual gyrus lat. gyrus lingualis Precentral gyrus, lat. gyrus praecentralis ... Superior frontal gyrus, lat. gyrus frontalis superior Middle frontal gyrus, lat. gyrus frontalis medius Inferior frontal gyrus ... gyrus temporalis superior Middle temporal gyrus, lat. gyrus temporalis medius Inferior temporal gyrus, lat. gyrus temporalis ...
Gyrus Cinguli. Diabetic Neuropathies. Oxidative Phosphorylation. Antifungal Agents. Caudate Nucleus. Nicotinic Agonists. ...
1)MOTOR CORTEX, eksitatorisk signal(gir beskjed om ønske om bevegelse) 2) STRIATUM=halekjerne, putamen sender inhibitorisk signal til globus palladus 3) GLOBUS PALLADUS mister "bånde"/inhibitoriske effekten den har på thalamus 4) THALAMUS står fritt til å dirigere signaler til motor cortex 5) MOTOR CORTEX muskler. Ekstra: Subthalamic Nucleus sender eksitatoriske signaler til Subtantia Nigra. Subtantia Nigra styrker det inhibitoriske signalet Striatum sender på Globus palladus, slik at Globus palladus svekker den inhibitorisek effekten på thalamus i enda større grad. ...
Gyrus Cinguli. 1. 2018. 49. 0.670. Why? Amygdala. 1. 2018. 67. 0.660 ...
... gyrus cinguli, cerebellum, semsomororical cortex (Gareus et al., 2002, Biella et al., 2001, Niemtchow, 2007), neural signal ...
... imaging reveals subcomponents of the human auditory mismatch negativity in the cingulum and right inferior temporal gyrus. ... 2003), although in this study it was the left supramarginal gyrus that revealed activation. Convincingly, supramarginal gyrus ... This interaction was located in the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG; peak coordinates: x = 24, y = −18, z = 68; t(28) = 3.85; ... The result was located in three clusters of activity: one in the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG; peak coordinates: x = 6, y ...
In the control group, there was a significant change in the weighted averaged FA signal in the left cingulum-cingulate gyrus ( ...
Also known as: cingular gyrus, cingulate area, cingulate region, Gyri cinguli, Gyrus cinguliNeuroNames ID : 159 ... cingulate gyrus. Acronym: CgG The term cingulate gyrus refers to one of four components of the limbic lobe of the cerebral ... It is composed of three parts: the anterior cingulate gyrus, the posterior cingulate gyrus, and the isthmus of the cingulate ... The others are the parahippocampal gyrus, the archicortex, and the subcallosal gyrus. Identified by dissection, it is a ...
Gyrus Cinguli/enzymology, Humans, Leucine-Rich Repeat Serine-Threonine Protein Kinase-2/genetics, Mice, Multigene Family, ...
Parahippocampal Gyrus 21% * Masks 18% * Gyrus Cinguli 18% * Gray Matter 17% * Thalamus 17% ...
Jones, A. K., Wunderle, K. A., Fruscello, T., Simanowith, M., Cline, B., Dharmadhikari, S., Duan, X., Durack, J. C., Hirschl, D., Kim, D. S., Mahmood, U., Mann, S. D., Martin, C., Metwalli, Z., Moirano, J. M., Neill, R. A., Newsome, J., Padua, H., Schoenfeld, A. H. & Miller, D. L., Apr 2023, In: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. 34, 4, p. 556-562.e3. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ...
A role for the macaque anterior cingulate gyrus in social valuation. P. H. Rudebeck, M. J. Buckley, M. E. Walton, M. F.S. ... Dive into the research topics of A role for the macaque anterior cingulate gyrus in social valuation. Together they form a ...
Gyrus Cinguli 9% * Psychological Inhibition 9% * Multilingualism 8% * Diffusion Tensor Imaging 7% ...
... also showed that there were severe perfusion defects at superior temporal region and less perfusion defects at gyrus cingulum ...
Gyrus Cinguli Medicine & Life Sciences 19% * Consciousness Medicine & Life Sciences 19% * Thalamus Medicine & Life Sciences 18% ...
Gyrus Cinguli Medicine & Life Sciences 15% * Temporal Lobe Medicine & Life Sciences 14% ... left posterior cingulate gyrus, right middle temporal gyri, suggesting common genetic factors influencing both GM and WM. ... left posterior cingulate gyrus, right middle temporal gyri, suggesting common genetic factors influencing both GM and WM.", ... left posterior cingulate gyrus, right middle temporal gyri, suggesting common genetic factors influencing both GM and WM. ...
Gyrus Cinguli Medicine & Life Sciences 34% * Evoked Potentials Medicine & Life Sciences 33% ... Different from the sources of P2 and P3 components, which mainly localized in cingulate gyrus and medial frontal areas, the ... Different from the sources of P2 and P3 components, which mainly localized in cingulate gyrus and medial frontal areas, the ... Different from the sources of P2 and P3 components, which mainly localized in cingulate gyrus and medial frontal areas, the ...
... and the middle frontal gyrus. Greater expression of this NPW network was associated with better processing speed (trail-making ... and the middle frontal gyrus. Greater expression of this NPW network was associated with better processing speed (trail-making ... and the middle frontal gyrus. Greater expression of this NPW network was associated with better processing speed (trail-making ... and the middle frontal gyrus. Greater expression of this NPW network was associated with better processing speed (trail-making ...
... cingulate gyrus, and cingulum. For example, polyclonal elevations of IgG levels could be a characteristic of systemic lupus ... cerebral glucose metabolism was found to be impaired within the left inferior parietal lobule and inferior temporal gyrus [url= ... comprising the entorhinal space of the parahippocampal gyrus, perforant and alvear pathways, hippocampus, mbria and fornix, ...
Gyrus cinguli Medial surface of right cerebral hemisphere. Figure 727 from Grays Anatomy. Flipped horizontally (modern ... The cingulate gyrus extends from the subcallosal gyrus in the frontal lobe anteriorly to the isthmus posteriorly. It follows ... Connections between the precuneus and cingulate gyrus are anterior and posterior to this sulcus. The posterior cingulate gyrus ... The cingulate gyrus lies on the medial aspect of the cerebral hemisphere. It forms a major part of the limbic system which has ...
Gyrus Cinguli (MeSH) * Humans (MeSH) * Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MeSH) * Male (MeSH) * Psychiatry (Science Metrix) ...
GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear ... Gyrus Cinguli. One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the ... AmygdalaFacePrefrontal CortexBrainGyrus CinguliNeural PathwaysLimbic SystemFrontal LobeNerve Net ... PerceptionGyrus CinguliPsychiatric Status Rating ScalesTheory of MindTape RecordingStress, PsychologicalMother-Child Relations ...
keywords = "Animals, Behavior, Animal, Darkness, Entorhinal Cortex, Gyrus Cinguli, Hippocampus, Light, Male, Memory, Neural ...
Thoresen, C., Endestad, T., Sigvartsen, N. P., Server, A., Bolstad, I., Johansson, M., Andreassen, O. & Jensen, J., 2014, In: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry. 19, 2, p. 97-115. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ...
Gyrus Cinguli 20% * Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 16% * Brain 9% 32 Scopus citations ...
Hitti, F. L., Widge, A. S., Riva-Posse, P., Malone, D. A., Okun, M. S., Shanechi, M. M., Foote, K. D., Lisanby, S. H., Ankudowich, E., Chivukula, S., Chang, E. F., Gunduz, A., Hamani, C., Feinsinger, A., Kubu, C. S., Chiong, W., Chandler, J. A., Carbunaru, R., Cheeran, B., Raike, R. S., & 13 othersDavis, R. A., Halpern, C. H., Vanegas-Arroyave, N., Markovic, D., Bick, S. K., McIntyre, C. C., Richardson, R. M., Dougherty, D. D., Kopell, B. H., Sweet, J. A., Goodman, W. K., Sheth, S. A. & Pouratian, N., May 1 2023, In: Brain Stimulation. 16, 3, p. 867-878 12 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ...
Gyrus Cinguli 52% 16 Scopus citations * Corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of titanium surface coated with amorphous ...
  • Gyri and sulci create the folded appearance of the brain in humans and other mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electrical stimulation of the fusiform gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus produced bursts of laughter accompanied by a feeling of mirth. (nih.gov)
  • gyrus occipitotemporalis lateralis Parahippocampal gyrus, lat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bilateral intersection of hippocampal cingulum and parahippocampal gyrus (referred as parahippocampal cingulum) is the region that best discriminates Alzheimer's disease fractional anisotropy values, resulting in an accuracy of 93% for discriminating between Alzheimer's disease and controls, and 90% between Alzheimer's disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment. (nature.com)
  • The gyri are part of a system of folds and ridges that create a larger surface area for the human brain and other mammalian brains. (wikipedia.org)
  • As development continues, gyri and sulci begin to take shape on the fetal brain, with deepening indentations and ridges developing on the surface of the cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lissencephaly (smooth brain) is a rare congenital brain malformation caused by defective neuronal migration during the 12th to 24th weeks of fetal gestation resulting in a lack of development of gyri and sulci. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polymicrogyria (meaning "many small gyri") is a developmental malformation of the human brain characterized by excessive folding of the gyri and a thickening of the cerebral cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, children with ELS showed increased neural activation in brain regions involved in memory, arousal, and threat-related processing (middle temporal gyrus, thalamus, ventral tegmental area) relative to controls during social exclusion. (psu.edu)
  • The great extent of the middle and inferior temporal gyri constitutes one of the outstanding features distinctive of the Pararhinal gyrus human brain. (co.ma)
  • gyrus frontalis medius Inferior frontal gyrus, lat. (wikipedia.org)
  • gyrus frontalis inferior with 3 parts: pars opercularis (Brodmann area 44) pars triangularis (Brodmann area 45), and pars orbitalis (orbital part of inferior frontal gyrus) Superior temporal gyrus, lat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ictal subdural electrode recording showed the seizure onset to be in the left anterior cingulate gyrus. (nih.gov)
  • gyrus angularis Cingulate gyrus lat. (wikipedia.org)
  • A role for the macaque anterior cingulate gyrus in social valuation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We show that the anterior cingulate gyrus in male macaques is critical for normal patterns of social interest in other individual male or female macaques. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These results suggest that damage to the anterior cingulate gyrus may be the cause of changes in social interaction seen after frontal lobe damage. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The radiations of the corpus callosum to the right hemisphere have been exposed by the removal of the gyrus cinguli (except its anterior portion seen cut transversely), the cingulum, a portion of the superior frontal gyrus and the precuneus. (stanford.edu)
  • 11. Interhemispheric approach to tumors of the posterior gyrus cinguli. (nih.gov)
  • Pri depresiji se pojavijo funkcionalne nepravilnosti, ki vplivajo na cingulatni gyrus, zlasti v pars posterior. (healthandmedicineinfo.com)
  • A gyrus frontalis medialis és gyrus cinguli változatlan dopamin D2/D3 receptor denzitása és szenzitivitása alátámasztja a különböző agyi régiók eltérő mértékű érintettségét és az extrasztriatális tünetek fokozatos megjelenését a Parkinson kór progressziója során. (otka-palyazat.hu)
  • The sulcus temporalis inferior, which forms the line of demarcation between the gyrus temporalis inferior and the gyrus Sulcus orbitalis fusiformis, is placed upon the inferior aspect of the temporal region. (co.ma)
  • has shown that the fibres passing to and from these two gyri are the last to become medullated, later even than the important Sulcus sagittalis parietal and frontal areas. (co.ma)
  • gyrus temporalis superior Middle temporal gyrus, lat. (wikipedia.org)
  • gyrus temporalis medius Inferior temporal gyrus, lat. (wikipedia.org)
  • gyrus parahippocampalis Transverse temporal gyrus Lingual gyrus lat. (wikipedia.org)
  • In neuroanatomy, a gyrus (PL: gyri) is a ridge on the cerebral cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Changes in the structure of gyri in the cerebral cortex are associated with various diseases and disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pachygyria (meaning "thick" or "fat" gyri) is a congenital malformation of the cerebral hemisphere, resulting in unusually thick gyri in the cerebral cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Superior frontal gyrus, lat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Está implicado en la integración superior de la información visceral, olfatoria y somática, así como en las respuestas homeostáticas que comprenden las conductas fundamentales para la supervivencia (alimentación, apareamiento, emoción). (bvsalud.org)
  • It is composed of three bands of different texture, the middle temporal gyrus, the inferior temporal gyrus, and the pararhinal gyrus, which fringes the area piriformis on the tentorial surface. (co.ma)
  • Concomitant increased activation in left angular gyrus indicative of ongoing word processing during stimulation is consistent with an impairment to inhibit habitual responses. (uni-luebeck.de)
  • In contrast, ACC gyrus exhibits specialization for learning about others. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These results suggest that pattern classification of Diffusion Tensor Imaging can help diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, specially when focusing on the parahippocampal cingulum. (nature.com)