Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.
A plant genus of the family Cycadaceae, order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA of palm-like trees. It is a source of CYCASIN, the beta-D-glucoside of methylazoxymethanol.
A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen trees mainly in temperate climates.
Genus of coniferous yew trees or shrubs, several species of which have medicinal uses. Notable is the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, which is used to make the anti-neoplastic drug taxol (PACLITAXEL).
A plant family of the order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta, known for the various conifers.
The only specie of the genus Ginkgo, family Ginkgoacea. It is the source of extracts of medicinal interest, especially Egb 761. Ginkgo may refer to the genus or species.
A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the subject of genetic study.
A division of GYMNOSPERMS which look like palm trees (ARECACEAE) but are more closely related to PINUS. They have large cones and large pinnate leaves and are sometimes called cycads, a term which may also refer more narrowly to cycadales or CYCAS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A plant family of the order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA.
A plant genus of the family Ephedraceae, order Ephedrales, class Gnetopsida, division Gnetophyta.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
A plant family of the order Selaginellales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. Members contain bilobetin. The rarely used common name of resurrection plant is mainly used with CRATEROSTIGMA.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The element in plants that contains the female GAMETOPHYTES.
A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The common name of stinkwood is also used for Zieria (RUTACEAE).
A layer of living cells between the bark and hardwood that each year produces additional wood and bark cells, forming concentric growth rings.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A plant family of the order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta (conifers). They are mainly resinous, aromatic evergreen trees.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A plant genus of the family Gnetaceae, order Gnetales class Gnetopsida, division GNETOPHYTA. Members contain STILBENES and benzylisoquinoline alkaloids.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.
An order of very small, fringed-wing INSECTS including many agricultural pests.
A plant genus of the family TAXODIACEAE. Members contain DITERPENES.
A plant species of the genus PINUS which is the source of pinosylvin. It is sometimes called Scotch pine or Scots pine, which is also a common name for other species of this genus.
Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The use of DNA recombination (RECOMBINATION, GENETIC) to prepare a large gene library of novel, chimeric genes from a population of randomly fragmented DNA from related gene sequences.
A monophyletic group of green plants that includes all land plants (EMBRYOPHYTA) and all green algae (CHLOROPHYTA and STREPTOPHYTA).
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.
A plant genus of the family TAXODIACEAE. Its POLLEN is one of the major ALLERGENS.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.
The reproductive organs of plants.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
A group of DITERPENES cyclized into four rings.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.

Process and current status of the epidemiologic studies on cedar pollinosis in Japan. (1/132)

This paper reviews the present situation and future aspects of epidemiologic studies on Japanese cedar pollinosis. Increase of allergic rhinitis patients is observed in both the Patient Survey and the Reports on the Surveys of Social Medical Care Insurance Services, however, these surveys are conducted when cedar pollens do not pollute the air. Many have reported on the prevalence of pollinosis in limited areas but only a few nationwide epidemiologic surveys have been conducted. Most of the studies were conducted at special medical facilities such as university hospitals. There is a high possibility that patients who visit the specific facilities do not exactly represent the actual number of patients and epidemiologic pictures of pollinosis in Japan. The rapid advances in laboratory test methods may change the diagnostic criteria and increase the number of reported patients. Therefore, the prevalence of Japanese cedar pollinosis in Japan has not been determined yet. Determination of the prevalence of cedar pollinosis and description of the epidemiologic pictures constitute the essential steps toward the control of this clinical entity. Thus it is necessary to conduct an epidemiologic survey on Japanese representative samples with a standardized survey form with clear and concise diagnostic criteria.  (+info)

Genes expressed in Pinus radiata male cones include homologs to anther-specific and pathogenesis response genes. (2/132)

We describe the isolation and characterization of 13 cDNA clones that are differentially expressed in male cones of Pinus radiata (D. Don). The transcripts of the 13 genes are expressed at different times between meiosis and microspore mitosis, timing that corresponds to a burst in tapetal activity in the developing anthers. In situ hybridization showed that four of the genes are expressed in the tapetum, while a fifth is expressed in tetrads during a brief developmental window. Six of the seven cDNAs identified in database searches have striking similarity to genes expressed in angiosperm anthers. Seven cDNAs are homologs of defense and pathogen response genes. The cDNAs identified are predicted to encode a chalcone-synthase-like protein, a thaumatin-like protein, a serine hydrolase thought to be a putative regulator of programmed cell death, two lipid-transfer proteins, and two homologs of the anther-specific A9 genes from Brassica napus and Arabidopsis. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that many of the reproductive processes in the angiosperms and gymnosperms were inherited from a common ancestor.  (+info)

Rapid expansion of microsatellite sequences in pines. (3/132)

Microsatellite persistence time and evolutionary change was studied among five species of pines, which included a pair of closely related species (Pinus sylvestris and Pinus resinosa) in the subgenus Pinus, their relative Pinus radiata, and another closely related species pair (Pinus strobus and Pinus lambertiana) in the subgenus Strobus. The effective population sizes of these species are known to have ranged from the very small bottlenecks of P. resinosa to vast populations of P. sylvestris. This background allowed us to place the microsatellite evolution in a well-defined phylogenetic setting. Of 30 loci originating from P. strobus and P. radiata, we were able to consistently amplify 4 in most of the these pine species. These priming sites had been conserved for over 100 Myr. The four microsatellites were sequenced in the five species. Flanking sequences were compared to establish that the loci were orthologous. All microsatellites had persisted in these species, despite very different population sizes. We found a recent microsatellite duplication: a closely related pair of loci in P. strobus, where the other four species had just one locus. On two independent occasions, the repeat area of this same microsatellite (locus RPS 105a/b) had grown from a very low repeat number to 15 or 17 in the last 10-25 Myr. Other parts of the same compound microsatellite had remained virtually unchanged. Locus PR 4.6 is known to be polymorphic in both P. radiata and P. sylvestris, but the polymorphism in the two species is due to different motifs. The very large pine genomes are highly repetitive, and microsatellite loci also occur as gene families.  (+info)

Seed plant phylogeny: Demise of the anthophyte hypothesis? (4/132)

Recent molecular phylogenetic studies indicate, surprisingly, that Gnetales are related to conifers, or even derived from them, and that no other extant seed plants are closely related to angiosperms. Are these results believable? Is this a clash between molecules and morphology?  (+info)

Seed plant phylogeny inferred from all three plant genomes: monophyly of extant gymnosperms and origin of Gnetales from conifers. (5/132)

Phylogenetic relationships among the five groups of extant seed plants are presently quite unclear. For example, morphological studies consistently identify the Gnetales as the extant sister group to angiosperms (the so-called "anthophyte" hypothesis), whereas a number of molecular studies recover gymnosperm monophyly, and few agree with the morphology-based placement of Gnetales. To better resolve these and other unsettled issues, we have generated a new molecular data set of mitochondrial small subunit rRNA sequences, and have analyzed these data together with comparable data sets for the nuclear small subunit rRNA gene and the chloroplast rbcL gene. All nuclear analyses strongly ally Gnetales with a monophyletic conifers, whereas all mitochondrial analyses and those chloroplast analyses that take into account saturation of third-codon position transitions actually place Gnetales within conifers, as the sister group to the Pinaceae. Combined analyses of all three genes strongly support this latter relationship, which to our knowledge has never been suggested before. The combined analyses also strongly support monophyly of extant gymnosperms, with cycads identified as the basal-most group of gymnosperms, Ginkgo as the next basal, and all conifers except for Pinaceae as sister to the Gnetales + Pinaceae clade. According to these findings, the Gnetales may be viewed as extremely divergent conifers, and the many morphological similarities between angiosperms and Gnetales (e.g., double fertilization and flower-like reproductive structures) arose independently.  (+info)

Phylogeny of seed plants based on all three genomic compartments: extant gymnosperms are monophyletic and Gnetales' closest relatives are conifers. (6/132)

Efforts to resolve Darwin's "abominable mystery"-the origin of angiosperms-have led to the conclusion that Gnetales and various fossil groups are sister to angiosperms, forming the "anthophytes." Morphological homologies, however, are difficult to interpret, and molecular data have not provided clear resolution of relationships among major groups of seed plants. We introduce two sequence data sets from slowly evolving mitochondrial genes, cox1 and atpA, which unambiguously reject the anthophyte hypothesis, favoring instead a close relationship between Gnetales and conifers. Parsimony- and likelihood-based analyses of plastid rbcL and nuclear 18S rDNA alone and with cox1 and atpA also strongly support a gnetophyte-conifer grouping. Surprisingly, three of four genes (all but nuclear rDNA) and combined three-genome analyses also suggest or strongly support Gnetales as derived conifers, sister to Pinaceae. Analyses with outgroups screened to avoid long branches consistently identify all gymnosperms as a monophyletic sister group to angiosperms. Combined three- and four-gene rooted analyses resolve the branching order for the remaining major groups-cycads separate from other gymnosperms first, followed by Ginkgo and then (Gnetales + Pinaceae) sister to a monophyletic group with all other conifer families. The molecular phylogeny strongly conflicts with current interpretations of seed plant morphology, and implies that many similarities between gnetophytes and angiosperms, such as "flower-like" reproductive structures and double fertilization, were independently derived, whereas other characters could emerge as synapomorphies for an expanded conifer group including Gnetales. An initial angiosperm-gymnosperm split implies a long stem lineage preceding the explosive Mesozoic radiation of flowering plants and suggests that angiosperm origins and homologies should be sought among extinct seed plant groups.  (+info)

Detection of intracellular bacteria in the buds of Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by in situ hybridization. (7/132)

Bacterial isolates were obtained from pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tissue cultures and identified as Methylobacterium extorquens and Pseudomonas synxantha. The existence of bacteria in pine buds was investigated by 16S rRNA in situ hybridization. Bacteria inhabited the buds of every tree examined, primarily colonizing the cells of scale primordia and resin ducts.  (+info)

Hot spots, indicator taxa, complementarity and optimal networks of taiga. (8/132)

If hot spots for different taxa coincide, priority-setting surveys in a region could be carried out more cheaply by focusing on indicator taxa. Several previous studies show that hot spots of different taxa rarely coincide. However, in tropical areas indicator taxa may be used in selecting complementary networks to represent biodiversity as a whole. We studied beetles (Coleoptera), Heteroptera, polypores or bracket fungi (Polyporaceae) and vascular plants of old growth boreal taiga forests. Optimal networks for Heteroptera maximized the high overall species richness of beetles and vascular plants, but these networks were least favourable options for polypores. Polypores are an important group indicating the conservation value of old growth taiga forests. Random selection provided a better option. Thus, certain groups may function as good indicators for maximizing the overall species richness of some taxonomic groups, but all taxa should be examined separately.  (+info)

Gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that include conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes. The name "gymnosperm" comes from the Greek words "gymnos," meaning naked, and "sperma," meaning seed. This refers to the fact that the seeds of gymnosperms are not enclosed within an ovary or fruit, but are exposed on the surface of modified leaves called cones or strobili.

Gymnosperms are vascular plants, which means they have specialized tissues for transporting water and nutrients throughout the plant. They are also heterosporous, meaning that they produce two types of spores: male microspores and female megaspores. The microspores develop into male gametophytes, which produce sperm cells, while the megaspores develop into female gametophytes, which produce egg cells.

Gymnosperms are an important group of plants that have been around for millions of years. They are adapted to a wide range of environments, from temperate forests to deserts and high mountain ranges. Many gymnosperms are evergreen, with needle-like or scale-like leaves that are able to resist drought and cold temperatures.

Conifers, which include trees such as pines, firs, spruces, and redwoods, are the most diverse and widespread group of gymnosperms. They are characterized by their woody cones and needle-shaped leaves. Cycads are another group of gymnosperms that are found in tropical and subtropical regions. They have large, stiff leaves and produce large seeds that are enclosed in a fleshy covering. Ginkgo is a unique gymnosperm that has been around for over 200 million years. It is a deciduous tree with fan-shaped leaves and large, naked seeds.

Gnetophytes are a small group of gymnosperms that include the ephedra, welwitschia, and gnetum. They have unique features such as vessels in their wood and motile sperm cells, which are not found in other gymnosperms.

Overall, gymnosperms are an important group of plants that have adapted to a wide range of environments and play a crucial role in many ecosystems.

Angiosperms, also known as flowering plants, are a group of plants that produce seeds enclosed within an ovary. The term "angiosperm" comes from the Greek words "angeion," meaning "case" or "capsule," and "sperma," meaning "seed." This group includes the majority of plant species, with over 300,000 known species.

Angiosperms are characterized by their reproductive structures, which consist of flowers. The flower contains male and female reproductive organs, including stamens (which produce pollen) and carpels (which contain the ovules). After fertilization, the ovule develops into a seed, while the ovary matures into a fruit, which provides protection and nutrition for the developing embryo.

Angiosperms are further divided into two main groups: monocots and eudicots. Monocots have one cotyledon or embryonic leaf, while eudicots have two. Examples of monocots include grasses, lilies, and orchids, while examples of eudicots include roses, sunflowers, and legumes.

Angiosperms are ecologically and economically important, providing food, shelter, and other resources for many organisms, including humans. They have evolved a wide range of adaptations to different environments, from the desert to the ocean floor, making them one of the most diverse and successful groups of plants on Earth.

"Picea" is not a medical term. It is the genus name for a group of evergreen coniferous trees commonly known as spruces, which are part of the pine family (Pinaceae). These trees are native to the northern hemisphere and are widely distributed in North America, Europe, and Asia.

While spruce trees have some medicinal uses, such as extracts from the needles being used in traditional medicine for their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, "Picea" itself is not a medical term or concept.

I'm not aware of a medical definition for the term "Cycas." It is a genus name in botany, referring to a group of plants commonly known as cycads. Cycads are ancient seed plants that have been on Earth for millions of years. They are often grown as ornamental plants due to their unique appearance.

While there may not be a direct medical definition for "Cycas," it is worth noting that some parts of the cycad plant, particularly the seeds, contain toxic compounds that can cause serious health issues in both humans and animals if ingested. These toxins can affect the nervous system, liver, and kidneys, leading to symptoms such as vomiting, seizures, and even death in severe cases.

Therefore, while "Cycas" may not have a medical definition per se, it is still important to be aware of its potential health risks.

Coniferophyta is a division of vascular plants that includes the conifers. It is an informal name and not commonly used in modern taxonomy, but it can still be found in some older textbooks and resources. The more widely accepted classification system places conifers within the gymnosperms, which are a group of seed-bearing plants characterized by the absence of fruits or flowers.

Conifers are a diverse group of woody plants that include trees and shrubs such as pines, firs, spruces, hemlocks, cedars, and redwoods. They are known for their cone-bearing seeds and needle-shaped leaves, which are often evergreen. Conifers are widely distributed throughout the world and play important ecological roles in many ecosystems, particularly in temperate and boreal forests.

In summary, while "Coniferophyta" is an outdated term for the division that includes conifers, it refers to a group of plants characterized by their cone-bearing seeds and needle-shaped leaves. Modern classification systems place conifers within the gymnosperms.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Pinus" is not a medical term. It is the genus name for a group of plants commonly known as pine trees, which belong to the family Pinaceae in the kingdom Plantae. These evergreen coniferous resinous trees are widely distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, with some species also found in the Southern Hemisphere.

If you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to define or explain, please feel free to ask!

"Taxus" is a genus of evergreen trees and shrubs, also known as yews. While it is primarily a term used in botanical classification, some species of this plant have medicinal importance. The most notable example is "Taxus brevifolia," or the Pacific Yew, from which the chemotherapy drug Paclitaxel (also known as Taxol) is derived. This drug is used to treat various types of cancer, including ovarian, breast, and lung cancers. It works by interfering with the division of cancer cells. Please note that Paclitaxel must be administered under the supervision of a medical professional, as it can have serious side effects.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Pinaceae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in botany, referring to the pine family of coniferous trees and shrubs. This family includes familiar plants such as pines, firs, spruces, and hemlocks.

If you have any medical terminology or concepts that you would like me to define or explain, please let me know!

"Ginkgo biloba" is a specific species of tree, and its extract is commonly used in dietary supplements. According to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH), Ginkgo biloba extract is derived from the dried leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree and contains several components with antioxidant properties, including flavonoids and terpenoids.

Ginkgo biloba extract has been used in traditional medicine for centuries, and it is one of the most commonly used herbal supplements in Europe and the United States. It is often used for its potential benefits on memory, cognitive function, and mood, although the evidence supporting these uses is mixed. Some studies have suggested that Ginkgo biloba extract may help to improve symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia, as well as tinnitus (ringing in the ears), but more research is needed to confirm these effects.

It is important to note that Ginkgo biloba can interact with certain medications, including blood thinners, and may increase the risk of bleeding. As with any supplement or medication, it is important to speak with a healthcare provider before taking Ginkgo biloba extract to ensure safety and effectiveness.

"Pinus taeda," also known as Loblolly Pine, is not a medical term. It is a species of tree in the family Pinaceae that is native to the southeastern United States. The tree is commonly used in the production of timber, paper, and pulp, and it has some medicinal uses as well.

The bark, leaves (needles), and sap of the Loblolly Pine have been used traditionally by indigenous peoples for various medicinal purposes, such as treating skin conditions, wounds, and respiratory ailments. However, there is limited scientific evidence to support these uses, and they should not be attempted without consulting a healthcare professional.

Cycadophyta, also known as cycads, is a division of plants that includes several species of mostly tropical and subtropical gymnosperms. These plants are characterized by a large crown of compound leaves, a stout trunk often undergrown by other plants, and a cone-like reproductive structure. Cycads are considered to be living fossils because they have remained relatively unchanged for millions of years and are thought to resemble some of the earliest seed plants. They are found in scattered locations around the world, particularly in the Americas, Africa, Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Some cycad species are endangered due to habitat loss and overcollection for ornamental purposes.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Zamiaceae" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in botany, specifically a family of plants that includes cycads, which are seed plants with a long fossil history that date back to the Mesozoic Era. They are often mistaken for palms or ferns due to their tropical appearance. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

Ephedra is a genus of plants that contain various alkaloids, including ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. These plants, also known as "joint-fir" or "Mormon tea," have been used in traditional medicine for thousands of years to treat various conditions such as asthma, nasal congestion, and hay fever.

Ephedra has been used as a stimulant to increase energy, alertness, and physical performance. However, the use of ephedra-containing supplements has been linked to serious side effects, including heart attack, stroke, and death, particularly when taken in high doses or combined with other stimulants. As a result, the sale of dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids was banned in the United States in 2004.

It's important to note that while ephedra has been used in traditional medicine, its safety and effectiveness have not been thoroughly studied in clinical trials, and its use is not recommended without medical supervision.

Ferns are a group of vascular plants that reproduce by means of spores rather than seeds. They are characterized by their frond-like leaves and lack of flowers or fruits. Ferns have been around for millions of years, with some fossilized ferns dating back to the Devonian period, over 360 million years ago.

Ferns are an important part of many ecosystems, particularly in tropical rainforests where they provide habitat and food for a variety of animals. They also play a role in soil erosion control and nutrient cycling.

Medically, some ferns have been used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments, such as bracken fern which has been used to treat wounds, burns, and skin diseases. However, it is important to note that not all ferns are safe for consumption or use as medicines, and some can be toxic if ingested or applied topically. It is always recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before using any plant-based remedies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "trees" is not a medical term. It is a common term used in various fields, including biology, ecology, and dendrology, to refer to a woody perennial plant with a single stem or trunk that supports branches and leaves in most species.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, please provide more context so I can offer an accurate and helpful response.

Selaginellaceae is a family of non-vascular plants in the division Lycopodiophyta, also known as lycophytes. These plants are commonly referred to as spikemosses or selaginellas. Selaginellaceae includes around 700 species of small, low-growing, and often creeping or climbing plants that superficially resemble mosses. However, they differ from true mosses in several ways, including their vascular system and the presence of seeds (although these are not true seeds like those found in seed plants).

The leaves of Selaginellaceae species are small and simple, with a single vein running down the center. The leaves are arranged in an alternate pattern along the stem, which is often branched. One distinctive feature of Selaginellaceae is the presence of microphylls, tiny leaf-like structures that contain only one vein.

Selaginellaceae species reproduce using spores rather than seeds. The spores are produced in small, cone-like structures called strobili, which are often borne on specialized leaves. When the spores are mature, they are released and can be dispersed by wind or water.

Overall, Selaginellaceae is an important group of non-vascular plants that have a long evolutionary history and provide valuable insights into the early development of land plants.

A gene in plants, like in other organisms, is a hereditary unit that carries genetic information from one generation to the next. It is a segment of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that contains the instructions for the development and function of an organism. Genes in plants determine various traits such as flower color, plant height, resistance to diseases, and many others. They are responsible for encoding proteins and RNA molecules that play crucial roles in the growth, development, and reproduction of plants. Plant genes can be manipulated through traditional breeding methods or genetic engineering techniques to improve crop yield, enhance disease resistance, and increase nutritional value.

An ovule is the structure in female plants (including gymnosperms and angiosperms) that contains the female gametophyte and gives rise to the seed after fertilization. It consists of a protective outer layer called the integument, enclosing a small mass of tissue called the nucellus, within which is located the embryo sac or female germ unit.

The embryo sac contains the egg cell (oocyte), two synergids that assist in fertilization, and three antipodal cells at the opposite end. Upon fertilization of the egg cell by a male gamete from pollen, the zygote forms, which develops into an embryo within the ovule. The other male gamete fuses with the central cell (containing two polar nuclei) to form the endosperm, which serves as nutritive tissue for the developing embryo.

Once mature, the ovule transforms into a seed, enclosed by a seed coat formed from the integuments. The seed contains the developed embryo and stored food reserves (endosperm) that support its initial growth after germination.

'Ocotea' is not a medical term, but a botanical name. It belongs to the family Lauraceae and includes several species of evergreen trees and shrubs that are native to Central and South America. Some of these plants have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, such as treating gastrointestinal issues, skin conditions, and respiratory problems. However, it's important to note that the use of botanicals in medicine should be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can interact with other medications and have potential side effects.

In the context of medicine and biology, cambium is not a term that is commonly used. However, in botany, cambium refers to a thin layer of cells found between the bark and the wood of a tree or shrub. This tissue is responsible for the growth of the stem by producing new cells that become part of the wood (xylem) or the inner bark (phloem).

The vascular cambium is a meristematic tissue, which means it contains undifferentiated cells that can divide and differentiate into specialized cell types. In addition to the vascular cambium, there is also a cork cambium or phellogen, which produces the outermost layers of the bark.

While not a medical term per se, an understanding of cambium is important in fields such as dendrology (the study of trees) and plant physiology, which have applications in medicine and health.

"Pseudotsuga" is not a medical term. It is a genus of coniferous trees in the family Pinaceae, commonly known as Douglas firs or Douglas trees. They are native to western North America and eastern Asia. The most widely known species is Pseudotsuga menziesii, which is often simply called the Douglas fir. These trees have important economic value for timber and pulp production.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lignin" is not a medical term. It is a term used in the field of biology and chemistry, particularly in botany and wood science. Lignin is a complex organic polymer that binds cellulose fibers together, providing strength and rigidity to the cell walls of plants. It is a major component of wood and bark.

If you have any medical terms you would like defined or any other questions, please let me know!

Cupressaceae is a family of coniferous plants, also known as the cypress family. It includes a variety of genera such as *Cupressus* (cypress), *Juniperus* (juniper), *Thuja* (arborvitae or cedar), and *Chamaecyparis* (false cypress or Port Orford cedar). These plants are characterized by their small, scale-like leaves, and many produce cones that contain seeds. Some species in this family have economic importance as timber, ornamental plants, or for their essential oils.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the genetic material present in the cells of all living organisms, including plants. In plants, DNA is located in the nucleus of a cell, as well as in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Plant DNA contains the instructions for the development, growth, and function of the plant, and is passed down from one generation to the next through the process of reproduction.

The structure of DNA is a double helix, formed by two strands of nucleotides that are linked together by hydrogen bonds. Each nucleotide contains a sugar molecule (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. There are four types of nitrogenous bases in DNA: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine, forming the rungs of the ladder that make up the double helix.

The genetic information in DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nitrogenous bases. Large sequences of bases form genes, which provide the instructions for the production of proteins. The process of gene expression involves transcribing the DNA sequence into a complementary RNA molecule, which is then translated into a protein.

Plant DNA is similar to animal DNA in many ways, but there are also some differences. For example, plant DNA contains a higher proportion of repetitive sequences and transposable elements, which are mobile genetic elements that can move around the genome and cause mutations. Additionally, plant cells have cell walls and chloroplasts, which are not present in animal cells, and these structures contain their own DNA.

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

I apologize for any confusion, but "plants" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "plants" refers to a large and diverse group of organisms that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, which is the process of converting sunlight into chemical energy. Plants are typically characterized by having cells with cell walls containing cellulose, chloroplasts containing the pigment chlorophyll, and the ability to synthesize their own food through photosynthesis.

In a medical or biological context, you might be thinking of "plant-based" or "phytomedicine," which refer to the use of plants or plant extracts as a form of medicine or treatment. Phytomedicines have been used for thousands of years in many traditional systems of medicine, and some plant-derived compounds have been found to have therapeutic benefits in modern medicine as well. However, "plants" itself does not have a medical definition.

"Gnetum" is a botanical term that refers to a genus of plants in the family Gnetaceae. These plants are not commonly referred to as "Gnetum" in a medical context, but rather by the specific names of their edible species, such as Gnetum gnemon (called "Melinjo" in Indonesian) and Gnetum Africanum (called "Okazi" or "Ukazi" in West Africa).

The leaves, seeds, and stems of some Gnetum species are used in traditional medicine in various parts of the world. However, there is limited scientific evidence to support their medicinal uses. Therefore, it's important to consult with a healthcare professional before using any plant-based remedies for medical purposes.

"Plant proteins" refer to the proteins that are derived from plant sources. These can include proteins from legumes such as beans, lentils, and peas, as well as proteins from grains like wheat, rice, and corn. Other sources of plant proteins include nuts, seeds, and vegetables.

Plant proteins are made up of individual amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. While animal-based proteins typically contain all of the essential amino acids that the body needs to function properly, many plant-based proteins may be lacking in one or more of these essential amino acids. However, by consuming a variety of plant-based foods throughout the day, it is possible to get all of the essential amino acids that the body needs from plant sources alone.

Plant proteins are often lower in calories and saturated fat than animal proteins, making them a popular choice for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet, as well as those looking to maintain a healthy weight or reduce their risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Additionally, plant proteins have been shown to have a number of health benefits, including improving gut health, reducing inflammation, and supporting muscle growth and repair.

A chloroplast genome is the entire genetic material that is present in the chloroplasts, which are organelles found in plant cells and some protists. The chloroplast genome is circular in shape and contains about 120-160 kilobases (kb) of DNA. It encodes for a small number of proteins, ribosomal RNAs, and transfer RNAs that are required for the function of the chloroplasts, particularly in photosynthesis. The chloroplast genome is usually inherited maternally, meaning it is passed down from the mother to her offspring.

The chloroplast genome is relatively simple compared to the nuclear genome, which contains many more genes and regulatory elements. However, most of the proteins required for chloroplast function are actually encoded in the nucleus and imported into the chloroplasts. The study of chloroplast genomes can provide insights into the evolutionary history of plants and their photosynthetic ancestors.

A plant genome refers to the complete set of genetic material or DNA present in the cells of a plant. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the development and functioning of the plant, including its structural and functional characteristics. The plant genome includes both coding regions that contain instructions for producing proteins and non-coding regions that have various regulatory functions.

The plant genome is composed of several types of DNA molecules, including chromosomes, which are located in the nucleus of the cell. Each chromosome contains one or more genes, which are segments of DNA that code for specific proteins or RNA molecules. Plants typically have multiple sets of chromosomes, with each set containing a complete copy of the genome.

The study of plant genomes is an active area of research in modern biology, with important applications in areas such as crop improvement, evolutionary biology, and medical research. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have made it possible to determine the complete sequences of many plant genomes, providing valuable insights into their structure, function, and evolution.

'Bryophyta' is the formal scientific name for a division of non-vascular plants that includes mosses. These plants are small, typically range in size from a few millimeters to a few centimeters, and lack true roots, stems, and leaves. They have simple reproductive structures and obtain water and nutrients directly from the environment through their body surfaces. Mosses are an important part of many ecosystems, particularly in damp or shaded habitats, where they play a role in soil stabilization, nutrient cycling, and water retention.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Thysanoptera" is not a medical term. It is an order of small, thin-bodied insects, also known as thrips. Thysanoptera species are typically less than 2 mm long and have delicate fringed wings. They are commonly found in various environments such as flowers, leaves, and even soil. While they can be plant pests and occasionally transmit plant viruses, they do not have a direct relevance to human medicine.

"Cunninghamia" is a genus of evergreen trees that belong to the family Taxodiaceae. The term refers specifically to two species, Cunninghamia lanceolata (also known as Chinese fir or China-fir) and Cunninghamia konishii (also known as Konishi's fir). These trees are native to eastern and southeastern Asia, particularly in regions of China, Vietnam, and Laos.

Cunninghamia trees are characterized by their tall, straight trunks, with a height that can reach up to 50 meters or more, and their narrow, lanceolate-shaped leaves. They have a conical crown and produce small, round cones containing seeds. The wood of Cunninghamia trees is highly valued for its durability, strength, and resistance to decay, making it a popular choice for construction, furniture-making, and other woodworking applications.

It's worth noting that "Cunninghamia" is a taxonomic term used in the field of botany, specifically for this genus of trees. It does not have a direct medical definition or application, although like many plants, various parts of Cunninghamia trees have been used in traditional medicine in some cultures. However, it's important to note that the efficacy and safety of such remedies are not supported by modern scientific research and should be approached with caution.

"Pinus sylvestris" is the scientific name for a species of tree, not a medical term. It is commonly known as the Scotch Pine or Scots Pine and is native to Eurasia, ranging from Western Europe to Eastern Siberia. The tree can also be found in other parts of the world as an introduced species.

Here's some information about Pinus sylvestris that you might find interesting:
* Pinus sylvestris is a coniferous evergreen tree that typically grows to a height of 30-40 meters (98-131 feet) but can reach up to 60 meters (197 feet) in some cases.
* The bark of the tree is thick, scaly, and orange-reddish in color, while the leaves are needle-shaped, green, and grow in clusters of two.
* Pinus sylvestris produces both male and female cones, with the male cones releasing pollen and the female cones producing seeds.
* The tree is an important source of timber and is commonly used for construction, pulp and paper production, and as a Christmas tree.
* Pinus sylvestris has several medicinal uses, including as a treatment for respiratory conditions such as bronchitis and asthma, as well as for skin conditions like eczema and psoriasis. The needles and bark of the tree contain compounds with anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties that are believed to be responsible for these therapeutic effects.

Phloem is the living tissue in vascular plants that transports organic nutrients, particularly sucrose, a sugar, from leaves, where they are produced in photosynthesis, to other parts of the plant such as roots and stems. It also transports amino acids and other substances. Phloem is one of the two types of vascular tissue, the other being xylem; both are found in the vascular bundles of stems and roots. The term "phloem" comes from the Greek word for bark, as it often lies beneath the bark in trees and shrubs.

In medical terms, "seeds" are often referred to as a small amount of a substance, such as a radioactive material or drug, that is inserted into a tissue or placed inside a capsule for the purpose of treating a medical condition. This can include procedures like brachytherapy, where seeds containing radioactive materials are used in the treatment of cancer to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Similarly, in some forms of drug delivery, seeds containing medication can be used to gradually release the drug into the body over an extended period of time.

It's important to note that "seeds" have different meanings and applications depending on the medical context. In other cases, "seeds" may simply refer to small particles or structures found in the body, such as those present in the eye's retina.

Gene expression regulation in plants refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and RNA from the genes present in the plant's DNA. This regulation is crucial for normal growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli in plants. It can occur at various levels, including transcription (the first step in gene expression, where the DNA sequence is copied into RNA), RNA processing (such as alternative splicing, which generates different mRNA molecules from a single gene), translation (where the information in the mRNA is used to produce a protein), and post-translational modification (where proteins are chemically modified after they have been synthesized).

In plants, gene expression regulation can be influenced by various factors such as hormones, light, temperature, and stress. Plants use complex networks of transcription factors, chromatin remodeling complexes, and small RNAs to regulate gene expression in response to these signals. Understanding the mechanisms of gene expression regulation in plants is important for basic research, as well as for developing crops with improved traits such as increased yield, stress tolerance, and disease resistance.

DNA shuffling, also known as homologous recombination or genetic recombination, is a process that occurs naturally in nature and involves the exchange of genetic material between two similar or identical strands of DNA. This process can also be performed artificially in a laboratory setting to create new combinations of genes or to improve existing ones through a technique called molecular breeding or directed evolution.

In DNA shuffling, the DNA molecules are cut into smaller pieces using enzymes called restriction endonucleases. The resulting fragments are then mixed together and allowed to reassemble randomly through the action of enzymes such as ligase, which seals the broken ends of the DNA strands together. This process can result in the creation of new combinations of genes that did not exist before, or the improvement of existing ones through the selection of advantageous mutations.

DNA shuffling is a powerful tool in biotechnology and has been used to create new enzymes with improved properties, such as increased stability, specificity, and activity. It has also been used to develop new vaccines, diagnostic tests, and other medical applications.

"Viridiplantae" is a taxonomic term used in the classification of plant life. It is a clade that includes all organisms that scientists refer to as "green plants." This group consists of two distinct lineages: the Chlorophyta (green algae) and the Streptophyta (land plants and charophyte algae).

Members of Viridiplantae are characterized by the presence of chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color. These chloroplasts originate from cyanobacteria through endosymbiosis, a process in which a eukaryotic cell engulfs a prokaryotic cell and then keeps it alive inside itself.

The Viridiplantae clade is significant because it includes the evolutionary ancestors of land plants, which evolved from aquatic green algae approximately 500 million years ago. This group contains a wide variety of organisms, ranging from simple, single-celled algae to complex, multicellular terrestrial plants.

In medical terms, "fossils" do not have a specific or direct relevance to the field. However, in a broader scientific context, fossils are the remains or impressions of prehistoric organisms preserved in petrified form or as a mold or cast in rock. They offer valuable evidence about the Earth's history and the life forms that existed on it millions of years ago.

Paleopathology is a subfield of paleontology that deals with the study of diseases in fossils, which can provide insights into the evolution of diseases and human health over time.

"Extinction, Biological" refers to the state or process of a species or taxonomic group becoming extinct, meaning that there are no surviving members remaining alive anywhere in the world. This can occur due to various factors such as environmental changes, competition with other species, overexploitation by humans, or a combination of these and other elements. It is an important concept in the field of biology and conservation, as the extinction of a species can have significant impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity.

"Cryptomeria" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is actually the scientific name for a type of evergreen tree, also known as Japanese cedar. In some cases, Cryptomeria pollen may cause allergic reactions in susceptible individuals, leading to symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, and itchy eyes. However, it is not a medical condition itself.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Wood" is not a medical term. It is a common name for various hard, fibrous tissues that make up the trunks and branches of trees and shrubs, as well as a term used for a wide range of items made from these materials. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Seed Dispersal" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. It is a concept from botany and ecology, referring to the various methods by which plants distribute their seeds away from the parent plant. This can occur through mechanisms such as wind, water, or animal dispersal. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "flowers" is not a term that has a medical definition. The term "flowers" is commonly used to refer to the reproductive structures of flowering plants (angiosperms), which are characterized by having both male and female reproductive organs or separate male and female flowers.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health conditions, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) refers to the genetic material present in the chloroplasts, which are organelles found in the cells of photosynthetic organisms such as plants, algae, and some bacteria. Chloroplasts are responsible for capturing sunlight energy and converting it into chemical energy through the process of photosynthesis.

Chloroplast DNA is circular and contains a small number of genes compared to the nuclear genome. It encodes for some of the essential components required for chloroplast function, including proteins involved in photosynthesis, transcription, and translation. The majority of chloroplast proteins are encoded by the nuclear genome and are imported into the chloroplast after being synthesized in the cytoplasm.

Chloroplast DNA is inherited maternally in most plants, meaning that it is passed down from the maternal parent to their offspring through the egg cell. This mode of inheritance has been used in plant breeding and genetic engineering to introduce desirable traits into crops.

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) in plants refers to the long, single-stranded molecules that are essential for the translation of genetic information from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into proteins. RNA is a nucleic acid, like DNA, and it is composed of a ribose sugar backbone with attached nitrogenous bases (adenine, uracil, guanine, and cytosine).

In plants, there are several types of RNA that play specific roles in the gene expression process:

1. Messenger RNA (mRNA): This type of RNA carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a sequence of three-base code units called codons. These codons specify the order of amino acids in a protein.
2. Transfer RNA (tRNA): tRNAs are small RNA molecules that serve as adaptors between the mRNA and the amino acids during protein synthesis. Each tRNA has a specific anticodon sequence that base-pairs with a complementary codon on the mRNA, and it carries a specific amino acid that corresponds to that codon.
3. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): rRNAs are structural components of ribosomes, which are large macromolecular complexes where protein synthesis occurs. In plants, there are several types of rRNAs, including the 18S, 5.8S, and 25S/28S rRNAs, that form the core of the ribosome and help catalyze peptide bond formation during protein synthesis.
4. Small nuclear RNA (snRNA): These are small RNA molecules that play a role in RNA processing, such as splicing, where introns (non-coding sequences) are removed from pre-mRNA and exons (coding sequences) are joined together to form mature mRNAs.
5. MicroRNA (miRNA): These are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to complementary sequences in target mRNAs, leading to their degradation or translation inhibition.

Overall, these different types of RNAs play crucial roles in various aspects of RNA metabolism, gene regulation, and protein synthesis in plants.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) are short, single-pass DNA sequences that are derived from cDNA libraries. They represent a quick and cost-effective method for large-scale sequencing of gene transcripts and provide an unbiased view of the genes being actively expressed in a particular tissue or developmental stage. ESTs can be used to identify and study new genes, to analyze patterns of gene expression, and to develop molecular markers for genetic mapping and genome analysis.

Diterpenes, kaurane refers to a class of diterpenoids with a unique chemical structure called a kaurane skeleton. Diterpenes are a type of terpene, which are natural compounds derived from isoprene units. Kaurane diterpenes are characterized by a particular carbon skeleton consisting of five six-membered rings, including four cyclohexane rings and one cyclopentane ring.

Kaurane diterpenes can be found in various plants, including those used in traditional medicine. Some kaurane diterpenes have been reported to possess biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and cytotoxic effects. However, more research is needed to fully understand their therapeutic potential and safety profile.

I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Plant leaves" are not a medical term, but rather a general biological term referring to a specific organ found in plants.

Leaves are organs that are typically flat and broad, and they are the primary site of photosynthesis in most plants. They are usually green due to the presence of chlorophyll, which is essential for capturing sunlight and converting it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.

While leaves do not have a direct medical definition, understanding their structure and function can be important in various medical fields, such as pharmacognosy (the study of medicinal plants) or environmental health. For example, certain plant leaves may contain bioactive compounds that have therapeutic potential, while others may produce allergens or toxins that can impact human health.

Pollen, in a medical context, refers to the fine powder-like substance produced by the male reproductive organ of seed plants. It contains microscopic grains known as pollen grains, which are transported by various means such as wind, water, or insects to the female reproductive organ of the same or another plant species for fertilization.

Pollen can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, particularly during the spring and summer months when plants release large amounts of pollen into the air. These allergies, also known as hay fever or seasonal allergic rhinitis, can result in symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, congestion, itchy eyes, and coughing.

It is important to note that while all pollen has the potential to cause allergic reactions, certain types of plants, such as ragweed, grasses, and trees, are more likely to trigger symptoms in sensitive individuals.

Look up gymnosperm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Gymnosperm Database Gymnosperms on the Tree of Life Albert Seward (1911 ... Today gymnosperms are the most threatened of all plant groups. A formal classification of the living gymnosperms is the " ... The gymnosperms and angiosperms together comprise the spermatophytes or seed plants. The gymnosperms are subdivided into five ... The first published sequenced genome for any gymnosperm was the genome of Picea abies in 2013. Gymnosperms have major economic ...
Gymnosperms are divided into 12 families of trees, shrubs and woody vines. Sequoiadendron giganteum, the giant redwood, is the ... The gymnosperms consist of five orders of seed plants: Cupressales, Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Gnetales and Pinales. They developed ... Some plants were named for naturalists (unless otherwise noted). Stevens 2023, Gymnosperms. Christenhusz, Fay & Chase 2017. ... ISBN 978-0-304-36469-5. Stevens, P.F. (2023) [2001]. "Angiosperm Phylogeny Website: Gymnosperms". Missouri Botanical Garden. ...
The ancestors of the extant gymnosperm orders-Gnetales, Coniferales, Cycadales and Ginkgoales-arose during the Late Paleozoic, ... Bhatnagar, S. P.; Moitra, Alok (1996). Gymnosperms. p. 373. ISBN 9788122407921. Dilcher, David L.; Bernardes-De-Oliveira, Mary ... Monophyly of extant gymnosperms and origin of Gnetales from conifers Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... Most recent systems place the Welwitschiaceae in the gymnosperm order Gnetales. This order is most closely related to the order ...
The gymnosperms include conifers, cycads, gnetales and ginkgos and these may have appeared as a result of a whole genome ... The seeds of conifers, the largest group of gymnosperms, are enclosed in a cone and most species have seeds that are light and ... In the case of angiosperms and gymnosperms, the outermost layer of the trunk is the bark, mostly composed of dead cells of ... "Gymnosperms". Archived from the original on 9 October 2012. Retrieved 27 September 2012. Bhatnagar, S. P.; Moitra, ...
Types of Gymnosperms: Conifers Pines Ginkgos Cycads Gnetophytes As the anther of a flowering plant develops, four patches of ... The microsporangia of gymnosperms develop in pairs toward the bases of the scales, which are therefore called microsporophylls ... Bhatnagar, S.P. (1996). Gymnosperms. New Age International. p. 8. ISBN 978-8122407921. Seguí-Simarro, José M.; Nuez, Fernando ( ... all gymnosperms and all angiosperms. Plants with heterosporous life cycles using microspores and megaspores arose independently ...
Gymnosperms, including those that are extinct, can be classified by their wood: monoxylic vs pycnoxylic. Monoxylic wood is soft ... This family is composed of gymnosperms, and because of their stem structure discovered through fossil rocks, they are ... OCLC 857708675.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Singh, V. P. (2006-01-01). Gymnosperm (naked seeds ... Bhatnagar, S. P.; Moitra, Alok (1996-01-01). Gymnosperms. New Age International. ISBN 9788122407921. (U.S.), Geological Survey ...
Zamia pygmaea is a cycad found in Cuba, and the smallest known gymnosperm. It grows to a height of 25 cm (10 in). Duckweeds of ... Gymnosperms. New Age International. ISBN 978-81-224-0792-1. Retrieved 16 April 2022. P.S.Dhami; G.Chopra; H.N.Srivastava (2015 ...
"Gymnosperms". Archived from the original on 27 May 2015. Retrieved 11 May 2014. Singh, H. 1978. Embryology of gymnosperms. ... The gymnosperm male gametophytes (pollen grains) are carried by wind to a female cone and are drawn into a tiny opening on the ... "Gymnosperms". Retrieved 14 January 2016. (CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of August 2023, Webarchive template wayback links, ... Conifers are a group of cone-bearing seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the division Pinophyta ...
Phanerogams 494-494.5........Gymnosperms 495..............Angiosperms 504-638...........Cryptogams 640-707...........Plant ...
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. In the gymnosperms (or Gymnospermae) Lindley included two orders, the Cycadeae and the Coniferae. ... Gymnosperms form a group of four subclasses among the spermatophytes (seed bearing plants). In turn, the seed plants together ... De-Zhi, Fu; Yong, Yang; Guang-Hua, Zhu (2004). "A New Scheme of Classification of Living Gymnosperms at Family Level". Kew ... Among the seed plants, the gymnosperms are a sister group to the subclass Magnoliidae (angiosperms or flowering plants). There ...
11: 1-8. Voss, E. G. (1972). "Gymnosperms and Monocots". Michigan Flora. Bloomfield Hills, Michigan: Cranbrook Institute of ...
Volume 2. Pteridiophytes and Gymnosperms. Oxford University Press, New York, 475 pp RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. ...
Erich Götz (1980). Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Springer. p. 295. ISBN 978-3-540-51794-8. Cookson, Isabel C.; Duigan, Suzanne ... Media related to Araucaria at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Araucaria at Wikispecies "Araucaria". Gymnosperm Database. " ... 2021). "Gene duplications and phylogenomic conflict underlie major pulses of phenotypic evolution in gymnosperms". Nature ... The Gymnosperm Database. Retrieved 13 November 2011. "Practical seedling growing: Growing Araucaria from seeds". Arboretum de ...
The Gymnosperms Handbook. Hertford: Plant Gateway. International Plant Names Index. Byng. v t e (Articles with short ... and author of the comprehensive practical plant books The Flowering Plants Handbook and The Gymnosperms Handbook The standard ...
... s are gymnosperms. The genus is divided into two subgenera based on the number of fibrovascular bundles in the needle. The ... 2018). "Pinus". The Gymnosperm Database. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pinus. 40 Species of Pine Trees You Can Grow by ... 2021). "Gene duplications and phylogenomic conflict underlie major pulses of phenotypic evolution in gymnosperms". Nature ... "Gene duplications and phylogenomic conflict underlie major pulses of phenotypic evolution in gymnosperms". Nature Plants. 7 (8 ...
4 Nov 1993). Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Flora of North America: North of Mexico. Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. pp. 170- ... Jan 1990). Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. Vol. 1. Springer. p. 242. ISBN 978-3-540- ...
Pinophytes are gymnosperms. They are cone-bearing seed plants with vascular tissue; all extant conifers are woody plants, the ... There are at least 20 species of Gymnosperms or Coniferous plants in Montana. The conifers, division Pinophyta, also known as ...
ISBN 0-915809-20-6. Green, P. S.; Gotz, E.; Kramer, K. U. (April 1991). Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. ISBN 0-387-51794-4. {{ ...
Gymnosperms and Monocots. i-xv, 1-488. In Michigan Flora. Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. "World ...
Rothwell, G. W. (1981). "The Callistophytales (Pteridospermopsida). Reproductively sophisticated gymnosperms." Review of ... of these ovules has been worked out in some detail and seems to be essentially similar to that seen in modern-day gymnosperms, ...
Atlas of Tennessee Vascular Plants Volume 1. Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms & Moncots. 118 pp. Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. ...
Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. en: K. V. Kramer. P. S. Green (Eds.) The families and genera of vascular plants. Vol 1. Springer ...
i. Gymnosperms and Monocotyledons". The Oxford Magazine. The Proprietors. 23: 99. 23 November 1904. International Plant Names ... This made him focus on systematic botany for his career, focusing on gymnosperms, monocotyledons, and the Apetalae. In 1894 he ...
Gymnosperms and Monocots. i-xv, 1-488. In Michigan Flora. Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. Linnaeus ...
Volume 2. Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Oxford University Press. New York and Oxford, 475 pages. Gleason, Henry A., and Arthur ...
Gymnosperms and Monocots. i-xv, 1-488. In Michigan Flora. Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. (CS1 ...
4. Naturalised Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Dicotyledons. Christchurch, New Zealand: Botany Division, D.S.I.R. Godley, E.J. ( ...
Poort R.J.; Visscher H.; Dilcher D.L. (1996). "Zoidogamy in fossil gymnosperms: the centenary of a concept, with special ... Anderson J. M.; Anderson H. M.; Cleal C. J. (2007), Brief history of the gymnosperms: classification, biodiversity, ... Sporne, K. R. (1974). The morphology of gymnosperms. (Second edition). Hutchinson University Library, London. Stidd B. M. (2007 ...
1990). Pteridophytes and gymnosperms. Vol. 1. ISBN 3-540-51794-4. 2. Kubitzki, Klaus; Rohwer, Jens G.; Bittrich, Volker, eds. ( ...
Compression wood in gymnosperms. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 2150 p. "Wood Handbook: Chapter 4: Moisture Relations and Physical ...
Look up gymnosperm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Gymnosperm Database Gymnosperms on the Tree of Life Albert Seward (1911 ... Today gymnosperms are the most threatened of all plant groups. A formal classification of the living gymnosperms is the " ... The gymnosperms and angiosperms together comprise the spermatophytes or seed plants. The gymnosperms are subdivided into five ... The first published sequenced genome for any gymnosperm was the genome of Picea abies in 2013. Gymnosperms have major economic ...
GYMNOSPERMS. Salient features of Gymnosperms. Gymnosperms represent a primitive group of seed bearing plant (Spermotophytes) in ... Classification of Gymnosperms. Chamberlain has classified gymnosperms into two classes 1. class Cycadophyta 2. Class ... Distinguishing features of Gymnosperms. Gymnosperms are woody perennial which are mainly trees and rarely shrubs.. ... Economic importance of Gymnosperms. Woods of many conifers are used in the manufacture of paper. eg. Pinus. Conifers are the ...
Images used on this website remain copyright of the individual photographer. To obtain permission to use images in publications or websites, for personal use, such as PowerPoint presentations, please contact the editors at: [email protected]. ...
The invention is directed to the successful generation of mature embryos from gymnosperm somatic tissue using various ... The invention is directed to the successful generation of mature embryos from gymnosperm somatic tissue using various ...
Spatial separation and development divergences of male and female reproductive units in gymnosperms, and their relevance to the ... Spatial separation and development divergences of male and female reproductive units in gymnosperms, and their relevance to the ... Spatial separation and development divergences of male and female reproductive units in gymnosperms, and their relevance to the ... T1 - Spatial separation and development divergences of male and female reproductive units in gymnosperms, and their relevance ...
Gymnosperms constitute a heterogenous of plants groups with several evolutionary features which have been taking ... Differences between Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. Gymnosperms differ from the angiosperms in the features mentioned below:. * ... Gymnosperms differ from pteridophytes in the features mentioned below:. *Gymnosperms are commonly large sized trees, shrubs or ... Gymnosperms resemble angiosperms in the features mentioned below:. *Sporophytic generation of both gymnosperms and angiosperms ...
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Gymnosperms and angiosperms are both vascular, seed-bearing plants. However, gymnosperms release their seeds in cones (like ... What is the life cycle of gymnosperms?. The life cycle of a gymnosperm involves alternation of generations, with a dominant ... What is the life cycle of gymnosperms and angiosperms?. The life cycle of angiosperms (flowering plants) and gymnosperms ( ... The gymnosperm life cycle has a dominant sporophyte generation. Pollination occurs when pollen is transferred from a male to ...
EDGE Gymnosperms. *EDGE of Existence (Gymnosperms). * ...
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Gymnosperm & Palaeobotany (Question-Answer Series) Parth One week Series (2021) (English Medium) ... Pteridophyta, Gymnosperm & Palaeobotany (Question-Answer Series) Parth One week Series (2021) (English Medium). ... Pteridophyta, Gymnosperm & Palaeobotany (Question-Answer Series) One week Series (2021) (English Medium). ...
Numbers of taxa? For the little that it is worth, there are 4 orders and 13 families of gymnosperms characterised on these ... and gymnosperms, i.e. all seed plants, as well as many of clades grouping families and orders and some smaller clades, ... although treatments of gymnosperms were added in 2005 and other embryophytes/land plants are covered in a less detailed fashion ... but less so in most gymnosperms. Now that nuclear genomes are commonly being analyzed in various ways, the extent of such ...
"Gymnosperm Database. 2020-01-17. Retrieved 2021-10-17.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa "OldList, A ... "Gymnosperm Database. 2020-01-17. Retrieved 2021-10-17.. *^ a b Stahle, D. W.; Edmondson, J. R.; Howard, I. M.; Robbins, C. R.; ...
Entomophily began in Mesozoic period (252-66million years).  Gymnosperms: all pinales - anemophilous Cycadales; coleopteran & ... and it was because of beetle pollinated gymnosperms.  Beetles led the way in insect pollination followed by flies.  There are ...
... helical fold with aRpene synthases in gymnosperms share a conserved -helical fold with a prevalent three-domain architecture, ... Rpene synthases in gymnosperms share a conserved -helical fold with a. Rpene synthases in gymnosperms share a conserved - ... Rpene synthases in gymnosperms share a conserved -helical fold with aRpene synthases in gymnosperms share. ... DavidShorb on Rpene synthases in gymnosperms share a conserved -helical fold with aRpene synthases in gymnosperms share ...
... gymnosperm: Cycadophyta: …squat, although the Australian cycad Macrozamia hopei may reach 19 metres (62 feet) in height. Given ... In gymnosperm: Cycadophyta. …squat, although the Australian cycad Macrozamia hopei may reach 19 metres (62 feet) in height. ...
Are pineapples gymnosperms?. The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with edible fruit that is the most economically ... important in the Bromeliaceae family and clade Angiosperms. Thus, pineapples are not gymnosperms. ...
Lucknow University bsc-part-1-botany-pteridophyta-and-gymnosperms-s-636-2016.pdf question paper with solutions, Notes pdf ...
The Gymnosperm Database. Besøkt 29. april 2018.. *^ a b c d e E.-M. Sadowski m.fl. (2016). «Sciadopitys cladodes from Eocene ...
The Gymnosperm Database. Available online: (accessed on 24 September 2018). ...
Differentiate between an Angiosperm and a Gymnosperm. * Define Leave No Trace seed collection practices ...
FOT Checklist , Family List , Taiwan/Gymnosperms , Ginkgoaceae Ginkgo. Taxon Id. Name. Volume. ...
2. Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Oxford University Press, Oxford.. Nolfo-Clements, L.E. 2006. Vegetative survey of Wetland ... An annotated list of the ferns, fern allies, gymnosperms and flowering plants of Oklahoma. ...
Gymnosperms *Pinaceae *Pinus * Pinus rigida Mill. Pinus rigida Mill. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a ...
Gymnosperms are more varied. For example, pine seedlings have up to eight cotyledons. The seedlings of some flowering plants ...
Creatures » … » Plants » … » Gymnosperms » … » Pines » …. Creatures » Cellular Organisms » Eukaryotes » Plants » Green Plants ... Definition: Seed-bearing organ on gymnosperm plants. A type of fruit, usually woody, ovoid to globular, including scales, ... Definition: Seed-bearing organ on gymnosperm plants. A type of fruit, usually woody, ovoid to globular, including scales, ... Streptophyta » Embryophytes » Ferns » Seed Plants » Gymnosperms » Pinopsida » Conifers » Pines » Pine » Slash Pine « ...
Gymnosperm cone images at The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The text of ... Pinophytes are gymnosperms. They are cone-bearing seed plants with vascular tissue; all extant conifers are woody plants, the ...
Includes pitcher plant, Venus flytrap, Cape sundew, live Sphagnum moss, 4-L vessel, soil, and instructions. Not for export.
  • By far the largest group of living gymnosperms are the conifers (pines, cypresses, and relatives), followed by cycads, gnetophytes (Gnetum, Ephedra and Welwitschia), and Ginkgo biloba (a single living species). (
  • About 65% of gymnosperms are dioecious, but conifers are almost all monoecious. (
  • Conifers are by far the most abundant extant group of gymnosperms with six to eight families, with a total of 65-70 genera and 600-630 species (696 accepted names). (
  • Excessive secondary growth occurring in higher gymnosperms (conifers is a distinct anatomical advancement over the pteridophytes. (
  • This author divides plants into mosses, ferns, conifers (gymnosperms) and flowering plants (angiosperms). (
  • Any eukaryotic metabolite produced during a metabolic reaction in plants, the kingdom that include flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms. (
  • Gymnosperms possess aerial stem , whereas stems of pteridophytes (ferns) are mostly undergrounds (rhizome). (
  • This course intends to update and deepen the participants' knowledge with respect to the diversity, phylogeny and systematics of ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms. (
  • The gymnosperms and angiosperms together comprise the spermatophytes or seed plants. (
  • It was previously widely accepted that the gymnosperms originated in the Late Carboniferous period, replacing the lycopsid rainforests of the tropical region, but more recent phylogenetic evidence indicates that they diverged from the ancestors of angiosperms during the Early Carboniferous. (
  • The scorpionflies likely engaged in pollination mutualisms with gymnosperms, long before the similar and independent coevolution of nectar-feeding insects on angiosperms. (
  • There are no herbaceous gymnosperms and compared to angiosperms they occupy fewer ecological niches, but have evolved both parasites (Parasitaxus), epiphytes (Zamia pseudoparasitica) and rheophytes (Retrophyllum minus). (
  • Evolutionary tendencies reveal that gymnosperms form a bridge between pteridophytes and angiosperms. (
  • Sporophytic generation of both gymnosperms and angiosperms is well developed and long lived. (
  • Plants can also be grouped by whether they are angiosperms or gymnosperms. (
  • Angiosperms are flowering plants and are the largest group in the plant kingdom, and all of the plants above belong to that group except Pinus palustris (longleaf pine) , which is a gymnosperm. (
  • Gymnosperm seeds develop either on the surface of scales or leaves, which are often modified to form cones, or on their own as in yew, Torreya, Ginkgo. (
  • Seen formation is not common in pteridophytes (except Selaginella) whereas in gymnosperms seeds are produced. (
  • Found largely in tropical areas, cycads are a type of gymnosperm plants with relatively exposed seeds. (
  • Cycads belong to the gymnosperms and hence bear naked seeds. (
  • All gymnosperms are perennial woody plants, apart from the cycads. (
  • Cycads are the next most abundant group of gymnosperms, with two or three families, 11 genera, and approximately 338 species. (
  • and gymnosperms (Ginkgo biloba L.), oxidase activity was associated with cell walls of developing xylem and was enriched in extracts of cell wall-associated glycoproteins. (
  • Both gymnosperms and pteridophytes show marked heterologous alternation of generation. (
  • Sporophytes are distinguished into root, stem and leaves and possesses a well marked vascular system in pteridophytes and gymnosperms both. (
  • Pteridophytes like Isoetes and Botrichium resemble gymnosperms in undergoing secondary growth which although is not much pronounced. (
  • Both heterosporous pteridophytes and gymnosperms possess endosporic gametophytes. (
  • Female sex organs are archegonia in both pteridophytes and gymnosperms. (
  • Male gametophytes in heterosporous pteridophytes and majority of gymnosperms are highly reduced and possess only two male prothallial cells. (
  • Gymnosperms are commonly large sized trees, shrubs or climbers Pteridophytes, on contrary, are relatively smaller in size and are more commonly hygroscopic. (
  • Gymnosperms are characterized by the presence of tap roots whereas the roots of pteridophytes are adventitious . (
  • Gymnosperms have eustelic organization, whereas in pteridophytes eustele is not found. (
  • In gymnosperms, megaspores remain in the megasporangium whereas in pteridophytes they are shed from the sporangia and develop into independent female prothallus. (
  • Gymnosperm lifecycles involve alternation of generations. (
  • In gymnosperms, male and female gametophytes are simple, non-green and dependent on the sporophytes. (
  • Where do gametophytes of gymnosperms grow? (
  • In all living gymnosperms pollen tube develops as a result of germination of pollen grains. (
  • Where is pollen produced in a gymnosperm? (
  • The term "gymnosperm" is often used in paleobotany to refer to (the paraphyletic group of) all non-angiosperm seed plants. (
  • In that case, to specify the modern monophyletic group of gymnosperms, the term Acrogymnospermae is sometimes used. (
  • What does the term gymnosperm mean. (
  • Where does the zygote of a gymnosperm develop? (
  • Today gymnosperms are the most threatened of all plant groups. (
  • A formal classification of the living gymnosperms is the "Acrogymnospermae", which form a monophyletic group within the spermatophytes. (
  • Evidence has also been found that mid-Mesozoic gymnosperms were pollinated by Kalligrammatid lacewings, a now-extinct family with members which (in an example of convergent evolution) resembled the modern butterflies that arose far later. (
  • It has been suggested that during the mid-Mesozoic era, pollination of some extinct groups of gymnosperms was by extinct species of scorpionflies that had specialized proboscis for feeding on pollination drops. (
  • Gymnosperms constitute a heterogenous of plants groups with several evolutionary features which have been taking place since past to the present days. (
  • The Permian-Triassic boundary is marked by the extinction of glossopterid and cordaitalean gymnosperms, and by the disappearance or extreme decline of a range of gymnospermous and pteridophytic palynomorph groups. (
  • All the KED proteins from vascular plants (Tracheophyta) including angiosperm, gymnosperm, fern and lycophyte share a conserved 19-amino acid domain near the C-terminus, whereas bryophytes (moss, liverwort and hornwort) possess KED-rich, multi-direct-repeat sequences that are distinct from the vascular plant KEDs. (
  • A class of vascular seed plants also known as gymnosperms in the subdivision spermatophytina. (
  • One example of this is the gymnosperm sister clade to angiosperm TM3-like MADS-box genes, which at least in the conifer lineage has expanded in number of genes. (
  • We found that a consistent pattern of wound-induced KED gene expression is maintained across representative species of angiosperm and gymnosperm. (
  • ACR3 is an arsenite efflux transporter gene found only in gymnosperms (nonflowering plants). (
  • There is also some congruence between our results and those of the gymnosperm 18S study by Chaw et al. (
  • Hoyt Arboretum and Herbarium, in partnership with citizen science volunteers, are formulating protocol for a long-term gymnosperm phenology and cone set study. (