Autosomal dominant syndrome in which there is delayed closing of the CRANIAL FONTANELLES; complete or partial absence of the collarbones (CLAVICLES); wide PUBIC SYMPHYSIS; short middle phalanges of the fifth fingers; and dental and vertebral anomalies.
An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
A family of gram-positive bacteria in the order Lactobacillales, phylum Firmicutes.
A large, nuclear protein, encoded by the BRCA2 gene (GENE, BRCA2). Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA2 protein is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev. 2000;14(11):1400-6)
The geographic area of the Great Lakes in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. It usually includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.
Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. Laurus nobilis L. leaves are known for use in SPICES, having a similar flavor as UMBELLULARIA.
Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.
Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
An order of small, wingless parasitic insects, commonly known as lice. The suborders include ANOPLURA (sucking lice); AMBLYCERA; ISCHNOCERA; and Rhynchophthirina (elephant and warthog lice).
The region between the sharp indentation at the lower third of the STOMACH (incisura angularis) and the junction of the PYLORUS with the DUODENUM. Pyloric antral glands contain mucus-secreting cells and gastrin-secreting endocrine cells (G CELLS).
A system using beamed and reflected radio signals to and from an object in such a way that range, bearing, and other characteristics of the object may be determined.
Abnormal intracellular inclusions, composed of denatured hemoglobin, found on the membrane of red blood cells. They are seen in thalassemias, enzymopathies, hemoglobinopathies, and after splenectomy.
Observation and acquisition of physical data from a distance by viewing and making measurements from a distance or receiving transmitted data from observations made at distant location.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
Bursting of the STOMACH.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by an oviparous or ovoviviparous animal.
Twisting of the STOMACH that may result in gastric ISCHEMIA and GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION. It is often associated with DIAPHRAGMATIC HERNIA.
A group of four British islands and several islets in the English Channel off the coast of France. They are known to have been occupied prehistorically. They were a part of Normandy in 933 but were united to the British crown at the time of the Norman Conquest in 1066. Guernsey and Jersey originated noted breeds of cattle. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p242)
Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.
Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Parasitic attack or subsistence on the skin by members of the order Phthiraptera, especially on humans by Pediculus humanus of the family Pediculidae. The hair of the head, eyelashes, and pubis is a frequent site of infestation. (From Dorland, 28th ed; Stedman, 26th ed)
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.
Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.
An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.
The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.
A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.
Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.
A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
The region of the STOMACH at the junction with the DUODENUM. It is marked by the thickening of circular muscle layers forming the pyloric sphincter to control the opening and closure of the lumen.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
Abnormal passage communicating with the STOMACH.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Biphenyl compounds which are extensively brominated. Many of these compounds are toxic environmental pollutants.
A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
That portion of the stomach remaining after gastric surgery, usually gastrectomy or gastroenterostomy for cancer of the stomach or peptic ulcer. It is a common site of cancer referred to as stump cancer or carcinoma of the gastric stump.
Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The administration of liquid medication or nutrients under the skin, usually over minutes or hours.
A synthetic pentapeptide that has effects like gastrin when given parenterally. It stimulates the secretion of gastric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor, and has been used as a diagnostic aid.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
That part of the STOMACH close to the opening from ESOPHAGUS into the stomach (cardiac orifice), the ESOPHAGOGASTRIC JUNCTION. The cardia is so named because of its closeness to the HEART. Cardia is characterized by the lack of acid-forming cells (GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
A poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in which the nucleus is pressed to one side by a cytoplasmic droplet of mucus. It usually arises in the gastrointestinal system.
Proenzymes secreted by chief cells, mucous neck cells, and pyloric gland cells, which are converted into pepsin in the presence of gastric acid or pepsin itself. (Dorland, 28th ed) In humans there are 2 related pepsinogen systems: PEPSINOGEN A (formerly pepsinogen I or pepsinogen) and PEPSINOGEN C (formerly pepsinogen II or progastricsin). Pepsinogen B is the name of a pepsinogen from pigs.
Epithelial cells that line the basal half of the GASTRIC GLANDS. Chief cells synthesize and export an inactive enzyme PEPSINOGEN which is converted into the highly proteolytic enzyme PEPSIN in the acid environment of the STOMACH.
The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Mucins that are found on the surface of the gastric epithelium. They play a role in protecting the epithelial layer from mechanical and chemical damage.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
The area covering the terminal portion of ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of STOMACH at the cardiac orifice.
Concretions of swallowed hair, fruit or vegetable fibers, or similar substances found in the alimentary canal.
Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Pathological processes in the ESOPHAGUS.
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.
The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
A histamine H2 receptor antagonist that is used as an anti-ulcer agent.
A gel-forming mucin that is predominantly associated with the gastric epithelium.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC
GASTRITIS with HYPERTROPHY of the GASTRIC MUCOSA. It is characterized by giant gastric folds, diminished acid secretion, excessive MUCUS secretion, and HYPOPROTEINEMIA. Symptoms include VOMITING; DIARRHEA; and WEIGHT LOSS.
A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.
Discrete abnormal tissue masses that protrude into the lumen of the DIGESTIVE TRACT or the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Polyps can be spheroidal, hemispheroidal, or irregular mound-shaped structures attached to the MUCOUS MEMBRANE of the lumen wall either by a stalk, pedunculus, or by a broad base.
Endocrine cells which secrete GASTRIN, a peptide that induces GASTRIC ACID secretion. They are found predominantly in the GASTRIC GLANDS of PYLORIC ANTRUM in the STOMACH, but can also be found in the DUODENUM, nervous and other tissues.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Medical procedure involving the emptying of contents in the stomach through the use of a tube inserted through the nose or mouth. It is performed to remove poisons or relieve pressure due to intestinal blockages or during surgery.
Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; LEUKEMIA; or LIVER FAILURE.
A subtype of enteroendocrine cells found in the gastrointestinal MUCOSA, particularly in the glands of PYLORIC ANTRUM; DUODENUM; and ILEUM. These cells secrete mainly SEROTONIN and some neuropeptides. Their secretory granules stain readily with silver (argentaffin stain).
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
GASTRITIS with atrophy of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS, and the mucosal glands leading to ACHLORHYDRIA. Atrophic gastritis usually progresses from chronic gastritis.
A tetrameric protein, molecular weight between 50,000 and 70,000, consisting of 4 equal chains, and migrating on electrophoresis in 3 fractions more mobile than serum albumin. Its concentration ranges from 7 to 33 per cent in the serum, but levels decrease in liver disease.
A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.
Neuroendocrine cells in the glands of the GASTRIC MUCOSA. They produce HISTAMINE and peptides such as CHROMOGRANINS. ECL cells respond to GASTRIN by releasing histamine which acts as a paracrine stimulator of the release of HYDROCHLORIC ACID from the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.
Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.
A species of HELICOBACTER that colonizes in the STOMACH of laboratory MICE; CATS; and DOGS. It is associated with lymphoid follicular hyperplasia and mild GASTRITIS in CATS.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The hindering of output from the STOMACH into the SMALL INTESTINE. This obstruction may be of mechanical or functional origin such as EDEMA from PEPTIC ULCER; NEOPLASMS; FOREIGN BODIES; or AGING.
This is one of 2 related pepsinogen systems in humans and is also known as pepsinogen. (The other is PEPSINOGEN C.) This includes isozymogens Pg1-Pg5 (pepsinogens 1-5, group I or products of PGA1-PGA5 genes). This is the main pepsinogen found in urine.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
Retrograde bile flow. Reflux of bile can be from the duodenum to the stomach (DUODENOGASTRIC REFLUX); to the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX); or to the PANCREAS.
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.
Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.
A pattern of gastrointestinal muscle contraction and depolarizing myoelectric activity that moves from the stomach to the ILEOCECAL VALVE at regular frequency during the interdigestive period. The complex and its accompanying motor activity periodically cleanse the bowel of interdigestive secretion and debris in preparation for the next meal.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Vomiting of blood that is either fresh bright red, or older "coffee-ground" in character. It generally indicates bleeding of the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found in neuronal tissue that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of excitable membranes.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.
STOMACH herniation located at or near the diaphragmatic opening for the ESOPHAGUS, the esophageal hiatus.
Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A plastic operation on the esophagus. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from the intestinal tract of mammals, including humans. It has been associated with PEPTIC ULCER.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the digestive tract.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.

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An eagles stomach is quite small, about the size of a walnut. only if it is in summer and the temperature is between 25-30 ... What Do Martial Eagles Eat (What Do Eagles Eat) Martial eagle is by far one of the powerful avian predators across the family ... gulls, Crows, ravens and hawks member of genus Stephanoaetus a secondary choice prey exist in Indian... They will eat just ... Eagles have an out pouching of the esophagus, called a crop, where they can store food when the stomach is full. These are the ...
Gulls do not excite me. See more ideas about blue heron, heron, beautiful birds. The stunning Javan Pond Heron . Portrait at ... His pictures show the eel bursting out of the stomach of the great blue heron that scooped it up. Long. They travel day and ... Image of avian, heron, funny - 52631644 . Large wading bird.. #105171427 - Great Blue Heron Ardea herodias Pond Vanier Park ... Gulls do not excite me. See more ideas about blue heron, heron, beautiful birds. The stunning Javan Pond Heron . Portrait at ...
The avian breeding season is winding down. Even a few southbound shorebirds will trickle through the region this month on their ... Human disturbance, along with owl predation and over-crowding by Ring-billed Gulls are the likely cause of dramatic declines ... In a loons gizzard, which contains small stones, powerful enzymes and stomach acids help to digest the fish - bones included. ... and controlling gull populations. While this marks an encouraging recovery from their low point, they still have some more ...
Laughing Gull. Once you select your locations, I promise you will be amazed at how many different species of wildlife you will ... His feet are facing towards the left of the picture, his tail is on the right but his stomach is facing the sun. He sat there ... So if you are reading this post and you have been thinking about becoming a birder or avian photographer but have been afraid ... A common misconception shared by many amateur avian watchers and photographers is the need to venture deep into isolation in ...
Gull-lover Twist in Ithaca. Dear Gull-lover Twist:. Lets say you kiss your mother. Lets say your mother goes on to win the. ... stomach-churning as the Elizabeth Ann or even the Laura B: Its The Cup!. (Difference is, we wont soak your only pair of ... birders left the Basin to see this improbable avian event. [As I write. this text, Chris Hymes comes in and tells me he didnt ... gulls, Caspian, Common, Forsters & Black terns, R & M Doves, B-b &. Y-b cuckoos, E Screech-Owl, G Horned, Barred, L-e, S-e & N ...
Another stomach growl.. Back in the water, it caught a fish in its teeth and ate it. It grew some more. We saw it eat a few ... Melanie: A gull smashed into Annies front door. Mitch - whats happening?. "I wish I were a stronger person. I lost my husband ... Melanie-as an embodiment of capitalism and a personification of the birds-is symbolically bringing the avian aerial bombardment ... Yet still, his stomach felt as if empty.. He ripped the flesh off of his buttocks and ate it. Then, amazingly, his cock and ...
There, Darwin learned that the brutality of surgery and the sight of blood turned his stomach-not especially good qualities for ... While thousands of Americans were being mesmerized by the vast diversity of avian life depicted in Audubons The Birds of ... Entire populations of shorebirds and wading birds-including herons, egrets, spoonbills, gulls, and terns-along the Atlantic ... And the lingering effect of his avian artistry remains unparalleled even in todays society. Millions of homes throughout the ...
Fritz Scheider rediscovered the avian diversity of the region in the 1950s, His counts from the Mad River region of sixty plus ... Whenever one sees an egret or even the abundant gull species give thanks for the MTBA and those that made it happen. ... Frankly the loss of so many of these magnificent creatures because of us makes my stomach churn. ...
... gulls, harrass, hunt, Lake Superior, Panasonic GH5, Parasitic Jaeger, Ring-billed Gull, slow motion video, Wisconsin, Wisconsin ... The bladder now becomes a tiny stomach and the insect is dissolved by the plant.. Mystery sedge/rush.. If you do swing through ... Lincolns Sparrow was the most obvious avian bog dweller today, singing its beautiful hollow-can, echoey song from stunted ... They will somehow single out an individual Ring-billed Gull that it feels has a crop full of food. I suppose they can see the ...
Yikes!! The Herring Gulls in the UK are vicious:. "The standard modus operandi of the seagull is to make a couple of low passes ... which might involve emptying its bowels or stomach on you. Following this, if you havent run for cover, the gull will gain ... Hitting a top speed of around 40 mph (60 km/h) the gull drags its claws across the victims head often resulting in a deep cut. ... Thats kind of like my standard birding outing (twitch?), but not by Herring Gulls. I did have a herd of 40-50 steers chase me ...
All three animals have a multi-chambered stomach and microorganisms efficient at breaking down cellulose and extracting ... Gulls (2) *Gymnosperms (3) *Gypsy Moth (2) *Hackberry Nipple Galls (1) *Hag Moth (1) ... Avian Communication (1) *Babysitter Tree (1) *Backswimmer (1) *Bacteria (5) *Bagworm Moths (1) ...
But in the summer of 1985, a pair of lesser black-backed gulls arrived and constructed a nest of plant materials on the lava ... 3) Best of all, the Lord kept sending Avian Wonders for me to watch and be reminded that He always cares for them and us. ... which were dissolved in its stomach.1 ... Limited animal life - such as gulls, puffins and seals - have ... Combined with bird excreta, seeds grow rapidly-there is now a bright green oasis spreading from the gull colony. Geese now ...
... promptly disgorged the putrid contents of her stomach, which was so offensive that the intruder had to close his nostrils with ... Avian And Attributes. *Orni-Theology. *Bibleworld Adventures. *James J. S. Johnson. *Emmas Stories ...
It was as if the sparrows and gulls, crows and swallows, all stopped to gossip with each other while the monks sat quietly and ... Only the monk in the middle was unattended by any avians.. "Whats with the birds?" asked Viridian, ducking as a magpie swept ... "Bloody elves," he thought to himself as the sinking motion which Viridian seemed to barely notice made him sick to his stomach ... From somewhere above the sound of birdsong trilled through the air, answered by another avian voice. As the corner drew nearer ...
while the gulls bodies. continue to dance. swirling in time and rhythm. round and round. round and round. on a lawn. that is a ... Nauseous, I lean against the railings while my stomach spasms, ejecting the loathsome bile of my fear into the river. Im glad ... In modern history, too-polio, Hanta virus, flu-Spanish, Avian, and otherwise. And SARS and MERS. They should have known one ...
I got out of the shower one day and wrapped my towel around myself only to feel an odd wiggling sensation on my stomach. I ... We had a memorably bad experience with a lunch snatching gull this summer too. Glad to learn about the diversity and food ways ... I like that the roof design for your target species - the Common Nighthawk - would accommodate other avian species. ...
I got out of the shower one day and wrapped my towel around myself only to feel an odd wiggling sensation on my stomach. I ... We had a memorably bad experience with a lunch snatching gull this summer too. Glad to learn about the diversity and food ways ... I like that the roof design for your target species - the Common Nighthawk - would accommodate other avian species. ...
I got out of the shower one day and wrapped my towel around myself only to feel an odd wiggling sensation on my stomach. I ... We had a memorably bad experience with a lunch snatching gull this summer too. Glad to learn about the diversity and food ways ... I like that the roof design for your target species - the Common Nighthawk - would accommodate other avian species. ...
I got out of the shower one day and wrapped my towel around myself only to feel an odd wiggling sensation on my stomach. I ... We had a memorably bad experience with a lunch snatching gull this summer too. Glad to learn about the diversity and food ways ... I like that the roof design for your target species - the Common Nighthawk - would accommodate other avian species. ...
I got out of the shower one day and wrapped my towel around myself only to feel an odd wiggling sensation on my stomach. I ... We had a memorably bad experience with a lunch snatching gull this summer too. Glad to learn about the diversity and food ways ... I like that the roof design for your target species - the Common Nighthawk - would accommodate other avian species. ...
I got out of the shower one day and wrapped my towel around myself only to feel an odd wiggling sensation on my stomach. I ... We had a memorably bad experience with a lunch snatching gull this summer too. Glad to learn about the diversity and food ways ... I like that the roof design for your target species - the Common Nighthawk - would accommodate other avian species. ...
I got out of the shower one day and wrapped my towel around myself only to feel an odd wiggling sensation on my stomach. I ... We had a memorably bad experience with a lunch snatching gull this summer too. Glad to learn about the diversity and food ways ... I like that the roof design for your target species - the Common Nighthawk - would accommodate other avian species. ...
I got out of the shower one day and wrapped my towel around myself only to feel an odd wiggling sensation on my stomach. I ... We had a memorably bad experience with a lunch snatching gull this summer too. Glad to learn about the diversity and food ways ... I like that the roof design for your target species - the Common Nighthawk - would accommodate other avian species. ...
I got out of the shower one day and wrapped my towel around myself only to feel an odd wiggling sensation on my stomach. I ... We had a memorably bad experience with a lunch snatching gull this summer too. Glad to learn about the diversity and food ways ... I like that the roof design for your target species - the Common Nighthawk - would accommodate other avian species. ...
The second record of Ross Gull ever seen in the lower 48 -- or anywhere south of the high arctic for that matter -- had been ... Timmy timmy timmy!! My stomach hurts from laughing. You have outdone yourself once again. Flabbergasted! Websters going to put ... George M. Sutton Avian Research Center. *Jane Goodall Institute. *Lewa Conservancy - Kenya ... The Ross Gull would prove to be writer Greg Neises nemesis bird for 32 more years...until the phone rang again. Follow this ...
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These dates are without calibration based on the putative late Cretaceous fossil crown avian Vegavis; its inclusion would push ... Rhamphorhynchus - commonly found with fish and cephalopod remains in its stomach. * † Dorygnathus - heterodont dentition ... Ichthyornis - a toothed ornithuran analog of modern seabirds such as gulls and petrels ...
This New Guide Finally Simplifies Gull IDs. No family of birds causes quite as much heartburn as gulls. Just as I might ... Corvids-the avian family that includes ravens and crows-are notorious for causing mischief to humans and animals alike. They ... So what can the sensitive-stomached birder do to see great seabirds without losing their lunch? Seawatching, of course. Ive ... In the past week alone, I have seen Torrent Ducks in the Urubamba River in Peru, watched an Ivory Gull fly over the ice floes ...
It also seemed like this wasnt his first time feeding them as the gulls seem to recognize him and were very excited to see him ... avian, beach, birds, Broward, city, clouds, destination, egret, fauna, Florida, Florida birds, Fort lauderdale, fort lauderdale ... the Hagia Sophia and Blue Mosque to the Topkapi Palace and the Grand Bazaar as well as tasted every delicacy I could stomach. ... Suddenly I noticed this man walking towards the beach with a plastic bag and realized he was there to feed the gulls. ...

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