A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.
A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.
Originally an island of the Malay Archipelago, the second largest island in the world. It divided, West New Guinea becoming part of Indonesia and East New Guinea becoming Papua New Guinea.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
A condition due to a dietary deficiency of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), characterized by malaise, lethargy, and weakness. As the disease progresses, joints, muscles, and subcutaneous tissues may become the sites of hemorrhage. Ascorbic acid deficiency frequently develops into SCURVY in young children fed unsupplemented cow's milk exclusively during their first year. It develops also commonly in chronic alcoholism. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1177)
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
A republic in central Africa, bordering the Bay of Biafra, CAMEROON is to the north and GABON to the south. Its capital is Malabo.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The fluid separating the membranous labyrinth from the osseous labyrinth of the ear. It is entirely separate from the ENDOLYMPH which is contained in the membranous labyrinth. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1396, 642)
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, whose viruses have been isolated from lymphocytes. HERPESVIRUS 6, HUMAN is the type species.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Diseases caused by American hemorrhagic fever viruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD).
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A histamine H1 antagonist. It has mild hypnotic properties and some local anesthetic action and is used for allergies (including skin eruptions) both parenterally and locally. It is a common ingredient of cold remedies.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.

Further evidence that prostaglandins inhibit the release of noradrenaline from adrenergic nerve terminals by restriction of availability of calcium. (1/17075)

1 Guinea-pig vasa deferentia were continuously superfused after labelling the transmitter stores with [3H](-)-noradrenaline. Release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline was induced by transmural nerve stimulation. 2 Prostglandin E2 (14 nM) drastically reduced the release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline, while tetraethylammonium (2 mM), rubidium (6 mM), phenoxybenzamine (3 muM) each in the presence or absence of Uptake 1 or 2 blockade, and prolonged pulse duration (from 0.5 to 2.0 ms) all significantly increased the release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline per nerve impulse. 3 The inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on evoked release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline was significantly reduced by tetraethylammonium, rubidium and prolonged pulse duration, whilst it was actually enhanced by phenoxybenzamine. This indicates that increased release of noradrenaline per nerve impulse does not per se counteract the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2. 4 It is concluded that tetraethylammonium, rubidium and prolonged pulse duration counteracted the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on T3H]-(-)-noradrenaline release by promoting calcium influx during the nerve action potential. The results are consistent with, and add more weight to the view that prostaglandins inhibit the release of noradrenaline by restriction of calcium availability.  (+info)

A comparison of affinity constants for muscarine-sensitive acetylcholine receptors in guinea-pig atrial pacemaker cells at 29 degrees C and in ileum at 29 degrees C and 37 degrees C. (2/17075)

1 The affinity of 17 compounds for muscarine-sensitive acetylcholine receptors in atrial pacemaker cells and ileum of the guinea-pig has been measured at 29 degrees C in Ringer-Locke solution. Measurements were also made at 37 degrees C with 7 of them. 2 Some of the compounds had much higher affinity for the receptors in the ileum than for those in the atria. For the most selective compound, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide, the difference was approximately 20-fold. The receptors in the atria are therefore different the structure from those in the ileum. 3 The effect of temperature on affinity are not the same for all the compounds, tested indicating different enthalpies and entropies of adsorption and accounting for some of the difficulty experienced in predicting the affinity of new compounds.  (+info)

Fusariotoxicosis from barley in British Columbia. II. Analysis and toxicity of syspected barley. (3/17075)

Fusariotoxin T-2, a trichothecene, was tentatively identified in barley samples which caused field outbreaks of mycotoxicosis in British Columbia. Geese died when fed the contaminated barley experimentally but mice were little affected after long term feeding. The methods used in the laboratory for trichothecene extraction and identification of T-2 toxin are described.  (+info)

Automatic activity in depolarized guinea pig ventricular myocardium. Characteristics and mechanisms. (4/17075)

Membrane potential was changed uniformly in segments, 0.7-1.0 mm long, of guinea pig papillary muscles excised from the right ventricle by using extracellular polarizing current pulses applied across two electrically insulated cf preparations superfused with Tyrode's solution at maximum diastolic membrane potentials ranging from-35.2+/-7.5 (threshold) to +4.0+/-9.2 mV. The average maximum dV/dt of RAD ranged from 17.1 to 18.0 V/sec within a membrane potential range of -40 to +20 mV. Raising extracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]0 from 1.8 to 6.8 mM, or application of isoproterenol (10(-6)g/ml) enhanced the rate of RAD, but lowering [Ca2+]0 to 0.4 mM or exposure to MnCl2 (6 mM) abolished RAD. RAD were enhanced by lowering extracellular K+ concentration [K+]0 from 5.4 to 1.5 mM. RAD were suppressed in 40% of fibers by raising [K+]0 to 15.4 mM, and in all fibers by raising [K+]0 to 40.4 mM. This suppression was due to increased [K+]0 and not to K-induced depolarization because it persisted when membrane potential was held by means of a conditioning hyperpolarizing puled gradually after maximum repolarization. These observations suggest that the development of RAD in depolarized myocardium is associated with a time-dependent decrease in outward current (probably K current) and with increase in the background inward current, presumably flowing through the slow cha-nel carrying Ca or Na ions, or both.  (+info)

Perinatal nephropathies. (5/17075)

The purpose of this paper is to review the development of the mammalian kidney and to assess the influence that various perinatal manipulations may have on the developmental process either morphologically or functionally. Immature kidneys in general have less functional capacity than adult kidneys and a low rate of glomerular filtration, perhaps related to renal blood flow, which appears to limit the disposition of a fluid or solute load. Tubular reabsorption is also limited leading to the urinary loss of glucose, amino acids, bicarbonate and phosphate. Although the relatively low function of the immature kidney is a normal part of development, its capacity to respond under conditions of stress may be less adequate than in adults. An additional concern is that a variety of perinatal manipulations, such as the incidental or accidental ingestion of a chemical, may lead to varying degrees of altered morphogenesis or functional development of the kidney. Chemical induced renal anomalies may be of several types, but in typical teratology experiments hydronephrosis may be the most frequent observation. The functional consequences of these renal malformations may be lethal or inconsequential or while an animal may be able to survive and develop normally in the presence of a renal malformation, it is possible that a stressful situation would unmask a functional malformation which could compromise survival. Thus, some renal abnormalities may be subtle enough to go unnoticed without experimental tests. Without such tests it is impossible to evaluate the effect of functional alterations on successful adaptation.  (+info)

Activity in saline of phthalylated or succinylated derivatives of mycobacterial water-soluble adjuvant. (6/17075)

A water-soluble fraction (WSA) of the cell wall can substitute for mycobacterial cells in Freund complete adjuvant. However, when WSA is administered in saline instead of in a water-in-oil emulsion, its adjuvant activity is very weak, and under certain experimental conditions it can even inhibit the humoral immune response. The data reported in the present study show that after treatment by phthalic or succinic anhydride the adjuvant activity of WSA was markedly changed, since high levels of circulating antibodies were produced when these derivatives were administered with an antigen in an aqueous medium. Moreover, the antigenic determinants of WSA were modified and acylated WSA had no tuberculin-like activity.  (+info)

Bradykinin promotes ischemic norepinephrine release in guinea pig and human hearts. (7/17075)

We previously reported that bradykinin (BK; 1-1000 nM) facilitates norepinephrine (NE) release from cardiac sympathetic nerves. Because BK production increases in myocardial ischemia, endogenous BK could foster NE release and associated arrhythmias. We tested this hypothesis in guinea pig and human myocardial ischemia models. BK administration (100 nM) markedly enhanced exocytotic and carrier-mediated NE overflow from guinea pig hearts subjected to 10- and 20-min ischemia/reperfusion, respectively. Ventricular fibrillation invariably occurred after 20-min global ischemia; BK prolonged its duration 3-fold. The BK B2 receptor antagonist HOE140 (30 nM) blocked the effects of BK, whereas the B1 receptor antagonist des-Arg9-Leu8-BK (1 microM; i.e., 2.5 x pA2) did not. When serine proteinase inhibitors (500 KIU/ml aprotinin and 100 microg/ml soybean trypsin inhibitor) were used to prevent the formation of endogenous BK, NE overflow and reperfusion arrhythmias were diminished. In contrast, when kininase I and II inhibitors (DL-2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidinoethylthiopropanoic acid and enalaprilat, each 1 microM) were used to prevent the degradation of endogenous BK, NE overflow and reperfusion arrhythmias were enhanced. B2 receptor blockade abolished these effects but was ineffective if kininases were not inhibited. B2 receptor stimulation, by either exogenous or endogenous BK, also markedly enhanced carrier-mediated NE release in the human myocardial ischemia model; conversely, inhibition of BK biosynthesis diminished ischemic NE release. Because atherosclerotic heart disease impairs endothelial BK production, in myocardial ischemia BK could accumulate at sympathetic nerve endings, thus augmenting exocytotic and carrier-mediated NE release and favoring coronary vasoconstriction and arrhythmias.  (+info)

Comparison of functional antagonism between isoproterenol and M2 muscarinic receptors in guinea pig ileum and trachea. (8/17075)

The ability of the M2 muscarinic receptor to mediate an inhibition of the relaxant effects of forskolin and isoproterenol was investigated in guinea pig ileum and trachea. In some experiments, trachea was first treated with 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine (4-DAMP) mustard to inactivate M3 receptors. The contractile response to oxotremorine-M was measured subsequently in the presence of both histamine (10 microM) and isoproterenol (10 nM). Under these conditions, [[2-[(diethylamino)methyl]-1-piperidinyl]acetyl]-5, 11-dihydro-6H-pyrido[2,3b]-[1,4]benzodiazepine-6-one (AF-DX 116) antagonized the contractile response to oxotremorine-M in a manner consistent with an M3 mechanism. However, when the same experiment was repeated using forskolin (4 microM) instead of isoproterenol, the response to oxotremorine-M exhibited greater potency and was antagonized by AF-DX 116 in a manner consistent with an M2 mechanism. We also measured the effects of pertussis toxin treatment on the ability of isoproterenol to inhibit the contraction elicited by a single concentration of either histamine (0.3 microM) or oxotremorine-M (40 nM) in both the ileum and trachea. Pertussis toxin treatment had no significant effect on the potency of isoproterenol for inhibiting histamine-induced contractions in the ileum and trachea. In contrast, pertussis toxin treatment enhanced the relaxant potency of isoproterenol against oxotremorine-M-induced contractions in the ileum but not in the trachea. Also, pertussis toxin treatment enhanced the relaxant potency of forskolin against oxotremorine-M-induced contractions in the ileum and trachea. We investigated the relaxant potency of isoproterenol when very low, equi-effective (i.e., 20-34% of maximal response) concentrations of either histamine or oxotremorine-M were used to elicit contraction. Under these conditions, isoproterenol exhibited greater relaxant potency against histamine in the ileum but exhibited similar relaxant potencies against histamine and oxotremorine-M in the trachea. Following 4-DAMP mustard treatment, a low concentration of oxotremorine-M (10 nM) had no contractile effect in either the ileum or trachea. Nevertheless, in 4-DAMP mustard-treated tissue, oxotremorine-M (10 nM) reduced the relaxant potency of isoproterenol against histamine-induced contractions in the ileum, but not in the trachea. We conclude that in the trachea the M2 receptor mediates an inhibition of the relaxant effects of forskolin, but not isoproterenol, and the decreased relaxant potency of isoproterenol against contractions elicited by a muscarinic agonist relative to histamine is not due to activation of M2 receptors but rather to the greater contractile stimulus mediated by the M3 receptor compared with the H1 histamine receptor.  (+info)

I must clarify that the term "Guinea Pigs" is not typically used in medical definitions. However, in colloquial or informal language, it may refer to people who are used as the first to try out a new medical treatment or drug. This is known as being a "test subject" or "in a clinical trial."

In the field of scientific research, particularly in studies involving animals, guinea pigs are small rodents that are often used as experimental subjects due to their size, cost-effectiveness, and ease of handling. They are not actually pigs from Guinea, despite their name's origins being unclear. However, they do not exactly fit the description of being used in human medical experiments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Guinea" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term referring to a region on the west coast of Africa, as well as the country of Equatorial Guinea and its neighboring countries. Additionally, "Guinea" can also refer to a unit of currency in Liberia.

If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Papua New Guinea" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in the southwest Pacific Ocean, made up of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and numerous offshore islands. If you have any questions about medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "New Guinea" is not a medical term. It is the second largest island in the world, located in the southwest Pacific Ocean, northeast of Australia. The island is divided politically between the independent nation of Papua New Guinea to the east and the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua to the west.

If you have any medical questions or terms that you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

The ileum is the third and final segment of the small intestine, located between the jejunum and the cecum (the beginning of the large intestine). It plays a crucial role in nutrient absorption, particularly for vitamin B12 and bile salts. The ileum is characterized by its thin, lined walls and the presence of Peyer's patches, which are part of the immune system and help surveil for pathogens.

Ascorbic acid deficiency is a condition that occurs when a person does not consume or absorb adequate amounts of ascorbic acid, also known as Vitamin C. This essential nutrient plays a crucial role in the production of collagen, a protein that helps to support blood vessel, tendon, ligament, and bone health. It is also involved in the absorption of iron and the synthesis of certain neurotransmitters.

Ascorbic acid deficiency can lead to a number of symptoms and complications. In its early stages, it may cause fatigue, weakness, and joint pain. As the deficiency progresses, it can lead to more serious conditions such as scurvy, a potentially life-threatening disease characterized by anemia, gum disease, skin hemorrhages, and poor wound healing.

Scurvy is now rare in developed countries where access to fresh fruits and vegetables, which are rich sources of vitamin C, is readily available. However, it can still occur in individuals who follow restrictive diets or have malabsorption disorders that prevent them from properly absorbing the nutrient. In these cases, supplementation with ascorbic acid may be necessary to prevent deficiency and its associated complications.

Smooth muscle, also known as involuntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and functions without conscious effort. These muscles are found in the walls of hollow organs such as the stomach, intestines, bladder, and blood vessels, as well as in the eyes, skin, and other areas of the body.

Smooth muscle fibers are shorter and narrower than skeletal muscle fibers and do not have striations or sarcomeres, which give skeletal muscle its striped appearance. Smooth muscle is controlled by the autonomic nervous system through the release of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and norepinephrine, which bind to receptors on the smooth muscle cells and cause them to contract or relax.

Smooth muscle plays an important role in many physiological processes, including digestion, circulation, respiration, and elimination. It can also contribute to various medical conditions, such as hypertension, gastrointestinal disorders, and genitourinary dysfunction, when it becomes overactive or underactive.

Swine diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious conditions that affect pigs. These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, or environmental factors. Some common swine diseases include:

1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): a viral disease that causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory problems in piglets and grower pigs.
2. Classical Swine Fever (CSF): also known as hog cholera, is a highly contagious viral disease that affects pigs of all ages.
3. Porcine Circovirus Disease (PCVD): a group of diseases caused by porcine circoviruses, including Porcine CircoVirus Associated Disease (PCVAD) and Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS).
4. Swine Influenza: a respiratory disease caused by type A influenza viruses that can infect pigs and humans.
5. Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes pneumonia in pigs.
6. Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes severe pneumonia in pigs.
7. Salmonella: a group of bacteria that can cause food poisoning in humans and a variety of diseases in pigs, including septicemia, meningitis, and abortion.
8. Brachyspira Hyodysenteriae: a bacterial disease that causes dysentery in pigs.
9. Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae: a bacterial disease that causes erysipelas in pigs.
10. External and internal parasites, such as lice, mites, worms, and flukes, can also cause diseases in swine.

Prevention and control of swine diseases rely on good biosecurity practices, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, and management practices. Regular veterinary check-ups and monitoring are essential to detect and treat diseases early.

The trachea, also known as the windpipe, is a tube-like structure in the respiratory system that connects the larynx (voice box) to the bronchi (the two branches leading to each lung). It is composed of several incomplete rings of cartilage and smooth muscle, which provide support and flexibility. The trachea plays a crucial role in directing incoming air to the lungs during inspiration and outgoing air to the larynx during expiration.

Equatorial Guinea is a country located in Central Africa, straddling the equator. It is not a medical term but a geographical and political designation. The country is composed of two main parts: Río Muni, which is the mainland and makes up about 10% of the country's total area, and Bioko, a tropical island in the Bight of Bonny, along with several smaller islands including Annobón, Corisco, and Elobey.

The capital city, Malabo, is located on Bioko Island. The official languages are Spanish and French, with Portuguese also recognized as an official language due to its membership in the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP).

Equatorial Guinea has a population of approximately 1.4 million people and is one of the smallest countries in Africa by land area. It gained independence from Spain in 1968, and since then, it has faced numerous challenges related to political instability, human rights abuses, and socio-economic development.

In terms of medical aspects, Equatorial Guinea faces various health issues, such as high infant mortality rates, malaria, HIV/AIDS, and other infectious diseases. The country also struggles with providing adequate healthcare services to its population due to limited resources, infrastructure, and healthcare personnel.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Muscle contraction is the physiological process in which muscle fibers shorten and generate force, leading to movement or stability of a body part. This process involves the sliding filament theory where thick and thin filaments within the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscles) slide past each other, facilitated by the interaction between myosin heads and actin filaments. The energy required for this action is provided by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Muscle contractions can be voluntary or involuntary, and they play a crucial role in various bodily functions such as locomotion, circulation, respiration, and posture maintenance.

Histamine is defined as a biogenic amine that is widely distributed throughout the body and is involved in various physiological functions. It is derived primarily from the amino acid histidine by the action of histidine decarboxylase. Histamine is stored in granules (along with heparin and proteases) within mast cells and basophils, and is released upon stimulation or degranulation of these cells.

Once released into the tissues and circulation, histamine exerts a wide range of pharmacological actions through its interaction with four types of G protein-coupled receptors (H1, H2, H3, and H4 receptors). Histamine's effects are diverse and include modulation of immune responses, contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle, increased vascular permeability, stimulation of gastric acid secretion, and regulation of neurotransmission.

Histamine is also a potent mediator of allergic reactions and inflammation, causing symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, and wheezing. Antihistamines are commonly used to block the actions of histamine at H1 receptors, providing relief from these symptoms.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Delayed hypersensitivity, also known as type IV hypersensitivity, is a type of immune response that takes place several hours to days after exposure to an antigen. It is characterized by the activation of T cells (a type of white blood cell) and the release of various chemical mediators, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. This reaction is typically associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, such as contact dermatitis, granulomatous disorders (e.g. tuberculosis), and certain autoimmune diseases.

The reaction process involves the following steps:

1. Sensitization: The first time an individual is exposed to an antigen, T cells are activated and become sensitized to it. This process can take several days.
2. Memory: Some of the activated T cells differentiate into memory T cells, which remain in the body and are ready to respond quickly if the same antigen is encountered again.
3. Effector phase: Upon subsequent exposure to the antigen, the memory T cells become activated and release cytokines, which recruit other immune cells (e.g. macrophages) to the site of inflammation. These cells cause tissue damage through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis, degranulation, and the release of reactive oxygen species.
4. Chronic inflammation: The ongoing immune response can lead to chronic inflammation, which may result in tissue destruction and fibrosis (scarring).

Examples of conditions associated with delayed hypersensitivity include:

* Contact dermatitis (e.g. poison ivy, nickel allergy)
* Tuberculosis
* Leprosy
* Sarcoidosis
* Rheumatoid arthritis
* Type 1 diabetes mellitus
* Multiple sclerosis
* Inflammatory bowel disease (e.g. Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis)

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

'Sus scrofa' is the scientific name for the wild boar, a species of suid that is native to much of Eurasia and North Africa. It is not a medical term or concept. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those instead!

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

The myenteric plexus, also known as Auerbach's plexus, is a component of the enteric nervous system located in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. It is a network of nerve cells (neurons) and supporting cells (neuroglia) that lies between the inner circular layer and outer longitudinal muscle layers of the digestive system's muscularis externa.

The myenteric plexus plays a crucial role in controlling gastrointestinal motility, secretion, and blood flow, primarily through its intrinsic nerve circuits called reflex arcs. These reflex arcs regulate peristalsis (the coordinated muscle contractions that move food through the digestive tract) and segmentation (localized contractions that mix and churn the contents within a specific region of the gut).

Additionally, the myenteric plexus receives input from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system, allowing for central nervous system regulation of gastrointestinal functions. Dysfunction in the myenteric plexus has been implicated in various gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, achalasia, and intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

Bronchoconstriction is a medical term that refers to the narrowing of the airways in the lungs (the bronchi and bronchioles) due to the contraction of the smooth muscles surrounding them. This constriction can cause difficulty breathing, wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath, which are common symptoms of asthma and other respiratory conditions.

Bronchoconstriction can be triggered by a variety of factors, including allergens, irritants, cold air, exercise, and emotional stress. In some cases, it may also be caused by certain medications, such as beta-blockers or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Treatment for bronchoconstriction typically involves the use of bronchodilators, which are medications that help to relax the smooth muscles around the airways and widen them, making it easier to breathe.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Perilymph is a type of fluid found in the inner ear, more specifically within the bony labyrinth of the inner ear. It fills the space between the membranous labyrinth and the bony labyrinth in the cochlea and vestibular system. Perilymph is similar in composition to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and contains sodium, chloride, and protein ions. Its main function is to protect the inner ear from damage, maintain hydrostatic pressure, and facilitate the transmission of sound waves to the hair cells in the cochlea for hearing.

The cochlea is a part of the inner ear that is responsible for hearing. It is a spiral-shaped structure that looks like a snail shell and is filled with fluid. The cochlea contains hair cells, which are specialized sensory cells that convert sound vibrations into electrical signals that are sent to the brain.

The cochlea has three main parts: the vestibular canal, the tympanic canal, and the cochlear duct. Sound waves enter the inner ear and cause the fluid in the cochlea to move, which in turn causes the hair cells to bend. This bending motion stimulates the hair cells to generate electrical signals that are sent to the brain via the auditory nerve.

The brain then interprets these signals as sound, allowing us to hear and understand speech, music, and other sounds in our environment. Damage to the hair cells or other structures in the cochlea can lead to hearing loss or deafness.

Roseolovirus is a genus of viruses in the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Betaherpesvirinae. The genus contains three species: Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A), Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B), and Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7). These viruses are closely related and cause similar diseases, most notably exanthema subitum or roseola in infants and young children.

The primary infection with HHV-6A and HHV-6B typically occurs during the first two years of life and is usually asymptomatic or associated with mild symptoms such as fever and rash (roseola). After the primary infection, the virus becomes latent in the host's immune cells and may reactivate later in life, causing various clinical manifestations, including febrile illnesses, seizures, and central nervous system disorders.

HHV-7 is also a common infectious agent in humans, primarily causing exanthema subitum or roseola in children. It can also establish latency and reactivate, although its association with specific diseases is less clear than that of HHV-6A and HHV-6B.

Overall, Roseolovirus species are important human pathogens, particularly during early childhood, and may contribute to various clinical manifestations throughout life.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

The myocardium is the middle layer of the heart wall, composed of specialized cardiac muscle cells that are responsible for pumping blood throughout the body. It forms the thickest part of the heart wall and is divided into two sections: the left ventricle, which pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body, and the right ventricle, which pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

The myocardium contains several types of cells, including cardiac muscle fibers, connective tissue, nerves, and blood vessels. The muscle fibers are arranged in a highly organized pattern that allows them to contract in a coordinated manner, generating the force necessary to pump blood through the heart and circulatory system.

Damage to the myocardium can occur due to various factors such as ischemia (reduced blood flow), infection, inflammation, or genetic disorders. This damage can lead to several cardiac conditions, including heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathy.

Papillary muscles are specialized muscle structures located in the heart, specifically in the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). They are attached to the tricuspid and mitral valves' leaflets via tendinous cords, also known as chordae tendineae. The main function of papillary muscles is to prevent the backflow of blood during contraction by providing tension to the valve leaflets through these tendinous cords.

There are two sets of papillary muscles in the heart:

1. Anterior and posterior papillary muscles in the left ventricle, which are attached to the mitral (bicuspid) valve.
2. Three smaller papillary muscles in the right ventricle, which are attached to the tricuspid valve.

These muscle structures play a crucial role in maintaining proper blood flow through the heart and ensuring efficient cardiac function.

An action potential is a brief electrical signal that travels along the membrane of a nerve cell (neuron) or muscle cell. It is initiated by a rapid, localized change in the permeability of the cell membrane to specific ions, such as sodium and potassium, resulting in a rapid influx of sodium ions and a subsequent efflux of potassium ions. This ion movement causes a brief reversal of the electrical potential across the membrane, which is known as depolarization. The action potential then propagates along the cell membrane as a wave, allowing the electrical signal to be transmitted over long distances within the body. Action potentials play a crucial role in the communication and functioning of the nervous system and muscle tissue.

Skin tests are medical diagnostic procedures that involve the application of a small amount of a substance to the skin, usually through a scratch, prick, or injection, to determine if the body has an allergic reaction to it. The most common type of skin test is the patch test, which involves applying a patch containing a small amount of the suspected allergen to the skin and observing the area for signs of a reaction, such as redness, swelling, or itching, over a period of several days. Another type of skin test is the intradermal test, in which a small amount of the substance is injected just beneath the surface of the skin. Skin tests are used to help diagnose allergies, including those to pollen, mold, pets, and foods, as well as to identify sensitivities to medications, chemicals, and other substances.

In medical terms, the heart is a muscular organ located in the thoracic cavity that functions as a pump to circulate blood throughout the body. It's responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes. The human heart is divided into four chambers: two atria on the top and two ventricles on the bottom. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs, while the left side receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumps it out to the rest of the body. The heart's rhythmic contractions and relaxations are regulated by a complex electrical conduction system.

Animal feed refers to any substance or mixture of substances, whether processed, unprocessed, or partially processed, which is intended to be used as food for animals, including fish, without further processing. It includes ingredients such as grains, hay, straw, oilseed meals, and by-products from the milling, processing, and manufacturing industries. Animal feed can be in the form of pellets, crumbles, mash, or other forms, and is used to provide nutrients such as energy, protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals to support the growth, reproduction, and maintenance of animals. It's important to note that animal feed must be safe, nutritious, and properly labeled to ensure the health and well-being of the animals that consume it.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

"Random allocation," also known as "random assignment" or "randomization," is a process used in clinical trials and other research studies to distribute participants into different intervention groups (such as experimental group vs. control group) in a way that minimizes selection bias and ensures the groups are comparable at the start of the study.

In random allocation, each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any group, and the assignment is typically made using a computer-generated randomization schedule or other objective methods. This process helps to ensure that any differences between the groups are due to the intervention being tested rather than pre-existing differences in the participants' characteristics.

Hemorrhagic fever, American is a group of viral diseases that are transmitted to humans by infected ticks, mosquitoes or rodents. The most common types of American hemorrhagic fevers include:

1. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS): It is caused by Sin Nombre virus and is transmitted to humans through inhalation of aerosolized urine, droppings or saliva of infected rodents.
2. Colorado Tick Fever (CTF): It is caused by a Coltivirus and is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected tick.
3. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE): It is caused by an Alphavirus and is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito.
4. Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) and Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE): They are also caused by Alphaviruses and are transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito.

These diseases are called hemorrhagic fevers because they are characterized by bleeding disorders, high fever, muscle and joint pain, headache, and fatigue. In severe cases, they can lead to shock, organ failure, and death. There are no specific treatments for these diseases, but early detection and supportive care can improve outcomes. Prevention measures include avoiding contact with rodents, using insect repellent, and wearing protective clothing in areas where the diseases are common.

'Immune sera' refers to the serum fraction of blood that contains antibodies produced in response to an antigenic stimulus, such as a vaccine or an infection. These antibodies are proteins known as immunoglobulins, which are secreted by B cells (a type of white blood cell) and can recognize and bind to specific antigens. Immune sera can be collected from an immunized individual and used as a source of passive immunity to protect against infection or disease. It is often used in research and diagnostic settings to identify or measure the presence of specific antigens or antibodies.

Aerosols are defined in the medical field as suspensions of fine solid or liquid particles in a gas. In the context of public health and medicine, aerosols often refer to particles that can remain suspended in air for long periods of time and can be inhaled. They can contain various substances, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or chemicals, and can play a role in the transmission of respiratory infections or other health effects.

For example, when an infected person coughs or sneezes, they may produce respiratory droplets that can contain viruses like influenza or SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). Some of these droplets can evaporate quickly and leave behind smaller particles called aerosols, which can remain suspended in the air for hours and potentially be inhaled by others. This is one way that respiratory viruses can spread between people in close proximity to each other.

Aerosols can also be generated through medical procedures such as bronchoscopy, suctioning, or nebulizer treatments, which can produce aerosols containing bacteria, viruses, or other particles that may pose an infection risk to healthcare workers or other patients. Therefore, appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and airborne precautions are often necessary to reduce the risk of transmission in these settings.

Immunization is defined medically as the process where an individual is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically through the administration of a vaccine. The vaccine stimulates the body's own immune system to recognize and fight off the specific disease-causing organism, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of future infections with that organism.

Immunization can be achieved actively, where the person is given a vaccine to trigger an immune response, or passively, where antibodies are transferred to the person through immunoglobulin therapy. Immunizations are an important part of preventive healthcare and have been successful in controlling and eliminating many infectious diseases worldwide.

Weaning is the process of gradually introducing an infant or young child to a new source of nutrition, such as solid foods, while simultaneously decreasing their dependence on breast milk or formula. This process can begin when the child is developmentally ready, typically around 6 months of age, and involves offering them small amounts of pureed or mashed foods to start, then gradually introducing more textured and varied foods as they become comfortable with the new diet. The weaning process should be done slowly and under the guidance of a healthcare provider to ensure that the child's nutritional needs are being met and to avoid any potential digestive issues.

Pyrilamine is an antihistamine drug that is primarily used to relieve allergic symptoms such as sneezing, itching, watery eyes, and runny nose. It works by blocking the action of histamine, a substance naturally produced by the body during an allergic reaction. Pyrilamine may also be used to treat motion sickness and to help with tension headaches or migraines.

Pyrilamine is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and syrup, and it can be taken with or without food. Common side effects of pyrilamine include dizziness, dry mouth, and drowsiness. It is important to avoid activities that require mental alertness, such as driving or operating heavy machinery, until you know how pyrilamine affects you.

Like all medications, pyrilamine should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider, who can determine the appropriate dosage and monitor for any potential side effects or interactions with other drugs. It is essential to follow the instructions provided by your healthcare provider carefully and not exceed the recommended dose.

Ovalbumin is the major protein found in egg white, making up about 54-60% of its total protein content. It is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of around 45 kDa and has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Ovalbumin is a single polypeptide chain consisting of 385 amino acids, including four disulfide bridges that contribute to its structure.

Ovalbumin is often used in research as a model antigen for studying immune responses and allergies. In its native form, ovalbumin is not allergenic; however, when it is denatured or degraded into smaller peptides through cooking or digestion, it can become an allergen for some individuals.

In addition to being a food allergen, ovalbumin has been used in various medical and research applications, such as vaccine development, immunological studies, and protein structure-function analysis.

Electric stimulation, also known as electrical nerve stimulation or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles. It is often used to help manage pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and mobility. The electrical impulses can be delivered through electrodes placed on the skin or directly implanted into the body.

In a medical context, electric stimulation may be used for various purposes such as:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help to block pain signals from reaching the brain and promote the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: Electric stimulation can help to strengthen muscles that have become weak due to injury, illness, or surgery. It can also help to prevent muscle atrophy and improve range of motion.
3. Wound healing: Electric stimulation can promote tissue growth and help to speed up the healing process in wounds, ulcers, and other types of injuries.
4. Urinary incontinence: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen the muscles that control urination and reduce symptoms of urinary incontinence.
5. Migraine prevention: Electric stimulation can be used as a preventive treatment for migraines by applying electrical impulses to specific nerves in the head and neck.

It is important to note that electric stimulation should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Gamma-globulins are a type of protein found in the blood serum, specifically a class of immunoglobulins (antibodies) known as IgG. They are the most abundant type of antibody and provide long-term defense against bacterial and viral infections. Gamma-globulins can also be referred to as "gamma globulin" or "gamma immune globulins."

These proteins are produced by B cells, a type of white blood cell, in response to an antigen (a foreign substance that triggers an immune response). IgG gamma-globulins have the ability to cross the placenta and provide passive immunity to the fetus. They can be measured through various medical tests such as serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) or immunoelectrophoresis, which are used to diagnose and monitor conditions related to immune system disorders, such as multiple myeloma or primary immunodeficiency diseases.

In addition, gamma-globulins can be administered therapeutically in the form of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to provide passive immunity for patients with immunodeficiencies, autoimmune disorders, or infectious diseases.

An antigen is a substance (usually a protein) that is recognized as foreign by the immune system and stimulates an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies or activation of T-cells. Antigens can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and tumor cells. They can also come from non-living substances such as pollen, dust mites, or chemicals.

Antigens contain epitopes, which are specific regions on the antigen molecule that are recognized by the immune system. The immune system's response to an antigen depends on several factors, including the type of antigen, its size, and its location in the body.

In general, antigens can be classified into two main categories:

1. T-dependent antigens: These require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are typically larger, more complex molecules that contain multiple epitopes capable of binding to both MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells and T-cell receptors on CD4+ T-cells.
2. T-independent antigens: These do not require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are usually smaller, simpler molecules that contain repetitive epitopes capable of cross-linking B-cell receptors and activating them directly.

Understanding antigens and their properties is crucial for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

Ascorbic acid is the chemical name for Vitamin C. It is a water-soluble vitamin that is essential for human health. Ascorbic acid is required for the synthesis of collagen, a protein that plays a role in the structure of bones, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels. It also functions as an antioxidant, helping to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals.

Ascorbic acid cannot be produced by the human body and must be obtained through diet or supplementation. Good food sources of vitamin C include citrus fruits, strawberries, bell peppers, broccoli, and spinach.

In the medical field, ascorbic acid is used to treat or prevent vitamin C deficiency and related conditions, such as scurvy. It may also be used in the treatment of various other health conditions, including common cold, cancer, and cardiovascular disease, although its effectiveness for these uses is still a matter of scientific debate.

... : Dangers in Everyday Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics is a book written by Arthur Kallet and F. J. Schlink ... Its central argument propounds that the American population is being used as guinea pigs in a giant experiment undertaken by ... Many people were shocked at the extent of food contamination and drug side-effects, and 100,000,000 Guinea Pigs, along with ... Kyrk, Hazel (1933). "Review of 100,000,000 Guinea Pigs-Dangers in Everyday Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics". The Journal of ...
Human guinea-pigs: Mellanby, Pappworth and Club Regulation". In Rasmussen, Lisa M. (ed.). Human Guinea Pigs, by Kenneth ... "Human guinea pigs : a warning". www.worldcat.org. 1962. OCLC 990732189. Pappworth, M H (22 December 1990). ""Human guinea pigs ... "Human Guinea Pigs: Experimentation on Man". Routledge & CRC Press. v t e (Books with missing cover, Medical ethics, Ethics ... Human Guinea Pigs: Experimentation on Man is a book about unethical human experimentation, written by Maurice Pappworth and ...
... (SNGP) was a six-year campaign by British animal rights activists to close a farm in Newchurch, ... Save the Newchurch Guinea Pigs (SNGP) was started in 1999 after an Animal Liberation Front raid on the farm, during which 600 ... "Save the Newchurch Guinea Pigs", YouTube. Retrieved February 26, 2008. Luckhurst, Tim. "FOCUS: He was not a scientist and did ... "Save the Newchurch Guinea Pigs Campaign", YouTube. Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty (SHAC) SPEAK: The Voice For Animals Hall, Lee ...
... featuring costumes and guinea pig dishes. Most guinea pig celebrations take place on the National Guinea Pig Day (Día Nacional ... Two major guinea pig allergens, Cav p I and Cav p II, have been identified in guinea pig fluids (urine and saliva) and guinea ... If a guinea pig is lost, it may wheek for assistance. listen A bubbling or purring sound is made when the guinea pig is ... A guinea pig named Cashew features prominently in the second season of the U.S. adaptation of House of Cards. A guinea pig ...
... ". Sonic Boom. 5 (1). Retrieved August 21, 2020. Consenting Guinea Pig (booklet). T.H.C. Washington, D.C ... Consenting Guinea Pig is the EP by T.H.C., released on November 26, 1996 by Full Contact Records. In their review of Consenting ... 1996.{{cite AV media notes}}: CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link) Consenting Guinea Pig at Discogs (list of ... Worley, Jon (January 13, 1997). "T.H.C.: Consenting Guinea Pig EP". Aiding & Abetting (126). Retrieved August 21, 2020. ...
Look up guinea pig in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. A guinea pig is a domestic rodent. Guinea pig may also refer to: Guinea ... a 1948 film starring Richard Attenborough The Guinea Pig (play), a 1929 comedy by Preston Sturges The Guinea Pig EP, the first ... Human subject research Animal testing The Guinea Pig Club, a group of surgical patients 100,000,000 Guinea Pigs, a 1933 book ... a controversial series of Japanese films Guinea Pig (TV series), a Discovery Channel series The Guinea Pig (film), ...
The greater guinea pig (Cavia magna) is a species of rodent found in the coastal strip of Brazil and Uruguay, where it lives in ... The greater guinea pig is an herbivore. It is a solitary animal and has a complex network of tunnels and runways through the ... A large rodent, the greater guinea pig grows to a total length of 310 mm (12.2 in) and weight of 636 g (22.4 oz) for males and ... The International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated the conservation status of the greater guinea pig as being of " ...
Brazilian guinea pigs are mainly diurnal animals and are narrower and longer than domesticated guinea pigs. This is a medium- ... The Brazilian guinea pig (Cavia aperea) (preá in Portuguese) is a guinea pig species found in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, ... The Brazilian guinea pig has a wide range and no particular threats have been identified. It is a common species with a stable ... The Brazilian guinea pig has a wide distribution in South America at altitudes between 400 and 3,000 metres (1,300 and 9,800 ft ...
Audrey Pavia (2005). Guinea Pig: Your Happy Healthy Pet. Wiley. p. 27. The Complete Guinea Pig Care Guide. Cash Flow Products. ... List of guinea pig breeds Virginia Parker Guidry (2011). Guinea Pigs: complete care made easy-practical advice To caring For ... Sharon Lynn Vanderlip (2003). The Guinea Pig Handbook. Barron's Educational Series. p. 150. "The Abyssinian Guinea Pig Guide". ... The Abyssinian is a breed of guinea pig that is relatively common as both a pet and show animal. The Abyssinian is set apart ...
... may refer to: The Guinea Pig (play), of 1929 by Preston Sturges The Guinea Pig (Chetham-Strode), a 1946 play by ... from 1965 to 1969 The Guinea Pigs, a novel by Ludvik Vaculik Guinea Pig (film series), a series of seven controversial 1980s ... Warren Chetham-Strode The Guinea Pig (film), a 1948 British film starring Richard Attenborough The Guinea Pig (comic strip), ... Japanese exploitation gore-horror films This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title The Guinea Pig. If an ...
... looking like normal guinea pigs) their entire life. There is a second type of hairless guinea pig called the Skinny pig, but ... Breeding a Baldwin guinea pig to a standard haired guinea pig will result in offspring that all carry one copy of the gene, but ... Hairless guinea pigs are not significantly physiologically different than regular haired guinea pigs, although they need to eat ... Nude mouse Naked mole-rat Guinea pig breed Skinny pig Majchrowicz, Margaret. "Baldwin Origin". Margaret's Hairless Pigs. ...
ISBN 1902304101] In addition, The Guinea Pig magazine regularly featured a column "How I became a Guinea Pig", in which ... "The Guinea Pig". It closed in 2008 and was demolished in 2009 to make way for a social housing development named Guinea Pig ... depicted a guinea pig flanked by oversized RAF "wings". Two artistic renditions were used: the first showed the guinea pig ... The Guinea Pig Club. London: Macmillan. Bishop, Edward (2004) [2001]. McIndoe's Army: the story of the Guinea Pig Club and its ...
The shiny guinea pig (Cavia fulgida) is a guinea pig species of southeastern South America. The rodent is endemic to Brazil. It ... Weir, Barbara J. (1974), "Notes on the Origin of the Domestic Guinea-Pig", in Rowlands, I. W.; Weir, Barbara J. (eds.), The ... Guinea pigs, Fauna of the Atlantic Forest, Mammals of Brazil, Rodents of South America, Mammals described in 1831, Taxa named ...
The montane guinea pig is the likely main ancestor of Cavia porcellus, the domestic guinea pig or domestic cavy, which appears ... In 1867, L. Fitzinger renamed the clearly wild guinea pig Cavia tschudii. The montane guinea pig is a medium-sized species, ... Peruvian wild guinea pigs were first described by E. T. Bennett in 1835, who termed them Cavia cutleri. J. J. Tschudi, in an ... The montane guinea pig has a gestation period around 63 days. Litter size ranges from one to four, and the young grow quickly, ...
"The Guinea Pig". Time Out. London. Retrieved 12 March 2014. The Guinea Pig at IMDb Review of film at Variety The Guinea Pig at ... "The Guinea Pig". The Old Shirburnian Society. 22 August 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2020. "The Guinea Pig (1948) - Trailers, ... Crowther, Bosley (2 May 1949). "Movie Review - The Guinea Pig - THE SCREEN IN REVIEW; 'The Guinea Pig,' English Film About ... The Guinea Pig is a 1948 British film directed and produced by the Boulting brothers, known as The Outsider in the United ...
These guinea pigs have coarse, long fur with longer fur in the neck region and no fur on the ears. These guinea pigs, like most ... Santa Catarina's guinea pig (Cavia intermedia) or Moleques do Sul cavy is a rare guinea pig species of southeastern South ... The guinea pig's geographical distribution of only 4 hectares (9.9 acres) is one of the world's smallest for a mammal. The ... These insular guinea pigs have a much slower maturation rate than other cavies. Researchers observed 4 distinct classes within ...
Guinea Pig: Devil's Experiment at IMDb Guinea Pig 2: Flower of Flesh and Blood at IMDb Guinea Pig 3: He Never Dies at IMDb ... American Guinea Pig: Bouquet of Guts and Gore (2014), American Guinea Pig: Bloodshock (2015), American Guinea Pig: The Song of ... Guinea Pig: Mermaid in a Manhole at IMDb Guinea Pig: Android of Notre Dame at IMDb Guinea Pig: Devil Woman Doctor at IMDb ... Making of Guinea Pig (Meikingu obu Za Ginipiggu), a making-of documentary about the production of the first three Guinea Pig ...
... is the first album released by the band Angry Salad. It was released in 1993 by Breaking World Records. "Did ...
... : My Life As An Experiment is a book by A. J. Jacobs, an editor at Esquire magazine, published in 2009. ... "The Guinea Pig Diaries: My Life As An Experiment". Retrieved 2013-03-20. "My Life As An Experiment". IMDb. Retrieved 2013-03-20 ... On a mission to improve aspects of his life A. J. Jacobs becomes a human guinea pig, putting himself through a series of ...
Guinea Pig 2: Flower of Flesh and Blood Wallis, J. Doyle (20 September 2002). "Guinea Pig: Devils Experiment / Android of Notre ... Guinea Pig: Devil's Experiment at IMDb Guinea Pig: Devil's Experiment at Rotten Tomatoes (Articles with short description, ... Guinea Pig: Devil's Experiment has been called a "faux snuff film", and has been noted for its depiction of violence. The film ... Guinea Pig: Devil's Experiment (Japanese: ギニーピッグ 悪魔の実験, Hepburn: Ginī Piggu: Akuma no Jikken) is a 1985 Japanese horror film ...
The Guinea pig maximisation test (GPMT) is an in vivo test to screen for substances that cause human skin sensitisation (i.e. ... 15% of guinea pigs must show a reaction for the test to be considered positive. 20 animals would typically be used to ensure ... The guinea pigs are then a short while later exposed to a lower concentration of the test material, and their allergic reaction ... The guinea pig maximisation test. Journal of Investigative Dermatology., 52, 268. Magnusson B. and Kligman A.M. (1970). ...
The Guinea Pig is a 1929 comedy in three acts by Preston Sturges, his first play to appear on Broadway. The Broadway production ... Sturges decided that if she could write a play, so could he, and began writing The Guinea Pig, completing the third act that ... Sturges later wrote that The Guinea Pig contained the biggest laugh he ever received in the theatre, when the ingenue asks the ... 237-245 ​The Guinea Pig​ at the Internet Broadway Database ​The Guinea Pig​ at the Internet Broadway Database Preston Sturges ...
Though there are many breeds of guinea pig, only a few found on the show table are common as pets. Most pet guinea pigs were ... The most common guinea pig breed, the American guinea pig, is a recognized breed by the American Rabbit Breeders Association ( ... The Complete Guinea Pig Care Guide. CashFlowProducts.com. "The Abyssinian Guinea Pig Guide". www.guineapighub.com. Archived ... Pigs Isn't Pigs. Sydney: Kangaroo Trading for Favoretta Publications. ISBN 978-0-909361-00-6. "Teddy Guinea Pigs: Caring Guide ...
The Guinea Pig is a three-act play by Warren Chetham-Strode. The work premiered in London's West End at the Criterion Theatre ... "Production of The Guinea-Pig , Theatricalia". theatricalia.com. Wearing, J. P. (22 August 2014). The London Stage 1940-1949: A ... "The Guinea Pig (1948) - John Boulting, Roy Boulting , Synopsis, Characteristics, Moods, Themes and Related". AllMovie. v t e ( ...
They didn't know Guinea Pig was a series, so as soon as they heard a Guinea Pig video had been found they thought it was Guinea ... Guinea Pig 2: Flower of Flesh and Blood at IMDb Guinea Pig 2: Flower of Flesh and Blood at Rotten Tomatoes (Articles with short ... rather than Guinea Pig 2. He said: Unfortunately, the Fukagawa Police viewed Guinea Pig 2 just before arresting Miyazaki. ... Jason Wojnar of Screen Rant called Guinea Pig 2 the "most notorious" of the Guinea Pig series, noting that those who have seen ...
Guinea pigs are used in the cuisine of Cuzco, Peru, in dishes such as cuy al horno, baked guinea pig. The traditional Andean ... Guinea pigs were popular laboratory animals until the late 20th century; about 2.5 million guinea pigs were used annually in ... Guinea pigs were first raised for food around 2500 B.C. and by 1500 B.C. had become the main source of meat for the Inca Empire ... Guinea pigs have a long lifespan and need a large cage. Rats also need plenty of space and can become very tame, can learn ...
"Chocoholic Guinea Pigs". The Los Angeles Times. 1986-09-28. p. 366. Retrieved 2023-05-01. "French singing star regains ...
Guinea Pigs infosite. Retrieved 9 September 2014. Evets on YouTube. Retrieved 9 September 2014. Steve Evets at IMDb (Articles ... He played Morty in Vertigo Films' 2012 low-budget horror film The Facility (originally titled Guinea Pigs) directed by Ian ...
"The Guinea Pigs". RTÉ Guide. Raidió Teilifís Éireann. 7 January 2008. Archived from the original on 21 February 2008. Retrieved ...
"Guinea Pigs Club :: Guinea Pigs loved by Italian Sports/TV personality: Luca Tramontin". "RSI - piattoforte - Ajvar". Archived ... There is a guinea pig in House of Cards but it is not very visible, and is owned by an antisocial hacker, in Sport Crime it ... "Guinea pigs are not persons. I know it, rationally speaking, but feeling-wise I feel them very close to human beings. They have ... 2016 Tramontin released a detailed interview to the Maltese journalist Nadia Vella about his long time affair with guinea pigs ...
100,000,000 Guinea Pigs: Dangers in Everyday Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics is a book written by Arthur Kallet and F. J. Schlink ... Its central argument propounds that the American population is being used as guinea pigs in a giant experiment undertaken by ... Many people were shocked at the extent of food contamination and drug side-effects, and 100,000,000 Guinea Pigs, along with ... Kyrk, Hazel (1933). "Review of 100,000,000 Guinea Pigs-Dangers in Everyday Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics". The Journal of ...
Human guinea-pigs: Mellanby, Pappworth and Club Regulation". In Rasmussen, Lisa M. (ed.). Human Guinea Pigs, by Kenneth ... "Human guinea pigs : a warning". www.worldcat.org. 1962. OCLC 990732189. Pappworth, M H (22 December 1990). ""Human guinea pigs ... "Human Guinea Pigs: Experimentation on Man". Routledge & CRC Press. v t e (Books with missing cover, Medical ethics, Ethics ... Human Guinea Pigs: Experimentation on Man is a book about unethical human experimentation, written by Maurice Pappworth and ...
"Human guinea pigs"--a history. British Medical Journal 1990; 301 :1456 doi:10.1136/bmj.301.6766.1456 ... "Human guinea pigs"--a history.. British Medical Journal 1990; 301 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.301.6766.1456 (Published 22 ...
in: badhealth,badmedicine,badscience,coronavirus,covid-19,experimentation,guinea pigs,human guinea pigs,Johannesburg,masks, ... guinea pigs,human guinea pigs,infection,live viruses,medical ethics,medical experiments,novel coronavirus,outbreak,pandemic, ... guinea pigs,human guinea pigs,informed consent,medical experimentation,medical experiments,medical violence,National Institutes ... All posts tagged with human guinea pigs. * Poor African schoolchildren being fed termites and worms in controversial experiment ...
Purchase a live guinea pig from your local PetSmart. Check the availability of this small pet at your nearest PetSmart here! ... Hamster & Gerbil Guinea Pig Rabbit Ferret Hedgehog & Sugar Glider Chinchilla Rat & Mouse Shop All Live Small Pet *Food ...
Looking for the ideal Guinea Pig Whisperer Gifts? Come check out our giant selection of T-Shirts, Mugs, Tote Bags, Stickers and ... Guinea Pig Whisperer Guinea Pig T-Shirt 15 oz Ceramic Large Mug ... I Love My Guinea Pig Guinea Pig Lover Gift T-Shirt. $19.99 $ ... Find high quality Guinea Pig Whisperer Gifts at CafePress. Shop a large selection of custom t-shirts, sweatshirts, mugs and ... I Love My Guinea Pig Guinea Pig Lover Gift T-Shirt. $19.99 $29.99 ...
Is Using Guinea Pig Shampoo Safe?. Health & Fitness / November 11, 2019 November 11, 2019 ...
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Silicon Valley geeks could be space travel guinea pigs. Dr. Philip Metzger, planetary scientist at the University of Central ...
... As you look at your guinea pig, you may feel the world needs more guinea pigs just as beautiful and ... Too many guinea pigs are left homeless and in humane societies.. The most important aspect of guinea pig breeding is timing: ... Breeding guinea pigs is not as simple as it sounds. To safeguard the health of your pet and his or her offspring, you need to ... Male guinea pigs (boars) will show sexual behavior as early as 3 to 4 weeks, but are unable to produce viable sperm until 11 to ...
Five-month-old guinea pig Margo, who lives with her owner Jenna Wells, 22, in Somerset, has the same coat pattern as her Border ... An adorable guinea pig with a black and white coat like that of a Border Collie loves to hang out with two dogs who belong to ... The guinea pig that thinks its a dog: Tiny Margo sees the world in black and white as she poses with border collie friends ... Five-month-old guinea pig Margo, who lives with her owner Jenna Wells, 22, in Somerset, has not only formed an unlikely bond ...
Bill Gates Guinea Pigs. The Gates Foundation wants to remake American education, and ground zero for their billion-dollar ... Mountlake Terrace and its staff and students have been guinea pigs for the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundations Small Schools ...
Ketosis usually occurs in the last 2-3 weeks of pregnancy, or in the first week after a guinea pig has given birth. ... Although it occurs most often in pregnant female guinea pigs, ketosis can also develop in obese guinea pigs, male or female. ... pregnant guinea pigs ketosis may lead to death of the fetuses while still in the uterus. In other cases, a sick guinea pig may ... If your guinea pig has made it through an attack of ketosis and is recovering, you will need to take steps to ensure that it is ...
... salmonellosis infection can also be acquired by direct contact with infected guinea pigs, or contact with wild mice or rats ... Salmonellosis is an uncommon bacterial infection in guinea pigs, usually the result of ingestion of the salmonella bacterium. ... Salmonellosis in Guinea Pigs. Salmonellosis is an uncommon bacterial infection in guinea pigs, usually the result of ingestion ... A pet guinea pig that is recovering from salmonellosis infection will be very weak and will need attentive care and in many ...
We are the guinea pigs in this experiment and the planets ecological system is the test site. Scientists are creating ... Scientists are giving birth to their bizarre creations transferring genes from fish to tomatoes, human to pig, scorpion to ...
Information for visitors to Belfast Zoo about our American guinea pig. ... The guinea part of the name comes from sailors who brought the guinea pigs over from South America and sold them for a guinea ... Guinea pigs do not have any tails but do have short ears and a sturdy body. They have around 20 teeth which continue to grow, ... Guinea pigs are social creatures and are known for making a variety of vocalisations. They do not sleep a lot during the day or ...
Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis Infections Linked to Pet Guinea Pigs ... Salmonella Infections Linked to Pet Guinea Pigs, 2018plus icon *Salmonella Infections Linked to Pet Guinea Pigs en Español ... People can still get a Salmonella infection from guinea pigs, because these animals can carry the bacteria even when they look ... Salmonella Infections Linked to Pig Ear Dog Treatsplus icon *Map of Reported Cases ...
But comparing children to "guinea pigs" is quite a jarring notion.. In the minds of most folks, "guinea pigs" are the ... Or is vice versa the case: the stay-at-home children serve as the real "guinea pigs," while the returning-to-school kids are ... 1. Gronholt-Pedersen, J. Kids Arent Coronavirus Guinea Pigs: Danish Mums Rebel as Schools Reopen. Reuters. Posted on reuters ... My kid is not going to be a Guinea Pig Facebook group.. And yet the healthcare-vs.-recovery dilemma is really not that simple. ...
STATEN ISLAND, N.Y. - Guinea pigs on pet store shelves may soon be a thing of the past in the five boroughs after the City ... A pandemic spike in sales, and the subsequent influx of the animals at local shelters spurred lawmakers to add guinea pigs to a ... "Prohibiting the sale of guinea pigs in pet shops will bring relief to animal shelters. Other rescuers have experienced a surge ... "I never imagined defending the virtues of guinea pigs, although they are delicious," Borelli said in reference to Peru where ...
Verizon: Sandy Victims Should Be Customers, Not Guinea Pigs. Verizon: Sandy Victims Should Be Customers, Not Guinea Pigs ... Not Be Guinea Pigs. Its one thing for Verizon to stop offering copper and offer. fiber services instead. While customers may ... But should victims of natural disaster be guinea. pigs when fundamental basic services are at stake? Especially when it means. ... fiber, these communities will play guinea pig for Verizons new, cheaper, more. limited wireless alternative called "Voice Link ...
40,000 to a student who sued for the right to have a guinea pig with her on campus, The Grand Rapids Press reported. The ... Grand Valley State University has agreed to pay $40,000 to a student who sued for the right to have a guinea pig with her on ...
Sales of Guinea Pig-Related Products on Guinea Lynx Last post by Lynx « Sun Jan 11, 2009 3:44 pm. ... Guinea Pig Market - formerly Jens Custom Crafts #4 Last post by Lynx « Fri Sep 27, 2019 11:02 pm. ... Guinea Pig Market - formerly Jens Custom Crafts #3 Last post by JensCritterDen « Sat Jun 25, 2011 10:42 pm. ... Guinea Pig Market - formerly Jens Custom Crafts #2 Last post by JensCritterDen « Wed Mar 31, 2010 3:36 pm. ...
Sales of Guinea Pig-Related Products on Guinea Lynx Last post by Lynx « Sun Jan 11, 2009 3:44 pm. ... Guinea Pig Market - formerly Jens Custom Crafts #4 Last post by Lynx « Fri Sep 27, 2019 11:02 pm. ... Guinea Pig Market - formerly Jens Custom Crafts #3 Last post by JensCritterDen « Sat Jun 25, 2011 10:42 pm. ... Guinea Pig Market - formerly Jens Custom Crafts #2 Last post by JensCritterDen « Wed Mar 31, 2010 3:36 pm. ...
The largest experiment ever seen, and were all guinea pigs. WHICH of the following is the more reasonable approach a society ... www.conservativewoman.co.uk/the-largest-experiment-ever-seen-and-were-all-guinea-pigs/ ...
... Details Written by: Tim Giago (Nanwica Kciji - Stand Up For Them ... The Indian people have been the experimental guinea pigs of Americas centuries old discolored past. This week there were rays ...
Guinea Pigs, from the edited h2g2, the Unconventional Guide to Life, the Universe and Everything ... Capybaras are massive versions of guinea pigs that live in rivers and look at things with silly expressions, but guinea pigs ... and when placed next to another guinea pig will utter a strange, warbling sort of chattering whimper. Guinea pigs are rather ... Guinea pigs cost about £5 and come in a variety of colours and degrees of fluffiness. Best is the Abyssinian, which is covered ...
This happy track is a chiptune dedication to my guinea pig named Snickers. She obviously wanted a happier sounding track to be ... This happy track is a chiptune dedication to my guinea pig named Snickers. She obviously wanted a happier sounding track to be ... Guinea Pig Hero.mp3 8.8 Mb [137 download(s)]. Guinea Pig Hero.ogg 8.8 Mb [58 download(s)] ...
Browse 883 incredible Guinea Pig vectors, icons, clipart graphics, and backgrounds for royalty-free download from the creative ... Guinea Pig Vector Images - 883 royalty free vector graphics and clipart matching Guinea Pig ...
Best Guinea Pigs Balls , Best Cavies Toy Balls 20 sierpnia, 2019 The 7 Best Guinea Pig Ramps And Platforms 19 sierpnia, 2019 6 ... 7 Best Guinea Pig Wheel And Ball Alternatives 2 października, 2019 The Best Large Guinea Pigs Cages - Your Buyers Guide 29 ... However, some guinea pigs tend to jump, run around, and climb. If your guinea pig does so, it is possible that it could jump or ... Things to Consider When Buying a Cage For Your Guinea Pig. Material. You will find guinea pig cages to be available in a range ...
  • Although it occurs most often in pregnant female guinea pigs, ketosis can also develop in obese guinea pigs, male or female. (petmd.com)
  • READY NOW 2x longhaired female guinea pigs, texel longhairs. (preloved.co.uk)
  • As visitors exit the canopy of the Amazonia exhibit, they will see a new guinea pig village, home to seven female guinea pigs. (webwire.com)
  • Salmonellosis is an uncommon bacterial infection in guinea pigs, usually the result of ingestion of the salmonella bacterium. (petmd.com)
  • While infection is typically related to the ingestion of food and water that is contaminated with infected feces, urine and bedding material, salmonellosis infection can also be acquired by direct contact with infected guinea pigs, or contact with wild mice or rats that carry the salmonella bacteria. (petmd.com)
  • Additionally, infected guinea pigs can spread salmonella infection to humans through direct contact. (petmd.com)
  • People can still get a Salmonella infection from guinea pigs, because these animals can carry the bacteria even when they look healthy and clean. (cdc.gov)
  • In December 2017, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment reported two human Salmonella Enteritidis infections in persons with exposure to pet guinea pigs. (cdc.gov)
  • A case was defined as Salmonella Enteritidis infection with a clinical isolate having an identical PFGE pattern to those from the Colorado isolates and closely related to a guinea pig isolate by whole genome sequencing (WGS), and with onset of clinical signs on or after January 1, 2015. (cdc.gov)
  • State health departments were asked to review recent Salmonella Enteritidis illness records for patient exposure to guinea pigs. (cdc.gov)
  • To enhance compliance with recommendations made in this outbreak, CDC developed a document containing prevention measures aimed at reducing the prevalence of Salmonella in guinea pig colonies intended for use in the pet industry. (cdc.gov)
  • Content was also posted on the CDC website to increase consumer awareness of risk for Salmonella infection linked to pet guinea pigs. (cdc.gov)
  • Recommendations to distributors and wholesalers included routine monitoring of guinea pigs for Salmonella through diagnostic testing, recordkeeping to aid in traceback, and evaluating husbandry and environmental sanitation practices of guinea pig breeders to reduce the prevalence of Salmonella and other zoonotic diseases of concern to the pet industry ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The outbreak strain of Salmonella was identified in a sample collected from an ill person's pet guinea pig in Vermont. (cdc.gov)
  • Whole genome sequencing showed that Salmonella bacteria isolated from sick people and the guinea pig were closely related genetically. (cdc.gov)
  • This outbreak is a reminder that pet rodents such as guinea pigs, regardless of where they are purchased or adopted, can carry Salmonella bacteria even when they look healthy and clean. (cdc.gov)
  • This PFGE pattern was previously seen in a 2010 multistate outbreak linked to contact with pet guinea pigs ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Epidemiologic and laboratory evidence indicates that contact with pet guinea pigs is the likely source of this multistate outbreak. (cdc.gov)
  • This result provides more evidence that people in this outbreak got sick from contact with pet guinea pigs. (cdc.gov)
  • The seven guinea pigs moved to the National Zoo from the Nashville Zoo and are 6 months old. (webwire.com)
  • Whole genome sequencing did not predict antibiotic resistance in 16 of 18 isolates analyzed (nine ill people and seven guinea pigs). (cdc.gov)
  • It can also be spread via direct contact with infected guinea pigs or by contact with infected wild rodents (i.e., rats, mice). (petmd.com)
  • Guinea pigs, like chinchillas, are hystricognath rodents. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Like other rodents, guinea pigs teeth never stop growing, so they constantly wear them down by chewing on root vegetables and leafy branches. (webwire.com)
  • Pet rodents, including guinea pigs, are not recommended for families with children younger than 5 years, pregnant women, elderly adults, or people with weakened immune systems because these groups are at greater risk for serious illness. (cdc.gov)
  • Texel guinea pigs are incredibly cute little creatures and they boast a beautiful long, curly coat. (pets4homes.co.uk)
  • In addition, thorough and regular cleanings of your guinea pig's cages -- removing any feces and urine, and changing soiled bedding material -- is essential. (petmd.com)
  • To keep your pet happy, I have compiled a list of the top 5 guinea pig cages just for you! (thebigzoo.com)
  • I was at flea market and went to the animals and there were about 25 piggies in a 2x2 cage.Some were babies and They kept escaping and I even picked one up but this was before I could have guinea pigs so I had to put it back and I felt so bad there were even dead guinea pigs in the cages. (guineapigcages.com)
  • Guinea pigs are pregnant for about 2 months and deliver litters of up to three pups. (petplace.com)
  • Pregnancy toxemia most commonly affects guinea pigs that are pregnant with their first or second litters. (petmd.com)
  • In addition, pregnant guinea pigs ketosis may lead to death of the fetuses while still in the uterus. (petmd.com)
  • A measured amount of food that has been specifically recommended for pregnant and nursing guinea pigs, given at regularly scheduled times of the day, will help to prevent complications such as ketone body buildup in the blood. (petmd.com)
  • Avoiding exposure to stress in the last few weeks of pregnancy may also help to prevent the development of pregnancy toxemia in pregnant guinea pigs. (petmd.com)
  • The RSPCA could soon be looking after hundreds of new arrivals, after rescuing 30 pregnant guinea pigs. (kentonline.co.uk)
  • Endotoxin-induced fetal growth retardation in the pregnant guinea pig. (bvsalud.org)
  • Though they are common pets in North America, guinea pigs are kept as livestock in the Andes. (webwire.com)
  • Furthermore, IDV can infect other economically important domestic livestock, including pigs, and has the potential to infect humans, which necessitates the need for an efficacious vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • The three Abyssinian guinea pigs, Inti (INN-TEA), Sinchi (SIN-CHI) and Miski (MISS-KEY), have medium-length hair that can appear as if it is full of cowlicks. (webwire.com)
  • We compared isolation whistles (IS) emitted by guinea pig pups separated from their mothers to the food-anticipation whistles (FA) emitted by the same adult individuals in response to a feeding routine. (bvsalud.org)
  • Ketosis, also known as pregnancy toxemia, often occurs when a guinea pig's body produces too many ketones, an otherwise normal byproduct of metabolism. (petmd.com)
  • You will need to provide a thorough history of your guinea pig's health leading up to the onset of symptoms. (petmd.com)
  • Be careful to keep the barrel moving, have it on a low heat setting, and avoid the guinea pig's' ears as they burn very easily. (omlet.co.uk)
  • Over the days that followed several more litters of guinea pig babies appeared. (kentonline.co.uk)
  • There are two different breeds of Teddy guinea pigs and they both have their own DNA. (pets4homes.co.uk)
  • Imilla (AH-MIL-AH) is a teddy guinea pig and has short fluffy dark brown, light brown and white hair. (webwire.com)
  • Six isolates submitted to veterinary diagnostic laboratories from ill guinea pigs and one isolate from a patient's guinea pig were sequenced and found to be closely related to the outbreak strain. (cdc.gov)
  • One isolate from a sick person and one isolate from a guinea pig contained genes for resistance to streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, some individuals referred to Africans as 'Bill Gates' guinea pigs,' implying that they were being used as experimental subjects. (who.int)
  • Guinea pig purchase invoices were used to trace guinea pigs with an epidemiologic link to human illness back to the distributor of origin. (cdc.gov)
  • 1994). Despite this sensitivity, in many instances, sensitized guinea pigs did not fully display surrogate immediate-onset type asthmatic responses from challenge with MDI or MDI conjugate, but did when challenged with the TMA or TMA conjugate. (cdc.gov)
  • A pet guinea pig that is recovering from salmonellosis infection will be very weak and will need attentive care and in many cases a temporary diet change. (petmd.com)
  • Therefore, care should be taken in the thorough cleaning of all fresh raw vegetable before they are fed to the guinea pigs in order to avoid a potential infection. (petmd.com)
  • A DNA vaccine expressing consensus hemagglutinin-esterase fusion protein protected guinea pigs from infection by two lineages of influenza D virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Our results demonstrate for the first time that the consensus IDV HEF DNA vaccine can elicit complete protection against infection from two lineages of IDV in the guinea pig model. (cdc.gov)
  • Breeding guinea pigs is not as simple as it sounds. (petplace.com)
  • The most important aspect of guinea pig breeding is timing: The females (sows) MUST be bred between 4 and 7 months of age. (petplace.com)
  • Sure, it gets that one pig into a good home, but it shows the seller that there's a demand for more pigs, which means more breeding. (guineapigcages.com)
  • The results confirmed that 25 samples con- tained B. anthracis, of which 9 were virulent for mice and guinea pigs. (who.int)
  • Besides their loud, whistling squeak, they can purr like a small cat (by rubbing their cheeks) and when placed next to another guinea pig will utter a strange, warbling sort of chattering whimper. (h2g2.com)
  • Must go in pairs unless another guinea pig is owned. (preloved.co.uk)
  • Living together but can go separately if another guinea pig is owned. (preloved.co.uk)
  • Guinea pigs also known as cavies make some of the cutest pets and you can't help but adore them. (pets4homes.co.uk)
  • Guinea pigs are domesticated, but they may have descended from the montane guinea pig, or cavies (kay-vees), found in the Andes mountains of Peru, Chile and Argentina. (webwire.com)
  • I never imagined defending the virtues of guinea pigs, although they are delicious," Borelli said in reference to Peru where the animals are treated as a delicacy. (nyc.gov)
  • Apparently, people in Peru eat guinea pigs at times of special celebration, which rather makes you wonder what they do with the skins. (h2g2.com)
  • The village is styled after guinea pig houses in Peru and includes little houses, ramps and bridges for climbing and soft bedding. (webwire.com)
  • Its central argument propounds that the American population is being used as guinea pigs in a giant experiment undertaken by the American producers of food stuffs and patent medicines and the like. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are the guinea pigs in this experiment and the planets ecological system is the test site. (jesus-is-savior.com)
  • All guinea pigs must be bought in pairs unless another pug is already owned. (preloved.co.uk)
  • Pairs of guinea pigs are often gifted to newly married couples. (webwire.com)
  • Hormonal phenotypes of guinea pigs can be shaped by the social environment on the group level pair-housed and colony-housed males differ systematically in average testosterone and stressor-induced cortisol levels (i.e. cortisol responsiveness). (bvsalud.org)
  • To test this, we determined baseline testosterone , baseline cortisol , and cortisol responsiveness after challenge in same- aged pair-housed and colony-housed guinea pig males over a period of four months. (bvsalud.org)
  • The affected guinea pig may die suddenly of ketosis without ever demonstrating signs of illness. (petmd.com)
  • In the minds of most folks, "guinea pigs" are the equivalent of "lab rats. (icr.org)
  • Natural News) For many years, the American foster care system in partnership with Child Protective Services (CPS) has been kidnapping children and, in many cases, handing them off to government swamp agencies that use these little ones as human guinea pigs to test experimental drugs and vaccines without consent. (naturalnews.com)
  • Human and other mammal bites (mostly dog and cat bites, but also squirrel, gerbil, rabbit, guinea pig, and monkey bites) are common and occasionally cause significant morbidity and disability. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In addition, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Veterinary Services Laboratories was queried for isolates from guinea pigs that matched the outbreak strain. (cdc.gov)
  • In several laboratories, these chem- icals have been evaluated in the guinea pig respiratory hypersensitivity model using either the free chemicals or their homologous protein conju- gates for elicitation of respiratory response. (cdc.gov)
  • I won't be sending my children off no matter what," said Sandra Andersen, the founder of a Facebook group called 'My kid is not going to be a Guinea Pig' that has more than 40,000 followers. (icr.org)
  • So it is easy to sympathize with the Danish parents who are among the more than 40,000 followers of the 'My kid is not going to be a Guinea Pig' Facebook group. (icr.org)
  • Grand Valley State University has agreed to pay $40,000 to a student who sued for the right to have a guinea pig with her on campus, The Grand Rapids Press reported. (insidehighered.com)
  • Turns out, rather than an upgrade to fiber, these communities will play guinea pig for Verizon's new, cheaper, more limited wireless alternative called "Voice Link. (publicknowledge.org)
  • Capybaras are massive versions of guinea pigs that live in rivers and look at things with silly expressions, but guinea pigs are cheaper to feed and louder. (h2g2.com)
  • When owners realized how difficult caring for them was, the guinea pigs found themselves in the city's animal shelters. (nyc.gov)
  • EAST PROVIDENCE, R.I. (WLNE) - A Verizon worker found nine abandoned guinea pigs in East Providence Thursday night, according to authorities. (abc6.com)
  • An investigation by The Guardian / Observer (UK) found widespread abuse by doctors who use patients as guinea pigs to test new drugs without their consent. (ahrp.org)
  • Five of eight patients reported exposure to guinea pigs. (cdc.gov)
  • He rightly secured his group of patients dubbed the Guinea Pig Club an honoured place in society as heroes of Britain's war. (pen-and-sword.co.uk)
  • the problem of general practitioners (GPs) using patients as guinea pigs without their consent is more widespread. (ahrp.org)
  • Like Sudano, many of his patients had never given their consent and had no knowledge they were being used as human guinea pigs in a medical trial. (ahrp.org)
  • Verizon should not use Sandy victims as guinea pigs for its new technology. (publicknowledge.org)
  • Human Guinea Pigs: Experimentation on Man is a book about unethical human experimentation, written by Maurice Pappworth and published by Routledge and Kegan Paul in 1967. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human Guinea Pigs, by Kenneth Mellanby: A Reprint with Commentaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Guinea pigs are extremely social animals and require a significant amount of social interaction every day from their human caretakers or other guinea pigs. (webwire.com)
  • 100,000,000 Guinea Pigs: Dangers in Everyday Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics is a book written by Arthur Kallet and F. J. Schlink first released in 1933 by the Vanguard Press and manufactured in the United States of America. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consult your veterinarian regarding the appropriate foods to be fed to your pet guinea pig during the recovery period. (petmd.com)
  • An infected guinea pig that is being treated for salmonellosis may still continue to infect other animals even though it does not appear to be sick. (petmd.com)
  • Thousands of years ago, American guinea pigs were popular as pets plus food for larger animals. (belfastcity.gov.uk)
  • A pandemic spike in sales, and the subsequent influx of the animals at local shelters spurred lawmakers to add guinea pigs to a local law that also bans the sale of rabbits. (nyc.gov)
  • There is little risk to animals like rabbits and Guinea pigs for unless it is dried it tastes and smells so awful to them that they won't touch it. (mumsnet.com)
  • Male guinea pigs (boars) will show sexual behavior as early as 3 to 4 weeks, but are unable to produce viable sperm until 11 to 17 weeks of age. (petplace.com)
  • Roots of repeatability in hormone concentrations of male guinea pigs. (bvsalud.org)
  • Your veterinarian will perform a thorough physical exam on your guinea pig, taking into account the background history of symptoms and possible conditions that might have led to this disorder. (petmd.com)
  • The history of the Guinea Pig Club, the band of airmen who were seriously burned in aeroplane fires, is a truly inspiring, spine-tingling tale. (pen-and-sword.co.uk)
  • Visitors to the Amazonia exhibit at the Smithsonian s National Zoo can now learn about the natural history and cultural significance of a familiar animal the guinea pig. (webwire.com)
  • The Rhode Island SPCA said that they took in the guinea pigs - four adults and five babies - Friday morning. (abc6.com)
  • To prevent ketosis, make sure your guinea pig eats a high quality food throughout pregnancy, while limiting the amount in order to prevent obesity. (petmd.com)
  • Your veterinarian will begin by observing the clinical symptoms exhibited by the infected guinea pig, which may allow your veterinarian to make an initial diagnosis. (petmd.com)
  • Whereas 'pig' is said to be because of the noises they make reminding you of a piglet. (belfastcity.gov.uk)
  • However, Peruvian's don't make great first time guinea pigs because they need lots of care and attention when it comes to grooming. (pets4homes.co.uk)
  • Consult your veterinarian about any special dietary requirements your guinea pig may have during the recovery period, as well as any other recommendations that may be helpful in helping your guinea pig to recover quickly from the pregnancy toxemia. (petmd.com)
  • Your guinea pig could be shivering for a number of reasons, but one of the main causes of this behaviour is fear. (omlet.co.uk)
  • It was around the 16th century when American guinea pigs were brought to Europe. (belfastcity.gov.uk)
  • The American guinea pig can be up to 20 - 25 cms long and can weigh just over a kilogram. (belfastcity.gov.uk)
  • The IUCN status of the American guinea pig is least concern. (belfastcity.gov.uk)
  • The American guinea pig no longer exists in the wild but are popular domestic pets. (belfastcity.gov.uk)
  • Prohibiting the sale of guinea pigs in pet shops will bring relief to animal shelters. (nyc.gov)
  • Though guinea pigs are common pets in North America, they can have different roles in the Peruvian Andes and other parts of the Amazon where they were originally domesticated. (webwire.com)
  • An adorable guinea pig with a black and white coat like that of a Border Collie loves to hang out with two dogs who belong to the popular breed. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • This delightful guinea pig has a truly lovely, unique coat. (pets4homes.co.uk)
  • Visitors may hear the guinea pigs vocalizing to each other or see them simply spending time near each other. (webwire.com)
  • As the guinea pigs acclimate to their new village, keepers will begin giving opportunistic demonstrations with them so visitors can see the guinea pigs up-close. (webwire.com)
  • Four of the seven people interviewed reported contact with a guinea pig or its habitat in the week before getting sick. (cdc.gov)
  • Other rescuers have experienced a surge in abandon and surrender guinea pigs in the past three years," City Council Speaker Adrienne Adams said. (nyc.gov)