An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A class of cellular membrane receptors that either have an intrinsic guanylate cyclase activity or are closely coupled to specific guanylate cyclases within the cell.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Neuronal calcium sensor proteins that regulate the activation of membrane-bound GUANYLATE CYCLASE. They are primarily expressed in the RETINA where they play an important role in PHOTOTRANSDUCTION.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Cell surface proteins that bind ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. They contain intrinsic guanylyl cyclase activity.
A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)
A group of cyclic GMP-dependent enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues of proteins.
A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.
Peptides that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body, also known as natriuretic peptide hormones. Several have been sequenced (ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR; BRAIN NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE; C-TYPE NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE).
Cell surface receptors that bind peptide messengers with high affinity and regulate intracellular signals which influence the behavior of cells.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Compounds or factors that act on a specific enzyme to increase its activity.
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent PHOSPHORYLATION of GMP to generate GDP and ADP.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A PEPTIDE of 22 amino acids, derived mainly from cells of VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM. It is also found in the BRAIN, major endocrine glands, and other tissues. It shares structural homology with ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR. It has vasorelaxant activity thus is important in the regulation of vascular tone and blood flow. Several high molecular weight forms containing the 22 amino acids have been identified.
3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.
Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more amino groups.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to yield guanosine-5'-phosphate.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is highly specific for CYCLIC GMP. It is found predominantly in vascular tissue and plays an important role in regulating VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A morpholinyl sydnone imine ethyl ester, having a nitrogen in place of the keto oxygen. It acts as NITRIC OXIDE DONORS and is a vasodilator that has been used in ANGINA PECTORIS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of phosphodiesterases.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside monophosphate, e.g., UMP, to form ADP and UDP. Many nucleoside monophosphates can act as acceptor while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.4.
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is activated by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme. Multiple enzyme variants of this subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing. The subfamily is expressed in a broad variety of tissues and may play a role in mediating cross-talk between CYCLIC GMP and CYCLIC CMP pathways. Although the type 2 enzymes are classified as 3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases (EC 3.1.4.17), members of this class have additional specificity for CYCLIC GMP.
A group of organic sulfur-containing nitrites, alkyl thionitrites. S-Nitrosothiols include compounds such as S-NITROSO-N-ACETYLPENICILLAMINE and S-NITROSOGLUTATHIONE.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Biological activities and functions of the SKIN.
A cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase subtype that is expressed in SMOOTH MUSCLE tissues and plays a role in regulation of smooth muscle contraction. Two isoforms, PKGIalpha and PKGIbeta, of the type I protein kinase exist due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.
Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.
A neuronal calcium-sensor protein that was initially found in the NEURONS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. It interacts with NEURONAL APOPTOSIS-INHIBITORY PROTEIN.
Protein modules with conserved ligand-binding surfaces which mediate specific interaction functions in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and the specific BINDING SITES of their cognate protein LIGANDS.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Nitrous acid sodium salt. Used in many industrial processes, in meat curing, coloring, and preserving, and as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES. It is used therapeutically as an antidote in cyanide poisoning. The compound is toxic and mutagenic and will react in vivo with secondary or tertiary amines thereby producing highly carcinogenic nitrosamines.
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
Compounds that specifically inhibit PHOSPHODIESTERASE 5.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Endogenous or exogenous chemicals that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body. They consist of peptides and non-peptide compounds.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
Compounds with three contiguous nitrogen atoms in linear format, H2N-N=NH, and hydrocarbyl derivatives.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
A neuronal calcium-sensor protein that is found in ROD PHOTORECEPTORS and CONE PHOTORECEPTORS. It interacts with G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR KINASE 1 in a Ca2+ dependent manner and plays an important role in PHOTOTRANSDUCTION.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.
A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.
Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid, H3Fe(CN)6.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
"Identification of a guanylyl cyclase-activating protein-binding site within the catalytic domain of retinal guanylyl cyclase 1 ... Alternative names: Guanylate cyclase activator 1B Retinal guanylyl cyclase activator protein p24 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: GUCA1B guanylate cyclase activator 1B (retina)". "GUCA1B - Guanylyl cyclase-activating protein 2 - Bos taurus ( ... domain of retinal guanylyl cyclases 1 and 2 specifies the affinity and cooperativity of interaction with guanylyl cyclase ...
... the first structures of a bacterial guanylate cyclase domain (pdb code 2W01) and a sGC guanylate cyclase catalytic domain (pdb ... In late 2009, the crystal structure of a human guanylate cyclase catalytic domain, that of the beta subunit, was reported (pdb ... an N-terminal HNOX domain, a PAS-like domain, a coiled-coil domain, and a C-terminal catalytic domain. The mammalian enzyme ... guanylate cyclase domain at the C-terminus of sGC is highly conserved in soluble and membrane bound guanylyl cyclases, and ...
... a kinase homology domain, and a guanylyl cyclase catalytic domain. In contrast to other membrane guanylyl cyclases, this enzyme ... guanylate cyclase 2D) gene. This gene encodes a retina-specific guanylate cyclase, which is a member of the membrane guanylyl ... Retinal guanylyl cyclase 1 also known as guanylate cyclase 2D, retinal is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GUCY2D ( ... "Entrez Gene: Guanylate cyclase 2D, membrane (retina-specific)". Fulle, HJ (1995). "A receptor guanylyl cyclase expressed ...
... and an internal catalytic domain homologous to adenylyl cyclases.[7] Recently, a directly light-gated guanylate cyclase has ... Guanylate cyclase (EC 4.6.1.2, also known as guanyl cyclase, guanylyl cyclase, or GC) is a lyase enzyme. Guanylate cyclase is ... soluble guanylate cyclase) forms of guanylate cyclases. Membrane bound guanylate cyclases include an external ligand-binding ... Guanylyl cyclase activator (protein). References[edit]. *^ Sakurai K.; Chen J.; Kefalov V. (2011). "Role of guanylate cylcase ...
Singh R (2003). "Interaction of guanylyl cyclase C with SH3 domain of Src tyrosine kinase. Yet another mechanism for ... "Glycosylation of the receptor guanylate cyclase C: role in ligand binding and catalytic activity". Biochem. J. 379 (Pt 3): 653- ... Guanylate cyclase 2C, also known as guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C), intestinal guanylate cyclase, guanylate cyclase-C receptor, or ... 2009). "The linker region in receptor guanylyl cyclases is a key regulatory module: mutational analysis of guanylyl cyclase C ...
Nitric oxide (NO) in the corpus cavernosum of the penis binds to guanylate cyclase receptors, which results in increased levels ... September 2003). "Structure of the catalytic domain of human phosphodiesterase 5 with bound drug molecules". Nature. 425 (6953 ... Concomitant use of soluble guanylyl cyclase stimulators, such as riociguat Known hypersensitivity to sildenafil Sildenafil ...
... guanylyl cyclase, catalytic domain. pfam00211. Location:426 → 612. Guanylate_cyc; Adenylate and Guanylate cyclase catalytic ... domain. pfam16214. Location:259 → 376. AC_N; Adenylyl cyclase N-terminal extracellular and transmembrane region. ... adenylate cyclase 9. See related. Ensembl:ENSCVAG00000003552 Gene type. protein coding. RefSeq status. MODEL. Organism. ... adcy9 adenylate cyclase 9 [ Cyprinodon variegatus (sheepshead minnow) ] Gene ID: 107095220, updated on 13-Oct-2018 ...
Guanylate Cyclase 1 Soluble Subunit Beta 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Crystal structures of the catalytic domain of human soluble guanylate cyclase. (PMID: 23505436) Allerston CK … Gileadi O (PloS ... Activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). 1217201-17-6. BAY 41-2272. Activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). 256376-24- ... Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) activator. 1215548-30-3. YC 1. Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) activator; induces G1 cell cycle ...
"Identification of a guanylyl cyclase-activating protein-binding site within the catalytic domain of retinal guanylyl cyclase 1 ... Alternative names: Guanylate cyclase activator 1B Retinal guanylyl cyclase activator protein p24 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Entrez Gene: GUCA1B guanylate cyclase activator 1B (retina)". "GUCA1B - Guanylyl cyclase-activating protein 2 - Bos taurus ( ... domain of retinal guanylyl cyclases 1 and 2 specifies the affinity and cooperativity of interaction with guanylyl cyclase ...
Binding of these natriuretic peptides to NPRA leads to activation of the particulate guanylate cyclase (pGC) catalytic domain ... Guanylyl cyclase structure, function and regulation. Cell Signal. 2011;23(12):1921-6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Membrane guanylyl cyclase receptors: an update. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2006;17(6):251-8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle ... Guanylyl cyclase/atrial natriuretic peptide receptor-A: role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular regulation. Can J Physiol ...
... the first structures of a bacterial guanylate cyclase domain (pdb code 2W01) and a sGC guanylate cyclase catalytic domain (pdb ... In late 2009, the crystal structure of a human guanylate cyclase catalytic domain, that of the beta subunit, was reported (pdb ... an N-terminal HNOX domain, a PAS-like domain, a coiled-coil domain, and a C-terminal catalytic domain. The mammalian enzyme ... guanylate cyclase domain at the C-terminus of sGC is highly conserved in soluble and membrane bound guanylyl cyclases, and ...
... domain with 7 TMSs is linked via an additional TMS to the C-terminal adenylate/guanylate cyclase catalytic domain. CyclOp ... Bacterio-rhodopsin/guanylyl cyclase 1 fusion protein of 626 aas; light-activated enzyme, RhCG, Gc1 or Cyc1Op. The central ... Domain. Kingdom/Phylum. Protein(s). *3.E.1.1.1. Bacteriorhodopsin. Proton efflux occurs via a transient linear water-molecule ... 2010). ChR2 is 712 aas long; the MR domain is N-terminal (Lee et al. 2015). The free energy profiles computed for proton ...
T1 - The Arabidopsis thaliana proteome harbors undiscovered multi-domain molecules with functional guanylyl cyclase catalytic ... The Arabidopsis thaliana proteome harbors undiscovered multi-domain molecules with functional guanylyl cyclase catalytic ... The Arabidopsis thaliana proteome harbors undiscovered multi-domain molecules with functional guanylyl cyclase catalytic ... The Arabidopsis thaliana proteome harbors undiscovered multi-domain molecules with functional guanylyl cyclase catalytic ...
However, in higher plants, guanylyl cyclases (GCs), enzymes that generate cGMP from guanosine-5-triphosphate (GTP) have ... of multi-domain molecules with potentially functional GC catalytic centers in plants that remain to be discovered and ... Implications of the hypothesis If it turns out that plants do harbor a large number of functional GC domains as part of multi- ... Secondly, recombinant peptides containing the GC domain need to be tested in in vitro GC assays such as the enzyme-linked ...
... and a carboxyl-terminal guanylyl cyclase catalytic domain. The protein is the primary receptor for C-type natriuretic peptide ( ... OTTHUMP00000021345,OTTHUMP00000045390,atrial natriuretic peptide B-type receptor,guanylate cyclase B,natriuretic peptide ... Both NPR1 and NPR2 contain five functional domains: an extracellular ligand-binding domain, a single membrane-spanning region, ... CNP), which upon ligand binding exhibits greatly increased guanylyl cyclase activity. Mutations in this gene are the cause of ...
Isolated N-terminal or C-terminal guanylate cyclase domains have no catalytic activity, but when they are brought together, ... Belongs to the adenylyl cyclase class-4/guanylyl cyclase family.PROSITE-ProRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rules ... but the catalytic metal ions are bound exclusively via the N-terminal guanylate cyclase domain.By similarity. Manual assertion ... help/domain target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Domaini. 470 - 597. Guanylate cyclase 1PROSITE-ProRule annotation. Manual assertion ...
... domain combinations, taxonomic visualisation and hidden Markov model information. ... The SCOP classification for the Adenylyl and guanylyl cyclase catalytic domain family. Additional information, provided for ... Guanylate cyclase. 0. Highly Informative. Direct. Document: EC annotation of SCOP domains. Mouse Phenotype (MP) ... Adenylyl and guanylyl cyclase catalytic domain family. SCOP classification Root: SCOP hierarchy in SUPERFAMILY [. 0] (11) ...
Isolated N-terminal or C-terminal guanylate cyclase domains have no catalytic activity, but when they are brought together, ... Belongs to the adenylyl cyclase class-4/guanylyl cyclase family.PROSITE-ProRule annotation. ,p>Manual validated information ... but the catalytic metal ions are bound exclusively via the N-terminal guanylate cyclase domain.By similarity. ,p>Manually ... PS00452. GUANYLATE_CYCLASE_1. 2 hits. PS50125. GUANYLATE_CYCLASE_2. 2 hits. ...
Crystal structure of the guanylyl cyclase Cya2. 2wz1. STRUCTURE OF THE CATALYTIC DOMAIN OF HUMAN SOLUBLE GUANYLATE CYCLASE 1 ... RAT TYPE II ADENYLYL CYCLASE C2 DOMAIN/FORSKOLIN COMPLEX. 1azs. COMPLEX OF GS-ALPHA WITH THE CATALYTIC DOMAINS OF MAMMALIAN ... Crystal structure of the heterodimeric catalytic domain of wild-type human soluble guanylate cyclase. ... Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of the heterodimeric human soluble guanylate cyclase 1. ...
... and an internal catalytic domain homologous to adenylyl cyclases.[7] Recently, a directly light-gated guanylate cyclase has ... Guanylate cyclase (EC 4.6.1.2, also known as guanyl cyclase, guanylyl cyclase, or GC) is a lyase enzyme. Guanylate cyclase is ... soluble guanylate cyclase) forms of guanylate cyclases. Membrane bound guanylate cyclases include an external ligand-binding ... Guanylyl cyclase activator (protein). References[edit]. *^ Sakurai K.; Chen J.; Kefalov V. (2011). "Role of guanylate cylcase ...
Adenylate Cyclase 6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... Isolated N-terminal or C-terminal guanylate cyclase domains have no catalytic activity, but when they are brought together, ... Belongs to the adenylyl cyclase class-4/guanylyl cyclase family.. Domain:. * The protein contains two modules with six ... Isolated N-terminal or C-terminal guanylate cyclase domains have no catalytic activity, but when they are brought together, ...
Human guanylate cyclase 2D, membrane (retina-specific) ELISA Kit-NP_000171.1 (MBS9331774) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ... a kinase homology domain, and a guanylyl cyclase catalytic domain. In contrast to other membrane guanylyl cyclases, this enzyme ... Retinal guanylyl cyclase 1 UniProt Synonym Protein Names Guanylate cyclase 2D, retinal; Rod outer segment membrane guanylate ... retinal guanylyl cyclase 1; ROS-GC; cone rod dystrophy 6; guanylate cyclase 2D, retinal; rod outer segment membrane guanylate ...
The pseudokinase domains of guanylyl cyclase-A and -B allosterically increase the affinity of their catalytic domains for ... An Open Library of Human Kinase Domain Constructs for Automated Bacterial Expression. Albanese, S. K., Parton, D. L., Işlk, M ...
The Arabidopsis thaliana proteome harbors undiscovered multi-domain molecules with functional guanylyl cyclase catalytic ... Identification of a novel Arabidopsis thaliana nitric oxide-binding molecule with guanylate cyclase activity in vitro. ... The Arabidopsis thaliana brassinosteroid receptor (AtBRI1) contains a domain that functions as a guanylyl cyclase in vitro. ... To date, however, the guanylyl cyclase (GC) enzymes that catalyze the formation of cGMP from GTP have largely remained elusive ...
... a kinase homology domain, and a guanylyl cyclase catalytic domain. In contrast to other membrane guanylyl cyclases, this enzyme ... which is a member of the membrane guanylyl cyclase family. Like other membrane guanylyl cyclases, this enzyme has a hydrophobic ... amino-terminal signal sequence followed by a large extracellular domain, a single membrane spanning domain, ... This gene encodes a retina-specific guanylate cyclase, ... This gene encodes a retina-specific guanylate cyclase, which is ...
GUCY-2Dencodes a human photoreceptor specific guanylate cyclase which plays a key role in phototransduction.Guanylyl cyclase ... and catalytic domains [104, 116]. Heterozygous mutations in the same gene have been reported to cause an autosomal dominant ... like domains, a transmembrane domain,three laminin A globular-like domains, and a 37-amino acid cytoplasmic tail [23]. The ... Guanylate cyclase function is important in restoring levels of cGMP levels, which keeps open the gated cation channels allowing ...
Pfam Domains:. PF00069 - Protein kinase domain. PF00211 - Adenylate and Guanylate cyclase catalytic domain. PF07701 - Heme NO ... SCOP Domains:. 56112 - Protein kinase-like (PK-like). 55073 - Adenylyl and guanylyl cyclase catalytic domain. ModBase Predicted ... CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: GTP = 3,5-cyclic GMP + diphosphate.. SIMILARITY: Belongs to the adenylyl cyclase class-4/guanylyl cyclase ... InterPro Domains: Graphical view of domain structure. IPR001054 - A/G_cyclase. IPR018297 - A/G_cyclase_CS. IPR011645 - Haem_no_ ...
... is present in mouse rod and cone outer segments while guanylate cyclase 2 (GC2) is present only in rods. Accordingly, deletion ... Mou, H., and Cote, R. H., 2001, The catalytic and GAF domains of the rod cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE6) heterodimer are ... Outer Segment Guanylyl Cyclase Mouse Retina Cone Dystrophy Membrane Guanylate Cyclase These keywords were added by machine and ... Guanylate cyclase 1 (GC1) is present in mouse rod and cone outer segments while guanylate cyclase 2 (GC2) is present only in ...
... protein kinase domain (PF00069); cyclase, adenylate and guanylate cyclase catalytic domain (PF00211). See supplemental Figure 1 ... In contrast, receptor-type guanylyl cyclases lack this HNOB domain but always contain an additional protein kinase domain, ... on the intracellular domain of the receptor-type guanylyl cyclases and the complete sequences of the soluble guanylyl cyclases ... Both families contain a guanylyl cyclase catalytic domain (Figure 2). In several GCY proteins, catalytically important residues ...
... membrane-spanning domain and an intracellular region that contains a protein kinase-like domain and a cyclase catalytic domain ... The membrane guanylyl cyclases often termed guanylyl cyclases A through F form a family of cell-surface receptors with a ... natriuretic peptide receptor A/guanylate cyclase A (atrionatriuretic peptide receptor A). Aliases:. ANPRA, ANPa, GUC2A, GUCY2A ... Guanylyl cyclases catalyzing the production of cGMP from GTP are classified as soluble and membrane forms (Garbers and Lowe ...
The Arabidopsis thaliana proteome harbors undiscovered multi-domain molecules with functional guanylyl cyclase catalytic ... Comparison of moonlighting guanylate cyclases: roles in signal direction? * Authors: Freihat L, Muleya V, Manallack DT, Wheeler ... Guanylate cyclase (GC) catalyzes the formation of cGMP and it is only recently that such enzymes have been characterized in ... In vitro studies show that both the kinase and GC domain have catalytic activity indicating that these kinase-GCs are examples ...
The crystal structure of the rat type II adenylyl cyclase C2 catalytic domain was used to model by h .... DOI:. 10.1073/pnas. ... Catalytic mechanism of the adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases: modeling and mutational analysis ... Dictyostelium; adenylate cyclase; rats; Adenoviridae; guanylate cyclase; molecular conformation; crystals; adenosine ... The guanylyl cyclases, the mammalian adenylyl cyclases, and their microbial homologues function as pairs of homologous ...
Each ∼100-kDa monomer contains a catalytic domain and a regulatory domain that includes two GAF subdomains, which provide for ... Membrane guanylyl cyclase ( GC ) catalyzes cGMP synthesis cause localized variations in levels! Such as tadalafil. [ 7 ] cAMP ... cGMP is involved in the normal processes of vision of and! [ 1 ], Guanylate cyclase ( sgc ) that are present in the cone ... The enzyme contains a cGMP binding domain near the N-terminal region and a catalytic region near the carboxy-terminal region ( ...
guanylyl cyclase domain containing 1. protein-coding. GALM. galactose mutarotase. protein-coding. ... guanylate cyclase activator 1B. protein-coding. GPM6B. glycoprotein M6B. protein-coding. GPCPD1. glycerophosphocholine ... glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit 2. protein-coding. GNMT. glycine N-methyltransferase. protein-coding. ... G-patch domain and ankyrin repeats 1. protein-coding. GALNT13. polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 13. protein-coding ...
Adenylate and Guanylate cyclase catalytic domain)contains similarity to Interpro domains IPR011644 (Heme NO binding), IPR011645 ... Heme NO binding associated), IPR001054 (Adenylyl cyclase class-3/4/guanylyl cyclase). ... C. elegans GCY-33 protein; contains similarity to Pfam domains PF07700 (Heme NO binding), PF07701 (Heme NO binding associated ...
guanylate cyclase 2F, retinal. 0.091. gc2. guanylyl cyclase 2. 0.087. scn1ba. sodium channel, voltage-gated, type I, beta a. ... phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, catalytic, beta. 0.057. pdlim3a. PDZ and LIM domain 3a. 0.053. ... LON peptidase N-terminal domain and RING finger protein 1-like. 0.010. ... DC-STAMP domain containing 2. 0.011. sema6a. sema domain, transmembrane domain (TM), and cytoplasmic domain, (semaphorin) 6A. ...
  • Membrane guanylyl cyclase receptors: an update. (springer.com)
  • One family of plant GCs contains the GC catalytic center encapsulated within the intracellular kinase domain of leucine rich repeat receptor like kinases such as the phytosulfokine and brassinosteroid receptors. (edu.sa)
  • We postulate that the receptors are members of a novel class of receptor kinases that contain functional moonlighting GC domains essential for complex signaling roles. (edu.sa)
  • The membrane guanylyl cyclases often termed guanylyl cyclases A through F form a family of cell-surface receptors with a similar topographic structure: an extracellular ligand-binding domain a single membrane-spanning domain and an intracellular region that contains a protein kinase-like domain and a cyclase catalytic domain. (bio-rad.com)
  • 1 2 3 One type of ANF receptors has been shown to be membrane-bound guanylate cyclase (GC-A). 3 4 5 6 The binding of ANF to GC-A activates the enzyme leading to the elevation of intracellular cyclic GMP (cGMP) levels, which mediates most of the biological effects of ANF. (ahajournals.org)
  • Structural insights into the ligand binding domains of membrane bound guanylyl cyclases and natriuretic peptide receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Membrane bound guanylyl cyclases are single chain transmembrane receptors that produce the second messenger cGMP by either intra- or extracellular stimuli. (nih.gov)
  • This class of type I receptors contain an intracellular catalytic guanylyl cyclase domain, an adjacent kinase-like domain and an extracellular ligand binding domain though some receptors have their ligands yet to be identified. (nih.gov)
  • The recent crystal structure of the dimerized hormone binding domain of the ANP receptor provides a first three-dimensional view of this domain and can serve as a basis to structurally analyze mutagenesis, cross-linking, and genetic studies of this class of receptors as well as a non-catalytic homolog, the clearance receptor. (nih.gov)
  • The fold of the ligand binding domain is that of a bilobal periplasmic binding protein (PBP) very similar to that of the Leu/Ile/Val binding protein, AmiC, multi-domain transmembrane metabotropic glutamate receptors, and several DNA binding proteins such as the lactose repressor. (nih.gov)
  • Unlike these structural homologs, the guanylyl cyclase receptors bind much larger molecules at a site seemingly remote from the usual small molecule binding site in periplasmic binding protein folds. (nih.gov)
  • Detailed comparisons with these structural homologs offer insights into mechanisms of signal transduction and allosteric regulation, and into the remarkable usage of the periplasmic binding protein fold in multi-domain receptors/proteins. (nih.gov)
  • We detected HNOB domains in several bacterial lineages, where they occur fused to methyl accepting domains of chemotaxis receptors or as standalone proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Molecular Physiology of Membrane Guanylyl Cyclase Receptors. (cocites.com)
  • Using sensitive sequence analysis methods we identify a conserved helical segment of around 40 residues in a wide range of signaling proteins, including numerous sensor histidine kinases such as Sln1p, and receptor guanylyl cyclases such as the atrial natriuretic peptide receptor and nitric oxide receptors. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We term this helical segment the signaling (S)-helix and present evidence that it forms a novel parallel coiled-coil element, distinct from previously known helical segments in signaling proteins, such as the Dimerization-Histidine phosphotransfer module of histidine kinases, the intra-cellular domains of the chemotaxis receptors, inter-GAF domain helical linkers and the α-helical HAMP module. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In addition to GPCRs, a unique family of receptors known as membrane guanylyl cyclases (GCs) can be activated by neuropeptides such as natriuretic peptides to catalyze the intracellular production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • a vertebrate specific expansion in the guanylyl GC-C receptors, an echinoderm specific expansion in the sperm rGC genes and a nematode specific sGC clade. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) receptors (provisional nomenclature) are a family of homodimeric, catalytic receptors with a single TM domain and guanylyl cyclase activity on the intracellular domain of the protein sequence. (assignmentpoint.com)
  • Two forms of ANF receptors with guanylate cyclase activity are currently known: GC-A (or ANP-A) which seems specific to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and GC-B (or ANP-B) which seems to be stimulated more effectively by brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) than by ANP. (expasy.org)
  • Guanylyl cyclase receptors and their endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine ligands. (expasy.org)
  • Guanylyl cyclase-linked receptors. (expasy.org)
  • These 16 BHT inhibitors affected protein kinases, protein phosphatases, Ras signalling pathways, G protein-coupled receptors, calcium homeostasis, nitric oxide and guanylate cyclase signalling, and apoptosis in mammalian cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is the only known receptor for nitric oxide, NO. It is soluble, i.e. completely intracellular. (wikipedia.org)
  • PSKR belongs to a family of NCs that contains the GC catalytic center embedded within the intracellular kinase domain of leucine rich repeat receptor-like molecules and in in vitro experiments we have demonstrated that both the kinase and the GC domain have catalytic activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • He goes on to describe how new molecular biological and biochemical approaches have facilitated a characterization of soluble guanylate cyclase and how this enzyme has acquired a profound physiological significance, and much research attention, as the intracellular 'receptor' for nitric oxide. (embl.de)
  • Guanylate cyclase is often part of the G protein signaling cascade that is activated by low intracellular calcium levels and inhibited by high intracellular calcium levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • This causes less intracellular calcium, which stimulates guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • All members of this family have an intracellular N-terminus, a tandem repeat of six transmembrane domains separated by a cytoplasmic loop, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. (genecards.org)
  • Abstract Guanylate cyclase-A, the receptor for atrial natriuretic factor, contains a protein kinase-like domain and a catalytic domain in the intracellular region. (ahajournals.org)
  • GC-A contains an ANF-binding domain in the extracellular region and a kinase-like domain and catalytic domain in the intracellular region. (ahajournals.org)
  • OIGC8 consists of an extracellular domain (214 residues), a transmembrane segment (19 residues), and an intracellular protein kinase-like domain (284 residues) and a cyclase catalytic domain (228 residues), although the extracellular domain is about half the length (around 450 residues) of other known vertebrate membrane GCs. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Most extracellular globular domains from the above group are linked via a membrane-spanning helix to intracellular domains that transmit signals downstream. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Studies in the past decade have also shown that signaling systems contain specialized intracellular domains that are typically involved in binding small molecules, like PAS and GAF domains. (beds.ac.uk)
  • 1 The synthesis of cGMP by GC is tightly regulated by calcium through the action of guanylate cyclase activating proteins (GCAPs), calcium-binding proteins that stimulate GC activity under low free intracellular calcium conditions. (arvojournals.org)
  • Coolness‐induced stimulation of the thermosensory GC‐G guanylyl cyclase activates the Grueneberg ganglion neurons by increasing the cGMP concentration and opening cGMP‐dependent Ca 2+ ‐permeable channels for elevating intracellular Ca 2+ levels. (embopress.org)
  • ANP and BNP bind two distinct cell surface proteins known as the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor and NPR-A/guanylyl cyclase A. The clearance receptor consists of an extracellular domain, a single membrane-spanning region, and only 37 intracellular amino acids. (assignmentpoint.com)
  • It is currently accepted that many effects of these endogenous signaling molecules are mediated via stimulation of guanylyl cyclases and intracellular production of the second messenger cGMP. (ahajournals.org)
  • This gene encodes the beta subunit of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), which catalyzes the conversion of GTP (guanosine triphosphate) to cGMP (cyclic guanosine monophosphate). (genecards.org)
  • Vascular natriuretic peptide receptor-linked particulate guanylate cyclases are modulated by nitric oxide-cyclic GMP signalling. (springer.com)
  • Guanylate cyclases ( EC 4.6.1.2 ) catalyse the formation of cyclic GMP (cGMP) from GTP. (embl.de)
  • In all characterised eukaryote guanylyl- and adenylyl cyclases, cyclic nucleotide synthesis is carried out by the conserved class III cyclase domain. (embl.de)
  • The adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases catalyze the formation of 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine or guanosine monophosphate from the corresponding nucleoside 5'-triphosphate. (embl.de)
  • This gene encodes a member of the adenylyl cyclase family of proteins, which are required for the synthesis of cyclic AMP. (genecards.org)
  • Adenylyl Cyclases (AC) are a group of enzymes that convert adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) into 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP/cAMP) and pyrophosphate. (genecards.org)
  • The phytosulfokine (PSK) receptor is capable of guanylate cyclase activity and enabling cyclic GMP-dependent signaling in plants. (edu.sa)
  • Biosynthesis of cyclic GMP in plant cells - new insight into guanylate cyclases]. (edu.sa)
  • Nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling plays a critical role in physiological homeostatic processes, such as smooth muscle tone in … DNA binding to cGAS induces a conformational change, leading to the formation of a nucleotide binding pocket and reorganization of the catalytic site (Civril et al. (viterittiarredamenti.com)
  • The limited, yet rapidly accumulating, genetic and biochemical evidence suggests that the GGDEF domain is involved in the synthesis and hydrolysis of cyclic diguanylate, or cyclic-bis(3′→5′) dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) (reviewed in references 8 and 13 ). (asm.org)
  • Soluble guanylate cyclases generate cyclic GMP when bound to nitric oxide, thereby linking nitric oxide levels to the control of processes such as vascular homeostasis and neurotransmission. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The membrane guanylate cyclase, ROS-GC, that synthesizes cyclic GMP for use as a second messenger for visual transduction in retinal rods and cones, is stimulated by bicarbonate. (eneuro.org)
  • Guanylyl cyclases and signaling by cyclic GMP. (cocites.com)
  • The heart peptide hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) regulates blood pressure by stimulating guanylyl cyclase-A to produce cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). (pnas.org)
  • Guanylyl cyclases (GCs) are responsible for the production of the secondary messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate, which plays important roles in a variety of physiological responses such as vision, olfaction, muscle contraction, homeostatic regulation, cardiovascular and nervous function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Guanylyl cyclases (GCs) are responsible for the production of the secondary messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The HNOX (Heme Nitric oxide/OXygen binding) domain of the beta subunit of sGC contains the prosthetic heme group, and is part of a family of related sensor proteins found throughout a wide range of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Named after the first three proteins in which it was found (Period clock protein, ARNT protein, and Single minded protein) the PAS domain is a sensor domain that has been found in a large variety of proteins, and can work in conjunction with a variety of prosthetic groups as a sensor for a variety of conditions, including light, oxidative stress, or diatomic gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PAS domain of sGC is followed by an extended coiled-coil region, which contains a segment called a Signaling helix, which is found in a variety of signaling proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are 16816 CYCc domains in 15220 proteins in SMART's nrdb database. (embl.de)
  • Taxonomic distribution of proteins containing CYCc domain. (embl.de)
  • The complete taxonomic breakdown of all proteins with CYCc domain is also avaliable . (embl.de)
  • Click on the protein counts, or double click on taxonomic names to display all proteins containing CYCc domain in the selected taxonomic class. (embl.de)
  • This protein belongs to a small subclass of adenylyl cyclase proteins that are functionally related and are inhibited by protein kinase A, calcium ions and nitric oxide. (genecards.org)
  • In vitro studies show that both the kinase and GC domain have catalytic activity indicating that these kinase-GCs are examples of moonlighting proteins with dual catalytic function. (edu.sa)
  • When cGMP is elevated in these cells, it is not only broken down at the catalytic site of PDE5, but it also binds to cGMP-selective sites on several types of proteins, including cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), cGMP-gated cation channels, and allosteric sites on PDE5. (viterittiarredamenti.com)
  • 7 8 The recombinant proteins retain guanylate cyclase activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • Proteins containing GGDEF domains are encoded in the majority of sequenced bacterial genomes. (asm.org)
  • However, biochemical activities of only a few GGDEF domain proteins have been tested. (asm.org)
  • All recombinant proteins were purified and found to possess diguanylate cyclase (DGC) activity involved in c-di-GMP synthesis. (asm.org)
  • The individual GGDEF domains from two proteins were overexpressed, purified, and shown to possess a low level of DGC activity. (asm.org)
  • The oligomeric states of full-length proteins and individual GGDEF domains were similar. (asm.org)
  • This study establishes that majority of GGDEF domain proteins are c-di-GMP specific, that c-di-GMP synthesis is a wide-spread phenomenon in Bacteria , and that it is highly regulated. (asm.org)
  • It is evident that proper elucidation of structure-function relationships of the GGDEF domain and GGDEF domain-containing proteins will improve our understanding of the physiology, metabolism, and behavior of bacteria and will therefore enhance our ability to manipulate them. (asm.org)
  • The mechanism by which the signals are transmitted between receptor and effector domains in multi-domain signaling proteins is poorly understood. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Combining these observations with previously reported mutagenesis studies on different S-helix-containing proteins we suggest that it functions as a switch that prevents constitutive activation of linked downstream signaling domains. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Thus, the S-helix represents one of the most prevalent functional themes involved in the flow of signals between modules in diverse prokaryote-type multi-domain signaling proteins. (beds.ac.uk)
  • To examine the spatial and temporal characteristics of cone cell survival and the expression of guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) in the guanylate cyclase (GC)-1 knockout (KO) mouse retina. (arvojournals.org)
  • Transmembrane guanylyl cyclases (GCs), with activity regulated by peptide ligands and/or calcium‐binding proteins, are essential for various physiological and sensory processes. (embopress.org)
  • Our phylogenetic analyses reveal that the rGC and sGC multi-domain proteins evolved early in eumetazoan evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • GCs are multi-domain proteins, which occur in two forms: receptor guanylyl cyclases (rGCs) and soluble guanylyl cyclases (sGCs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The topology of such proteins is the following: they have a N-terminal extracellular domain which acts as the ligand binding region, then a transmembrane domain, followed by a large cytoplasmic C-terminal region that can be subdivided into two domains: a protein kinase-like domain that appears important for proper signalling and a cyclase catalytic domain. (expasy.org)
  • Accordingly, any endogenously formed carbon monoxide was or all heme proteins would seem particularly regarded simply as a waste product, but there well suited to be potentially involved in the is now a growing awareness that even en- biological actions of carbon monoxide. (who.int)
  • GUCY1B1 (Guanylate Cyclase 1 Soluble Subunit Beta 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Each subunit consists of four domains: an N-terminal HNOX domain, a PAS-like domain, a coiled-coil domain, and a C-terminal catalytic domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mammalian enzyme contains one heme per dimer, with a proximal histidine ligand located in the HNOX domain of the beta 1 subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • In late 2009, the crystal structure of a human guanylate cyclase catalytic domain, that of the beta subunit, was reported (pdb code 2WZ1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Conventional soluble guanylyl cyclases form α/β heterodimers that are activated by nitric oxide (NO). Recently, atypical members of the soluble guanylyl cyclase family have been described that include the ratβ 2 subunit and MsGC-β3 from Manduca sexta . (biologists.org)
  • Soluble guanylyl cyclases are classically obligate heterodimers composed of an α subunit and a β subunit. (biologists.org)
  • The NO receptor nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NOsGC) is present in the brain in two functional subunit compositions: α 1 β 1 and α 2 β 1 . (jneurosci.org)
  • abstract = "A novel membrane guanylyl cyclase (membrane GC), OIGC8, was identified in the medaka fish Oryzias latipes by the isolation of full-length cDNA (4958 bp) and genomic DNA (14.3 kbp) clones. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • The soluble forms of guanylate cyclase are cytoplasmic heterodimers having alpha and beta subunits. (embl.de)
  • The soluble forms of guanylate cyclase are cytoplasmic heterodimers. (expasy.org)
  • The membrane and cytoplasmic forms of guanylate cyclase share a conserved domain which is probably important for the catalytic activity of the enzyme. (expasy.org)
  • Catalytic mechanism of the adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases: modeling and mutational analysis. (embl.de)
  • The data provide a novel structural link between class III adenylyl and guanylyl cyclases and imply that the protozoan guanylyl cyclases evolved from an ancestral adenylyl cyclase independently of the mammalian guanylyl cyclase isoforms. (embopress.org)
  • The two cytoplasmic regions bind ATP and form the catalytic core of the protein. (genecards.org)
  • Also see NPR3 (MIM 108962) which encodes a protein with only the ligand-binding transmembrane and 37-amino acid cytoplasmic domains. (bio-rad.com)
  • The currently accepted topology of mammalian ACs comprises two hydrophobic membrane cassettes of six α‐helical transmembrane spans (TM), designated M1 and M2, and a catalytic center formed by two conserved cytoplasmic domains of ∼250 amino acids, C1a and C2a, which are localized downstream of M1 and M2, respectively (see Figure 1B for a schematic representation). (embopress.org)
  • Membrane bound guanylate cyclases include an external ligand-binding domain (e.g., for peptide hormones such as BNP and ANP ), a transmembrane domain, and an internal catalytic domain homologous to adenylyl cyclases . (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenylyl cyclases are important effectors of transmembrane signaling pathways and are regulated by the activity of G protein coupled receptor signaling. (genecards.org)
  • Crystal structure of hormone-bound atrial natriuretic peptide receptor extracellular domain: rotation mechanism for transmembrane signal transduction. (cocites.com)
  • The transmembrane receptor guanylyl cyclase subtype GC‐G, expressed in Grueneberg ganglion neurons of the murine nose, is a novel type of molecular sensor for cool ambient temperatures in mammals. (embopress.org)
  • ANP activities are mediated by a cell surface, single-span transmembrane receptor linked to its intrinsic guanylate cyclase activity. (assignmentpoint.com)
  • Both NPR1 and NPR2 contain five functional domains: an extracellular ligand-binding domain, a single membrane-spanning region, and intracellularly a protein kinase homology domain, a helical hinge region involved in oligomerization, and a carboxyl-terminal guanylyl cyclase catalytic domain. (abnova.com)
  • Like other membrane guanylyl cyclases, this enzyme has a hydrophobic amino-terminal signal sequence followed by a large extracellular domain, a single membrane spanning domain, a kinase homology domain, and a guanylyl cyclase catalytic domain. (creative-proteomics.com)
  • Potter LR, Hunter T: Phosphorylation of the kinase homology domain is essential for activation of the A-type natriuretic peptide receptor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An activating mutation in the kinase homology domain of the natriuretic peptide receptor-2 causes extremely tall stature without skeletal deformities. (cocites.com)
  • Bhaskara RM, Grumati P, Garcia-Pardo J, Kalayil S, Covarrubias-Pinto A, Chen W, Kudryashev M , Dikic I* , Hummer G* (2019) Curvature induction and membrane remodeling by FAM134B reticulon homology domain assist selective ER-phagy. (cef-mc.de)
  • Guanylyl cyclase-activating protein 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GUCA1B gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secondly, recombinant peptides containing the GC domain need to be tested in in vitro GC assays such as the enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) and/or in mass spectrometry based cGMP assays. (edu.sa)
  • section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes. (uniprot.org)
  • MBS9331774 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate Quantitative Sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the guanylate cyclase 2D, membrane (retina-specific) (GUCY2D) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • Guanylate cyclase ( EC 4.6.1.2 , also known as guanyl cyclase , guanylyl cyclase , or GC ) is a lyase enzyme . (wikipedia.org)
  • Guanylate cyclase 2C (GC-C) is an enzyme expressed mainly in intestinal neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to other membrane guanylyl cyclases, this enzyme is not activated by natriuretic peptides. (creative-proteomics.com)
  • During the screening of the PCR-cloned gene products with guanylate cyclase assay, a mutant that lacks enzyme activity was identified. (ahajournals.org)
  • These studies indicate that the carboxyl 242-amino acid fragment of GC-A (GC-c), rather than the whole enzyme, may be a better system for studying the active site of guanylate cyclase. (ahajournals.org)
  • Concentration-response assays determined that the ability of ATP to activate GCs decreased and enzyme potency increased with increasing GTP concentrations, consistent with reciprocal regulation of the allosteric and catalytic sites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Previous studies have found that the enzyme - called soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) - contains several distinct domains and that nitric oxide binds to a domain known as β H-NOX. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, it was not clear how β H-NOX and the other three domains fit together to make the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, or how nitric oxide and Adempas activate it. (elifesciences.org)
  • To produce the active form of the enzyme, soluble guanylate cyclase was incubated with both nitric oxide and a molecule called YC-1 that works in similar way to Adempas. (elifesciences.org)
  • This in turn caused the remaining two domains - known as the coiled-coil domains - to change shape, and all of these movements together led to the activated enzyme. (elifesciences.org)
  • The structures also revealed that YC-1 bound to a site on the enzyme between β H-NOX and the coiled-coil domains. (elifesciences.org)
  • Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is a key enzyme implicated in various physiological processes such as vasodilation, thrombosis and platelet aggregation. (mdpi.com)
  • Soluble guanylate cyclase is a heterodimeric enzyme of 150 kDa molecular mass which consists of two subunits-alpha (α) and beta (β) [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • c) For the first time in cardiomyocytes it has been found that a significant fraction of 'soluble' guanylyl cyclase enzyme is membrane associated. (lagullo.com)
  • A genetic model provides evidence that the receptor for atrial natriuretic peptide (guanylyl cyclase-A) inhibits cardiac ventricular myocyte hypertrophy. (springer.com)
  • Guanylyl cyclase/atrial natriuretic peptide receptor-A: role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular regulation. (springer.com)
  • Chinkers M, Singh S, Garbers DL: Adenine nucleotides are required for activation of rat atrial natriuretic peptide receptor/guanylyl cyclase expressed in a baculovirus system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Foster DC, Garbers DL: Dual role for adenine nucleotides in the regulation of the atrial natriuretic peptide receptor, guanylyl cyclase-A. J Biol Chem. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The crystal structures of the dimerized ANP receptor extracellular domain (ECD) with and without ANP have revealed a novel hormone-induced rotation mechanism occurring in the juxtamembrane region that appears to mediate signal transduction. (assignmentpoint.com)
  • Present in two copies in mammalian adenylyl cyclases. (embl.de)
  • The guanylyl cyclases, the mammalian adenylyl cyclases, and their microbial homologues function as pairs of homologous catalytic domains. (embl.de)
  • Pei and Grishin noticed low yet significant sequence similarity between GGDEF domains and catalytic domains of mammalian adenylyl cyclases. (asm.org)
  • We cloned a guanylyl cyclase of 280 kDa from the ciliate Paramecium which has an N‐terminus similar to that of a P‐type ATPase and a C‐terminus with a topology identical to mammalian adenylyl cyclases. (embopress.org)
  • However, in higher plants, guanylyl cyclases (GCs), enzymes that generate cGMP from guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) have remained elusive until recently. (edu.sa)
  • If it turns out that plants do harbor a large number of functional GC domains as part of multi-domain enzymes, then major new insights will be gained into the complex signal transduction pathways that link cGMP to fundamental processes such as ion transport and homeostasis, biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as cGMP-dependent responses to hormones. (biomedcentral.com)
  • COD has been linked to several genetic mutations including mutations in the guanylate cyclase activator 1A (GUCA1A) and guanylate cyclase 2D (GUY2D) among other enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Guanylate cyclase (GC) catalyzes the formation of cGMP and it is only recently that such enzymes have been characterized in plants. (edu.sa)
  • Interestingly, enzymes involved in the original step in c-di-GMP hydrolysis, phosphodiesterases A (PDE-A), purified from G. xylinus also contain GGDEF and EAL domains. (asm.org)
  • Comparison of the structure of the guanylate cyclase domain with the known structures of adenylate cyclases confirms the close similarity in architecture between these two enzymes, as expected from their sequence similarity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Soluble guanylyl cyclases (SGCs) are dimeric enzymes that transduce signals downstream of nitric oxide (NO) in animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Guanylyl cyclases, a growing family of signal-transducing enzymes. (expasy.org)
  • Adenylyl cyclases: a heterogeneous class of ATP-utilizing enzymes. (expasy.org)
  • Binding of nitric oxide to the heme results in activation of the C-terminal catalytic domain, which produces cGMP from GTP. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HNOX domain uses the bound heme to sense gaseous ligands such as nitric oxide, oxygen, and/or possibly carbon monoxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soluble guanylate cyclase contains a molecule of heme , and is activated primarily by the binding of nitric oxide (NO) to that heme. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of soluble guanylate cyclase activation by NO involves the binding of NO to the heme cofactor [ 22 ], but the details of this activation mechanism are unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first of these, the HNOB ( H eme NO Binding) domain, is a predominantly α-helical domain and binds heme via a covalent linkage to histidine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The HNOB domain is predicted to function as a heme-dependent sensor for gaseous ligands, and transduce diverse downstream signals, in both bacteria and animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • NO and the sGC-specific stimulator YC-1 induce a 71° rotation of the heme-binding β H-NOX and PAS domains. (elifesciences.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the sGC and bacterial heme nitric oxide/oxygen binding protein domain supports the hypothesis that this domain originated from a cyanobacterial source. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The enzyme's Heme-Nitric oxide/Oxygen (H-NOX) binding domain is the only sensor of nitric oxide (NO) in humans, which on binding with NO activates sGC to produce the second messenger cGMP. (mdpi.com)
  • 2.- Agulló L, Buch I, Gutiérrez-de-Terán H, Garcia-Dorado D, Villà-Freixa J. Computational exploration of the binding mode of heme-dependent stimulators into the active catalytic domain of soluble guanylate cyclase . (lagullo.com)
  • The heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway has been shown to play an important role in many physiological processes and is capable of altering nociception modulation in the nervous system by stimulating soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). (bvsalud.org)
  • The intracerebroventricular microinjection of guanylate cyclase, an sGC inhibitor followed by the intra-LC microinjection of the heme-lysinate blocked the anxiolytic-like reaction on the EPM test and LDB test. (bvsalud.org)
  • The protein is the primary receptor for C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), which upon ligand binding exhibits greatly increased guanylyl cyclase activity. (abnova.com)
  • Ligand binding to NPR-A rapidly activates its guanylyl cyclase domain, but its rate of cGMP synthesis declines with time. (assignmentpoint.com)
  • Three paralogous diguanylate cyclases, (DGC) from G. xylinus involved in c-di-GMP synthesis were found to contain two conserved protein domains, GGDEF and EAL ( http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Software/Pfam ), where EAL is also known as DUF2 ( http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de ). (asm.org)
  • The Hippeastrum hybridum PepR1 gene (HpPepR1) encodes a functional guanylyl cyclase and is involved in early response to fungal infection. (edu.sa)
  • We report the existence of a total of 27 gcy genes encoding receptor-type guanylyl cyclases and of 7 gcy genes encoding soluble guanylyl cyclases in the complete genome sequence of C. elegans . (genetics.org)
  • 41% (11/27) of all receptor-type guanylyl cyclases are expressed in the ASE gustatory neurons and that one-third of all gcy genes (9/27) are expressed in a lateral, left/right asymmetric manner in the ASE neurons. (genetics.org)
  • To investigate specificity of the GGDEF domains in Bacteria , six GGDEF domain-encoding genes from randomly chosen representatives of diverse branches of the bacterial phylogenetic tree, i.e. (asm.org)
  • The standalone forms are encoded by predicted operons that also contain genes for two component signaling systems and GGDEF-type nucleotide cyclases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genes with the cd05051 domain. (umbc.edu)
  • The encoded protein contains an HNOX domain, which serves as a receptor for ligands such as nitric oxide, oxygen and nitrovasodilator drugs. (genecards.org)
  • This gene encodes a retina-specific guanylate cyclase, which is a member of the membrane guanylyl cyclase family. (creative-proteomics.com)
  • Their binding to soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and particulate guanylyl cyclase (pGC), respectively, increases the formation of cGMP which is a unique second messenger. (springer.com)
  • Most of NO's effects are mediated via the stimulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), which leads to enhanced conversion of GTP to cGMP. (rupress.org)
  • Its major physiological receptor is the NO GC (NO-activated guanylyl cyclase, also known by its homogenate-based name, soluble guanylyl cyclase), through which it stimulates the production of the second messenger cGMP. (biochemj.org)
  • Point mutations in the purine-binding site of the catalytic domain abolished GC activity but not allosteric activation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Over the course of a light-signaling event, cGMP levels fall and rise in the outer segments after the sequential activation of cGMP phosphodiesterase and guanylate cyclase (GC). (arvojournals.org)
  • Here we show that in platelets and aortic tissue, NO led to a biphasic response characterized by a tremendous increase in cGMP (up to 100-fold) in less than 30 s and a rapid decline, reflecting the tightly controlled balance of guanylyl cyclase and phosphodiesterase activities. (rupress.org)
  • The cGMP analogue dibutyryl cGMP, the guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor pentoxiphylline had no effect, indicating that the NO effect does not involve cGMP. (biologists.org)
  • The HNOBA domain functionally interacts with the HNOB domain, and possibly binds a ligand, either in cooperation, or independently of the latter domain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Certain protein folds have given rise to several large superfamilies of ligand-binding domains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, upon occurrence of specific conformational changes due to binding of ligand or other sensory inputs in a linked upstream domain it transmits the signal to the downstream domain. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Binding of these natriuretic peptides to NPRA leads to activation of the particulate guanylate cyclase (pGC) catalytic domain which generates cGMP-dependent second messenger signaling cascade. (springer.com)
  • NPR1 is a membrane-bound guanylate cyclase that serves as the receptor for both atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP (MIM 108780) and BNP (MIM 600295) respectively). (bio-rad.com)
  • Previously, a model based on the structure of adenylate cyclase was used to predict the structure of the nucleotide-binding pocket of a membrane guanylyl cyclase, RetGC-1. (embl.de)
  • The major obstacle is that the catalytic domain of GC-A does not contain G-x-G-x-x-G, the diagnostic consensus sequence of the nucleotide binding site that interacts with the phosphate chain of the nucleotide. (ahajournals.org)
  • The guanylate cyclase catalytic module, for which no structure has been determined at present, is a class III nucleotide cyclase domain that is also found in mammalian membrane-bound guanylate and adenylate cyclases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The catalytic domain is a class III nucleotide cyclase domain [ 5 ], which is distributed widely from bacteria to humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Guanylyl cyclase structure, function and regulation. (springer.com)
  • Structure, mechanism, and regulation of mammalian adenylyl cyclase. (embl.de)
  • Among its related pathways are GABAergic synapse and Regulation of CFTR activity (norm and CF) . GO annotations related to this gene include protein kinase binding and adenylate cyclase activity . (genecards.org)
  • Potter LR: Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of the guanylyl cyclase-linked natriuretic peptide receptor B: dephosphorylation is a mechanism of desensitization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Structure and regulation of soluble guanylate cyclase. (cocites.com)
  • Regulation and therapeutic targeting of peptide-activated receptor guanylyl cyclases. (cocites.com)
  • Bicarbonate acts directly on ROS-GC1, because it enhanced the enzymatic activity of a purified, recombinant fragment of bovine ROS-GC1 consisting solely of the core catalytic domain. (eneuro.org)
  • PDE consists of a catalytic core of alpha and beta subunits associated with two inhibitory gamma subunits. (jove.com)
  • Proper glycosylation and phosphorylation of the type A natriuretic peptide receptor are required for hormone-stimulated guanylyl cyclase activity. (springer.com)
  • Search strategies based on conserved and functionally assigned amino acid (AA) residues in the catalytic center of known NCs [ 7 ] have now opened the way to a systematic search of NCs in higher plants and has led to the discovery of a number of Arabidopsis thaliana candidate molecules with catalytic activity in vitro and in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More. (uniprot.org)
  • Identification of a novel Arabidopsis thaliana nitric oxide-binding molecule with guanylate cyclase activity in vitro. (edu.sa)
  • Since mutation of Leu 817 to Arg abolishes the catalytic activity, Leu 817 is likely located near the active site of guanylate cyclase-A. These results demonstrate that the carboxyl fragment of guanylate cyclase-A is an ideal system for studying the active site of guanylate cyclase-A. (ahajournals.org)
  • To locate the amino acid residues in the active site of GC-A, we screened the gene products of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified GC-c and identified a mutant that lacked guanylate cyclase activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • Co-expression of inactive mutants produced half the activity expected for symmetric catalytic dimers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • however, enzymatic activity is highly regulated by the adjacent sensory protein domains. (asm.org)
  • It is shown that DGC activity of the GGDEF domain protein Rrp1 from Borrelia burgdorferi is strictly dependent on phosphorylation status of its input receiver domain. (asm.org)
  • OIGC8 transiently expressed in COS-7 cells exhibited only basal guanylyl cyclase activity. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Compare with wild-type control video (CIL# 24043) and other mutants lacking guanylyl cyclase activity (CIL#24044, 24045). (ucsd.edu)
  • Starved cells were suspended in buffer containing 10 mM Na/K PO4, 2 mM MgSO4, and 0.2 mM CaCl2, (pH 6.5) and 4 mM caffeine to inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity (which also reduced cell-cell interactions). (ucsd.edu)
  • Increased superoxide production by the endothelial and/or smooth muscle cells has important consequences with respect to signaling by the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGK-I), the activity and expression of which has been shown to be regulated in a redox-sensitive fashion. (ahajournals.org)
  • This review briefly addresses mechanisms underlying eNOS uncoupling and focuses on the consequences with respect to the activity and/or expression of the NO target, the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), and the cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGK-I) present in vascular smooth muscle. (ahajournals.org)
  • The transactivation domains of HIF-αs are hydroxylated by FIH and then cannot recruit p300/CBP coactivator, which leads to the repression of HIF-mediated transcriptional activity ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • however, this activity is not dependent on the phospholipase activity of PLC-gamma 1, but requires an SH3 domain. (jove.com)
  • Cool temperature stimulates the enzymatic activity of the GC‐G guanylyl cyclase by inducing its dimerization/oligomerization. (embopress.org)
  • Guanylate cyclase is found both in the soluble and particulate fractions of eukaryotic cells. (embl.de)
  • Homology modeling must include substrate docking that can provide support for the structural feasibility of the GC catalytic centers in those candidates. (edu.sa)
  • Identification of such conserved domains has, often, improved our understanding of the general structural and biochemical features that underlie protein-small molecule interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • BAY60-2770 on binding with b H-NOX, triggered rotational movement in signaling helix F and significant dynamicity in loops α and β, but in h H-NOX domain the compound showed relatively lesser aforementioned structural fluctuations. (mdpi.com)