Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Signaling proteins which function as master molecular switches by activating Rho GTPases through conversion of guanine nucleotides. Rho GTPases in turn control many aspects of cell behavior through the regulation of multiple downstream signal transduction pathways.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A family of GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are specific for RAS PROTEINS.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
Protein factors that inhibit the dissociation of GDP from GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Proto-oncogene proteins that are guanine nucleotide exchange factors for RHO GTPASES. They also function as signal transducing adaptor proteins.
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is expressed primarily in neuronal tissue and may be specific for the Ha-ras homolog of the RAS PROTEINS.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that stimulates the dissociation of GDP from RAL GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It also has GDP exchange activity towards other MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of inosine 5'-phosphate to xanthosine 5'-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC 1.1.1.205.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A 145-kDa guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is specific for rap1 and ras GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It associates with SH3 domains of the crk family of signaling proteins.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of guanine to form xanthine. EC 3.5.4.3.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A genetically related subfamily of RAP GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that share homology with RAS PROTEINS. They bind to Ras effectors but do not activate them, therefore they may antagonize the effects of RAS PROTEINS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with organelle membranes in the early secretory pathway. It is a component of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A subcategory of guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors that are specific for RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A mammalian homolog of the DROSOPHILA SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEIN. It is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for RAS PROTEINS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are related to RAS PROTEINS.This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that acts to restore EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2 to its GTP bound form.
One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.
Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.
Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A family of ubiquitously expressed MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in intracellular signal transduction. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
An abundantly-expressed rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor subtype that regulates a broad variety of RHO GTPASES.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A class of RAS GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are genetically related to the Son of Sevenless gene from DROSOPHILA. Sevenless refers to genetic mutations in DROSOPHILA that cause loss of the R7 photoreceptor which is required to see UV light.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A class of monomeric, low molecular weight (20-25 kDa) GTP-binding proteins that regulate a variety of intracellular processes. The GTP bound form of the protein is active and limited by its inherent GTPase activity, which is controlled by an array of GTPase activators, GDP dissociation inhibitors, and guanine nucleotide exchange factors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Guanine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in transport from the cell membrane to early endosomes. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS and through early Golgi compartments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
Pyrimidines with a RIBOSE and phosphate attached that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
A ubiquitously expressed family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that signal through interactions with a variety of second messengers as GTPASE-ACTIVATING PROTEINS; GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS; and HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS. The G12-G13 part of the name is also spelled G12/G13.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
PROTEINS that specifically activate the GTP-phosphohydrolase activity of RAS PROTEINS.
GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that contain three non-identical subunits. They are found associated with members of the seven transmembrane domain superfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. Upon activation the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT of the complex dissociates leaving a dimer of a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNIT bound to a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNIT.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. In higher eukaryotes the factor consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Protein factors uniquely required during the elongation phase of protein synthesis.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A protein found in bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria which delivers aminoacyl-tRNA's to the A site of the ribosome. The aminoacyl-tRNA is first bound to a complex of elongation factor Tu containing a molecule of bound GTP. The resulting complex is then bound to the 70S initiation complex. Simultaneously the GTP is hydrolyzed and a Tu-GDP complex is released from the 70S ribosome. The Tu-GTP complex is regenerated from the Tu-GDP complex by the Ts elongation factor and GTP.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.
Transforming protein encoded by ras oncogenes. Point mutations in the cellular ras gene (c-ras) can also result in a mutant p21 protein that can transform mammalian cells. Oncogene protein p21(ras) has been directly implicated in human neoplasms, perhaps accounting for as much as 15-20% of all human tumors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A type C phospholipase with specificity towards PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS that contain INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE. Many of the enzymes listed under this classification are involved in intracellular signaling.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and hypoxanthine, guanine, or 6-mercaptopurine to the corresponding 5'-mononucleotides and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is important in purine biosynthesis as well as central nervous system functions. Complete lack of enzyme activity is associated with the LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME, while partial deficiency results in overproduction of uric acid. EC 2.4.2.8.
Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
Cell surface proteins that bind PURINES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The best characterized classes of purinergic receptors in mammals are the P1 receptors, which prefer ADENOSINE, and the P2 receptors, which prefer ATP or ADP.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A post-translational modification of proteins by the attachment of an isoprenoid to the C-terminal cysteine residue. The isoprenoids used, farnesyl diphosphate or geranylgeranyl diphosphate, are derived from the same biochemical pathway that produces cholesterol.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.
Regions of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE similarity in the SRC-FAMILY TYROSINE KINASES that fold into specific functional tertiary structures. The SH1 domain is a CATALYTIC DOMAIN. SH2 and SH3 domains are protein interaction domains. SH2 usually binds PHOSPHOTYROSINE-containing proteins and SH3 interacts with CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A signal transducing adaptor protein that links extracellular signals to the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. Grb2 associates with activated EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR and PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTORS via its SH2 DOMAIN. It also binds to and translocates the SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEINS through its SH3 DOMAINS to activate PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS).
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Peptide elongation factor 1 is a multisubunit protein that is responsible for the GTP-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNAs to eukaryotic ribosomes. The alpha subunit (EF-1alpha) binds aminoacyl-tRNA and transfers it to the ribosome in a process linked to GTP hydrolysis. The beta and delta subunits (EF-1beta, EF-1delta) are involved in exchanging GDP for GTP. The gamma subunit (EF-1gamma) is a structural component.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A high-affinity muscarinic antagonist commonly used as a tool in animal and tissue studies.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.

Inhibition of cellular growth by increased guanine nucleotide pools. Characterization of an Escherichia coli mutant with a guanosine kinase that is insensitive to feedback inhibition by GTP. (1/1391)

In Escherichia coli the enzyme guanosine kinase phosphorylates guanosine to GMP, which is further phosphorylated to GDP and GTP by other enzymes. Here I report that guanosine kinase is subject to efficient feedback inhibition by the end product of the pathway, GTP, and that this regulation is abolished by a previously described mutation, gsk-3, in the structural gene for guanosine kinase (Hove-Jensen, B., and Nygaard, P. (1989) J. Gen. Microbiol. 135, 1263-1273). Consequently, the gsk-3 mutant strain was extremely sensitive to guanosine, which caused the guanine nucleotide pools to increase dramatically, thereby initiating a cascade of metabolic changes that eventually led to growth arrest. By isolation and characterization of guanosine-resistant derivatives of the gsk-3 mutant, some of the crucial steps in this deleterious cascade of events were found to include the following: first, conversion of GMP to adenine nucleotides via GMP reductase, encoded by the guaC gene; second, inhibition of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase by an adenine nucleotide, presumably ADP, causing starvation for histidine, tryptophan, and pyrimidines, all of which require PRPP for their synthesis; third, accumulation of the regulatory nucleotide guanosine 5',3'-bispyrophosphate (ppGpp), a general transcriptional inhibitor synthesized by the relA gene product in response to amino acid starvation.  (+info)

Elevated expression of the CD4 receptor and cell cycle arrest are induced in Jurkat cells by treatment with the novel cyclic dinucleotide 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid. (2/1391)

The effect of the novel, naturally occurring nucleotide cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) on the lymphoblastoid CD4+ Jurkat cell line was studied. When exposed to 50 microM c-di-GMP, Jurkat cells exhibited a markedly elevated expression of the CD4 receptor of up to 6.3-fold over controls. C-di-GMP also causes blockage of the cell cycle at the S-phase, characterized by increased cellular thymidine uptake, reduction in G2/M-phase cells, increase in S-phase cells and decreased cell division. Additionally c-di-GMP naturally enters these cells and binds irreversibly to the P21ras protein. The effects described appear to be unique for c-di-GMP.  (+info)

Metabolism of methionine and biosynthesis of caffeine in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.). (3/1391)

1. Caffeine biosynthesis was studied by following the incorporation of 14C into the products of L-[Me-14C]methionine metabolism in tea shoot tips. 2. After administration of a 'pulse' of L-[Me-14C]methionine, almost all of the L-[Me-14C]methionine supplied disappeared within 1 h, and 14C-labelled caffeine synthesis increased throughout the experimental periods, whereas the radioactivities of an unknown compound and theobromine were highest at 3 h after the uptake of L-[Me-14C]methionine, followed by a steady decrease. There was also slight incorporation of the label into 7-methylxanthine, serine, glutamate and aspartate, disappearing by 36 h after the absorption of L-[Me-14C]methionine. 3. The radioactivities of nucleic acids derived from L-[Me-14C]methionine increased rapidly during the first 12 h incubation period and then decreased steadily. Sedimentation analysis of nucleic acids by sucrose-gradient centrifugation showed that methylation of nucleic acids in tea shoot tips occurred mainly in the tRNA fraction. The main product among the methylated bases in tea shoot tips was identified as 1-methyladenine. 4. The results indicated that the purine ring in caffeine is derived from the purine nucleotides in the nucleotide pool rather than in nucleic acids. A metabolic scheme to show the production of caffeine and related methylxanthines from the nucleotides in tea plants is discussed.  (+info)

Endothelin-B receptors activate Galpha13. (4/1391)

Endothelin (ET) receptors activate heterotrimeric G proteins that are members of the Gi, Gq, and Gs families but may also activate members of other families such as Galpha12/13. Galpha13 has multiple complex cellular effects that are similar to those of ET. We studied the ability of ET receptors to activate Galpha13 using an assay for G protein alpha-chain activation that is based on the fact that an activated (GTP-bound) alpha-chain is resistant to trypsinization compared with an inactive (GDP-bound) alpha-chain. Nonhydrolyzable guanine nucleotides and AlMgF protected Galpha13 from degradation by trypsin. In membranes from human embryonic kidney 293 cells that coexpress ETB receptors and alpha13, ET-3 and 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate [Gpp(NH)p] increased the protection of alpha13 compared with Gpp(NH)p alone. The specificity of ETB receptor-alpha13 coupling was documented by showing that beta2 receptors and isoproterenol or ETA receptors and ET-1 did not activate alpha13 and that a specific antagonist for ETB receptors blocked ET-3-dependent activation of alpha13.  (+info)

Structural elements of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 required for functional interaction with cytohesin-1. (5/1391)

ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) is a 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding protein involved in vesicular trafficking. Conversion of inactive ARF-GDP to active ARF-GTP is catalyzed by guanine nucleotide exchange proteins such as cytohesin-1. Cytohesin-1 and its Sec7 domain (C-1Sec7) exhibit guanine nucleotide exchange protein activity with ARF1 but not ARF-like protein 1 (ARL1), which is 57% identical in amino acid sequence. With chimeric proteins composed of ARF1 (F) and ARL1 (L) sequences we identified three structural elements responsible for this specificity. Cytohesin-1 increased [35S]guanosine 5'-(gamma-thio)triphosphate binding to L28/F (first 28 residues of L, remainder F) and to a much lesser extent F139/L, and mut13F139/L (F139/L with random sequence in the first 13 positions) but not Delta13ARF1 that lacks the first 13 amino acids; therefore, a nonspecific ARF N terminus was required for cytohesin-1 action. The N terminus was not, however, required for that of C-1Sec7. Both C-1Sec7 and cytohesin-1 effectively released guanosine 5'-(gamma-thio)triphosphate from ARF1, but only C-1Sec7 displaced the nonhydrolyzable GTP analog bound to mut13F139/L, again indicating that structure in addition to the Sec7 domain is involved in cytohesin-1 interaction. Some element(s) of the C-terminal region is also involved, because replacement of the last 42 amino acids with ARL sequence in F139L decreased markedly the interaction with cytohesin-1. Participation of both termini is consistent with the crystallographic structure of ARF in which the two terminal alpha-helices are in close proximity. ARF1 residues 28-50 are also important in the interaction with cytohesin-1; replacement of Lys-38 with Gln, the corresponding residue in ARL1, abolished the ability to serve as substrate for cytohesin-1 or C-1Sec7. These studies have defined multiple structural elements in ARF1, including switch 1 and the N and C termini, that participate in functional interactions with cytohesin-1 (or its catalytic domain C-1Sec7), which were not apparent from crystallographic analysis.  (+info)

Cysteine carboxyl O-methylation of human placental 23 kDa protein. (6/1391)

C-Terminal carboxyl methylation of a human placental 23 kDa protein catalyzed by membrane-associated methyltransferase has been investigated. The 23 kDa protein substrate methylated was partially purified by DEAE-Sephacel, hydroxyapatite and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatographies. The substrate protein was eluted on Sephadex G-100 gel filtration chromatography as a protein of about 29 kDa. In the absence of Mg2+, the methylation was stimulated by guanine nucleotides (GTP, GDP and GTPgammaS), but in the presence of Mg2+, only GTPgammaS stimulated the methylation which was similar to the effect on the G25K/rhoGDI complex. AFC, an inhibitor of C-terminal carboxyl methylation, inhibited the methylation of human placental 23 kDa protein. These results suggests that the substrate is a small G protein different from the G25K and is methylated on C-terminal isoprenylated cysteine residue. This was also confirmed by vapor phase analysis. The methylated substrate protein was redistributed to membrane after in vitro methylation, suggesting that the methylation of this protein is important for the redistribution of the 23 kDa small G protein for its putative role in intracellular signaling.  (+info)

The A26G replacement in the consensus sequence A-X-X-X-X-G-K-[T,S] of the guanine nucleotide binding site activates the intrinsic GTPase of the elongation factor 2 from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. (7/1391)

A recombinant form of the elongation factor 2 from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus (SsEF-2), carrying the A26G substitution, has been produced and characterized. The amino acid replacement converted the guanine nucleotide binding consensus sequences A-X-X-X-X-G-K-[T,S] of the elongation factors EF-G or EF-2 into the corresponding G-X-X-X-X-G-K-[T,S] motif which is present in all the other GTP-binding proteins. The rate of poly(U)-directed poly(Phe) synthesis and the ribosome-dependent GTPase activity of A26GSsEF-2 were decreased compared to SsEF-2, thus indicating that the A26G replacement partially affected the function of SsEF-2 during translocation. In contrast, the A26G substitution enhanced the catalytic efficiency of the intrinsic SsEF-2 GTPase triggered by ethylene glycol [Raimo, G., Masullo, M., Scarano, G., & Bocchini, V. (1997) Biochimie 78, 832-837]. Surprisingly, A26GSsEF-2 was able to hydrolyse GTP even in the absence of ethylene glycol; furthermore, the alcohol increased the affinity for GTP without modifying the catalytic constant of A26GSsEF-2 GTPase. Compared to SsEF-2, the affinity of A26GSsEF-2 for [3H]GDP was significantly reduced. These findings suggest that A26 is a regulator of the biochemical functions of SsEF-2. The involvement of this alanine residue in the guanine nucleotide-binding pocket of EF-2 or EF-G is discussed.  (+info)

Characteristics of sequences around individual nucleotide substitutions in IgVH genes suggest different GC and AT mutators. (8/1391)

Somatic hypermutation affects Ig genes during T-dependent B cell responses and is characterized by a high frequency of single base substitutions. Hypermutation is not a completely random process; a study of mutations in different systems has revealed the presence of sequence motifs that target mutation. In a recent analysis of the sequences surrounding individual mutated bases in out-of-frame human IgVH genes, we found that the target motifs around mutated G's and C's are reverse complements of each other. This finding suggests that hypermutation acts on both strands of DNA, which contradicts evidence of a strand-dependent mechanism as suggested by an observed bias in A and T mutations and the involvement of transcriptional machinery. We have now extended our database of out-of-frame genes and determined the sequence motifs flanking mutated A and T nucleotides. In addition, we have analyzed the flanking sequences for different types of nucleotide substitutions separately. Our results confirm the relationship between the motifs for G and C mutations and show that the motifs surrounding mutated A's and T's are weaker and do not have the same relationship. Taken together with our observation of A/T strand bias in out-of-frame genes, this observation suggests that there is a semitargeted G/C mutator that is strand-independent and a separate A/T mutator that is strand-dependent and is less reliant on the local target sequence.  (+info)

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TY - JOUR. T1 - Intracellular calcium uptake activated by GTP. Evidence for a possible guanine nucleotide-induced transmembrane conveyance of intracellular calcium.. AU - Mullaney, J. M.. AU - Chueh, S. H.. AU - Ghosh, T. K.. AU - Gill, D. L.. N1 - Copyright: This record is sourced from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine. PY - 1987/10/5. Y1 - 1987/10/5. N2 - The GTP-activated Ca2+ release process we recently described (Gill, D. L., Ueda, T., Chueh, S. H., and Noel, M. W. (1986) Nature 320, 461-464) was revealed in the preceding report to operate via a mechanism likely to be induced by close membrane association but which appears not to involve membrane fusion (Chueh, S. H., Mullaney, J. M., Ghosh, T. K., Zachary, A. L., and Gill, D. L. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 13857-13864). To determine more about the GTP-activated Ca2+ translocation process, effects of GTP on cells loaded with Ca-oxalate were investigated. Using permeabilized cells of both the N1E-115 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Signal transduction by guanine nucleotide binding proteins. AU - Spiegel, Allen M.. PY - 1987/1. Y1 - 1987/1. N2 - High affinity binding of guanine nucleotides and the ability to hydrolyze bound GTP to GDP are characteristics of an extended family of intracellular proteins. Subsets of this family include cytosolic initiation and elongation factors involved in protein synthesis, and cytoskeletal proteins such as tubulin (Hughes S.M. (1981) FEBS Lett. 164, 1-8). A distinct subset of guanine nucleotide binding proteins is membrane-associated; members of this subset include the ras gene products (Ellis R.W. et al. (1981) Nature 292, 506-511) and the heterotrimeric G-proteins (also termed N-proteins) (Gilman A.G. (1984) Cell 36, 577-579). Substantial evidence indicates that G-proteins act as signal transducers by coupling receptors (R) to effectors (E). A similar function has been suggested but not proven for the ras gene products. Known G-proteins include Gs and Gi, the G-proteins ...
The guanine nucleotide binding properties of rap1 protein purified from human neutrophils were examined using both the protein kinase A-phosphorylated and the non-phosphorylated forms of the protein. Binding of GTP[S] (guanosine 5′-[gamma-thio]triphosphate) or GDP was found to be slow in the presence of free Mg2+, but very rapid in the absence of Mg2+. The binding of guanine nucleotides was found to correlate with the loss of endogenous nucleotide from the rap1 protein, which was rapid in the absence of Mg2+. The relative affinities of GTP and GDP for the binding site on rap1 were modulated by the presence of Mg2+, with a preferential affinity (approx. 15-fold) for GTP observed only in the absence of this bivalent cation. The dissociation of GDP from rap1 was not affected by the G-protein beta/gamma-subunit complex. Phosphorylation of rap1 in vitro by protein kinase A did not modify any of the observed nucleotide-binding parameters. Furthermore, the ability of a cytosolic rap1 ...
Guanosine 5-diphosphate 2(3)-diphosphate. A guanine nucleotide containing four phosphate groups. Two phosphate groups are esterified to the sugar moiety in the 5 position and the other two in the 2 or 3 position. This nucleotide serves as a messenger to turn off the synthesis of ribosomal RNA when amino acids are not available for protein synthesis. Synonym: magic spot I ...
Molecular model of G protein bound to guanine triphosphate (GTP). G proteins, or guanine nucleotide binding proteins, are molecular switches involved in signal transduction. - Stock Image C025/1605
GNG12 overexpression lysate, 0.1 mg. Transient overexpression lysate of guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 12 (GNG12)
pep:known chromosome:VEGA66:3:146499807:146505572:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000029572 transcript:OTTMUST00000073335 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Gng5 description:guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 subunit ...
Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ78228 complete cds, highly similar to Homo sapiens guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta 5(GNB5), transcript variant 1, mRNA ...
गुवानिन के रूपों के अतिसूक्ष्म मात्रा, अम्मोनियम सायनाइड (NH4CN) के पॉलीमराइज़ेशन से बनते हैं। लेवी एत. एल. द्वारा किए गए दो प्रयोगों से ज्ञात हुआ कि 10 mol•L−1 NH4CN को 80 °C पर चौबीस घंटे तक गर्म करने पर 0.0007% मिलता है, जबकि 0.1 mol•L−1 NH4CN को -20 °C पर पच्चीस वर्षों तक प्रशितन में रखने पर 0.0035% उपज मिलती है। इन परिणामों से ज्ञात होता है, कि गुवानिन प्राचीन काल में पृथ्वी पर उत्पादित हो पाई होगी। In 1984, Yuasa reported a 0.00017% yield of guanine after ...
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Looking for online definition of guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 4 in the Medical Dictionary? guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 4 explanation free. What is guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 4? Meaning of guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 4 medical term. What does guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 4 mean?
Functional modification of the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein after desensitization of turkey erythrocytes by catecholamines.
The T24N mutant does not efficiently bind guanine nucleotides and so mimics the apo-Ran transition state in the nucleotide exchange reaction. For this reason, it binds RCC1 with an affinity ∼10-fold higher than that of GDP- or GTP-bound Ran (Klebe et al., 1995). Therefore, to further confirm that the Ran(T24N)-induced FRET decrease was caused by binding of Ran to the RCC1, emission spectra were measured in the presence of Ran(Q69L), a Ran mutant deficient in nucleotide hydrolysis that binds to RCC1 weakly. In the absence of GTP and Mg2+, Ran(Q69L) behaved like Ran(T24N), decreasing the FRET efficiency of the biosensor (Fig. 3, C and D). However, in the presence of GTP and Mg2+, Ran(Q69L) did not change the FRET efficiency, even at high concentrations (Fig. 3, C and D). These results confirm that the effect of Ran(T24N) is mediated by its binding to RCC1.. Because Ran binds to one side of the RCC1 body and chromatin is believed to bind to the other, we were also interested in whether histones ...
Expression of the pyrC gene, which encodes the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzyme dihydroorotase, is negatively regulated by pyrimidine availability in Escherichia coli. To define the mechanism of this regulation, an essential regulatory region between the pyrC promoter and the initial codons of the pyrC structural gene was identified. Mutational analysis of this regulatory region showed that the formation of a hairpin at the 5 end of the pyrC transcript, which overlaps the pyrC ribosome binding site, is required for repression of pyrC expression. Formation of the hairpin appears to be controlled by nucleotide-sensitive selection of the site of pyrC transcriptional initiation. When the CTP level is high, the major pyrC transcript is initiated with this nucleotide at a position seven bases downstream of the pyrC -10 region. This transcript is capable of forming a stable hairpin at its 5 end. When the CTP level is low and the GTP level is high, conditions found in cells limited for pyrimidines, the ...
Guanine nucleotides regulate binding of opiate agonists to membrane receptors by increasing agonist dissociation rates. The current study demonstrates that the ability of guanosine 5-triphosphate (GTP) and its nonhydrolyzable analogue guanylyl-5-imidodiphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) to inhibit opiate agonist binding to rat brain membranes can be altered by two methods: by preincubating with EDTA, and by preincubating at pH 4.5. EDTA pretreatment increased the potency of Gpp(NH)p in inhibiting [3H]morphine binding by 4-fold, with little apparent change in the maximum effect of Gpp(NH)p or on levels of binding itself. The effect of EDTA pretreatment was blocked by prior incubation of membranes with excess calcium or manganese but could not be reversed by any divalent cation if the EDTA incubation was longer than 10 min. EDTA pretreatment increased the effects of GTP on dissociation rates of agonists. Pretreatment of membranes at pH 4.5 increased the ability of guanine nucleotides to regulate agonist binding by
Amino Acid SequenceMGSSHHHHHH SSGLVPRGSH MGSMPALHIE DLPEKEKLKM EVEQLRKEVK LQRQQVSKCS EEIKNYIEER SGEDPLVKGI PEDKNPFKEK GSC.DescriptionGNG11 Human Recombinant produced in E. coli is. a single polypeptide chain containing 93 amino acids (1-70) and having a molecular mass of 10.6kDa. GNG11 is fused to a 23 amino acid His-tag at N-terminus & purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques.FormulationThe GNG11 solution (1mg/ml) contains 20mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0), 0.15M NaCl, 10% glycerol and 1mM DTT.Physical AppearanceSterile Filtered clear solution.PurityGreater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE.SourceEscherichia Coli.StabilityStore at 4°C if entire vial will be used within 2-4 weeks. Store frozen at -20°C for longer periods of time. For long term storage it is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% HSA or BSA).Avoid multiple freeze-thaw cycles.SynonymsGNGT11, Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-11, GNG11.Linkhttp://www.prospecbio.com/GNG11_Human_10
TY - JOUR. T1 - Participation of guanine nucleotides in nucleation and elongation steps of microtubule assembly.. AU - Karr, T. L.. AU - Podrasky, A. E.. AU - Purich, D. L.. PY - 1979/11. Y1 - 1979/11. N2 - Critical concentrations for formation of microtubules from subunits with GTP and its beta, gamma-imido and beta, gamma-methylene analogs are similar when adequate time is given for equilibration. Dilution of microtubules into GTP and GDP yielded values of 0.1 and 0.19 mg/ml for the critical concentration, results similar to those reported by Carlier and Pantaloni [Carlier, M. & Pantaloni, D. (1978) Biochemistry 17, 1908-1915]. GDP is capable of supporting elongation of preformed microtubules, but it efficiently poisons the nucleation events. Reported experiments also demonstrate that the critical tubulin concentration of the tubulin-GDP complex can be accurately measured in both the assembly and disassembly directions. Evidence is presented that GTP is involved in early nucleation events but ...
Guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 13 (GNA13) has been implicated as an oncogenic protein in several human cancers. In this study, GNA13 was characterized for its role in gastric cancer (GC) progression and underlying molecular mechanisms. The expression dynamics of GNA13 were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in two independent cohorts of GC samples. A series of in-vivo and in-vitro assays was performed to elucidate the function of GNA13 in GC and its underlying mechanisms. In both two cohorts of GC samples, we observed that GNA13 was markedly overexpressed in GC tissues and associated closely with aggressive magnitude of GC progression and poor patients survival ...
Effects of 6-thioguanine on PTHrP content in the media of cultured MDA-MB-231 cells plated onto 48-well plates and grown to near confluence. Cells were washed and treated with serum-free media containing 6-thioguanine in the indicated concentrations for 48 hours. PTHrP concentrations in conditioned media were corrected for cell number. The detection limit of the assay is ∼0.5 pM/L ...
Nucleostemin antibody [2C8D5] (guanine nucleotide binding protein-like 3 (nucleolar)) for ELISA, WB. Anti-Nucleostemin mAb (GTX60697) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
GNL3 - GNL3 (untagged)-Human guanine nucleotide binding protein-like 3 (nucleolar) (GNL3), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Get an answer for DNA MoleculeUnder normal circumctances, it is not possible for adenine to pair up with guanine or cytosine, or for any other mismatches to occur. Describe the two factors that prevent a mismatch from occcuring. and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Current peaks related to guanine oxidation of the probe-modified-PGE after (a) and before hybridization with DENV-3 (b); in the presence of non-complementary se
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Glucose metabolism in pancreatic B-cells leads to an increase in the ATP/ADP ratio that might participate in the regulation of insulin secretion. Good correlations have also been observed between guanine nucleotide levels in isolated pancreatic islets and insulin secretion. To assess whether guanine nucleotides have a specific role in stimulus-secretion coupling, their concentration should be modified selectively. This was attempted by culturing mouse islets overnight in the presence of mycophenolic acid (MPA), an inhibitor of GMP synthesis at the level of IMP dehydrogenase. The drug (25-50 μg/ml) did not affect the insulin content but decreased the GTP content of the islets and inhibited insulin secretion during subsequent incubation in the presence of 15 mM glucose. However, MPA also decreased the ATP/ADP ratio in the islets. The addition of guanine to the culture medium (to stimulate the salvage pathway of GTP synthesis) restored normal GTP levels, corrected the ATP/ADP ratio and partly ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The hepatic adenylate cyclase system. I. Evidence for transition states and structural requirements for guanine nucleotide activation. AU - Salomon, Y.. AU - Lin, M. C.. AU - Londos, C.. AU - Rendell, M.. AU - Rodbell, M.. PY - 1975/12/1. Y1 - 1975/12/1. N2 - Previous studies showed that guanine nucleotides, acting at a site termed the nucleotide regulatory site, are required for activation of hepatic adenylate cyclase, and that glucagon facilitates this process. This study shows that only guanine nucleotides containing triphosphate groups at the 5 position of ribose (or 3 deoxyribose) are capable of activating the enzyme. The terminal phosphate is not utilized in the activation process, since 5 guanylylimidodiphosphate [Gpp(NH)p] and 5 guanylyl methylenediphosphonate, analogues of guanosine triphosphate that are not utilized in transferase or hydrolase reactions, stimulate enzyme activity. The nucleotides bind in their free form at the regulatory site; chelation by magnesium ...
Guanine nucleotide exchange factor that catalyzes guanine nucleotide exchange on RHOA and CDC42, and thereby contributes to the regulation of RHOA and CDC42 signaling pathways. Seems to lack activity with RAC1. Becomes activated and highly tumorigenic by truncation of the N-terminus.
Guanyl nucleotide binding-proteins, or G-proteins, are ubiquitous molecules that are involved in cellular signal transduction mechanisms. Because a role has been established for cAMP in meiosis and G-proteins participate in cAMP-generating systems by stimulating or inhibiting adenylate cyclase, the present study was conducted to examine the possible involvement of G-proteins in the resumption of meiotic maturation. Cumulus cell-free mouse oocytes (denuded oocytes) were maintained in meiotic arrest in a transient and dose-dependent manner when microinjected with the nonhydrolyzable GTP analog, GTP gamma S. This effect was specific for GTP gamma S, because GppNHp, GTP, and ATP gamma S were without effect. Three compounds, known to interact with G-proteins, were tested for their ability to modulate meiotic maturation: pertussis toxin, cholera toxin, and aluminum fluoride (AlF4-). Pertussis toxin had little effect on maturation in either cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes or denuded oocytes when
Our results suggest that Ang II activates RhoA in cardiac myocytes. RhoA mediates Ang II-induced formation of nonstriated sarcomeric actin fibers (premyofibrils), which are distinct from stress fibers, in cardiac myocytes. Considering the existence of multiple downstream target molecules and the pleiotropic functions of Rho as reported in other cell types (References 30, 39, and 4030 39 40 ; see Reference 22 for review), RhoA may play an important role in remodeling processes of the heart caused by Ang II.. Since Rho is a member of the small GTP-binding proteins, activation of Rho could be shown by its increased binding of GTP. However, the guanine nucleotide binding assay or determination of the guanine nucleotide exchange activity for Rho has been technically difficult because the available antibody is not suitable for immunoprecipitating the native form of Rho41 in the presence of Mg2+ (authors unpublished data, 1997). Since Mg2+ is essential for preserving the guanine nucleotide binding of ...
Guanine is among the five nucleobases that is found in DNA and RNA. The formula of guanine is C5H5N5O, and is a planar and bicyclic molecule. Guanine has two forms, keto and enol forms. The keto form is the major form. Guanine, like adenine, is a derivative of purine and binds to cytosine through 3 hydrogen bonds. The amino group in the cytosine is the hydrogen donor and the C2 carbonyl and the N3 amine are the hydrogen-bond acceptors. In Guanine, the group at C6 acts as the hydrogen accepter, and the group at N1 and the amino group at C2 act as the hydrogen donors. The related nucleoside containing guanine and ribose is called guanosine and guanine bound to deoxyribose sugar is called deoxyguanosine. Guanine is capable of being hydrolyzed by strong acids to form ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and glycine. Guanine oxidizes more readily than adenine, another purine-derivative nitrogenous base in nucleic acids. Guanine has a high melting point of 350°C due to the intermolecular ...
In this new work, Fang and his colleagues instead used fragment-based lead discovery. They screened highly soluble fragments of small molecules at high concentrations and used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to identify fragments that bind with RAS. We use this approach to probe the RAS protein structure for a binding pocket, said Fang. RAS has a smooth surface topology, so its hard to find a pocket.. Of 3,300 screened fragment compounds, 25 bound to RAS. These 25 fragment compounds all bound in the same pocket, a site very close to the place where RAS binds with SOS, a co-factor that switches RAS from off to on. Our compounds interrupt the RAS-SOS interaction and block the nucleotide exchange reaction that activates RAS, says Fang. Further, when Fang and colleagues applied these compounds to a cellular model, RAS activity dropped by 50%.. The team confirmed that their compounds bind with K-Ras and H-Ras, 2 of the 3 Ras isoforms. The 3 isoforms are very similar in structure, so I ...
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The rates of different types of nucleotide substitutions are known to depend on factors such as methylation status and nearest-neighbor nucleotide effects. However, until recently, in eukaryotes, the rates have not been considered to be strand specific ...
T cell-mediated adaptive immunity requires naive, unstimulated T cells to transition from a quiescent metabolic state into a highly proliferative state upon T cell receptor engagement. This complex process depends on transcriptional changes mediated by calcium-dependent NFAT signaling, mTOR-mediated signaling and increased activity of the guanine nucleotide biosynthetic enzyme inosine-5-monophosphate (IMP) dehydrogenase (IMPDH). Inhibitors of these pathways serve as potent immunosuppressants. Unexpectedly, we discovered that all three pathways converge to promote the assembly of IMPDH protein into micron-scale macromolecular filamentous structures in response to T cell activation. Assembly is post-transcriptionally controlled by mTOR and the calcium influx regulator STIM1. Furthermore, IMPDH assembly and catalytic activity were negatively regulated by guanine nucleotide levels, suggesting a negative feedback loop that limits biosynthesis of guanine nucleotides. Filamentous IMPDH may be more ...
View mouse Rabgef1 Chr5:130171798-130214342 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
The alarmones guanosine tetraphosphate and guanosine pentaphosphate (collectively referred to as (p)ppGpp) are involved in regulating growth and several different stress responses in bacteria. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of (p) …
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a protein similar to guanosine nucleotide exchange factors for Rho GTPases. The encoded protein contains in its C-terminus a GEF domain involved in exchange activity and a pleckstrin homology domain. Alternatively spliced transcripts that encode different proteins have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014 ...
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a protein similar to guanosine nucleotide exchange factors for Rho GTPases. The encoded protein contains in its C-terminus a GEF domain involved in exchange activity and a pleckstrin homology domain. Alternatively spliced transcripts that encode different proteins have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014 ...
Stimulates the exchange of guanyl nucleotides associated with the GTPase ARF. Under normal cellular physiological conditions, the concentration of GTP is higher than that of GDP, favoring the replacement of GDP by GTP in association with the GTPase ...
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Guan has just learnt the four nucleobases in DNA: Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine and Guanine. Wait, GUANine. Guan is incredibly intrigued by this based named GUANine. Was it named after me? he thought to himself. Surely it must be, I am so smart. After countless hours of searching Google for the origins of Guanine, his search turned out futile. There was no results found for Wu Guanquns brilliant discovery of new nucleobase Guanine. Devastated, he turns back to his lego DNA play set and starts constructing DNA sequences. ATTGCCGATTGACT, Guan made, hmm, gene for awkwardness. GCTAGCTAGCGCGTAT, Guan made another gene sequence, hmm, gene for being weird. Guan starts off with an empty DNA string. He can then choose any one of four operations to do ...
THE GDP DEFLATOR IN NIGERIA WAS REPORTED AT 254.42 IN 2009, ACCORDING TO THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF). IN 2015, NIGERIA'S GDP DEFLATOR IS EXPECTED TO BE 444.22 INDEX. THE GDP DEFLATOR IS DERIVED BY DIVIDING CURRENT PRICE GDP BY CONSTANT PRICE GDP AND IS CONSIDERED TO BE AN ALTERNATE MEASURE OF INFLATION. PLEASE NOTE: DATA ARE EXPRESSED IN THE BASE YEAR OF EACH COUNTRY'S NATIONAL ACCOUNTS. IN 2009, NIGERIA'S ECONOMY SHARE OF WORLD TOTAL GDP, ADJUSTED BY PURCHASING POWER PARITY, WAS 0.48 PERCENT. IN 2015, NIGERIA'S SHARE OF WORLD TOTAL GDP IS FORECASTED TO BE 0.53 PERCENT. THIS PAGE INCLUDES A CHART, HISTORICAL DATA AND FORECAST FOR NIGERIA'S GDP DEFLATOR.
Instructions Step 1: Understand real GDP Know that a countrys GDP is the sum of the prices of all goods and services produced in its economy during a set
Treatment of intact Rat-1 fibroblasts with epidermal growth factor (EGF) leads to rapid activation of cellular ras-encoded proteins. By using the bacterial toxin streptolysin O to permeabilize these cells, it was shown that the low basal rate at which guanine nucleotides bind to, and dissociate from, ras-encoded protein in quiescent fibroblasts was greatly accelerated by EGF treatment. Nucleotide binding to other proteins was not affected. Stimulation of nucleotide exchange on ras-encoded protein required tyrosine kinase but not phospholipase activity. EGF had no effect on total GTPase-activating protein activity. Regulation of ras-encoded protein in Rat-1 fibroblasts is therefore mediated by stimulation, either directly or indirectly, of ras-encoded protein-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors by the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase. ...
casSAR Dugability of A3NLC8 | bopE | Guanine nucleotide exchange factor BopE - Also known as BOPE_BURP6, bopE. Activator for both CDC42 and RAC1 by directly interacting with these Rho GTPases and acting as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). This activation results in actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and stimulates membrane ruffling, thus promoting bacterial entry into non-phagocytic cells (By similarity). Monomer. Interacts with human CDC42 (By similarity).
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors were solubilized from rat cerebellum membranes in an active, stable, and guanine nucleotide-sensitive form by using digitonin. Nearly 90% of membrane CGRP receptors and 50% of membrane protein were solubilized by digitonin treatment of cerebellum membranes. Binding of 125ICGRP to soluble receptors was specific, saturable, of high affinity, and reversible. Scatchard analysis of the saturation binding data revealed a homogeneous population of binding sites with a Kd of 178 +/- 42 pM and a Bmax of 201 +/- 17 fmol/mg of protein. Binding of 125ICGRP to soluble receptors was inhibited nearly 60% by guanosine-5-O-(3-thio)triphosphate (GTP gamma S) (100 microM), suggesting coupling of receptors with guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) to form high affinity binding sites. Antiserum against the amino-terminal region of Gs alpha immunoprecipitated a significant portion of soluble CGRP receptors, indicating association of receptors with Gs ...
Development of metastasis in breast cancer is a multi-step process comprising changes in cytoskeletal structure and gene expression of tumour cells leading to changes in cell adhesion and motility. The Rho GTPase proteins, which function as guanine nucleotide regulated binary switches, govern a variety of cellular processes including cell motility and migration, changes in cell adhesion as well as actin cytoskeletal reorganisation and gene expression/transcription. One group of activators which regulate the Rho-GTPases is the guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), and this study looked at three such GEFs, Trio, Vav1 and TIAM-1. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of these GEFs, in human breast cancer and assess the affect on clinical outcome. Specimens of fresh, frozen breast tumour tissue (n = 113) and normal background tissue (n = 30) were processed for quantitative PCR analysis. The expression and levels of expression of Trio, Vav1 and TIAM-1 were analysed using RT-PCR
Dual inhibitory and stimulatory actions of guanine nucleotides on luteinizing-hormone (LH) exocytosis were observed in primary sheep gonadotropes permeabilized with staphylococcal alpha-toxin. At resting cytosolic [Ca2+]free (pCa 7), 5-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) and guanosine 5-[beta
TRAPP was purified from 300 OD599 units of cells. SFNY904 (MATα ura3-52 bet3Δ::URA3 leu2-3, 112 BET3-protein A::LEU2 L-A-o) was used for the purification because it contained protein A-tagged Bet3p and was free of the L-A virus (L-A-o). The L-A virus coat protein, gag, is a common contaminant in the purification (see Sacher et al. 2000). To purify TRAPP, cells were converted to spheroplasts, lysed in 3 ml of buffer B (150 mM KCl, 20 mM Hepes, pH 7.2, 2 mM EDTA, 1% Trition X-100, 0.5 mM DTT, protease inhibitor cocktail), and the unbroken cells were removed as described above. The lysate was centrifuged at 14,000 g for 10 min and the supernatant (10 mg/ml of protein) was incubated with 150 μl of a 50% slurry of IgG-Sepharose (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech) for 4 h. The beads were washed three times with 3 ml of release buffer (20 mM Hepes, pH 7.2, 5 mM MgCl2, 1 mM DTT, 0.75 mM GTP, 0.75 mMGDP, 1 mg/ml BSA) or uptake buffer (20 mM Hepes, pH 7.2, 5 mM MgCl2, 1 mM EDTA, 1 mM ATP, 1 mM DTT, 1 mg/ml ...
Looking for online definition of guanine analogues in the Medical Dictionary? guanine analogues explanation free. What is guanine analogues? Meaning of guanine analogues medical term. What does guanine analogues mean?
This gene encodes a member of the guanylate-binding protein (GBP) family. GBPs specifically bind guanine nucleotides (GMP, GDP, and GTP) and contain two of the three consensus motifs found in typical GTP-binding proteins. The encoded protein interacts with a member of the germinal center kinase family. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016 ...
Calcium, Membrane, Calcium Channel, Plasma, Plasma Membrane, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Mice, Reticulum, Concentration, GTP, Guanine, Gtpases, Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor, and Cytochrome B
BACKGROUND:: The value of azathioprine metabolites (6-thioguanine nucleotides [6-TGN]) in monitoring clinical treatment response is still controversially discussed. Data regarding thiopurine metabolite levels and endoscopic improvement are lacking. METHODS:: Data were analyzed post hoc from a 1-year, multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized trial comparing azathioprine 2.0 to 2.5 mg/kg per day ...
Origin and meaning of guanine: 1846, from guano, from which the chemical first was isolated, + chemical suffix -ine (2). ... See more.
The inactive form of GTPases (GDP-form) are activated by a class of proteins called Guanosine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs ... Another class of regulatory proteins, the Guanosine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), bind to the GDP-bound form of ... GEFs catalyse nucleotide exchange by encouraging the release of GDP from the small GTPase (by displacement of the small GTPase- ... Guanine nucleotide exchange factor. *EIF2B. *Son of Sevenless. *Ras-GRF1. .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. FGD. * ...
This process is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) which promote the exchange of bound GDP for free GTP, ... nucleotide binding. • GTP binding. • identical protein binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • cytosol. • membrane. • cell- ... and GDP dissociation inhibitors which inhibit the dissociation of the nucleotide from the GTPase.[7] ...
Involvement of a guanine nucleotide binding (Go) protein". J. Immunol. 150 (4): 1524-34. PMID 8381837.. ...
The guanine nucleotide activating site of the regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. Identification by ligand binding. J ... A family of structurally homologous guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. J Biol Chem. 1983 Jun 10;258(11):7059-63. PMID 6304074 ...
... a pleckstrin homology domain containing guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ral". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 ( ...
... works by methylating guanine at the O-6 and N-7 positions.[14] Guanine is one of the four nucleotides that makes up ...
"Guanine nucleotide-binding activity for src protein of rat-derived murine sarcoma viruses". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 76 (5): ... KRAS can bind to proteins of the Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) class (such as SOS1), which forces the release of ... "Identification of the guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator for Ral as a putative effector molecule of R-ras, H-ras, K-ras ... "Stimulation of Ras guanine nucleotide exchange activity of Ras-GRF1/CDC25(Mm) upon tyrosine phosphorylation by the Cdc42- ...
ARFGEF2: ADP-ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide-exchange factor 2 (brefeldin A-inhibited) ...
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNB1 gene.[5] ... "Entrez Gene: GNB1 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 1".. ... Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector ...
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(olf) subunit alpha is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNAL gene. GRCh38: ... "Entrez Gene: GNAL guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha activating activity polypeptide, olfactory type". ...
1986). „The primary structure of the alpha subunit of human elongation factor 1. Structural aspects of guanine-nucleotide- ...
Worthylake DK, Rossman KL, Sondek J (Dec 2000). "Crystal structure of Rac1 in complex with the guanine nucleotide exchange ... 1foe: CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF RAC1 IN COMPLEX WITH THE GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE REGION OF TIAM1 ... of rac1 specifies interaction with a subset of guanine nucleotide exchange factors". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 ( ... nucleotide binding. • GTP binding. • Rab GTPase binding. • protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • macromolecular complex ...
"Association of CNK1 with Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors controls signaling specificity downstream of Rho". Cell: ...
It is a member of the DOCK-A subfamily of the DOCK family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) which function as ... Rac guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity. • GTPase activator activity. • guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity. • ... "Identification of an evolutionarily conserved superfamily of DOCK180-related proteins with guanine nucleotide exchange activity ... Instead they possess a DHR2 domain which mediates Rac activation by stabilising it in its nucleotide-free state.[7] They also ...
This receptor then binds to an ARF-GEF, a class of guanine nucleotide exchange factors. This protein in turn binds to the ARF. ... There are 6 mammalian ARFs which are regulated by over 30 guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating ... mechanisms of guanine nucleotide exchange and GTP-myristoyl switching". Cell. 95 (2): 237-248. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(00)81754- ...
In this pathway, recruitment of a guanine nucleotide exchange factor by the adaptor and docking proteins leads to activation of ... The guanine nucleotide exchange factor mediates Ras activation through the GDP-GTP exchange process. The active Ras protein ...
Haslam RJ, Williams KA, Davidson MM (1986). „Receptor-effector coupling in platelets: roles of guanine nucleotides.". Adv. Exp ... 1999). „Characterization of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in coding regions of human genes.". Nat. Genet. 22 (3): 231-8. PMID ...
"ITAM signaling by Vav family Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors regulates interstitial transit rates of neutrophils in ...
"The Atypical Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Dock4 Regulates Neurite Differentiation through Modulation of Rac1 GTPase and ...
"Direct measurements of in situ interactions of rat brain opioid receptors with the guanine nucleotide-binding protein Go". ... G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger. • protein import into nucleus, ...
In most GTPases, the specificity for the base guanine versus other nucleotides is imparted by the base-recognition motif, which ... Some GTPases also bind to accessory proteins called guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors or GDIs that stabilize the ... Inhibition of GDP dissociation by guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs) slows down accumulation of active GTPase. ... the inactive GTPases are induced to release bound GDP by the action of distinct regulatory proteins called guanine nucleotide ...
... homology with the guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor RCC1". Human Molecular Genetics. 5 (7): 1035-41. doi:10.1093/hmg/5.7.1035 ... with homology to the RCC1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor is mutated in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (RP3)". Nature ... characteristic of the highly conserved guanine nucleotide exchange factors. Mutations in this gene have been associated with X- ... guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity. • RNA binding. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • ciliary basal body. • centrosome ...
Northup, JK; Smigel, MD; Gilman, AG (1982). "The guanine nucleotide activating site of the regulatory component of adenylate ... A family of structurally homologous guanine nucleotide-binding proteins". 》The Journal of Biological Chemistry》 258 (11): 7059- ...
"ARNO is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ADP-ribosylation factor 6". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1): 23-7. 1998. doi:10.1074/ ... "ADP-ribosylation factors: a family of approximately 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that activate cholera toxin". ... "Characterization of the human gene encoding ADP-ribosylation factor 1, a guanine nucleotide-binding activator of cholera toxin ... two guanine nucleotide-dependent activators of cholera toxin". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86 (16): 6101-5. 1989. doi:10.1073 ...
Otsuki Y, Tanaka M, Kamo T, Kitanaka C, Kuchino Y, Sugimura H (February 2003). "Guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Tiam1, ... Guilhot S, Petridou B, Syed-Hussain S, Galibert F (December 1988). "Nucleotide sequence 3' to the human c-myc oncogene; ...
... an ethanol-responsive potential modulator of guanine nucleotide-binding protein function.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90 ( ...
This gene encodes the α2B subtype, which was observed to associate with eIF-2B, a guanine nucleotide exchange protein that ... interacts directly with the guanine nucleotide binding protein, Gi2". FEBS Letters. 269 (2): 430-4. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(90) ...
The 144 nucleotide 5'-NTR is particularly rich in adenine residues and has very few guanine residues. Rather than a ... A single nucleotide polymorphism-based technique for specific characterization of YO and YN isolates of Potato virus Y (PVY). J ... Van der Vlugt, R., Allefs, S., De Haan, P. and Goldbach, R. (1989). Nucleotide sequence of the 3'-terminal region of potato ...
Upon activation by light, rhodopsin causes the exchange of GDP for GTP in the guanine nucleotide binding protein (G-protein) α- ... Known genetic causes of this are mutations in the cone cell cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels CNGA3 (ACHM2) and CNGB3 (ACHM3 ... There are at least four genetic causes of congenital ACHM, two of which involve cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels (ACHM2/ ... cGMP is particularly important in visual perception as its level controls the opening of cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels ( ...
The symbol BCR is derived from breakpoint cluster region, a gene which encodes a protein that acts as a guanine nucleotide ...
RNA editing is the insertion, deletion, and substitution of nucleotides in a mRNA transcript prior to translation to protein. ... During replication, the cytosine will pair with guanine, causing an A → G base change. ... "Effect of chemical mutagens on nucleotide sequence". Biocyclopedia. Retrieved 24 October 2015.. ...
Guanine nucleotide exchange factor. *Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome. *Aarskog-Scott syndrome. *Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis ...
nucleotide). P2X. (ATP). *Agonists: 2-Me-SATP. *α,β-Me-ATP. *Adenosine ...
In the 1980s, while investigating nucleotide sequences in mouse genome loci, the Hogness box sequence was found and "boxed in" ... Cisplatin is a compound that binds covalently to adjacent guanines in the major groove of DNA, which distorts DNA to allow ... A CAAT box (also CAT box) is a region of nucleotides with the following consensus sequence: 5' GGCCAATCT 3'. The CAAT box is ... at the -31 position.[4] When consensus nucleotides and alternative ones were compared, homologous regions were "boxed" by the ...
An increase in ATP concentration opposes this activation by displacing AMP from the nucleotide binding site, indicating ... Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. *Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase. *Amidophosphoribosyltransferase. Other. * ...
A common SNP in the BDNF gene is rs6265.[39] This point mutation in the coding sequence, a guanine to adenine switch at ... BDNF has several known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), including, but not limited to, rs6265, C270T, rs7103411, ...
RNA also uses a different set of bases than DNA-adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil, instead of adenine, guanine, cytosine ... One version, 189-bases long, had an error rate of just 1.1% per nucleotide when synthesizing an 11 nucleotide long RNA strand ... All three spontaneously form nucleotides with ribose.[67] Evolution of DNA[edit]. One of the challenges posed by the RNA world ... Nucleotides are the fundamental molecules that combine in series to form RNA. They consist of a nitrogenous base attached to a ...
guanine. One of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and ... A succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA or RNA molecule.. nucleobase. The ... One of the four main nitrogenous bases found in both DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, thymine, and uracil (in RNA); it ... nucleotide. An organic compound which serves as the fundamental monomer used in the construction of nucleic acid polymers, such ...
C9orf72 likely functions as a guanine exchange factor for a small GTPase, but this is likely not related to the underlying ... SMN1 and SMN2 are nearly identical except for a single nucleotide change in SMN2 resulting in an alternative splicing site ... CpG refers to a dinucleotide composed of a cytosine deoxynucleotide immediately adjacent to a guanine deoxynucleotide. A ...
G) Guanine. (C) Cytosine. (U) Uracil. Adenine forms bonds with uracil, and guanine forms bonds with cytosine. In this way, we ... Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a short molecule of about 80 nucleotides which carries a specific amino acid to the polypeptide chain at ... They are quite small (20/25 nucleotides) double-stranded molecules. Their discovery has caused a surge in biomedical research ... say that adenine is complementary to uracil and that guanine is complementary to cytosine. The first three bases are also found ...
The mutation caused a change from guanine to adenine at complementary DNA nucleotide 1181 (c.1181G,A) in the gene, which ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are members of non-coding RNAs that range in size from 17 to 25 nucleotides. miRNAs regulate a large variety ... 5-Methylcytosine performs much like a regular cytosine, pairing with a guanine in double-stranded DNA. However, some areas of ... sRNAs are small (50-250 nucleotides), highly structured, non-coding RNA fragments found in bacteria. They control gene ... functionally relevant changes to the genome that do not involve a change in the nucleotide sequence. Examples of mechanisms ...
நியூக்கிளியோடைட்டுக்கள் (nucleotide) எசுத்தர் பிணைப்பால் இணைக்கப்பட்ட ஒற்றைச்சர்க்கரைகளையும், அவற்றுடன் இணைந்த தாங்கி (base) ... Guanine - G) என்ற நான்கு தாங்கிகள் (bases) என்றழைக்கப்படும் மூலக்கூறுகளில் ஏதாவது ஒன்று பிணைந்திருக்கும். ஒற்றைச்சக்கரை ...
... common MT-ATP6 mutation found with Leigh syndrome is a point mutation at nucleotide 8993 that changes a thymine to a guanine. ...
RNA editing is the insertion, deletion, and substitution of nucleotides in a mRNA transcript prior to translation to protein. ... During replication, the cytosine will pair with guanine, causing an A → G base change. ... "Effect of chemical mutagens on nucleotide sequence". Biocyclopedia. Retrieved 24 October 2015.. ... "The complete nucleotide sequence of the tobacco chloroplast genome: its gene organization and expression". The EMBO Journal. 5 ...
... guanine) is the code for methionine. Because DNA contains four nucleotides, the total number of possible codons is 64; hence, ... The genetic code is a set of three-nucleotide sets called codons and each three-nucleotide combination designates an amino acid ... The mRNA is loaded onto the ribosome and is read three nucleotides at a time by matching each codon to its base pairing ... Each protein has its own unique amino acid sequence that is specified by the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding this ...
A 5' cap (also termed an RNA cap, an RNA 7-methylguanosine cap, or an RNA m7G cap) is a modified guanine nucleotide that has ... The 3' poly(A) tail is a long sequence of adenine nucleotides (often several hundred) added to the 3' end of the pre-mRNA. This ... As in DNA, mRNA genetic information is in the sequence of nucleotides, which are arranged into codons consisting of three base ... In some instances, an mRNA will be edited, changing the nucleotide composition of that mRNA. An example in humans is the ...
Nucleic acids (including RNA and DNA) are nucleotide polymers synthesized by polymerase enzymes during either transcription or ... Orange, blue, green, and purple lines represent adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine respectively. The three short black ... Nucleic acid denaturation occurs when hydrogen bonding between nucleotides is disrupted, and results in the separation of ...
The African descent is associated with a protective effect of AF, due to the low presence of SNPs with guanine alleles, in ... which screen the entire genome for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), three susceptibility loci have been found for AF (4q25 ...
Chromosomes all contain DNA made up of four nucleotides, abbreviated C (cytosine), G (guanine), A (adenine), or T (thymine), ... Nucleotide. They form the rungs of the DNA ladder and are the repeating units in DNA. There are four types of nucleotides (A, T ... an A nucleotide must go opposite a T nucleotide, and a G opposite a C. This exact pairing is called base pairing.[12] ... These units are four types of nucleotides (A,T,G and C) and the sequence of nucleotides stores information in an alphabet ...
... experimentally determined ratios of the nucleotide subunits of DNA: the amount of guanine is equal to cytosine and the amount ... adaptor molecules ("they might contain nucleotides") to match short sequences of nucleotides in the RNA messenger molecules to ... The similar structures of guanine:cytosine and adenine:thymine base pairs is illustrated. The base pairs are held together by ... They consulted Jerry Donohue who confirmed the most likely structures of the nucleotide bases.[45] The base pairs are held ...
Guanine nucleotide exchange factor. *Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome. *Aarskog-Scott syndrome. *Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis ...
nucleotide). P2X. (ATP). *Agonists: 2-Me-SATP. *α,β-Me-ATP. *Adenosine ...
Main article: Nucleotide. The canonical structure of DNA has four bases: thymine (T), adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G ... Each strand is composed of four complementary nucleotides - adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T) - with an A ... If the introduced nucleotide is complementary to the leading template nucleotide it is incorporated into the growing ... Wu R (1972). "Nucleotide sequence analysis of DNA". Nature New Biology. 236 (68): 198-200. doi:10.1038/newbio236198a0. PMID ...
The nucleobases are divided into purines (guanine and adenine) and pyrimidines (cytosine, thymine and uracil). Anti-metabolites ... The building blocks are nucleotides; a molecule comprising a nucleobase, a sugar and a phosphate group. ... The nitrogen mustards most commonly alkylate the N7 nitrogen of guanine (as shown here) but other atoms can be alkylated.[31] ... resemble either nucleobases or nucleosides (a nucleotide without the phosphate group), but have altered chemical groups.[37] ...
The CpG sites or CG sites are regions of DNA where a cytosine nucleotide is followed by a guanine nucleotide in the linear ... a pair of nucleotides consisting of cytosine followed by guanine would be expected to occur 0.21 * 0.21 = 4.41% of the time. ... CpG is shorthand for 5'-C-phosphate-G-3' , that is, cytosine and guanine separated by only one phosphate group; phosphate links ... CpG should not be confused with GpC, the latter meaning that a guanine is followed by a cytosine in the 5' → 3' direction of a ...
RCC1 is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ran GTPase. It localizes to the nucleus and catalyzes the activation of Ran ... Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) are proteins or protein domains involved in the activation of small GTPases. Small ... G proteins Guanine Nucleotide exchange factor Small GTPases Cherfils J, Zeghouf M (January 2013). "Regulation of small GTPases ... Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) are proteins or protein domains that activate monomeric GTPases by stimulating the ...
GO:0005089 Rho guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity GO:0005515 protein binding ...
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein, beta subunit (IPR016346). Short name: Guanine_nucleotide-bd_bsu ... This entry represents the G protein (guanine nucleotide-binding proteins) beta subunit, including Ste4 from budding yeasts [ ...
Constitutive activity of receptors coupled to guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins.. Lefkowitz RJ1, Cotecchia S, Samama P, ...
In molecular biology, the EF1 guanine nucleotide exchange domain is a protein domain found in the beta and delta chains of ... The beta and delta chains have exchange activity, which mainly resides in their homologous guanine nucleotide exchange domains ... The EF1 guanine nucleotide exchange domain is found in the beta (EF-1beta, also known as EF1B-alpha) and delta (EF-1delta, also ... "The solution structure of the guanine nucleotide exchange domain of human elongation factor 1beta reveals a striking ...
Homo sapiens Rho/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 (ARHGEF2), ... PREDICTED: Homo sapiens Rho/Rac guanine nucleotide ... PREDICTED: Homo sapiens Rho/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 (ARHGEF2), transcript variant X2, mRNA. NCBI Reference ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ...
... guanine nucleotide exchange factors include Comparing the Affinity of GTPase-binding Proteins using Competition Assays, ... Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of Gtp for Gdp bound to Gtp-binding proteins. ...
Pfeilschifter J. (1987) Guanine Nucleotide Regulatory Protein Couples Angiotensin II Receptors to Phospholipase C in Mesangial ... Guanine Nucleotide Regulatory Protein Couples Angiotensin II Receptors to Phospholipase C in Mesangial Cells. ...
Guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Rho family of Ras-related GTPases. Plays an important role in angiogenesis. Its ...
... the human homologue of the Drosophila guanine-nucleotide-releasing factor for Ras, which is essential for control of Ras ... Guanine-nucleotide-releasing factor hSos1 binds to Grb2 and links receptor tyrosine kinases to Ras signalling. *N. Li1, ... Li, N., Batzer, A., Daly, R. et al. Guanine-nucleotide-releasing factor hSos1 binds to Grb2 and links receptor tyrosine kinases ... the human homologue of the Drosophila guanine-nucleotide-releasing factor for Ras, which is essential for control of Ras ...
... a complex that has guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity and regulates autophagy (PubMed:27193190, PubMed:27103069 ... Component of the C9orf72-SMCR8 complex, a complex that has guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity and regulates ... sp,Q96LT7,CI072_HUMAN Guanine nucleotide exchange C9orf72 OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=C9orf72 PE=1 SV=2 ... Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 2), NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] OF 318-418 (ISOFORM 1). ...
Acts as a RAC1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) and can induce membrane ruffling. May function as a positive regulator ...
ADP-ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide-exchange factor 2 variantImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from ... tr,Q59FR3,Q59FR3_HUMAN ADP-ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide-exchange factor 2 variant (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 ... Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 2. MOUSE. 1792. Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange ... ADP ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2. PANTR. 1792. ADP ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide exchange ...
Guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs) are directly responsible for the activation of Rho-family GTPases in response to ... GEF means go: turning on RHO GTPases with guanine nucleotide-exchange factors Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Feb;6(2):167-80. doi ... Guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs) are directly responsible for the activation of Rho-family GTPases in response to ...
A Bacterial Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Activates ARF on Legionella Phagosomes. By Hiroki Nagai, Jonathan C. Kagan, ... A Bacterial Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Activates ARF on Legionella Phagosomes. By Hiroki Nagai, Jonathan C. Kagan, ... A Bacterial Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Activates ARF on Legionella Phagosomes Message Subject. (Your Name) has ... To measure guanine-nucleotide-exchange activity, myristoylated ARF proteins were purified and [35S]GTPγS binding assays were ...
Compare alsin Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, ... alsin Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established ... Your search returned 13 alsin Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor ELISA ELISA Kit across 2 suppliers. ...
ProSpecs Guanine Nucleotide Binding Proteins include: GNAI1 Human, GNAI3 Human, GNB2L1 Human. ...
Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleotide Concentrations in Cells with Decreased Hypoxanthine-Guanine-Phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) ... Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleotide Concentrations in Cells with Decreased Hypoxanthine-Guanine-Phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) ...
Contribution of Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Vav2 to Hyperhomocysteinemic Glomerulosclerosis in Rats. Fan Yi, Min Xia, ... Contribution of Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Vav2 to Hyperhomocysteinemic Glomerulosclerosis in Rats ... Contribution of Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Vav2 to Hyperhomocysteinemic Glomerulosclerosis in Rats ... Contribution of Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Vav2 to Hyperhomocysteinemic Glomerulosclerosis in Rats ...
Contribution of Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Vav2 to Hyperhomocysteinemic Glomerulosclerosis in Rats. Fan Yi, Min Xia, ... Among ,100 guanine nucleotide exchange factors, Vav subfamily exhibits the high specificity to Rac-mediated NADPH oxidase ... In the present study, we found that, among 3 members of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor-Vav subfamily, Vav2 and Vav3 are ... We currently reported that Vav2, a member of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor-Vav subfamily, participates in homocysteine ...
Nucleotide dissociation from small G protein-GEF complexes involves transient GDP-bound intermediates whose structures have ... proteins are activated by GDP/GTP nucleotide exchange stimulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). ... proteins are activated by GDP/GTP nucleotide exchange stimulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Nucleotide ... Structural snapshots of the mechanism and inhibition of a guanine nucleotide exchange factor Nature. 2003 Dec 4;426(6966):525- ...
Rabbit polyclonal Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-like protein antibody. Validated in WB and tested in ... All lanes : Anti-Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-like protein antibody (ab225934) at 1/500 dilution. Lane 1 : ... Primary - Rabbit Anti-Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-like protein antibody (ab225934) WB ... Western blot - Anti-Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-like protein antibody (ab225934) ...
A potential role for guanine nucleotide-binding protein in the regulation of endosomal proton transport.. ... A potential role for guanine nucleotide-binding protein in the regulation of endosomal proton transport.. ...
Mammalian cells overexpressing full-length hSos1 had increased guanine nucleotide exchange activity. Thus hSos1 is a guanine ... The hSos1 protein contains a region of significant sequence similarity to CDC25, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras ... Human Sos1: a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras that binds to GRB2 ... Human Sos1: a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras that binds to GRB2 ...
View mouse Arhgef3 Chr14:27114899-27403911 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
View mouse Rabgef1 Chr5:130171798-130214342 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
Beta and gamma subunits of a yeast guanine nucleotide-binding protein are not essential for membrane association of the alpha ... Introduction of the GPA1 gene encoding an S. cerevisiae homolog of the alpha subunit of mammalian guanine nucleotide-binding ... Synonyms: CDC70, DAC1, GP1-alpha, Guanine nucleotide-binding protein alpha-1 subunit, SCG1, ... ... of a heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) that regulates cell differentiation in response to mating ...
... ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator like 3), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ... intracellular small GTPase mediated signal transduction Ral guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity Ras GTPase binding ... intracellular small GTPase mediated signal transduction Ral guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity Ras GTPase binding ...
rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors: amino acid sequence given in first source; MW=27 kDa; specifically regulates ... rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors. Subscribe to New Research on rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors ... GDP dissociation inhibitor; Rho GDIalpha; Rho guanidine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor 1; Rho-GDI; Rho-GDIs; RhoGDI; rho GDI ...
Isolation of a second yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene (GPA2) coding for guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein: ... Isolation of a second yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene (GPA2) coding for guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein: ... Isolation of a second yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene (GPA2) coding for guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein: ... Isolation of a second yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene (GPA2) coding for guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein: ...
  • Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) are proteins or protein domains that activate monomeric GTPases by stimulating the release of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) to allow binding of guanosine triphosphate (GTP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) are proteins or protein domains involved in the activation of small GTPases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The EF1 guanine nucleotide exchange domain is found in the beta (EF-1beta, also known as EF1B-alpha) and delta (EF-1delta, also known as EF1B-beta) chains of EF1B proteins from eukaryotes and archaea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Constitutive activity of receptors coupled to guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Because the association of cytosolic ARF onto vesicle membranes is coincident with GTP activation, we searched the genome of L. pneumophila for proteins that had homology to ARF-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) ( 16 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Small GTP-binding (G) proteins are activated by GDP/GTP nucleotide exchange stimulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). (nih.gov)
  • This hSos1 domain specifically stimulated guanine nucleotide exchange on mammalian Ras proteins in vitro. (sciencemag.org)
  • In a previous paper, we demonstrated that a gene coding for a protein homologous to the alpha subunit of mammalian guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory (G) proteins occurs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (pnas.org)
  • Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) function as transducers downstream of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as the photoreceptor RHO. (uniprot.org)
  • Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange proteins (GEPs) BIG1 and BIG2 activate ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPases, which are required for vesicular trafficking. (pnas.org)
  • ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins with multiple intracellular functions, including critical roles in vesicular trafficking. (pnas.org)
  • We show that TCTPs form a structural superfamily with the Mss4/Dss4 family of proteins, which bind to the GDP/GTP free form of Rab proteins (members of the Ras superfamily) and have been termed guanine nucleotide-free chaperones (GFCs). (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Conversion of the GDP-bound proteins to the active state is catalyzed by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) ( Van Aelst and D'Souza-Schorey, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • EPAC1 and EPAC2 (exchange proteins activated by cyclic AMP) are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that catalyze the exchange of GDP for GTP, activating Rap1 and Rap2 small GTPases. (creative-biogene.com)
  • Binding of 125ICGRP to soluble receptors was inhibited nearly 60% by guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate (GTP gamma S) (100 microM), suggesting coupling of receptors with guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) to form high affinity binding sites. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Upon activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), Rac1 associates with a variety of proteins in the cell thereby regulating various functions, including cell migration. (garvan.org.au)
  • Monitoring the nucleotide exchange in vitro , together with reconstitution of direct interactions with regulatory proteins, provides key insights into how a GTPase is activated. (bio-protocol.org)
  • GTPases are guanine nucleotide binding proteins that regulate a breadth of cellular processes, ranging from protein biosynthesis to cell-cycle progression and from cytoskeletal reorganization to membrane trafficking. (bio-protocol.org)
  • upon GTP-binding via nucleotide exchange of GDP for GTP, GTPases become active and will bind to down-stream effector proteins to recruit and activate the biological function of these effectors. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between. (biomol.com)
  • Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. (biomol.com)
  • Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding proteins function to couple seven transmembrane spanning serpentine receptors to effector systems governing the regulation of intracellular second messengers. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Rab3GEP belongs to the family of DENN domain proteins, in general DENN domains are considered as domains with a guanine exchange factor activity. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • This cycle is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), * which exchange GDP for GTP, and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), which stimulate the rate of GTP hydrolysis. (rupress.org)
  • Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as modulators or transducers in various transmembrane signaling systems. (cusabio.com)
  • Three classes of proteins, GTPase‐activating proteins (GAPs), guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors (GDIs), and guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), regulate the cycling of these GTP‐binding proteins between their GDP‐bound and GTP‐bound states ( Boguski and McCormick, 1993 ). (embopress.org)
  • High affinity binding of guanine nucleotides and the ability to hydrolyze bound GTP to GDP are characteristics of an extended family of intracellular proteins. (elsevier.com)
  • Spiegel, AM 1987, ' Signal transduction by guanine nucleotide binding proteins ', Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology , vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 1-16. (elsevier.com)
  • A family of guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G-proteins) functions in transmembrane signalling as receptor-effector couplers. (elsevier.com)
  • Signaling proteins which function as master molecular switches by activating Rho GTPases through conversion of guanine nucleotides. (sickkids.ca)
  • Thus, GEFs both destabilize the GTPase interaction with GDP and stabilize the nucleotide-free GTPase until a GTP molecule binds to it. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there are some similarities in how different GEFs alter the conformation of the G protein nucleotide-binding site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs) are directly responsible for the activation of Rho-family GTPases in response to diverse extracellular stimuli, and ultimately regulate numerous cellular responses such as proliferation, differentiation and movement. (nih.gov)
  • The rod-shaped fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has two Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), Scd1 and Gef1, but little is known about how they are coordinated in polarized growth. (biologists.org)
  • GTPases exchange nucleotides either by its intrinsic nucleotide exchange or by interaction with guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). (bio-protocol.org)
  • 2007), and therefore require guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) to lower their nucleotide affinity to allow for rapid activation. (bio-protocol.org)
  • In this configuration, these GTPases can become activated without the use of GEFs via their intrinsic nucleotide exchange. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Guanine nucleotide exchange factor (or guanine exchange protein) (GEFs) is implicated in addressing system of vesicular transport. (chemeurope.com)
  • Cellular stimulation results in the activation of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), which catalyze the exchange of GDP on inactive GTPase for GTP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) such as ARHGEF19 accelerate the GTPase activity of Rho GTPases (see RHOA, MIM 165390). (nih.gov)
  • In molecular biology, the EF1 guanine nucleotide exchange domain is a protein domain found in the beta and delta chains of elongation factors from eukaryotes and archaea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleotide dissociation from small G protein-GEF complexes involves transient GDP-bound intermediates whose structures have never been described. (nih.gov)
  • Recombinant full length protein corresponding to Soybean Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-like protein aa 1-325. (abcam.com)
  • A potential role for guanine nucleotide-binding protein in the regulation of endosomal proton transport. (jci.org)
  • The hSos1 protein contains a region of significant sequence similarity to CDC25, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras from yeast. (sciencemag.org)
  • Conversion of inactive ARF with GDP bound to active ARF-GTP requires a guanine nucleotide-exchange protein (GEP) to accelerate GDP release ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • The guanine nucleotide binding properties of rap1 protein purified from human neutrophils were examined using both the protein kinase A-phosphorylated and the non-phosphorylated forms of the protein. (biochemj.org)
  • The binding of guanine nucleotides was found to correlate with the loss of endogenous nucleotide from the rap1 protein, which was rapid in the absence of Mg2+. (biochemj.org)
  • Phosphorylation of rap1 in vitro by protein kinase A did not modify any of the observed nucleotide-binding parameters. (biochemj.org)
  • These data suggest that the activation of rap in vivo may be regulated by the release of endogenous GDP, but that phosphorylation by protein kinase A does not affect guanine nucleotide binding or hydrolysis. (biochemj.org)
  • Acetylcholine caused a significant time- and concentration-dependent increase in the magnitude of Gαq/11 nucleotide exchange compared with basal values (i.e., without acetylcholine), reaching a maximal difference at 100 μm (35.9 ± 2.9 vs. 9.8 ± 1.2 fmol/mg protein, respectively). (ovid.com)
  • Recent data suggest that Vav functions as a guanine-nucleotide (GDP/GTP) exchange factor for members of the Rho-like small GTPase family members RhoA, Rac1, and CDC42, which regulate cytoskeletal organization and activation of the p21-activated kinase and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways ( 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 11 (ARHGEF11), located on chromosome 1q21, is involved in G protein signaling and is a pathway known to play a role in both insulin secretion and action. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The effect of activation of the alpha-subunit(s) of the stimulatory guanine-nucleotide-binding protein, Gs, on levels of this polypeptide(s) associated with the plasma membrane of L6 skeletal myoblasts was ascertained. (portlandpress.com)
  • N-Methylanthraniloyl (MANT) is the most widely used fluorescent analog to label guanine nucleotides because it is smaller than most fluorophores and unlikely to cause major perturbations of protein-nucleotide interactions (Hiratsuka, 1983). (bio-protocol.org)
  • The most commonly used method to monitor nucleotide exchange is tracking the decrease in the fluorescence of protein-bound MANT-GDP upon addition of an excess amount of GppNHp, a non-hydrolyzable GTP analog. (bio-protocol.org)
  • MTT, apoptosis and cell cycle analyses were performed to examine the effect of either guanine nucleotide-binding protein beta-4 (GNB4) overexpression or knockdown on cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Upon agonist occupation of a receptor, the G protein undergoes a conformational change causing GDP, which is bound to the alpha subunit in its inactive state, to be released and allowing GTP to enter the nucleotide binding pocket, causing release from the receptor and dissociation of the G protein into a free alpha subunit and a betagamma dimer. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein) alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 1 (GNAI1) is a component of the pertussis toxin-sensitive heterotrimeric G-protein complexes in mammalian cells. (allelebiotech.com)
  • It encodes a protein of 759 amino acids that functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small GTPase Sec4p, a regulator of Golgi to plasma membrane transport. (rupress.org)
  • Although the ts mutation sec2-78 does not affect nucleotide exchange activity, the protein is mislocalized. (rupress.org)
  • UTP and UDP, but none of the other nucleotides tested such as GTP, ATP, and UMP, enhanced the fluorescence of the protein. (pasteur.fr)
  • From yeast two hybrid screening with HBX as bait, human guanine nucleotide binding protein β subunit 5L (GNβ5) was isolated from the cDNA library constructed in this study as a new HBX-interacting protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chez www.anticorps-enligne.fr sont 69 Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein (G Protein), beta 5 (GNB5) Anticorps de 19 de différents fournisseurs disponibles. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • Un total de 80 Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein (G Protein), beta 5 produits sont actuellement listés. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • From yeast two hybrid screening with HBX as bait, human guanine nucleotide binding protein beta subunit 5L (GNbeta5) was isolated from the cDNA library constructed in this study as a new hepatitis b X protein-interacting protein. (anticorps-enligne.fr)
  • The rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor domain of obscurin regulates assembly of titin at the Z-disk through interactions with Ran binding protein 9. (duke.edu)
  • Guanine nucleotide-releasing protein that binds to SH3 domain of CRK and GRB2/ASH. (nih.gov)
  • The flow of information relies on a subunit association/dissociation cycle of T regulated by a guanine nucleotide exchange/hydrolysis reaction. (springer.com)
  • VAV1 has several biochemical functions, for example, Rac guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity, guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor activity, metal ion binding. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The RasGrf family of mammalian guanine nucleotide exchange factors. (nih.gov)
  • RasGrf1 and RasGrf2 are highly homologous mammalian guanine nucleotide exchange factors which are able to activate specific Ras or Rho GTPases. (nih.gov)
  • 100 guanine nucleotide exchange factors, Vav subfamily exhibits the high specificity to Rac-mediated NADPH oxidase activation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Kinetics of Interaction between ADP-ribosylation Factor-1 (Arf1) and the Sec7 Domain of Arno Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor, Modulation by Allosteric Factors, and the Uncompetitive Inhibitor Brefeldin A. (inserm.fr)
  • Importantly, our findings not only show that nucleotide exchange factors are required for oncogenic Ras signaling but also demonstrate that inhibiting nucleotide exchange is a valid approach to abrogating the function of oncogenic mutant Ras. (upm.edu.my)
  • Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (sickkids.ca)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors" by people in this website by year, and whether "Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (sickkids.ca)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors" by people in Profiles. (sickkids.ca)
  • GTPases contain two loops called switch 1 and switch 2 that are situated on either side of the bound nucleotide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Rho family of Ras-related GTPases. (rcsb.org)
  • Binds Rac-GTPases, but does not seem to promote nucleotide exchange activity toward Rac-GTPases, which was uniquely reported in PubMed:9857026. (hmdb.ca)
  • Arhgef4 acts as guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for RHOA, RAC1 and CDC42 GTPases. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The Rho guanine exchange factor (GEF) Trio is especially well suited to relay signals, as it features distinct catalytic domains to activate Rho GTPases. (xenbase.org)
  • 1990), allowing one to directly monitor the association and dissociation of guanine nucleotides from GTPases. (bio-protocol.org)
  • These results provide the first genetic evidence on the role of the guanine exchange factor Vav in immune responses to viral infections and antigenic challenge in vivo, and suggest that Vav adjusts the threshold for Ag receptor-mediated B cell activation depending on the nature of the Ag. (jimmunol.org)
  • We currently reported that Vav2, a member of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor-Vav subfamily, participates in homocysteine-induced increases in Rac1 activity and consequent activation of NADPH oxidase in rat mesangial cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • These regions and the phosphate-binding loop of the GTPase interact with the phosphates of the nucleotide and a coordinating magnesium ion to maintain high affinity binding of the nucleotide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acts as guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for RhoA GTPase. (nih.gov)
  • Fluorescently-labeled guanine nucleotides are more suitable for monitoring nucleotide exchange than radioactive GDP/GTP, as they are safer and allow continuous spectroscopic monitoring and thus provide a more detailed analysis of kinetics. (bio-protocol.org)
  • The post-ischaemic/anoxic recovery of guanine nucleotides was unaffected by IMP-dehydrogenase inhibitors, suggesting that neither de novo synthesis nor the existing adenine nucleotide pool contributed significantly to the recovery. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The beta and delta chains have exchange activity, which mainly resides in their homologous guanine nucleotide exchange domains, found in the C-terminal region of the peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbachol and histamine stimulation of guanine-nucleotide-dependent phosphoinositide hydrolysis in rat brain cortical membranes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We report here the identification of a domain within DOCK180 named DHR-2 ( D ock H omology R egion-2) that specifically binds to nucleotide-free Rac and activates Rac in vitro. (biologists.org)
  • Here we show that TRAPP preferentially binds to the nucleotide-free form of Ypt1p. (rupress.org)
  • The effect of halothane (0.38 ± 0.02 mm) and hexanol (10 mm) on basal and acetylcholine-stimulated Gαq/11 guanosine nucleotide exchange was determined in membranes prepared from porcine tracheal smooth muscle. (ovid.com)
  • 5′-[ p -(Fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl] guanosine (FSBG) was synthesized and examined here as an affinity label for the guanine nucleotide binding site of T. Although the relative binding affinity of FSBG to T was much lower than for GTP and β,γ-imido-guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GMPPNP), the incorporation of FSBG to T inhibited its light-dependent [ 3 H] GMPPNP binding activity in a concentration dependent manner. (springer.com)
  • the changes to guanine nucleotides were apparently not balanced by corresponding changes to breakdown products (eg guanosine), in either perfused hearts or isolated myocytes. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Epidermal growth factor regulates the exchange rate of guanine nucleotides on p21ras in fibroblasts. (asm.org)
  • Stimulation of Ca2+-independent catecholamine secretion from digitonin-permeabilized bovine adrenal chromaffin cells by guanine nucleotide analogues. (portlandpress.com)
  • Good correlations have also been observed between guanine nucleotide levels in isolated pancreatic islets and insulin secretion. (biochemj.org)
  • To assess whether guanine nucleotides have a specific role in stimulus-secretion coupling, their concentration should be modified selectively. (biochemj.org)
  • Contrary to previous claims, MPA is not an adequate tool for evaluating a specific role of guanine nucleotides in the control of insulin secretion. (biochemj.org)
  • Acts as a RAC1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) and can induce membrane ruffling. (rcsb.org)
  • I. Effects of guanine nucleotides on high- and low-affinity binding sites. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Guanine nucleotides decreased markedly the affinity of high- and low-affinity binding sites for agonists, without affecting their affinity for antagonists. (aspetjournals.org)
  • It is concluded that guanine and adenine nucleotide pools are tightly linked and cannot be specifically affected by MPA in pancreatic islet cells, probably because of the activity of nucleoside diphosphate kinase and because of the role of GTP in several reactions leading to adenine nucleotide generation. (biochemj.org)
  • A gene on chromosome 9q34.1 that encodes a member of the VAV guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) family of genes which is only expressed in haematopoietic cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Solubilization and characterization of a guanine nucleotide-sensitive form of the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors were solubilized from rat cerebellum membranes in an active, stable, and guanine nucleotide-sensitive form by using digitonin. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This gene encodes a human guanine nucleotide exchange factor. (nih.gov)
  • Angiotensin II vascular receptors in fowl aorta: binding specificity and modulation by divalent cations and guanine nucleotides. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the present study, we have characterized fowl vascular ANG II receptors in terms of binding specificity and their modulation by divalent cations and guanine nucleotide, to understand how the fowl receptor might differ from mammalian vascular ANG II receptors that mediate vasoconstriction. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A variety of unrelated structural domains have been shown to exhibit guanine nucleotide exchange activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we show that the SH3 domains of Grb2 bind to the carboxy-terminal part of hSos1, the human homologue of the Drosophila guanine-nucleotide-releasing factor for Ras, which is essential for control of Ras activity by epidermal growth factor receptor and sevenless 19,20 . (nature.com)
  • Nuki G., Astrin K., Brenton D., Cruikshank M., Lever J., Seegmiller J.E. (1977) Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleotide Concentrations in Cells with Decreased Hypoxanthine-Guanine-Phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) Activity. (springer.com)
  • Mammalian cells overexpressing full-length hSos1 had increased guanine nucleotide exchange activity. (sciencemag.org)
  • Direct stimulation of the guanine nucleotide exchange activity of p115 RhoGEF by Galpha13. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Luteolytic hormones are calcium-mediated, guanine nucleotide antagonists of gonadotropin-sensitive adenylate cyclase. (elsevier.com)
  • 2020), The Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor Trio. (xenbase.org)
  • Like other enzymes involved in the de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides, UMP-kinase of E. coli is subject to regulation by nucleotides: GTP is an allosteric activator, whereas UTP serves as an allosteric inhibitor. (pasteur.fr)
  • Evidence for a possible guanine nucleotide-induced transmembrane conveyance of intracellular calcium. (elsevier.com)
  • Wai, SC, Gerber, SA & Li, R 2014, Multisite phosphorylation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor cdc24 during yeast cell polarization . (elsevier.com)
  • Caspase-mediated Cleavage of the TIAM1 Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor during Apoptosis -- Qi et al. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The addition of guanine to the culture medium (to stimulate the salvage pathway of GTP synthesis) restored normal GTP levels, corrected the ATP/ADP ratio and partly prevented the inhibition of insulin release. (biochemj.org)
  • Furthermore, to function properly Rab27a has to be targeted to the organelle membrane, this function has been attributed to the guanine exchange factor as well. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • From a dominant loss-of-function genetic screen, we discovered that mutations of a Dbl-family member, the guanine nucleotide exchange factor DRhoGEF2 (DRhoGEF22(l)04291), suppressed the PTEN-overexpression eye phenotype. (umn.edu)
  • Guanine nucleotides have been shown to stimulate phosphoinositide breakdown in brain membranes, but no potentiation of such an effect by agonist was demonstrated. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Elongation factor EF1B (also known as EF-Ts or EF-1beta/gamma/delta) is a nucleotide exchange factor that is required to regenerate EF1A from its inactive form (EF1A-GDP) to its active form (EF1A-GTP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus hSos1 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ras. (sciencemag.org)
  • Recently, expression and post-translational modification of Ras guanine nucleotide releasing factor 1 (RasGRF1) was found to contribute to spontaneous MMP production in melanoma cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we report the crystal structures of these intermediates that show that membrane recruitment of Arf and nucleotide dissociation are separate reactions stimulated by Sec7. (nih.gov)