Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of guanine to form xanthine. EC
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Signaling proteins which function as master molecular switches by activating Rho GTPases through conversion of guanine nucleotides. Rho GTPases in turn control many aspects of cell behavior through the regulation of multiple downstream signal transduction pathways.
A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety and found widely in nature.
Protein factors that inhibit the dissociation of GDP from GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A 145-kDa guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is specific for rap1 and ras GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It associates with SH3 domains of the crk family of signaling proteins.
MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that were initially recognized as allosteric activators of the MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE of the CHOLERA TOXIN catalytic subunit. They are involved in vesicle trafficking and activation of PHOSPHOLIPASE D. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate and hypoxanthine, guanine, or 6-mercaptopurine to the corresponding 5'-mononucleotides and pyrophosphate. The enzyme is important in purine biosynthesis as well as central nervous system functions. Complete lack of enzyme activity is associated with the LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME, while partial deficiency results in overproduction of uric acid. EC
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
An enzyme that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of inosine 5'-phosphate to xanthosine 5'-phosphate in the presence of NAD. EC
Proto-oncogene proteins that are guanine nucleotide exchange factors for RHO GTPASES. They also function as signal transducing adaptor proteins.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
One of the early purine analogs showing antineoplastic activity. It functions as an antimetabolite and is easily incorporated into ribonucleic acids.
A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is expressed primarily in neuronal tissue and may be specific for the Ha-ras homolog of the RAS PROTEINS.
A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that stimulates the dissociation of GDP from RAL GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It also has GDP exchange activity towards other MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
ADP-RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1 is involved in regulating intracellular transport by modulating the interaction of coat proteins with organelle membranes in the early secretory pathway. It is a component of COAT PROTEIN COMPLEX I. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.
A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.
Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.
A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Higher-order DNA and RNA structures formed from guanine-rich sequences. They are formed around a core of at least 2 stacked tetrads of hydrogen-bonded GUANINE bases. They can be formed from one two or four separate strands of DNA (or RNA) and can display a wide variety of topologies, which are a consequence of various combinations of strand direction, length, and sequence. (From Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34(19):5402-15)
A subcategory of guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors that are specific for RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Guanine nucleotides which contain deoxyribose as the sugar moiety.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
A genetically related subfamily of RAP GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that share homology with RAS PROTEINS. They bind to Ras effectors but do not activate them, therefore they may antagonize the effects of RAS PROTEINS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are related to RAS PROTEINS.This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A mammalian homolog of the DROSOPHILA SON OF SEVENLESS PROTEIN. It is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for RAS PROTEINS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Purines attached to a RIBOSE and a phosphate that can polymerize to form DNA and RNA.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Small, monomeric GTP-binding proteins encoded by ras genes (GENES, RAS). The protooncogene-derived protein, PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS), plays a role in normal cellular growth, differentiation and development. The oncogene-derived protein (ONCOGENE PROTEIN P21(RAS)) can play a role in aberrant cellular regulation during neoplastic cell transformation (CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC). This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
A guanine nucleotide exchange factor that acts to restore EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2 to its GTP bound form.
An abundantly-expressed rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor subtype that regulates a broad variety of RHO GTPASES.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein that mediates the light activation signal from photolyzed rhodopsin to cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and is pivotal in the visual excitation process. Activation of rhodopsin on the outer membrane of rod and cone cells causes GTP to bind to transducin followed by dissociation of the alpha subunit-GTP complex from the beta/gamma subunits of transducin. The alpha subunit-GTP complex activates the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic GMP to 5'-GMP. This leads to closure of the sodium and calcium channels and therefore hyperpolarization of the rod cells. EC 3.6.1.-.
2-Amino-1,5-dihydro-4,6-pteridinedione. Pigment first discovered in butterfly wings and widely distributed in plants and animals.
A family of ubiquitously expressed MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in intracellular signal transduction. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Purines with a RIBOSE attached that can be phosphorylated to PURINE NUCLEOTIDES.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that play a key role in cellular secretory and endocytic pathways. EC 3.6.1.-.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Esters formed between the aldehydic carbon of sugars and the terminal phosphate of guanosine diphosphate.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An enzyme that transfers methyl groups from O(6)-methylguanine, and other methylated moieties of DNA, to a cysteine residue in itself, thus repairing alkylated DNA in a single-step reaction. EC
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Inosine 5'-Monophosphate. A purine nucleotide which has hypoxanthine as the base and one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A DNA repair enzyme that is an N-glycosyl hydrolase with specificity for DNA-containing ring-opened N(7)-methylguanine residues.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.
GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that contain three non-identical subunits. They are found associated with members of the seven transmembrane domain superfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. Upon activation the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT of the complex dissociates leaving a dimer of a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNIT bound to a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNIT.
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.
A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.
A class of monomeric, low molecular weight (20-25 kDa) GTP-binding proteins that regulate a variety of intracellular processes. The GTP bound form of the protein is active and limited by its inherent GTPase activity, which is controlled by an array of GTPase activators, GDP dissociation inhibitors, and guanine nucleotide exchange factors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A ubiquitously expressed family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that signal through interactions with a variety of second messengers as GTPASE-ACTIVATING PROTEINS; GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS; and HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS. The G12-G13 part of the name is also spelled G12/G13.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in vesicle transport between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS and through early Golgi compartments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
PROTEINS that specifically activate the GTP-phosphohydrolase activity of RAS PROTEINS.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in transport from the cell membrane to early endosomes. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Compounds based on 2-amino-4-hydroxypteridine.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Nucleotides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.
Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A protein found in bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria which delivers aminoacyl-tRNA's to the A site of the ribosome. The aminoacyl-tRNA is first bound to a complex of elongation factor Tu containing a molecule of bound GTP. The resulting complex is then bound to the 70S initiation complex. Simultaneously the GTP is hydrolyzed and a Tu-GDP complex is released from the 70S ribosome. The Tu-GTP complex is regenerated from the Tu-GDP complex by the Ts elongation factor and GTP.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A purine nucleoside that has hypoxanthine linked by the N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is an intermediate in the degradation of purines and purine nucleosides to uric acid and in pathways of purine salvage. It also occurs in the anticodon of certain transfer RNA molecules. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.
Transforming protein encoded by ras oncogenes. Point mutations in the cellular ras gene (c-ras) can also result in a mutant p21 protein that can transform mammalian cells. Oncogene protein p21(ras) has been directly implicated in human neoplasms, perhaps accounting for as much as 15-20% of all human tumors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Organic esters of sulfuric acid.
Eukaryotic initiation factor of protein synthesis. In higher eukaryotes the factor consists of three subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. As initiation proceeds, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with Met-tRNAi and GTP.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
The key substance in the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A modified nucleoside which is present in the first position of the anticodon of tRNA-tyrosine, tRNA-histidine, tRNA-asparagine and tRNA-aspartic acid of many organisms. It is believed to play a role in the regulatory function of tRNA. Nucleoside Q can be further modified to nucleoside Q*, which has a mannose or galactose moiety linked to position 4 of its cyclopentenediol moiety.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An antineoplastic compound which also has antimetabolite action. The drug is used in the therapy of acute leukemia.
6-(Methylthio)-9-beta-D-ribofuranosylpurine. An analog of inosine with a methylthio group replacing the hydroxyl group in the 6-position.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
A type C phospholipase with specificity towards PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS that contain INOSITOL 1,4,5-TRISPHOSPHATE. Many of the enzymes listed under this classification are involved in intracellular signaling.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.
Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.
A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The portion of a retinal rod cell situated between the ROD INNER SEGMENT and the RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. It contains a stack of photosensitive disk membranes laden with RHODOPSIN.
A protein complex comprised of COATOMER PROTEIN and ADP RIBOSYLATION FACTOR 1. It is involved in transport of vesicles between the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and the GOLGI APPARATUS.

Long-range oxidative damage to DNA: effects of distance and sequence. (1/3529)

INTRODUCTION: Oxidative damage to DNA in vivo can lead to mutations and cancer. DNA damage and repair studies have not yet revealed whether permanent oxidative lesions are generated by charges migrating over long distances. Both photoexcited *Rh(III) and ground-state Ru(III) intercalators were previously shown to oxidize guanine bases from a remote site in oligonucleotide duplexes by DNA-mediated electron transfer. Here we examine much longer charge-transport distances and explore the sensitivity of the reaction to intervening sequences. RESULTS: Oxidative damage was examined in a series of DNA duplexes containing a pendant intercalating photooxidant. These studies revealed a shallow dependence on distance and no dependence on the phasing orientation of the oxidant relative to the site of damage, 5'-GG-3'. The intervening DNA sequence has a significant effect on the yield of guanine oxidation, however. Oxidation through multiple 5'-TA-3' steps is substantially diminished compared to through other base steps. We observed intraduplex guanine oxidation by tethered *Rh(III) and Ru(III) over a distance of 200 A. The distribution of oxidized guanine varied as a function of temperature between 5 and 35 degrees C, with an increase in the proportion of long-range damage (> 100 A) occurring at higher temperatures. CONCLUSIONS: Guanines are oxidized as a result of DNA-mediated charge transport over significant distances (e.g. 200 A). Although long-range charge transfer is dependent on distance, it appears to be modulated by intervening sequence and sequence-dependent dynamics. These discoveries hold important implications with respect to DNA damage in vivo.  (+info)

Regulation of de novo purine biosynthesis in human lymphoblasts. Coordinate control of proximal (rate-determining) steps and the inosinic acid branch point. (2/3529)

Purine nucleotide synthesis de novo has been studied in a permanent tissue culture line of human splenic lymphoblasts with particular attention to coordination of control of the proximal (rate-determining) steps with the distal branch point of the pathway. An assay was used which permits simultaneous determination of the overall rate of labeling of all intracellular purines with sodium [14C]formate, as well as the distribution of isotope into all intracellular guanine- and adenine-containing compounds. The guanine to adenine labeling ratio was used as an index of IMP branch point regulation. It was found that exogenous adenine and guanine produce feedback-controlling effects not only on the first step in the de novo pathway, but also on the IMP branch point. Concentrations of adenine which produce less than 40% inhibition of the overall rate of de novo purine synthesis do so by selectively inhibiting adenine nucleotide synthesis de novo by 50 to 70% while stimulating guanine nucleotide synthesis de novo by up to 20%. A reciprocal effect is seen with exogenous guanine. The adenosine analog 6-methylmercaptopurine ribonucleoside selectivity inhibits adenine nucleotide synthesis via the de novo pathway but not from exogenous hypoxanthine. Thus, the reactions of purine nucleotide interconversion, in particular adenylosuccinate synthetase, may be regulated differently in cells deriving their purine nucleotides solely from de novo synthesis than when deriving them via "salvage" of preformed hypoxanthine.  (+info)

The effect of cotinine or cigarette smoke co-administration on the formation of O6-methylguanine adducts in the lung and liver of A/J mice treated with 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) (3/3529)

4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a tobacco-specific nitrosamine, induces lung adenomas in A/J mice, following a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. However, inhalation of tobacco smoke has not induced or promoted tumors in these mice. NNK-induced lung tumorigenesis is thought to involve O6-methylguanine (O6MeG) formation, leading to GC-->AT transitional mispairing and an activation of the K-ras proto-oncogene in the A/J mouse. NNK can be metabolized by several different cytochromes P450, resulting in a number of metabolites. Formation of the promutagenic DNA adduct O6MeG is believed to require metabolic activation of NNK by cytochrome P450-mediated alpha-hydroxylation of the methylene group adjacent to the N-nitroso nitrogen to yield the unstable intermediate, methanediazohydroxide. Nicotine, cotinine (the major metabolite of nicotine), and aqueous cigarette tar extract (ACTE) have all been shown to effectively inhibit metabolic activation of NNK to its mutagenic form, most likely due to competitive inhibition of the cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in alpha-hydroxylation of NNK. The objective of the current study was to monitor the effects of cotinine and cigarette smoke (CS) on the formation of O6MeG in target tissues of mice during the acute phase of NNK treatment. To test the effect of cotinine, mature female A/J mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of NNK (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 mumole/mouse) with cotinine administered at a total dose of 50 mumole/mouse in 3 separate i.p. injections, administered 30 min before, immediately after, and 30 min after NNK treatment. To test the effect of whole smoke exposure on NNK-related O6MeG formation, mice were exposed to smoke generated from Kentucky 1R4F reference cigarettes at 0, 0.4, 0.6, or 0.8 mg wet total particulate matter/liter (WTPM/L) for 2 h, with a single i.p. injection of NNK (0, 3.75, or 7.5 mumole/mouse) midway through the exposure. Cigarette smoke alone failed to yield detectable levels of O6MeG. The number of O6MeG adducts following i.p. injection of NNK was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in both lung and liver by cotinine and by cigarette smoke exposure. Our results demonstrate that NNK-induced O6MeG DNA adducts in A/J mice are significantly reduced when NNK is administered together with either cotinine, the major metabolite of nicotine, or the parental complex mixture, cigarette smoke.  (+info)

Comparative study of the anti-human cytomegalovirus activities and toxicities of a tetrahydrofuran phosphonate analogue of guanosine and cidofovir. (4/3529)

Cidofovir is the first nucleoside monophosphate analogue currently being used for the treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) retinitis in individuals with AIDS. Unfortunately, the period of therapy with the use of this compound may be limited due to the possible emergence of serious irreversible nephrotoxic effects. New drugs with improved toxicity profiles are needed. The goal of this study was to investigate the anticytomegaloviral properties and drug-induced toxicity of a novel phosphonate analogue, namely, (-)-2-(R)-dihydroxyphosphinoyl-5-(S)-(guanin-9'-yl-methyl) tetrahydrofuran (compound 1), in comparison with those of cidofovir. The inhibitory activities of both compounds on HCMV propagation in vitro were similar against the AD 169 and Towne strains, with 50% inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 0.17 microgram/ml for cidofovir and < 0.05 to 0.09 microgram/ml for compound 1. A clinical HCMV isolate that was resistant to ganciclovir and that had a known mutation within the UL54 DNA polymerase gene and a cidofovir-resistant laboratory strain derived from strain AD 169 remained sensitive to compound 1, whereas their susceptibilities to ganciclovir and cidofovir were reduced by 33- and 10-fold, respectively. Both compound 1 and cidofovir exhibited equal potencies in an experimentally induced murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection in mice, with a prevention or prolongation of mean day to death at dosages of 1.0, 3.2, and 10.0 mg/kg of body weight/day. In cytotoxicity experiments, compound 1 was found to be generally more toxic than cidofovir in cell lines Hs68, HFF, and 3T3-L1 (which are permissive for HCMV or MCMV replication) but less toxic than cidofovir in MRC-5 cells (which are permissive for HCMV replication). Drug-induced toxic side effects were noticed for both compounds in rats and guinea pigs in a 5-day repeated-dose study. In guinea pigs, a greater weight loss was noticed with cidofovir than with compound 1 at dosages of 3.0 and 10.0 mg/kg/day. An opposite effect was detected in rats, which were treated with the compounds at relatively high dosages (up to 100 mg/kg/day). Compound 1 and cidofovir were nephrotoxic in both rats and guinea pigs, with the epithelium lining the proximal convoluted tubules in the renal cortex being the primary target site. The incidence and the severity of the lesions were found to be dose dependent. The lesions observed were characterized by cytoplasm degeneration and nuclear modifications such as karyomegaly, the presence of pseudoinclusions, apoptosis, and degenerative changes. In the guinea pig model, a greater incidence and severity of lesions were observed for cidofovir than for compound 1 (P < 0.001) with a drug regimen of 10 mg/kg/day.  (+info)

Mismatch repair and differential sensitivity of mouse and human cells to methylating agents. (5/3529)

The long-patch mismatch repair pathway contributes to the cytotoxic effect of methylating agents and loss of this pathway confers tolerance to DNA methylation damage. Two methylation-tolerant mouse cell lines were identified and were shown to be defective in the MSH2 protein by in vitro mismatch repair assay. A normal copy of the human MSH2 gene, introduced by transfer of human chromosome 2, reversed the methylation tolerance. These mismatch repair defective mouse cells together with a fibroblast cell line derived from an MSH2-/- mouse, were all as resistant to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea as repair-defective human cells. Although long-patch mismatch repair-defective human cells were 50- to 100-fold more resistant to methylating agents than repair-proficient cells, loss of the same pathway from mouse cells conferred only a 3-fold increase. This discrepancy was accounted for by the intrinsic N-methyl-N-nitrosourea resistance of normal or transformed mouse cells compared with human cells. The >20-fold differential resistance between mouse and human cells could not be explained by the levels of either DNA methylation damage or the repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase. The resistance of mouse cells to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea was selective and no cross-resistance to unrelated DNA damaging agents was observed. Pathways of apoptosis were apparently intact and functional after exposure to either N-methyl-N-nitrosourea or ultraviolet light. Extracts of mouse cells were found to perform 2-fold less long-patch mismatch repair. The reduced level of mismatch repair may contribute to their lack of sensitivity to DNA methylation damage.  (+info)

The major, N2-dG adduct of (+)-anti-B[a]PDE induces G-->A mutations in a 5'-AGA-3' sequence context. (6/3529)

Previously, in a random mutagenesis study, the (+)-anti diol epoxide of benzo[a]pyrene [(+)-anti-B[a]PDE] was shown to induce a complex mutational spectrum in the supF gene of an Escherichia coli plasmid, which included insertions, deletions and base substitution mutations, notably a significant fraction of GC-->TA, GC-->AT and GC-->CG mutations. At some sites, a single type of mutation dominated and to understand individual mutagenic pathways these sites were chosen for study by site-specific means to determine whether the major adduct, [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG, was responsible. [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG was shown to induce approximately 95% G-->T mutations in a 5'-TGC-3' sequence context and approximately 80% G-->A mutations in a 5'-CGT-3' sequence context. (+)-anti-B[a]PDE induced principally GC-->CG mutations in the G133 sequence context (5'-AGA-3') in studies using both SOS-uninduced or SOS-induced E. coli. Herein, [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG is shown to induce principally G-->A mutations (>90%) either without or with SOS induction in a closely related 5'-AGA-3' sequence context (identical over 7 bp). This is the first time that there has been a discrepancy between the mutagenic specificity of (+)-anti-B[a]PDE versus [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG. Eight explanations for this discordance are considered. Four are ruled out; e.g. the second most prevalent adduct [+ca]-B[a]P-N2-dG also induces a preponderance of G-->A mutations (>90%), so it also is not responsible for (+)-anti-B[a]PDE-induced G133-->C mutations. The four explanations not ruled out are discussed and include that another minor adduct might be responsible and that the 5'-AGA-3' sequence context differed slightly in the studies with [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG versus (+)-anti-B[a]PDE. In spite of the discordance, [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG induces G-->A mutations in the context studied herein and this result has proven useful in generating a hypothesis for what conformations of [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG are responsible for G-->T versus G-->A mutations.  (+info)

In vitro reactions of butadiene monoxide with single- and double-stranded DNA: characterization and quantitation of several purine and pyrimidine adducts. (7/3529)

We have previously shown that butadiene monoxide (BM), the primary metabolite of 1,3-butadiene, reacted with nucleosides to form alkylation products that exhibited different rates of formation and different stabilities under in vitro physiological conditions. In the present study, BM was reacted with single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) calf thymus DNA and the alkylation products were characterized after enzymatic hydrolysis of the DNA. The primary products were regioisomeric N-7-guanine adducts. N-3-(2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)adenine and N-3-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl)adenine, which were depurinated from the DNA more rapidly than the N-7-guanine adducts, were also formed. In addition, N6-(2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)deoxyadenosine and N6-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl)deoxyadenosine were detected and evidence was obtained that these adducts were formed by Dimroth rearrangement of the corresponding N-1-deoxyadenosine adducts, not while in the DNA, but following the release of the N-1-alkylated nucleosides by enzymatic hydrolysis. N-3-(2-hydroxy-3-buten-1-yl)deoxyuridine adducts, which were apparently formed subsequent to deamination reactions of the corresponding deoxycytidine adducts, were also detected and were stable in the DNA. Adduct formation was linearly dependent upon BM concentration (10-1000 mM), with adduct ratios being similar at the various BM concentrations. At a high BM concentration (750 mM), the adducts were formed in a linear fashion for up to 8 h in both ssDNA and dsDNA. However, the rates of formation of the N-3-deoxyuridine and N6-deoxyadenosine adducts increased 10- to 20-fold in ssDNA versus dsDNA, whereas the N-7-guanine adducts increased only slightly, presumably due to differences in hydrogen bonding in ssDNA versus dsDNA. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis of both BM and its parent compound, 1,3-butadiene.  (+info)

Identification of a C/G polymorphism in the promoter region of the BRCA1 gene and its use as a marker for rapid detection of promoter deletions. (8/3529)

Reduced expression of BRCA1 has been implicated in sporadic breast cancer, although the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. To determine whether regulatory mutations could account for the reduced expression, we screened the promoter region by sequencing in 20 patients with sporadic disease. No mutations were detected; however, a new polymorphism consisting of a C-to-G base change within the beta-promoter was identified, with the frequency of the G allele being 0.34. Close to complete linkage disequilibrium was found between this marker and the Pro871 Leu polymorphism, situated in exon 11, which has previously been shown not to be associated with breast or ovarian cancer. This indicates that the C/G polymorphism is also unlikely to play a role in either disease. However, the strength of linkage disequilibrium between these markers permitted their use for rapid screening for genomic deletions within BRCA1. A series of 214 cases with familial breast cancer were analysed using this approach; 88/214 were heterozygous for the promoter polymorphism, thereby excluding a deletion in this region. Among the remaining patients, one hemizygous case reflecting a promoter deletion was successfully identified. Therefore, this study indicates that deletions within the beta-promoter region of BRCA1 are an uncommon event in familial breast cancer. Furthermore, it suggests that mutations within the BRCA1 promoter are unlikely to account for the reported decreased expression of BRCA1 in sporadic disease.  (+info)

Term: Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome

Definition: A rare X-linked recessive genetic disorder caused by mutations in the HPRT1 gene, resulting in an impaired ability to metabolize uric acid and leading to symptoms such as gout, kidney stones, and other complications.

Etymology: Named after the physicians who first described the condition, Lesch and Nyhan.

Incidence: Approximately 1 in 165,000 male births.

Prevalence: Estimated to affect approximately 1 in 23,000 males worldwide.

Causes: Mutations in the HPRT1 gene, which codes for the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). This enzyme is involved in the metabolism of uric acid.

Symptoms: Gout attacks, kidney stones, joint pain and swelling, urate nephropathy (kidney damage), and other complications.

Diagnosis: Diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests such as blood and urine analysis, and genetic testing to identify HPRT1 gene mutations.

Treatment: Medications to reduce uric acid levels, such as allopurinol or rasburicase, and management of symptoms such as pain and inflammation with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or colchicine.

Prognosis: The condition is usually diagnosed in childhood, and patients often have a normal life expectancy if properly managed. However, untreated or poorly managed hyperuricemia can lead to complications such as kidney damage and cardiovascular disease.

Inheritance pattern: Autosomal recessive inheritance pattern, meaning that the individual must inherit two copies of the mutated HPRT1 gene (one from each parent) in order to develop the condition.

Other names: Hyperuricemia, gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Guanine. Guanine MS Spectrum Guanine at (CS1 errors: missing ... guanine is paired with cytosine. The guanine nucleoside is called guanosine. With the formula C5H5N5O, guanine is a derivative ... Guanine can be hydrolyzed with strong acid to glycine, ammonia, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. First, guanine gets ... 10NH3 + 2CH4 + 4C2H6 + 2H2O → 2C5H8N5O (guanine) + 25H2 A Fischer-Tropsch synthesis can also be used to form guanine, along ...
... also known as cypin, guanase, guanine aminase, GAH, and guanine aminohydrolase is an aminohydrolase enzyme ... Guanine+deaminase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Overview of all the structural ... Hitchings GH, Falco EA (Oct 1944). "The Identification of Guanine in Extracts of Girella Nigricans: The Specificity of Guanase ... which converts guanine to xanthine. Cypin is a major cytosolic protein that interacts with PSD-95. It promotes localized ...
... s are formed by sequences rich in guanine, such as GGGGC. They may also play a role in the dimerization of non- ... Guanine tetrads are not always stable, but the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA can assist in stability of the guanine tetrads ... In molecular biology, a guanine tetrad (also known as a G-tetrad or G-quartet) is a structure composed of four guanine bases in ... Guanine tetrads are more stable when stacked, as intermolecular forces between each layers help stabilize them. Guanine tetrads ...
... (HGPRT) is an enzyme encoded in humans by the HPRT1 gene. HGPRT is a transferase ... Sculley DG, Dawson PA, Emmerson BT, Gordon RB (Nov 1992). "A review of the molecular basis of hypoxanthine-guanine ... In this role, it catalyzes the reaction between guanine and phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) to form GMP, or between ... Some mutations have been linked to gout, the risk of which is increased in hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase ...
... and guanine, whereas its 3 products are ADP, phosphate, and guanine. This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, ... In enzymology, a guanine-transporting ATPase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + H2O + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP phosphohydrolase (guanine-importing). Dreesen TD, Johnson DH, Henikoff S (1988 ...
... guanine-7-methyltransferase, messenger RNA guanine 7-methyltransferase, and S-adenosyl-L-methionine:mRNA (guanine-7-N-)- ... In enzymology, a mRNA (guanine-N7-)-methyltransferase also known as mRNA cap guanine-N7 methyltransferase is an enzyme that ... In humans, mRNA cap guanine-N7 methyltransferase is encoded by the RNMT gene. The systematic name of this enzyme class is S- ... adenosyl-L-methionine:mRNA (guanine-N7-)-methyltransferase. Other names in common use include: messenger ribonucleate guanine 7 ...
Other names in common use include transfer ribonucleate guanine 1-methyltransferase, tRNA guanine 1-methyltransferase, and S- ... In enzymology, a tRNA (guanine-N1-)-methyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction S- ... Glick JM, Averyhart VM, Leboy PS (1978). "Purification and characterization of two tRNA-(guanine)-methyltransferases from rat ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is S-adenosyl-L-methionine:tRNA (guanine-N1-)-methyltransferase. ...
Other names in common use include ribosomal ribonucleate guanine 1-methyltransferase, and S-adenosyl-L-methionine:rRNA (guanine ... In enzymology, a rRNA (guanine-N1-)-methyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction S- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is S-adenosyl-L-methionine:rRNA (guanine-N1-)-methyltransferase. ...
... tRNA guanine 7-methyltransferase, N7-methylguanine methylase, and S-adenosyl-L-methionine:tRNA (guanine-7-N-)-methyltransferase ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is S-adenosyl-L-methionine:tRNA (guanine-N7-)-methyltransferase. Other names in common ... In enzymology, a tRNA (guanine-N7-)-methyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction S- ... use include transfer ribonucleate guanine 7-methyltransferase, 7-methylguanine transfer ribonucleate methylase, ...
RCC1 is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Ran GTPase. It localizes to the nucleus and catalyzes the activation of Ran ... Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) are proteins or protein domains involved in the activation of small GTPases. Small ... G proteins Guanine Nucleotide exchange factor Small GTPases Cherfils J, Zeghouf M (January 2013). "Regulation of small GTPases ... Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) are proteins or protein domains that activate monomeric GTPases by stimulating the ...
... transfer RNA guanine 2-methyltransferase, guanine-N2-methylase, and S-adenosyl-L-methionine:tRNA (guanine-2-N-)- ... Other names in common use include transfer ribonucleate guanine 2-methyltransferase, transfer ribonucleate guanine N2- ... In enzymology, a tRNA (guanine-N2-)-methyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction S- ... Krauss J, Stahelin M (1974). "N2-Guanine specific transfer RNA methyltransferase I from rat liver and leukemic rat spleen*". ...
Other names in common use include ribosomal ribonucleate guanine-2-methyltransferase, and S-adenosyl-L-methionine:rRNA (guanine ... In enzymology, a rRNA (guanine-N2-)-methyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction S- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is S-adenosyl-L-methionine:rRNA (guanine-N2-)-methyltransferase. ...
Pérez JM, Siegal G, Kriek J, Hård K, Dijk J, Canters GW, Möller W (February 1999). "The solution structure of the guanine ... In molecular biology, the EF1 guanine nucleotide exchange domain is a protein domain found in the beta and delta chains of ... The beta and delta chains have exchange activity, which mainly resides in their homologous guanine nucleotide exchange domains ... The EF1 guanine nucleotide exchange domain is found in the beta (EF-1beta, also known as EF1B-alpha) and delta (EF-1delta, also ...
... guanine. Guanine was first obtained from guano by Julius Bodo Unger [de], who described it as xanthine in 1844. After he was ... "Guanine". Retrieved 11 August 2019. Partington, J. R (1964). History of Chemistry. London: Macmillan Education, ... corrected, Bodo Unger published it with the new name of "guanine" in 1846. Chicken manure Phosphorite "Nauru: An Island Country ...
Guanine preferentially binds. Subsequent to formation of [PtCl(guanine-DNA)(NH3)2]+, crosslinking can occur via displacement of ... the other chloride, typically by another guanine. Cisplatin crosslinks DNA in several different ways, interfering with cell ...
30 guanine; 35 urea, 40 uricite Stuart J. Mills; Frédéric Hatert; Ernest H. Nickel & Giovanni Ferraris (2009). "The ...
... t-RNA guanine transglycosylase (shigellosis); trypanothione reductase (African sleeping sickness). Supramolecular nanosystems ...
A purine base always pairs with a pyrimidine base (guanine (G) pairs with cytosine (C) and adenine (A) pairs with thymine (T) ... The nitrogen bases adenine and guanine are purine in structure and form a glycosidic bond between their 9 nitrogen and the 1' - ... The purines are adenine and guanine. Purines consist of a double ring structure, a six-membered and a five-membered ring ... Nucleotides consist of 3 components: Nitrogenous base Adenine Guanine Cytosine Thymine (present in DNA only) Uracil (present in ...
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha-15 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNA15 gene. G15α is a member ... GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE-BINDING PROTEIN, ALPHA-15; GNA15 at OMIM. Retrieved JULY 25, 2019. (Articles with short description, Short ...
Here, four guanine bases, known as a guanine tetrad, form a flat plate. These flat four-base units then stack on top of each ... These guanine-rich sequences may stabilize chromosome ends by forming structures of stacked sets of four-base units, rather ... The four bases found in DNA are adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T). These four bases are attached to the ... Adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine, forming A-T and G-C base pairs. The nucleobases are classified into ...
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha-14 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNA14 gene. G14α is a member ... GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE-BINDING PROTEIN, ALPHA-14; GNA14 at OMIM. Retrieved JULY 25, 2019. (Articles with short description, Short ...
In the guanine nucleotide pathway, there are 2 enzymes involved in converting IMP to GMP, namely IMP dehydrogenase (IMPD1), ... "Entrez Gene: GMPS guanine monphosphate synthetase". Garrett RH (1998). Biochemistry. [Place of publication not identified]: ... IMP is the branch point metabolite at which point the pathway diverges to the synthesis of either guanine or adenine ...
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(t) subunit alpha-3, also known as gustducin alpha-3 chain, is a protein subunit that in ... "Entrez Gene: guanine nucleotide binding protein". Oldham WM, Van Eps N, Preininger AM, et al. (2006). "Mechanism of the ...
The guanine + cytosine content is ~50%. It has terminally redundant sequences and is nonpermuted. By weight, the genome ...
Cytosine is deaminated to uracil, which base pairs with Adenine instead of Guanine. Deamination of Guanine is not mutagenic. ... guanine. If this happens during DNA replication, a guanine will be inserted as the opposite base analog, and in the next DNA ... It can cause deamination of the amino groups of Adenine, Guanine and Cytosine. Adenine is deaminated to hypoxanthine, which ... and cytosine and guanine are mixed amine and carbonyl (inverted in respect to each other). The precise reason why there are ...
One hydrogen bond from the Watson-Crick base pair is maintained (guanine O6 and cytosine N4) and the other occurs between ... Hoogsteen base pairs occur between adenine (A) and thymine (T); and guanine (G) and cytosine(C); similarly to Watson-Crick base ... The 4 main examples are guanine-uracil (G-U), hypoxanthine-uracil (I-U), hypoxanthine-adenine (I-A), and hypoxanthine-cytosine ... and guanine (G) -- cytosine (C) in both DNA and RNA). There are three main types of non-canonical base pairs: those stabilized ...
Some 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds are able to react with single-stranded guanine (G) at N1 and N2, forming a five-membered ring ... Kethoxal causes the modification of guanine, specifically altering the N1 and the exocyclic amino group (N2) simultaneously by ... Glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and phenylglyoxal, which all carry the key 1,2-dicarbonyl moiety, all react with free guanines similar ... Muhlbacher J, Lafontaine DA (2007). "Ligand recognition determinants of guanine riboswitches". Nucleic Acids Research. 35 (16 ...
MBD4 specifically catalyzes the removal of T and U paired with guanine (G) within CpG sites. This is an important repair ... Xanthine formed from deamination of guanine. (Thymidine products following deamination of 5-methylcytosine are more difficult ...
RNA (guanine-9-) methyltransferase domain containing 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RG9MTD2 gene. The gene is ... "RNA (guanine-9-) methyltransferase domain containing 2". Retrieved 2011-12-06. "Clinical chemistry data for Rg9mtd2". Wellcome ...
"Entrez Gene: GNA11 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 11 (Gq class)". 139313 GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE-BINDING ... Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha-11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GNA11 gene. Together with ... Jiang M, Pandey S, Tran VT, Fong HK (1991). "Guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins in retinal pigment epithelial cells ...
5NH3 + CH4 + 2C2H6 + H2O → C5H8N5O (guanine) + (25/2)H2. A Fischer-Tropsch synthesis can also be used to form guanine, along ... The guanine nucleoside (guanine bonded with a five-carbon sugar) is called guanosine and lacks only a phosphate to form a ... Guanine can be hydrolyzed with strong acid at 180°C to glycine, ammonia, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Guanine oxidizes ... About fifty years later, Fischer determined guanines structure and showed that uric acid can be converted to guanine. The ...
The hydrolysis procedure was based on 8,9-dihydro-8-(N7- guanyl)-9-hydroxy-aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1-N7-Gua), the N7-guanine adduct of ... A method for determining aflatoxin N7-guanine adducts in urine was developed. ... The hydrolysis procedure was based on 8,9-dihydro-8-(N7- guanyl)-9-hydroxy-aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1-N7-Gua), the N7-guanine adduct of ... A method for determining aflatoxin N7-guanine adducts in urine was developed. ...
rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2. Names. Rho/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 2. guanine nucleotide ... ARHGEF2 Rho/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 [Homo sapiens] ARHGEF2 Rho/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 [Homo ... Rho/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:682 See related. Ensembl: ... PH_ARHGEF2; Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 Pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. pfam00169. Location:473 → 571. PH; PH ...
Here we show that a mutation of IQSEC2, encoding a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the ADP-ribosylation factor family of ... Mutations in the guanine nucleotide exchange factor gene IQSEC2 cause nonsyndromic intellectual disability Nat Genet. 2010 Jun; ... Here we show that a mutation of IQSEC2, encoding a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the ADP-ribosylation factor family of ...
99m)Tc-EC-guanine: synthesis, biodistribution, and tumor imaging in animals. Yang DJ, Ozaki K, Oh CS, Azhdarinia A, Yang T, Ito ... 9-(4-[18F]Fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)guanine. Leung K. Leung K. 2005 Jan 24 [updated 2005 Feb 23]. In: Molecular Imaging and ... synthesized a 99mTc-labeled guanine (a purine) analog that contains ethylenedicysteine (EC) as a chelator of 99mTc (10). ... Subsequently, 99mTc-EC-guanine (99mTc-EC-guan) was investigated for the biodistribution and assessment of tumor growth in ...
Identification and Quantification of Aflatoxin Guanine and FapyGuanine Adducts in Mouse Liver invivo by LC-MS/MS Isotope ... Identification and Quantification of Aflatoxin Guanine and FapyGuanine Adducts in Mouse Liver invivo by LC-MS/MS Isotope ... ...
EP-0415028-B1 chemical patent summary.
tRNA (guanine(6)-N2)-methyltransferase THUMP3 [Mus musculus] tRNA (guanine(6)-N2)-methyltransferase THUMP3 [Mus musculus]. gi, ... tRNA (guanine(6)-N2)-methyltransferase THUMP3 [Mus musculus]. NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_032214.1 ... Predicted to enable tRNA (guanine) methyltransferase activity. Predicted to be involved in tRNA methylation. Predicted to act ...
Vibrations of the guanine-cytosine pair in chloroform: an anharmonic computational study J. A. Green and R. Improta, Phys. Chem ... Vibrations of the guanine-cytosine pair in chloroform: an anharmonic computational study† ...
Expression of Concern: Guanine quadruplex structures localize to heterochromatin. Publication. Publication. Nucleic Acids ... Guanine quadruplex structures localize to heterochromatin. Nucleic Acids Research (Vol. 45). doi:10.1093/nar/gkx301 ...
Singlet oxygen is known to have a short half-life and reacts rapidly with guanine to form 8oxoG. By fusing FAP to the telomere ... INVESTIGATING THE CELLULAR IMPACT OF 8-OXO-GUANINE ON DNA REPLICATION AND GENOME STABILITY. ...
... guanine (Ganciclovir) were obtained for pathological examination. While under treatment the patient had significant improvement ...
Julie Dwyer, Sandy Azzi, Héloïse M Leclair, Steven Georges, Agnès Carlotti, et al.. The guanine exchange factor SWAP70 mediates ...
guanine. Copy-editing the Genome: Extreme Personalized Medicine? Posted on January 22nd, 2013. by Dr. Francis Collins ... Tags: adenine, cytosine, DNA, double helix, edit, editor, enzyme, genetically engineered, genetically modified, guanine, ...
Start Over You searched for: Subjects Guanine Nucleotides ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Guanine Nucleotides ... Guanine Nucleotides Archival Collection: The Martin Rodbell Papers (Profiles in Science) 3. Letter from Martin Rodbell to Peter ... Guanine Nucleotides. Pharmacology Archival Collection: The Martin Rodbell Papers (Profiles in Science) 2. The Glucagon- ... Guanine Nucleotides. Hormones Archival Collection: The Martin Rodbell Papers (Profiles in Science) 4. 5- ...
... vertically stacked guanine tetrads) and peripheral groups (dangling ends and/or loops). Such a dual structural arrangement of ... 4 in which adenines are intermittently stacked on the adjacent guanine tetrads, as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance ... Guanine quadruplexes are four-stranded DNA/RNA structures composed of a guanine core ( ... the nucleobases favors their photoionization at energies significantly lower than the guanine ionization potential. This effect ...
DNA Guanine XX Round. CAD $599.00. - CAD $105,099.00. *A minimum total of 2~3 grams of hair/fur is required for all size Y- ...
Regions of the protein sequence that have been matched to structural domains from CATH or SCOP then modelled as a predicted 3D structure. Click on one or more overlapping regions to view or download the 3D structure(s ...
Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor p115*Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor p115 ... Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor 7*Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor 7 ... Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor 6*Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor 6 ... "Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus ...
Original Guanine Nucleobase 3D Model Guanine (G) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA a... ... Buy DNA Guanine - Nucleobase 3D model by yas45 on 3DOcean. ... Original Guanine Nucleobase 3D Model. Guanine (G) is one of the ... adenine, amino, biochemistry, bonds, C5H5N5O, chemical, component, compound, dna, guanine, hydrogen, nucleobase, nucleotide, ...
This is a list of changes made recently to pages linked from a specified page (or to members of a specified category). Pages on your watchlist are bold. ...
This is a list of changes made recently to pages linked from a specified page (or to members of a specified category). Pages on your watchlist are bold. ...
... Authorized Users Only. ... The planarity and the appropriate size of the porphyrin ring make porphyrin derivatives ideal ligands for stacking to guanine ... PB - Royal Society of Chemistry T2 - Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics T1 - The significance of the metal cation in guanine- ... Stanojević A, Milovanović B, Stanković I, Etinski M, Petković M. The significance of the metal cation in guanine-quartet - ...
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein 2 (GNBP2) is a GTPase that has critical roles in host immunity and some types of cancer, but ... Guanine nucleotide-binding protein 2, GNBP2, accelerates the progression of clear cell renal cell carcinoma via regulation of ... Cell signaling; Clear cell renal cell carcinoma; Disease progression; Guanine nucleotide-binding protein 2; Signal transducer ... Guanine nucleotide-binding protein 2, GNBP2, accelerates the progression of clear cell ren ...
CD2 antigen mediated activation of the guanine nucleotide binding proteins p21(ras) in human T lymphocytes. In: Journal of ... CD2 antigen mediated activation of the guanine nucleotide binding proteins p21(ras) in human T lymphocytes. / Graves, J. D. ( ... CD2 antigen mediated activation of the guanine nucleotide binding proteins p21(ras) in human T lymphocytes. Journal of ... Dive into the research topics of CD2 antigen mediated activation of the guanine nucleotide binding proteins p21(ras) in human ...
Pines, M. ; Gierschik, P. ; Spiegel, A. / Susceptibility of the beta subunit of guanine nucleotide binding coupling proteins (G ... Pines, M., Gierschik, P., & Spiegel, A. (1985). Susceptibility of the beta subunit of guanine nucleotide binding coupling ... Pines, M, Gierschik, P & Spiegel, A 1985, Susceptibility of the beta subunit of guanine nucleotide binding coupling proteins ( ... Susceptibility of the beta subunit of guanine nucleotide binding coupling proteins (G) to proteolytic cleavage. / Pines, M.; ...
... to the maturation of carboxypeptidase Y that is not dependent on the catalytic subunit of the eEF1B complex as a guanine ... Esposito, Anthony M. and Kinzy, Terri Goss, "The Eukaryotic Translation Elongation Factor 1Bγ Has a Non-guanine Nucleotide ... 2010) The eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1B{gamma} has a non-guanine nucleotide exchange factor role in protein ... The Eukaryotic Translation Elongation Factor 1Bγ Has a Non-guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Role in Protein Metabolism ...
Diversity in Guanine-Selective DNA Binding Modes for an Organometallic Ruthenium Arene Complex. ... Dive into the research topics of Diversity in Guanine-Selective DNA Binding Modes for an Organometallic Ruthenium Arene ...
  • Signaling proteins which function as master molecular switches by activating Rho GTPases through conversion of guanine nucleotides. (
  • Effect of guanine nucleotides. (
  • Guanine and adenine are derived from the two-ring parent molecule purine , and cytosine, thymine, and uracil are derived from the one-ring parent molecule pyrimidine . (
  • In DNA, guanine and adenine form hydrogen bonds with their complementary pyrimidine derivatives, cytosine and thymine. (
  • Thus, guanine, along with adenine and cytosine, is present in both DNA and RNA, whereas thymine is usually seen only in DNA and uracil only in RNA. (
  • Guanine binds to cytosine through three hydrogen bonds. (
  • Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors" by people in this website by year, and whether "Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors" by people in Profiles. (
  • Guanine oxidizes more readily than adenine , the other purine-derivative base in DNA and RNA. (
  • A Fischer-Tropsch synthesis can also be used to form guanine, along with adenine , uracil , and thymine . (
  • In FA, the triplet repeat is guanine-adenine-adenine, or GAA. (
  • A family of guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G-proteins) functions in transmembrane signalling as receptor-effector couplers. (
  • Guanine quadruplexes are four-stranded DNA/RNA structures composed of a guanine core (vertically stacked guanine tetrads) and peripheral groups (dangling ends and/or loops). (
  • PPG peptide nucleic acids that promote DNA guanine quadruplexes. (
  • Fluorescence quantification of aflatoxin N7-guanine adducts. (
  • A method for determining aflatoxin N7-guanine adducts in urine was developed. (
  • Predicted to enable tRNA (guanine) methyltransferase activity. (
  • Guanine nucleotide-binding protein 2, GNBP2, accelerates the progression of clear cell renal cell carcinoma via regulation of STAT3 signaling transduction pathway. (
  • Guanine nucleotide - binding protein 2 (GNBP2) is a GTPase that has critical roles in host immunity and some types of cancer , but its function in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is not fully understood. (
  • 2010) The eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1B{gamma} has a non-guanine nucleotide exchange factor role in protein metabolism. (
  • The GNAS gene provides instructions for making one component, the stimulatory alpha subunit, of a protein complex called a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein). (
  • These strains show severe defects in vacuole morphology and defects related to the maturation of carboxypeptidase Y that is not dependent on the catalytic subunit of the eEF1B complex as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor. (
  • Such a dual structural arrangement of the nucleobases favors their photoionization at energies significantly lower than the guanine ionization potential. (
  • Each of the 46 chromosomes in a human and guanine (G) -- which are strung along ribbons of sugar- cell's nucleus bears thousands of genes. (
  • In this contribution we analyzed complexes of a guanine quartet with a porphyrin molecule, magnesium porphyrin and calcium porphyrin. (
  • article{ author = "Stanojević, Ana and Milovanović, Branislav and Stanković, Ivana and Etinski, Mihajlo and Petković, Milena", year = "2021", abstract = "The planarity and the appropriate size of the porphyrin ring make porphyrin derivatives ideal ligands for stacking to guanine quartets and they could thus be used as anti-cancer drugs. (
  • Here we show that a mutation of IQSEC2, encoding a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the ADP-ribosylation factor family of small GTPases, caused this disorder. (
  • The optimized structures of the three systems revealed geometrical changes in the guanine quartet upon complexation: while stacking of porphyrin and magnesium porphyrin does not induce significant changes, calcium porphyrin considerably distorts the quartet's structure, which has significant implications for the binding properties among guanine molecules. (
  • Guanine (C 5 H 5 N 5 O), comprises a six-carbon pyrimidine ring fused with a five-carbon imidazole ring to form a system stabilized by conjugated double bonds (the positions of the double bonds shift around the ring). (
  • The guanine nucleoside (guanine bonded with a five-carbon sugar) is called guanosine and lacks only a phosphate to form a nucleotide . (
  • Guanine has two tautomeric forms: the keto form (characterized by an attached OH group) and the enol form (characterized by an attached CH2 group). (
  • Trace amounts of guanine form by the polymerization of ammonium cyanide (NH 4 CN). (
  • Oxidized guanine lesions and hOgg1 activity in lung cancer. (
  • Complete deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) activity causes Lesch Nyhan disease (LND), characterized by hyperuricemia, severe action dystonia, choreoathetosis, ballismus, cognitive and attention deficit and self-injurious behavior. (
  • Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyl-Transferase Deficiency: Avoid use of mycophenolate mofetil. (
  • A review of the molecular basis of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency. (
  • In FA, the triplet repeat is guanine-adenine-adenine, or GAA. (
  • Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase regulates early developmental programming of dopamine neurons: implications for Lesch-Nyhan disease pathogenesis. (
  • Synthetic guanine derivative active against CMV. (
  • Each of the 46 chromosomes in a human and guanine (G) -- which are strung along ribbons of sugar- cell's nucleus bears thousands of genes. (
  • Repair of O6-(2-chloroethyl)guanine mediates the biological effects of chloroethylnitrosoureas. (